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Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.
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Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango):
A new cocoa butter alternative
Sayma Akhter1, Morag A. McDonald1 & Ray Marriott2
Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate
industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations,
leading to price uctuations and the necessity for the industry to nd high quality cocoa butter
alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised
fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango
butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid prole (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and
triglyceride prole (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar
to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol)
which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded
that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers,
foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit
species to realise the market opportunity.
Cocoa butter (CB) is a light yellow fat obtained from beans of the cocoa plant (eobroma cacao L.). It is one of
the unique natural fats highly demanded by food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries1,2. Cocoa butter is
the major ingredient of the chocolate industry3. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1)
and linoleic acid (C18:2) account for more than 98% of the total fatty acids4 in cocoa butter. is is the only
commercially available natural fat which is rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids,13.6–15.5% of
1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP), 33.7–40.5% of 1-palmitoyl-3- stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS) and
23.8–31.2% of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS)5,6. ese relatively simple triglycerides in cocoa butter con-
fer its desirable melting proles prized by the confectionery industry, being solid at 20 °C and melting between
27–35 °C which is appreciated by consumers as well as desirable in confectionery applications7. Moreover, the
price of cocoa butter is one of the highest among all tropical fats and oils5,7,8. According to ICCO (2015), the price
of cocoa butter more than doubled between 2005 and 20159, from $1433/tonne to$3360/tonne (Supplementary
Fig. 1). Cocoa is cultivated on a land area of over 70,000 km2 worldwide10 while Africa (68%), Asia (17%) and
America (15%) contribute the major proportion of global production of CB10. According to ICCO9, annual global
cocoa production was reported to be more than 4 million tonnes per season. However, global demand for cocoa is
growing annually by 2 to 3% due to low productivity, price uctuations and uncertainty in supply (Supplementary
Fig. 1), which has forced the confectionery industry to seek CBAs2,5 from other natural sources11. Cocoa butter
equivalents (CBEs) are commercially available fats containing a similar mixture of triacylglycerol to cocoa butter
that can be mixed with cocoa butter up to 5%12. Very few tropical fats are considered to beCBAs but include those
sourced from illipe butter, kokum butter, shea butter and mango (Mangifera indica L.) butter13. e mango kernel
contains about 7–15% fat that is rich in palmitic, stearic and oleic acids11,13. Cocoa butter from the domesticated
mango species, M. indica, is a natural fat containing high saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids containing
symmetrical triglycerides such as POS (10 to 16%), SOS (25 to 59%) and POP (1 to 8.9%)13. ese are relatively
simple triglyceride combinations which are desirable for confectionery applications, especially in chocolate pro-
cessing. M. indica kernels have therefore been heavily researched for their potential as a cocoa butter alternative14.
Wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.) belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. It is found in Bangladesh, India,
China, Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal and ailand (Fig.1)15. It is one of the genetically closest species to M. indica
in the world16 but it underutilized and unmarketed in its native provenance Bangladesh as well as in other tropical
countries due to a lack of information and awareness of it’s potential value as a source of food, nutrition or medi-
cine. Perhaps counterintuitively given its underutilisation, the species is already threatened in Bangladesh17 due to
habitat loss and deforestation, but is not aorded any conservation protection due to its lack of documented value.
1School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, Bangor University, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW, UK.
2Biocomposites Centre, Bangor University, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW, UK. Correspondence and requests for materials
should be addressed to S.A. (email:
received: 27 April 2016
Accepted: 25 July 2016
Published: 24 August 2016
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
e seed germination rate and early growth of seedlings indicates that this species could be easily domesticated
and incorporated into small-scale forestry programs15. ere is growing evidence of benecial medicinal proper-
ties, such as a recent study showing that M. sylvatica leaves possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood
clots18. e leaves can also be used as antidiarrheal drugs19. Until now, no research has been conducted on its
market potential which will ultimately promote domestication and commercialisation of the species. erefore,
the present study constitutes an assessment of the potential of M. sylvatica as a CBA for the food, pharmaceutical
and cosmetic industries. In this study, the fatty acid and triglyceride composition, and the physiochemical and
thermal properties of M. sylvatica were determined and compared to those of the domesticated mango, and cocoa
butter to assess the potential for M. sylvatica as a new source of cocoa butter.
Fatty acid Prole and Triglyceride compositions. Wild mango butter (WMB) is a light yellow fat that
is not greasy to touch and has a characteristic nutty avour. WMB is a rich source of saturated fatty acids (Fig.2a).
WMB consist of three major fatty acids, namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1)
(Fig.2b). e saturated fatty acid content of M. sylvatica (56%) approximates that of DMB (57%) but is lower
compared to CB (65%). Stearic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid account for 95% total fatty acid in WMB from
M. Sylvatica followed by CB (96–97%) and DMB (94%). Apart from that, M. sylvatica butter contains small
amounts of arachidic acid and linoleic (also known as Omega- 3 Fatty Acid), which is similar to CB and DMB
(Fig.2b). Triglycerides are complex mixtures of a variety of fatty acids, which are the major constituents in fats
and oils. e major triglycerides found in WMB are 1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-
3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) and 1, 3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) which is also the main features of cocoa
butter (Table1). POP, POS and SOS account for 79% for WMB and 82–85% for CB (Fig.3h). is similarity in
fatty acid and triglyceride proles indicates considerable potential for WMB to be used as a source of cocoa butter
Physical and thermal properties of WMB. e saponication value, glycerol percentage, iodine value,
free fatty acid percentage, moisture content, specic gravity and refractive index were determined for the wild
mango butters as important parameters of butter quality. In WMB the saponication value is slightly lower than
CB (Fig.3a) which means WMB consists of long chain carbon molecules but is close to DMB. WMB contains
bigger carbon chain molecules so it has fewer glycerol molecules as indicated by glycerol percentage (Fig.3b). e
iodine value of WMB is slightly higher than CB (Fig.3d) but close to DMB. An elevated iodine value and acid
value indicates high susceptibility of fat to oxidative rancidity due to the high degree of unsaturation. Moisture
content and free fatty acid content in WMB was high compared to other butter samples (Fig.3c,g) which also
indicate the possibility of WMB oxidation. ese results suggest that proper and controlled processing can pro-
duce high quality butter with decreased degradation. e refractive index and Specic gravity of WMB butter was
Figure 1. Global and Local Distribution of Wild Mango (Mangifera sylvatica). Spatial position of the site
locations were plotted in global geo-political boundary available from Esri ( and species
presence locations were plotted in administrative map of Bangladesh using ArcGIS (version 10.3) soware.
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
very similar to CB and DMB (Fig.3f,g). is indicates the double bond present in WMB is similar like CB and the
weight of WMB is very similar to CB. WMB has a melting point close to CB though DMB has a higher melting
point (Fig.4). WMB is characterised by one leading peak around 16.18 °C with a “shoulder” around 4.71 °C.
M. sylvatica is similar to CB (Table2) where the main melting peak appeared around 20 °C. A complete melting
of WMB was observed around 26 °C and 27 °C for CB. e results from M. sylvatica are very dierent from
M. indica where the main melting peak was observed around 16.88 °C but with multiple shoulders and with a very
high melting point observed around 53 °C (Fig.4).
e majority of studies report palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid to be the major fatty acid
components of CB20. Minor components of lauric acid (C 12:0), myristic acid (C 14:0), linolenic (C 18:3) and ara-
chidic acid (C 20:0) have also been reported20. e main dierence between CB and WMB observed in this study
was in the palmitic acid content, 27% and 6% respectively (Supplementary Table 2). Other studies of triglyceride
content of DMB have reported highly variable results; POP (6–16%), SOS (2–59%) and POS (1–74%) and POO,
SOO, SOA, OOO7,13 compared to CB which has more consistent concentrations of POS (37–47%), SOS (26–33%)
and POP (16–23%) (13, 20). TGAs in WMB are similar to CB, where POP, POS and SOS are the major TGAs but
with a higher percentage of SOS (65%). WMB contains a slightly lower SFA content compared to CB but the fatty
acid prole is comparable (Fig.2a,b). erefore, it is evident that the fatty acid and triglyceride composition of
WMB is close to that of CB derived from eobroma cacao, indicating good prospects for WMB to be a source of
cocoa butter alternative.
Key parameters in conferring high fat quality, distinctive avour and aroma in butters are the saponication
and acid values. WMB has a lower saponication value than CB (2, 21) which means the fatty acids in WMB are
signicantly longer carbon chain compounds (Fig.5a). Such long chain fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) are
prone to oxidation and breakdown which provides characteristic avours and aromas High acid values indicate
breakdown of triglycerides into free fatty acids (FFA) relating to inadequate processing and storage conditions.
Cocoa butter is reported to have acid values in the range of 0.42 to 3.11%21. e acid value of fat extracted from
DMB varies from 1.22 to 7.487,22. Our analyses showed that WMB has a signicantly higher acid value compared
to CB which suggests there might be processing or storage problems. With respect to iodine values, the higher the
value the more reactive, less stable, soer the fat and hence more susceptible to oxidation and rancidication7. In
general, the iodine value for CB was found to be 34–38 g I2/100 g8,23,24 and for DMB 40–75 g I2/100 g7,22. e iodine
Figure 2. (a) Total saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content; Fig.1. (b) Fatty acid prole of in WMB, DMB
and CB (CBD and CBND).
Triglycerides Triglycerides WMB DMB CBD CBND
1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol POP
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol POS
1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol SOS
Trioleoyl-glycerol OOO
1-Arachidoyl-2-Oleoyl-3 Linoleyolglycerol AOLo
1,2 -Palmitoyl-3-Linoleoylglycerol PPLo
1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl-glycerol SOO
1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-3-Arachidoyl-glycerol SOA
Table 1. Triglyceride Prole of M. sylvatica butter, M. indica butter and Cocoa Butter.
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
value of WMB fat is higher than that of CB. is study, again suggesting that adequate storage will be essential if
it is to be used more widely. e moisture content of WMB is higher than CB which may render more susceptible
to microbial attack and oxidation. However, the moisture content is easily managed during the extraction process.
On the positive side, there is a growing body of evidence that higher moisture content butters produce more low
fat chocolate which may help to prevent obesity, heart diseases, diabetics, stroke and arthritis23. Indeed, there is
on-going research to produce low fat chocolate by adding water into the CB24. Manipulation of the extraction
Figure 3. Physical properties of butter samples (a) saponication value (b) glycerol (c) free fatty acid (d) iodine
value (e) moisture content; (f) refractive index; (g) specic gravity (h) major triglyceride percentage.
Figure 4. Melting prole of dierent butter using DSC.
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
process to best manage moisture levels will eliminate the need to add water to the nal product. e refractive
index and specic gravity of WMB was very similar to CB. It has been suggested that the physicochemical char-
acteristics of WMB can be manipulated through controlled processing, chemical or physical rening and natural
blending processes to adjust the properties of WMB to CB14,25. e melting point is important to determine the
storage temperature. e melting temperature of CB is slightly higher than WMB which could be due to of the
higher saturated fatty acid content (Fig.2a) as previously noted23. Similar results have been reported for CB by
many researchers2,14,26–28. So, there were some signicant similarities in the physical and thermal properties of
WMB compared to CB which again shows the potential of WMB to be used as a cocoa butter alternative.
Chocolate commands an enviable position among food products due to its premium cost, taste and unique
physicochemical properties20. e consumption of chocolate products has signicantly increased worldwide29
whilst 30% of the world’s cocoa crops have been destroyed by pests and disease and are deteriorating due to
climate change and ageing plantations. Demand is increasing and supply is inadequate as cocoa is cultivated
in only a few tropical countries, making its availability unstable, expensive and subject to price uctuations20,
(Supplementary Fig. 1). Moreover, poor quality harvests and some technological problems such as fat blooms and
high tempering times during chocolate production make it necessary for the food industries to look for alterna-
tives to CB and intensive eorts are ongoing to nd suitable cocoa butter alternatives29. Cocoa butter alternatives
are divided into three subgroups (Supplementary Fig. 2). Cocoa butter replacers (CBRs) are non-lauric fats with a
fatty acid prole similar to cocoa butter, but a completely dierent triglyceride composition (e.g. PEE, SEE) Cocoa
butter substitutes (CBSs) are lauric plant fats (containing lauric acid), chemically totally dierent to cocoa butter
(e.g. major TGAs LLL, LLM, LMM), with some physical similarities; suitable only to substitute cocoa butter to
100% and oen incompatible with CB30). Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are non-lauric plant fats, which are rel-
atively similar in their physical and chemical properties (e.g. major TGAs are POP, POS and SOS) to cocoa butter
and can be proportionately mixed without aecting the properties of the cocoa butter. CBEs can be either cocoa
butter extenders (CBEXs) which is a subgroup of CBEs not mixable in every ratio with cocoa butter or Cocoa
butter improvers (CBIs) which have a higher solid triglyceride (SOS) content; used for improving so cocoa
butters20,31. Chocolate and confectionery industries give priority to fats which are rich in palmitic acid or stearic
acid and are based on symmetric (POP-rich and SOS-rich) fats. Some research has shown that SOS rich fat con-
fers a higher solid fat content which inhibits fat blooms and decreases the tempering time26. erefore, SOS-rich
fat could be used as a suitable raw material for the production of temperature-resistant hard butters in tropical
countries2 and could also be used to improve the quality of so cocoa butter2. Generally, lauric acid and hydro-
genated fats are used to replace CB; these increase the levels of cholesterol whereas CBEs contain high oleic and
stearic acids, which do not alter the levels of cholesterol in blood. us, CBEs represent a healthier and promising
alternative to CB. CBEs used up to now are tropical SOS rich fat butters from species such as Shea (Vitellaria par-
adoxa), Kokum (Garcinia indica), Illipe (Shorea stenoptera), Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta)
butter and usually blended with palm (Elaeis guineensis) kernel oil stearin rich in POP31. Palm kernel oil consists
of higher amounts of lauric acid, and relatively lower stearic and oleic acid than cocoa butter. e producing of
CBA from palm oil needs intensive processing8. Palm kernel oil is used in preparing CBA as it is a very rich source
of POP (51%). Sal butter is green in colour which limits its use in chocolate and confectionery products13. It is
feasible to lighten butters but it is a very energy intensive procedure and costly, so industries prefer light coloured
butters11. Kokum butter is grey coloured and mainly used as a CBE by blending with Mahua (Madhuca longifolia)
and Phulwara (Madhuca butyracea) butter32. However, the extraction is only practiced at cottage scale and has no
industrial application as yet32,33. Shea butter is known to have the highest unsaponiable fat content (up to 10%)
of any natural fat and the highest iodine value 52–56 (g Iodine/100 g fat) and is used as a cocoa butter substitute34
in the European chocolate and confectionery industry35. Illipe and mango butters can be used directly as CBE and
Mango Butter (Mangifera indica) is comparatively good quality CBEs although the melting point (34–43 °C) is
quite high20,31. ere is therefore not enough reliable source of CBE available from natural fat sources20. Our study
suggests that WMB is a potential high quality new CBE or improver as the fatty acid and triglyceride composition
are very similar to CB as are the physical parameters.
However, going beyond an industrial utility, wild fruit is an important source of food, medicine and income
for forest dwellers, tribal and marginalized rural people36. ere are many wild fruits available in the forests
that are underexploited. Moreover, information on their nutritional value and economic potential are unknown.
Adding value to underutilized products through processing for products that have market value could generate
a way to conserve those species and help to generate alternative income sources and reduce household pov-
erty37. Additionally, collection and processing of these products can reduce household vulnerability to shocks
and seasonal variations in other income sources38. For example, shea kernels from Vitellaria paradoxa are widely
exported for use in the international cosmetic and chocolate industries. e annual value of total exports of
shea kernels from Africa was estimated at USD 30 million in 200439 and they represent one of Burkina Faso’s
main export commodities40. Moreover, income from shea kernels has been shown to contribute as much as 12%
of total household income for poor households and 7% of total household income for better-o households40.
Sample Tonset(°C) Tos et(°C) Tpeak(°C) Enthalpy change (J/g)
Mangifera sylvatica butter 7.20 25.88 16.18 16.3383
Mangifera indica butter 5.36 58.00 16.66 10.4353
Cocoa Butter Deodorized 14.64 26.99 20.27 42.1099
Cocoa Butter Non-Deodorized 14.58 26.99 20.34 45.7108
Table 2. Melting Characteristics of dierent butter samples.
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
In Bangladesh, there are 47 edible wild forest fruits available41, an important one of which is the wild mango
species (M. sylvatica). Wild mango is a multipurpose tree species used for multiple purposes, including edible
fruits, pickles, fodder, fuelwood, vegetable, plywood, tea chest and match boxes41,42. A close genetic relationship
between M. indica and M. sylvatica has been reported43,44 which indicates that M. sylvatica may have the potential
to full nutritional and livelihood needs. It is underutilized in Bangladesh as well as in other tropical countries
due to a lack of awareness of it’s potential as a source of food and no established market demand45. However, this
research conrms that this underutilized wild mango has the potential to be used as a unique source of cocoa
butter alternative.
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with 2.14 million hectares for-
est area46. Millions of the poor and forest dwellers earn their livelihood from the forest47. erefore, there is a
socio-economic imperative to allow access for these forest dependent people to the natural resource. However,
nding alternative income generating activities can secure income, improve livelihoods and conserve forest
resources sustainably48. ere is enormous potential for the development of a wild mango kernel based enterprise
in Bangladesh as well as in other tropical countries for the production of wild mango butter. is will not only
provide raw materials for the chocolate and confectionery industries but also oer opportunities to empower
forest dependent people and small-scale farmers. ere is therefore an urgent need to promote the domesti-
cation and commercial plantation of wild mango species to satisfy global and local demand for Cocoa Butter
Alternatives. A recent study shows that it can be domesticated and introduced in small-scale forestry programs15.
However, larger scale plantings will require eld trials and an improved knowledge of the species silviculture. e
current study may lead to the beginning of a domestication and commercialization of this wild under-utilized
fruit species. However, more research on chocolate production using this butter and silviculture of this species is
necessary to fully capture the value of this wild mango species. Additionally, collaboration between foresters, hor-
ticulturists, the food industry and policy makers is required to promote the domestication and commercialization
of M. sylvatica fruits of Bangladesh and other tropical countries.
Figure 5. Collection, processing and preparation of wild mango butter from M. sylvatica (a) Mangifera sylvatica
tree (b) fruit of Mangifera sylvatica with big kernel in le and fruit of Mangifera indica with big pulp in right (c) seed
of Mangifera sylvatica (d) kernel of Mangifera sylvatica (e) Mangifera sylvatica seeds aer retting (f) chopping the
seeds (g) sun drying the kernels (h) cocoa butter (i) butter obtained from Mangifera sylvatica (Photo Credit goes to
Sayma Akhter).
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
Material and Methods
Sample Collection, preparation, extraction and analysis. Mature fruits of M. sylvatica were col-
lected from Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh (Fig.1), during April to June, 2014. Aer collection, fresh fruits were retted,
de-pulped and sun-dried. e nuts were then separated from the kernel by using a hand betel nut cutter (Fig.5).
Phosphine fumigation was carried out before nuts were sent to Bangor University, UK for further processing.
Mango butter was extracted using the SC-CO2 (Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction) method. We
obtained two cocoa butter samples from Callebaut chocolate industry (UK) and purchased 99% pure Mangifera
indica butter (Domesticated Mango Butter, DMB) from the Soapery. Finally, analysed the physical (saponication
value, iodine value, moisture content, specic gravity, refractive index, acid value, and glycerol percent), chemical
(fatty acid prole and triglyceride composition) and thermal (melting prole) parameters of Mangifera sylvatica
butter (Wild Mango Butter, WMB) and compared the results of WMB with the three other butter samples.
Wild mango Butter extraction by SC-CO2. e wild mango kernels were extracted using Supercritical
Fluid Extraction method2. A total 18.85 kg of dry ground mango kernel samples were loaded into the extraction
vessel. e continuous methods of SC-CO2 extraction were carried out at pressures of 50 MPa, temperatures
of 40 °C and at constant CO2 ow rate of 30 kg/hour. When pressurization initiated, the CO2 from the cylinder
passed through the chiller at 0 °C and was pumped into the extraction vessel by a high-pressure pump. e fat
was extracted from fat-rich CO2 by separators at one end of the instrument. Two separators were used though the
entire process with the rst separator being at xed pressure and temperature of 80 MPa and 40° respectively. e
second separator was maintained at room temperature and 55 MPa and desiccated the samples. CO2 was recir-
culated throughout the run time. Yield was calculated on a dry weight basis at the end of the process as g fat/kg
mango kernel.
Fatty acid and triglycerides proling. e fatty acid composition of mango (M. indica and M. sylvatica)
and cocoa butter (Deodorized and non-Deodorised) samples were done by GC (PerkinElmer Clarus 680)-MS
(PerkinElmer Clarus 600 C). Five to seven mg of frozen butter dissolved in 1 ml of heptane and 0.05 ml of 1 N
Methanolic NaOH were shaken at room temperature for two minutes. Aer 2 minutes when the two layers were
separated the lower layer was discarded and the supernatant) used for GC-MS analysis. e analysis was done in
triplicate. On the other hand, a direct infusion mass spectrometry method (API 150 EX MS System) used for the
determination of Triglycerides. e nebulizer gas was N2. Scanning done for mass 100 to 1000 in an ESI Positive
mode with a ow rate of 90 μ l/min. Samples were run once for triglyceride proling2,7 and percentage of triglyc-
erides were calculated based on the peak intensity.
Physio-chemical and thermal properties. Determination of saponication value, glycerol percentage,
acid value, iodine value, moisture content, refractive index and specic gravity were carried out according to
methods describes by2,7,14,49. Quantitative analyses were performed in triplicate and the results expressed as aver-
age ± standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was conducted to see any signicance dierence among four types
of butter.Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC) used to monitor the melting proles of the samples. A modied
method of Yamoneka29 was used for this analysis. e method followed was heating- cooling - heating cycle. 1st
cycle ( 20 °C to 60 °C) and 2nd cycle (60 °C to 20 °C) was done to erase thermal memory and also to get rid of
any unwanted materials. e nal cycle ( 20 °C to 60 °C) was recorded to get the melting prole of the samples.
e heating rate was 10 °C/min and cooling rate was 2 °C/in.
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European Union funded this research through the FONASO (Forest and Nature for Society) Erasmus Mundus
Joint Doctoral Programme. Dr. Gee-Sian Leung and Dr. Luis Martin (BioComposite Centre, Bangor University,
UK) are thanked for their cooperation during the butter preparation and sample analysis. Special thanks to Helen
Simpson (Senior Laboratory Technician, SENRGy) and Sarah Chesworth (Laboratory Technician, ECW) from
Bangor University, UK for their assistance during the laboratory work. Special thanks to Md. Basir Al Mamun
(Assistant Conservator of Forests in Bangladesh Forest Department) and Professor Dr. Mohammed Jashimuddin
Scientific RepoRts | 6:32050 | DOI: 10.1038/srep32050
from Institute of Forestry and Environmental Science, Chittagong University, Bangladesh. We also would like to
thank the forest department ocials, eld assistants and local people for their invaluable help in collecting and
processing fruits.
Author Contributions
S.A., M.M. and R.M. planned the research. S.A. collected sample, laboratory experiments, analysed data and
prepared manuscript dras. R.M. assisted with laboratory experiments. M.M. and R.M. reviewed and edited the
Additional Information
Supplementary information accompanies this paper at
Competing nancial interests: e authors declare no competing nancial interests.
How to cite this article: Akhter, S. et al. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new Cocoa butter alternative.
Sci. Rep. 6, 32050; doi: 10.1038/srep32050 (2016).
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... The higher melting temperature may also reflect greater proportions of saturated triacylglycerides (TAGs) as the degree of saturation increases with melting temperatures (Lieb et al., 2019). The offset temperature range obtained in the current study is corresponded to the previously reported value (58 C) on mango kernel butter (Akhter et al., 2016). Multiple endothermic peaks observed in both the samples may be attributed to the different melting temperatures of the individual triacylglycerides (TAGs) present in the mango seed kernel butter (Chiavaro et al., 2008). ...
Full-text available
Mango is an important tropical fruit with worldwide consumption and acceptance; however, the production of a large volume of waste in the form of mango seed kernels after the processing of mango has been a menace to food processing industries. Extraction of mango seed kernel butter from mango seed kernel can be an effective solution for the valorization of these by‐products. Among all the green techniques tested in the present studies, ultrasound‐assisted extraction gave the highest yield of mango seed kernel butter (11%) at 25°C, 1:20 solid–liquid ratio, 30% amplitude after a treatment time of 10 min. Physicochemical, structural, and thermal profiles of the extracted mango seed kernel butter revealed a comparatively superior quality of fat obtained using the ultrasonication technique as compared to the conventional method. Peroxide value, acid value, and antioxidant activity of mango seed kernel butter obtained using ultrasonication were found to be 2.8 meq/kg, 3.81 mg KOH/g, and 30.7%, respectively. Mango seed kernel butter, being a natural antioxidant, can serve as a promising substitute to edible oils and as a functional food ingredient in bakery and confectionery. Practical applications Valorization of mango seed kernels for the extraction of mango seed kernel butter offers a sustainable and economical solution for the effective management of by‐products generated after mango processing. The application of ultrasonication can prove to be an effective green technique for the extraction of mango seed kernel butter with a higher yield obtained with lesser time and solvent consumption than conventional techniques. The ultrasonically extracted mango seed kernel butter exhibited better physicochemical and structural attributes than the conventional method without causing any negative impact on the nutritional profile of the obtained fat. The extracted mango seed kernel butter can be utilized as a functional food ingredient in applications of bakery and confectionary industries.
... Lower the enthalpy less energy was needed to melt the butter which shows the presence of unsaturation fatty acid. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids is eventually related to MKF softness which affects the textural characteristics (Akhter et al., 2016). so MKF represents a sustainable source for the liquid to semisolid edible fats suitable for numerous potential applications in food as cocoa butter equivalent or palm oil substitute (Lieb et al., 2019). ...
One of the promising approaches in food sector is the valorization of food by-products into nutritional ingredients. This study aimed to improve the quality of toffee by adding mango kernel fat (MKF) as a butter replacer (50%), pectin (1%) using the High-speed homogenization (HSH). Fatty acid composition, melting point, non-enzymatic browning index (NEBI), texture profile analysis (TPA) were investigated. Results showed, oxidative stability of MKF recorded exceeding value (400h) indicating a great stability compared to butter (21 h), using HSH technique with the addition of pectin and mango fat to toffee induced high quality characteristics. Also, an increase in stability of toffee blends (zeta potential:-80 mV), melting point (34.129 o C), TPA of the blends was compatible with full butter TPA with high texture, and high acceptability were observed. Results demonstrating that, Toffee with MKF and pectin using HSH could improve the quality characteristics of toffee as well as have good nutritional aspects. Keywords Mango kernel fat, Butter replacer, High-speed homogenization, Toffee, Fruits by-products, physicochemical and sensory properties. Novelty Impact Statement Improving the quality attributes of toffee confectionery by reducing fat in the recipe as substituted using a high-speed homogenization technique, with mango fat and/or pectin as a fat replacer. They could make toffee lower in fat content, healthier, cheaper, and with the same quality as full-fat toffee. It will valorize the mango fat from mango by-products into nutritional ingredients.
... Lower the enthalpy less energy was needed to melt the butter which shows the presence of unsaturation fatty acid. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids is eventually related to MKF softness which affects the textural characteristics (Akhter et al., 2016). so MKF represents a sustainable source for the liquid to semisolid edible fats suitable for numerous potential applications in food as cocoa butter equivalent or palm oil substitute (Lieb et al., 2019). ...
One of the promising approaches in food sector is the valorization of food by-products into nutritional ingredients. This study aimed to improve the quality of toffee by adding mango kernel fat (MKF) as a butter replacer (50%), pectin (1%) using the high-speed homogenization (HSH). Fatty acid composition, melting point, non-enzymatic browning index (NEBI), texture profile analysis (TPA) were investigated. Results showed the oxidative stability of MKF recorded exceeding value (400 h) indicating great stability compared to butter (21 h), using HSH technique with the addition of pectin and mango fat to toffee induced high-quality characteristics. Also, an increase in stability of toffee blends (zeta potential: −80 mV), melting point (34.129°C), TPA of the blends was compatible with full butter TPA with high texture, and high acceptability was observed. Results demonstrate that toffee with MKF and using HSH could improve the quality characteristics of toffee as well as have good nutritional aspects.
... Future research needs to explore the environmental stress and related physiological response mechanisms of both species in detail. However, according to the existing information of biological environment variables, some authors have comprehensively pointed out the importance of giving priority to the prediction of an SDM model, including animal and plant protection, species invasion, and pest control [27,57,58]. The model represents a speculation of possibility, which is, indeed, not realistic. ...
Full-text available
Acer truncatum Bunge and Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge are small deciduous trees distributed in East Asia and have high ecological and nutrient value due to their strong environmental adaptability and seed oil abundant in nervonic acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, their natural distribution remains unclear, which will also be affected by the changing climatic conditions. The main purpose of this study was to map and predict the current and future potential suitable habitats of these two species using MaxEnt based on the presence location of species and environmental variables. The results showed that A. truncatum was more suitable for warm and humid climates and was more durable to climate change compared to X. sorbifolium. Under the current environmental conditions, the suitable habitat of A. truncatum was mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolia Plateau, Loess Plateau, Sichuan Basin, Northeast Plain, North China Plain, Korean Peninsula, as well as Japan, with an area of 115.39 × 104 km2. X. sorbifolium was mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia Plateau and Loess Plateau with an area of 146.15 × 104 km2. Under future climate scenarios, the model predicted that higher concentrations of greenhouse gas emissions could result in greater expansion of the potential distribution of both species. Meanwhile, the study also revealed that the two species migrated to the north by east to varying degrees with the change in suitable habitats. This work could provide scientific basis for resource protection and utilization of the two economic forest trees.
... Ini dapat dibuktikan dengan jumlah peratus asid lemak tepu berantai panjang (C16:0 dan C18:0) bagi lemak SBJr adalah lebih tinggi (50.26%) berbanding SBJs (46.37%) seperti yang terdapat pada Jadual 3 sebelum ini. Takat lebur gelincir juga menentukan suhu penyimpanan (Akhter et al. 2016). Semakin rendah suhu takat lebur gelincir, semakin rendah suhu penyimpanan yang diperlukan. ...
Buah mangga boleh dimakan segar atau diproses menjadi jus dan jeruk tetapi hanya isi digunakan dan bijinya dibuang. Kajian terdahulu mendapati bahawa biji mangga mempunyai lemak seperti lemak koko. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan komposisi pemakanan dalam sisa biji jeruk mangga (SBJr) dan sisa biji jus mangga (SBJs); jumlah lemak antara SBJr dan SBJs melalui pengekstrakan bendalir lampau-genting (SFE); serta komposisi asid lemak dan takat lebur gelincir (SMP) terhadap lemak koko komersil (LK). Analisis proksimat menunjukkan bahawa SBJr dan SBJs mengandungi karbohidrat, lemak, protein, abu dan kelembapan. Pengekstrakan lemak SBJr dan SBJs menggunakan SFE (suhu 72 °C; tekanan 42.4 Mpa; 60 min; 4 mLmin-1 CO₂) menunjukkan lemak SBJr lebih tinggi(p<0.05) (6.4%) berbanding SBJs (3.37%). Lima jenis asid lemak ditemui dalam SBJr, SBJs dan LK iaitu asid palmitik, stearik, oleik, linoleik dan linolenik dengan kandungan (%) yang berbeza(p<0.05) bagi semua sampel. SMP bagi lemak SBJr (34.2 °C) lebih tinggi (p<0.5) diikuti oleh SBJs (32.17 °C) dan LK (30.27 °C). Walaupun ciri-ciri kimia lemak SBJr dan SBJs berbeza dengan LK, tetapi kedua-duanya berpotensi sebagai pengganti LK yang lebih baik kerana mengandungi asid lemak tak tepu yang lebih tinggi(p<0.05) dan asid lemak tepu yang lebih rendah(p<0.05) daripada LK. Penggunaan SBJr lebih praktikal kerana kandungan lemaknya tinggi dan SMP lemak ini sesuai dengan keadaan cuaca tropika.
In Bangladesh, very few native species have been incorporated into agroforestry systems, and common species are generally exotic pan-tropical species. This neglects the wealth of native genetic resources available and native species are under-valued, which can result in a lack of conservation interest in threatened species. The present study seeks to address this by considering the potential for including a locally threatened native species, Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. into the agroforestry systems of Bangladesh. We investigated farmers’ preferences, tree architecture and root competitiveness in comparison with other agroforestry species to assess the potential and to identify any barriers to use. According to farmers, M. sylvatica is a multipurpose tree species, with the main uses being for timber and provision of wild fruit. In addition, unripe fruits are sold to the pickle industry for seasonal income. The average observed height of matured M. sylvatica trees are approximately 14m with a straight bole. The crown architecture, light quality under the canopy and root competitive index of M. sylvatica species is similar to popular agroforestry species like Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Acacia auriculiformis. This indicates M. 9;/indica, A. auriculiformis and A. heterophyllus. Due to over-exploitation, illegal logging and habitat destruction, M. sylvatica is currently threatened in Bangladesh. The major barriers to use include: fruit collection being time consuming and laborious; ripe fruit quality not as good as Mangifera indica; fruits contain small amounts of flesh that often harbour insects; storage problems; irregular fruiting; and limited consumption. Farmer's preferences of wild mango are also similar to M. indica and A. heterophyllus. Promotion of the species’ positive attributes will be necessary to develop its potential as a new native agroforestry species, which can provide a valuable conservation initiative that ultimately protects genetic diversity and quality of this native tree species.
Background Chocolate softening and fat bloom are the main defects in many tropical and subtropical markets. Incorporation of hard fats with similar triacylglycerol-type to cocoa butter, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (StOSt)-rich fats, is considered the most effective way to solve both problems. Scope and approach This review defines StOSt-rich fats based on the concepts of cocoa butter improvers and extenders, and further summarizes their potential sources, such as, mango kernel fat, illipe butter, sal fat, shea butter, kokum butter, algal butters and recombinant sunflower oils. Typical preparation techniques, including fractionation and esterification, are highlighted, with a clear focus on the improvement of StOSt levels by removing low-melting triacylglycerols and other interferants. Particular emphasis is given to the fat bloom formation in heat-stable chocolates formulated with StOSt-rich fats. The potential mechanisms in relation to compatibility between StOSt-rich fats and cocoa butter, dilution effects of low-melting triacylglycerols, and crystal changes affected by diacylglycerols are discussed as well. Key findings and conclusions StOSt-rich fats consist of 30%–70% StOSt, 20%–60% low-melting triacylglycerols and 1.0%–7.2% diacylglycerols. Fractionation or sn-1,3 specific esterification is supposed to increase the StOSt levels as well as remove other components that may pose negative effects on chocolate structure. Mango kernel fats have attracted special interests because of the large amounts of kernels around the world, which have not been effectively utilized. Biotechnology and oilseed breeding are currently interesting technologies used to produce new StOSt-rich fats. Heat and bloom stabilities could be improved simultaneously by tailoring the StOSt-rich fats to suitable triacylglycerol compositions and diacylglycerol contents.
The present finding provides a new cocoa butter substitute in confectionary, which is derived from mango by-product (mango seed kernel). The study involves physicochemical characterization and the use of GCMS, FTIR, SEM, TGA, and NMR to prove that mango seed kernel derived fat is a good substitute for cocoa butter. Its texture, organoleptic properties and rancidity were also investigated. Its properties were similar to cocoa butter, with respect to palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids, and it had the ability to substitute 80 per cent of dark chocolate preparation for chocolate substitute. This recently developed cocoa substitute has the potential to address the global problem of cocoa butter scarcity, which is being exacerbated by rising population and improving economies.
Halting and reversing the current loss of biodiversity and habitats will be facilitated by a comprehensive valuation of all nature’s contributions to people (NCPs), on which we rely. In this context, we explore the full natural capital value of seeds to reveal how this extends far beyond their economic value associated with mainstream agriculture and forestry. Seeds represent the main assets for nature-based solutions at species (i.e., unlocking neglected species properties and via seed banking) and ecosystem level (i.e., ecological restoration). Challenges remain to enhance their sustainable use in nature conservation and in supporting a sustainable development model. Such advances will depend on the comprehensive valuation of the natural capital value of seeds, which has so far been grossly underestimated.
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Cocoa butter (CB) is the byproduct of cocoa bean processing industry and is obtained from the mature bean from the Theobroma cacao plant. It is an important ingredient in the chocolate and other confectionery industries. It's valued for its unique physicochemical properties which is given by its peculiar fatty acid composition. The major triacylglycerols (TAG) present in CB is symmetrical and contains very less amount of highly unsaturated fatty acid. The major fatty acids present in it are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, but low amounts of lauric acid and myristic acid. Increasing demand and shortage of supply for CB, poor quality of individual harvests, economic advantages and some technological benefits have induce for the development of its alternative called cocoa butter replacer (CBR). In the CBRs the TAG compositions are similar but are not identical to genuine CB. Most of them are produced by either modification of natural fat or by their blending in different proportion. However, it couldn’t satisfy the consumer and fulfill the demand of confectionery industries. This review gives a brief idea about the processing of cocoa pod, the production of cocoa butter and its composition with fats that are commonly used as its Replacers
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This review of literature provides an overview on the compositional data of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) and rambutan seed fat for usage in chocolate product. It is a seasonal fruit native of west Malaysia and Sumatra. It is harvested when the fruit have reached optimum visual and organoleptic quality. Rambutans rapidly deteriorate unless proper handling techniques are employed. The rambutan fruits are deseeded during processing and these seeds (~ 4-9 g/100 g) are a waste by-product of the canning industry. And some studies was showed that rambutan seed possesses a relatively high amount of fat and these fats are similar to those of cocoa fat, although have some different physical properties. In the present research about rambutan seed fat continued increasing due to from previous research was found that this fat can use as substitute in cocoa butter for chocolate products. Therefore, the extracted fat from rambutan seed not only could be used for manufacturing candles, soaps, and fuels, but it also has a possible to be a source of natural edible fat with feasible industry use.
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Diarrhea is a worldwide concern. So this study investigated the antidiarrheal effect of methanol extract of leaves of Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don., Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. and Ficus sagittata Vhal. These plants have history of ethnobotanical use. Antidiarrheal effect was assessed in Castor oil induced diarrheal test model in Swiss Albino mice. Lopreamide (5 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The animals were treated at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the plant extracts. All data were analyzed by the software, statistical package for social science (SPSS), Version 18.0. The extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed a remarkable antidiarrheal activity by reducing the number of defecation and maintaining the consistency of feces. All the extracts significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the diarrheal incidence at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Mangifera sylvatica showed the highest percent of inhibition of 72.37% at dose of 400 mg/kg and Ficus sagittata showed the lowest (52.63%) percent of inhibition at dose of 200 mg/kg while the standard Loperamide showed 77.63% of diarrheal inhibition. The results suggest the potentiality of Podocarpus neriifolius, Mangifera sylvatica and Ficus sagittata as antidiarrheal drugs but further investigations are to be done to find out the exact mechanism of action and the chemicals responsible for the effect.
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Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. is an underutilized wild tree species valued for its fruit, timber and medicine. It was believed to be widely grown in sub-tropical forests of Bangladesh, but nowadays can be seen only sparsely. Even though it has multiple uses, only the indigenous people in hilly areas use the fruit of this species, for cooking and making pickles. This study was designed to (1) observe the population status of M. sylvatica in the forests of south-eastern Bangladesh, (2) evaluate domestication potentiality through seed germination and early growth of seedlings, and (3) assess its suitability for small-scale forestry. Through 16 field visits in eight forest beats, 66 individual trees were identified and their GPS (global positioning system) coordinates were recorded. A seed germination rate of 83 % at 6 weeks after direct sowing was attained. The early growth of seedlings with fertilizer treatments showed no remarkable difference with seedlings without fertilization. The seed germination rate and early growth of seedlings indicates that this species can be easily domesticated and be incorporated into small-scale plantation programs. In that it has multiple use values, this species warrants promotion in small-scale forestry programs for conservation and benefiting the villagers.
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Industrials interest in fats as raw material, resides in their exceptional quality and potentialities of exploitation in several fields. This study aimed to exalt the optimized shea butter quality and present its wide potentialities of utilization. Hence, the characteristics of beige and yellow optimized shea butters were determined. Both samples recorded very weak acid (0.280 ± 0.001 and 0.140 ± 0.001 mgKOH/g) and peroxide (0.960 ± 0.001 and 1.010 ± 0.001 mEgO2/kg) indexes, when the iodine indexes (52.64 ± 0.20 and 53.06 ± 0.20 gI2/100 g) and the unsaponifiable matters (17.61 ± 0.01 and 17.27 ± 0.01 %) were considerable. The refractive indexes (1.454 ± 0.00 and 1.453 ± 0.00) and the pH (6.50 ± 0.30 and 6.78 ± 0.30) were statistically similar; but the specific gravity (0.915 ± 0.01-0.79 ± 0.01 and 0.94 ± 0.01-0.83 ± 0.01) and the viscosity (90.41 ± 0.20-20.02 ± 0.20 and 125.37 ± 0.20-23.55 ± 0.20 MPas) differed and decreased exponentially with the temperature increasing (35-65 °C), except for the specific gravity of the yellow butter which decreased linearly. The UV-Vis spectrum showed a high peak at 300 nm and a rapid decrease from 300 to 500 nm when the near infra-red one, revealed peaks at 450, 1200, 1400, 1725 and 2150 nm for all the samples. The chromatographic profile identified palmitic (16.42 and 26.36 %), stearic (32.39 and 36.36 %), oleic (38.12 and 29.09 %), linoleic (9.72 and 5.92 %) and arachidic (1.84 and 1.59 %) acids, and also exaltolide compound (1.51 and 0.68 %). The samples also contained essential minerals (Calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, etc.) carotene (550 ± 50 and 544 ± 50 ppm), vitamins A (0.065 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001 µg/g) and E (2992.09 ± 1.90 and 3788.44 ± 1.90 ppm) in relatively important amounts; neither microbiological germs nor heavy were detected. All these valorizing characteristics would confer to the optimized shea butters good aptitude for exportation and exploitation in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
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The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro thrombolytic activity of different extracts of Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. leaves. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of seven different extracts (benzene, hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate) of M. sylvatica along with streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. In the in vitro thrombolytic model, benzene, hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed 17.164, 17.384, 22.876, 28.984, 29.206 and 25.226% clot lysis, respectively. Among the extracts methanol extract showed significant percent of the clot lysis (46.934%) with reference to streptokinase (80.514%). From our study it was found that M. sylvatica possesses thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component (s) of M. sylvatica for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. Once discovered, M. sylvatica could be suggested as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of patients suffering from atherothrombotic diseases.
Properly conducted cocoa fermentation is an important step for the production of high-quality chocolate. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of four cocoa varieties (CCN51, PS1030, FA13, and CEPEC 2004) inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CA11 on microbial communities and the profile of volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of chocolate. The S. cerevisiae population increased significantly (p < 0.05) during the fermentations. The microbial communities varied according to cocoa variety fermentation as assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The dominant yeasts were S. cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, while Lactobacillus casei and Gluconobacter oxidans were the predominant bacteria in the four different fermentations analyzed. Sixty-one volatile compounds—including aldehydes (11), ketones (10), esters (14), acids (8), alcohols (8), pyrazines (5), furans (3), and others (caffeine and heptadecane)—were detected and quantified by GC–MS in the different chocolates. The sensory analysis showed that caramel was perceptible in the chocolate of PS1030, while CEPEC2004 was related to astringency, bitterness, and chocolate flavor attributes. The chocolates produced from FA13 and CCN51 were more similar in terms of sour and chocolate aroma. A “temporal dominance of sensation” (TDS) analysis showed that although the bitter attribute was dominant, the fruity, sweet, sour, astringent, and cocoa attributes were also perceptible, depending on the cocoa variety. These results suggest that the cocoa varieties had an influence on the chocolate's quality, which should be considered to obtain chocolate with different sensory characteristics or for better standardization of the process, even when using yeast as a starter culture.
African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) is now recognized for its numerous food and medicinal uses. This plant produces seeds rich in fat, which is traditionally used as a soup thickener. In the present study, the fat from Irvingia gabonensis seeds was solvent extracted and characterized. Besides a chemical characterization (fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TG) profiles), the melting and crystallization behaviour of the extracted fat was studied by complementary techniques: pNMR, DSC and X-ray diffraction in order to get basic information regarding its physical properties and more particularly, about its polymorphism.