Article

Enemies with Benefits: The Dual Role of Rivalry in Shaping Sports Fans’ Identity

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Abstract

Research question: Rivalries in team sports are commonly conceptualized as a threat to the fans’ identity. Therefore, past research has mainly focused on the negative consequences. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that rivalry has both negative and positive effects on fans’ self-concept. This research develops and empirically tests a model which captures and integrates these dual effects of rivalry. Research methods: Data were collected via an on-site survey at home games of eight German Bundesliga football teams (N = 571). Structural equation modeling provides strong support for the proposed model. Results and findings: In line with previous research, the results show that rivalry threatens fans’ identity as reflected in lower public collective self-esteem in relation to supporters of the rival team. However, the results also show that there are crucial positive consequences, such as higher perceptions of public collective self-esteem in relation to supporters of non-rival opponents, perceived ingroup distinctiveness and ingroup cohesion. These positive effects are mediated through increases in disidentification with the rival and perceived reciprocity of rivalry. Implications: We contribute to the literature by providing a more balanced view of one of team sports’ key phenomena. Our results indicate that the prevalent conceptualization of rivalry as an identity threat should be amended by the positive consequences. Our research also offers guidance for the promotion of rivalries, where the managerial focus should be on creating a perception that a rivalry is reciprocal.

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... In interconsumer brand rivalries, each side has an incentive to respond to attacks to grow the conflict (Seraj et al., 2015). Evidence from the world of team sports suggests that the most heated rivalries are usually highly mutual (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). Therefore, a constitutive element of inter-consumer brand rivalry are mutual competitive comparisons-i.e., the perception that the ongoing competitive relationship with consumers or aficionados of the rival brand is mutual. ...
... The act of being ignored can even seriously hurt self-concept (Williams & Nida, 2011). In a survey of sports fans, Berendt and Uhrich (2016) found a positive relationship between perceived rivalry reciprocity and identity-related constructs such as group distinctiveness, group cohesion, and public collective self-esteem. Therefore, inter-consumer brand rivalries provide consumers with an opportunity to build distinctiveness. ...
... Although rivalry is a complex phenomenon, respondents found the assessment of the intensity of rivalry between two brands easy to grasp and concrete enough to answer. Also, a similar measure had been used successfully in previous studies (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). ...
... Regarding the exclusively use of statistical remedies, 20 out of 54 (37%) articles relied on one (e.g., Boronczyk & Breuer, 2020) or multiple (e.g., Song et al., 2018) statistical techniques. Regarding the combination of procedural and statistical remedies, 15 articles out of 54 (27.8%) used multiple types of protective and corrective actions both at the stage of study design as well as at the stage of data analyses (e.g., Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). ...
... A large portion of scholars from sport management discipline seems to fully ignore the potential threat of the validity of their findings. On the other hand, few sport management researchers highlight the issue of CMV in a separate section within their papers, recognizing this way its importance (e.g., Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). ...
... In addition, the effectiveness of Harman's test for the detection of CMV is questionable. For example, Berendt and Uhrich (2016) conducted a Harman's single-factor test and revealed that no general single factor emerged, but when they incorporated a latent method factor into the baseline model, the comparison of the fit statistics of the model with and without the method factor indicated some extent of CMV. Concluding, Harman's single-factor test may not be the best choice as the only statistical test, but when using multiple statistical remedies, Harman's single-factor test is the first choice for almost all sport management researchers. ...
Article
Common method variance refers to the amount of uncontrolled systematic error leading to biased estimates of scale reliability and validity and to spurious covariance shared among variables due to common method and/or common source employed in survey-based researches. As the extended use of self-report questionnaires is inevitable, numerous studies have provided remedies for this phenomenon. This study primarily aims at the integrative review of four leading sport management journals regarding the way researchers identify and control for common method variance. The results showed that a large proportion (82.4%) of researchers does not deal with the issue of common method variance and only a few articles (15 out of 307) provide sufficient evidence of controlling for common method variance with the use of a combination of procedural and statistical remedies. This article represents an initial attempt to critically approach the integration of the issue of common method variance in sport management research.
... At the same time, scholars have suggested it is important to take a more nuanced and complex approach to understand the term "rivalry" and its meanings (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016;Mills et al., 2018). While a rival is often taken for granted simply as a tough competitor (Porter, 1980), the concept of rivalry may not be shared among "in-group" members and "outgroup" members (Tyler and Cobbs, 2015). ...
... Recent studies on sport consumer behavior have increasingly noted the dual nature of rivalries (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016). On one hand, the presence of rivalries help to enhance the appeal of sport competitions for fans (Havard and Eddy, 2013), enabling them to intensify personal bonds with their team (Luellen and Wann, 2010). ...
... SIT has been examined within the context of sport rivalry (Bee and Dalakas, 2015;Berendt and Uhrich, 2016;Havard, 2014;Tyler and Cobbs, 2015). Findings have provided evidence social identities tend to strengthen in-group membership and enhance feelings of animosity toward out-group affiliations. ...
Article
Purpose Previous research on rivalry games in sport has predominantly focused on understanding the nature of these games and their effects on consumer behavior. As such, the purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination to provide better theoretical and empirical understanding of how rivalries may impact the posting of content online. Design/methodology/approach This research utilizes Twitter data measuring the number of posts by individuals about college football teams to model how often fans create content during game days. The models in this study were estimated using fixed-effects panel regressions. Findings After controlling for a number of factors, including the type of rivalry game, results indicate fans post more during traditional rivalries. Furthermore, newer rivalry games had less impact on the amount of content posted about a team. Practical implications The findings from this research provide sport marketers with important information regarding fan use of digital platforms. Notably, the results suggest rivalries can help to boost the volume of content individuals post about a team, indicating these games provide teams with an opportunity to maximize their engagement with fans and focus on key marketing objectives. Originality/value To date, there has been little examination considering whether rivalries affect behaviors in the digital realm. Therefore, the current investigation is one of the first studies to examine how rivalries impact social media behavior.
... 51). From the previous literature on rivalries within sport we find that the presence of a rival can influence the likelihood of, and frequency with which fans follow their favorite team publicly (Tyler & Cobbs, 2015), and can enhance identification with the team and fellow team supporters (Smith & Schwartz, 2003), increasing group cohesion and in-group bias (Berendt, & Uhrich, 2016). ...
... Rivalries threaten these dimensions of one's team identity (i.e., sense of interdependence and interconnection of self with the team), potentially threatening one's own esteem. The threat to one's esteem may cause rivalries to decrease the significance of these dimensions of team identification in favor of esteem preservation (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). Berendt and Uhrich (2016) found that, although rivalries threaten fans' identity through lower public esteem from rival team supporters, rivalries also enhance fans' team identity by creating higher esteem in the eyes of fans not involved in the rivalry, as well as increasing ingroup distinctiveness and cohesion. ...
... The threat to one's esteem may cause rivalries to decrease the significance of these dimensions of team identification in favor of esteem preservation (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). Berendt and Uhrich (2016) found that, although rivalries threaten fans' identity through lower public esteem from rival team supporters, rivalries also enhance fans' team identity by creating higher esteem in the eyes of fans not involved in the rivalry, as well as increasing ingroup distinctiveness and cohesion. Smith and Schwartz (2003) found the presence of a sport rival can actually influence individuals to self-categorize as fans more often, which is a core component of team identification (Heere & James, 2007. ...
... In view of this point, a rival team is defined as "a highly salient outgroup that poses an acute threat to the identity of the in-group or to in-group members' ability to make positive comparisons between their group and the out-group" (Tyler and Cobbs, 2015, p. 230). Notably, although sports management studies have examined the antecedents (Tyler and Cobbs, 2015), mechanisms (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016), positive effects (Watanabe et al., 2019) and negative effects (Nichols et al., 2019) of fan rivalry, the feeling of hatred toward a rival team has yet to be explored. ...
... The past several years have witnessed increased scholarly attention to the concept of sports rivalry (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016;Havard, 2014;Tyler and Cobbs, 2015). In fact, while, at a basic level, sports fans want to enjoy their teams, it is the hatred toward rival teams that often leads to higher attendance figures and increased excitement. ...
Article
Purpose This study, an empirical research, aims to construct and validate a new love-hate scale for sports fans and tested its antecedents and consequences. Design/methodology/approach The scale was designed and validated in three separate empirical survey studies in the context of Israeli professional basketball. In Phase 1, the authors verified the factorial validity of the proposed scale using exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 2, the authors conducted a confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling. In Phase 3, the authors tested the nomological network validity of the scale. Findings The findings show that fans' involvement, loyalty and fandom significantly predicted their love–hate, which in turn significantly predicted self-reported fan aggression, fans' acceptance of fan aggression, price premium and frequency of watching games. Research limitations/implications The model was tested on a relatively small sample of fans within a single country. This lack of generalizability should be addressed in future studies by examining the model in other sports contexts and countries. Practical implications This study suggests that understanding the properties of the love–hate measure may assist team sports clubs in identifying, preventing and controlling potential fan aggression. Originality/value The study provides three incremental contributions above and beyond existing research: it develops and validates a scale for measuring the phenomenon of sports fans' love and hate as mixed emotions; it makes it possible to capture the variations in the magnitude of fans' love–hate; and it relates fans' love–hate to important attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.
... They might be considered 'satellite fans' (Behrens & Uhrich, 2019) with no implicit links to specific cities/countries from which favored teams originate, but nonetheless who view teams as ' … far away but close to the heart' (Ben-Porat, 2000, p. 344). Given the physical distance to favored teams and their most hardcore fans, ambi-fans are relatively removed from rivalry socializing agents, thus experiencing lower perception of rivalry intensity and rival disidentification from opposition teams (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). ...
... Most research has considered situations where individuals define themselves as fans of a single sports team (ingroup), and show opposition to a rival team (outgroup; e.g. Berendt & Uhrich, 2016;Dalakas & Melancon, 2012). In the current work, we draw on the theory around social identity complexity (Roccas & Brewer, 2002) to move beyond this traditional dichotomy, in order to understand ambi-fans, who can display a more complex identity through their identification with multiple teams. ...
Article
Research question: Using theory around social identity complexity, we introduce and examine the unique effects of exposure to sport scandal on ambi-fans-those individuals who simultaneously follow and support two or more teams in one sport including teams that are potential rivals-relative to fans of the scandalized team alone (ingroup), or fans of its direct rival alone (outgroup). Research methods: Three online experimental studies (n = 141, 136, 312, respectively) examine differential ingroup/outgroup fan and ambi-fan response to sport scandals across match-fixing and sex scandal (illegal and legal) scenarios. Results and findings: Results highlight the complexity of fan response to sport scandals. While ambi-fans supported the scandalized team similarly to ingroup fans, they were less likely to denigrate ingroup perpetrators. Outgroup fans viewed both the team and perpetrator negatively. In terms of sponsor perceptions, results suggest differential fan response may be restricted to when the scandal impacts game-play. Implications: Our research significantly contributes to sport scandal literature and suggests sport teams and team sponsors should be cognizant of the importance of ambi-fans, as these individuals can be more tolerant of scandals than other fans.
... Identification with teams through the sports mass media have led to the identification of these teams and will cause the fans to consider sport's club as a part of their own, such that they will be happy with its success and sad with its failure. Zare, Heydari Nejad and Shirali, and Gill, and Andrews have confirmed the role of the media in their findings (17)(18)(19) (Table 2) The roles of derby games and strengthening city teams, order and stability in all things and all levels of activity (managers, quality of service, holding competitions, selling tickets of the tournaments, contracts signed with sponsors) (20) were identified as fundamental factors of brand personality of the football league. The findings of other studies also confirm this point (21). ...
... In terms of content, the findings of Javani et al. can also be the evidence to this claim (22). "The quality of the result" has the greatest effect on the satisfaction of the spectators (23) and as the football match grows in quality and cause pride in spectators, then more people will want to watch it (20,24). Further, in addition to spectator's satisfaction, it will also have benefits like increasing television broadcasting fees, increasing advertising around the field and on shirts and sport clothes, as well as the attraction of sponsors. ...
Article
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Background. Brand personality as a part of brand identity plays an important role in communications; if a brand has no personality, it cannot introduce itself and stay in the mind of the customer. Customer understanding about a brand is far more important than what is expressed as brand reality. Thus, developing an appropriate personality for creating a compatible image of the brand in the customer’s mind will be an important factor. Therefore, organizations must develop appropriate primitive principles to establish a long relationship with customers. Objective. This study was conducted to identify and introduce intervening and fundamental factors affecting the formation of brand personality of the Iran Football League. Methods. Here, a qualitative research was conducted using a grounded research method. Data collection tools involved deep interviews with experts (23 individuals) selected by purposive and snowball sampling. Data analysis was performed using open encodings, axial, and selective methods. Results. Based on the qualitative interviews, 33 signs were obtained for conditions influencing the formation of league brand personality (contextual factors and intervening conditions). Having analyzed these factors and summarized the findings based on the connection index and similarity with each other, and with the constant comparison, these signs were eventually reduced to five concepts or categories including product factors, factors unrelated to the product as well as the external and macro environment. Conclusion. If brand personality is defined based on market research or people's tastes, adapting the whole system with the brand personality and present promises is a tedious task. On the other hand, the research method contributes to obtaining the same pattern for each product category or service. So in order to build a brand personality from the organization perspective, managers and planners should identify intervening conditions and contextual factors which can disrupt the strategies adopted (intervening factors). Alternatively, with appropriate contextualization, they can contribute to the development of these strategies and act toward these factors for the formation of the brand personality of the league.
... Sport fan rivalries are salient all year long and not just on game day. In addition, rival fans define themselves by who they are not (Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001) and the 'enemy' is a part of their identity (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). This is in line with the observation that the parties in intractable conflicts often collude in maintaining the conflictual relationship and the conflict itself and salient aspects of the conflict, such as hostile acts and criticisms, become defined as self (Northrup, 1989). ...
... While previous studies have pointed out the identity relevance of rivalry (e.g. Berendt & Uhrich, 2016;Tyler & Cobbs, 2015), our study is the first to consider this identity relevance in designing actions that aim to prevent violence between fans of rival teams. Drawing on the literature on identity-related intergroup conflicts, we derive the dual identity approach and provide theoretical arguments why public statements using this approach should be more effective in reducing fan aggressiveness than the common managerial practice of downplaying the importance of rivalry games. ...
... A more attitudinal conceptualization of rivalry assumes that it relates to strong, hostile attitudes and feelings towards the supported team's rivals, its supporters and/or its sponsors (R2 in Table II) (Angell et al., 2016;Dalakas et al., 2015;Havard et al., 2013a). Rivalry enhances the individual's self-expression and the perceptions of public collective self-esteem, in-group cohesion and in-group distinctiveness, as intergroup competition increases the salience of social identification (the "us" versus "them" phenomenon in the social categorization process) (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016;Grohs et al., 2015). The feelings of pleasure for the rival's misfortune are frequently observed when rivalry is strong (Dalakas et al., 2015). ...
... The definition of polarization implies that consumers could be looking to express their identity as group members Webster and Abramowitz, 2017) and possibly as individuals through their following of polarizing brands. There is, indeed, some evidence supporting that consumers involved with rival brands build a positive selfconcept and enhance their identities (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016). Schadenfreude, or feelings of pleasure at the adversity of the rival brand, its followers and/or its sponsors, is welldocumented in politics (Ouwerkerk et al., 2018) and sports (Dalakas and Phillips-Melancon, 2012;Dalakas et al., 2015;Popp et al., 2016), but also exists in other product categories such as mobile phones (Ouwerkerk et al., 2018), electronics (Marticotte, et al., 2016;Japutra et al., 2018), cars, food and beverages, fashion retailers and airlines (Japutra et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Negativity towards a brand is typically conceived as a significant problem for brand managers. This paper aims to show that negativity towards a brand can represent an opportunity for companies when brand polarization occurs. To this end, the paper offers a new conception of the brand polarization phenomenon and reports exploratory findings on the benefits of consumers’ negativity towards brands in the context of brand polarization. Design/methodology/approach To develop a conception of brand polarization, the paper builds on research on polarizing brands and extends it by integrating insights from systematic literature reviews in three bodies of literature: scholarship on brand rivalry and, separately, polarization in political science and social psychology. Using qualitative data from 22 semi-structured interviews, the paper explores possible advantages of brand polarization. Findings This paper defines the brand polarization phenomenon and identifies multiple perspectives on brand polarization. Specifically, the findings highlight three distinct parties that can benefit from brand polarization: the polarizing brand as an independent entity; the brand team behind the polarizing brand; and the passionate consumers involved with the polarizing brand. The data reveal specific advantages of brand polarization associated with the three parties involved. Practical implications Managers of brands with a polarizing nature could benefit from having identified a group of lovers and a group of haters, as this could allow them to improve their focus when developing and implementing the brands’ strategies. Originality/value This exploratory study is the first explicitly focusing on the brand polarization phenomenon and approaches negativity towards brands as a potential opportunity.
... While the in-group actively endorses an in-group sponsor, the out-group (e.g. fans of a rival team) hold a different perspective, not only denigrating (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016;Bergkvist, 2012;Grohs et al., 2015;Olson, 2018), but sometimes taking pleasure in doing so (Angell et al., 2016). For instance, Bergkvist (2012) found that Swedish football fans' perceptions of, and purchase intentions for, the sponsor of their rival team was significantly lower than a control group comprised of fans and non-fans. ...
Article
Research question: While cross-border sport sponsorships are widespread, such partnerships introduce a notable complication – consumers in one country may dislike the sponsor’s country of origin (COO). This raises the question as to whether animosity towards a sponsor’s COO negatively affects sponsorship outcomes, and if so, how it can be addressed. For the latter, we examine holistic sponsor-object fit as well as a set of its constituent elements. Research methods: Data collection pertained to a brand engaged in a hypothetical sponsorship. Study 1 involves a Serbian brand sponsoring the Croatia national football team and for Study 2 German sponsors of the England national football team. Survey data are analyzed using a latent modeling approach. Results and findings: Study 1 shows that animosity reduces consumers’ attitude towards the sponsorship. However, higher perceived sponsor-object fit weakens this effect. Study 2 replicates this finding, and on a more granular level establishes the moderating properties of several sub-dimensions of fit. Congruence in color, personality and status ameliorate animosity. Implications: We outline implications for sponsors operating in environments where their COO invokes animosity and how sponsor-object fit may mitigate this.
... In sports marketing research, such questions have traditionally been addressed using behavioral and self-report measures collected from human subjects (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). While useful, these methods suffer from many drawbacks. ...
... Warto wspomnieć również o innej zależności -jak wskazywał Bergkvist [2012] -kibice określonej drużyny mogą mieć skłonność do przenoszenia swojej niechęci względem rywala także na jego sponsora. Dlatego też organizacje sponsorujące powinny wystrzegać się agresywnych strategii marketingowych, ukierunkowanych na drużynę przeciwną, ponieważ może mieć to również negatywny wpływ na reputację zespołu i sponsora [Berendt, Uhrich 2016]. ...
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Zagadnienia zarządzania w sporcie oraz sportu w zarządzaniu i przedsiębiorczości rozwijają się w odpowiedzi na zapotrzebowanie ze strony sportowców, klubów sportowych oraz organizacji z nimi współpracującymi, tak jak rozwinęły się badania w zakresie medycyny sportowej, sprzętu i infrastruktury sportowej. Od zarządzania w sporcie coraz częściej oczekuje się nowych i innowacyjnych rozwiązań pozwalających zbudować przewagę konkurencyjną. Specyfika obszaru sportowego wynika między innymi z mnogości interesariuszy, którzy wraz z upływem czasu stawiają nowe wymagania wobec podmiotów działających w obszarze sportu. Interesariusze w sporcie często mają dwojaki charakter i oczekują realizacji celów zarówno biznesowych, jak i społecznych. Jest to źródło problemów występujących w zarządzaniu sportem i zarządzaniu przez sport.
... College students tended to describe fellow students at their institution to be more similar to them leading up to a rival game (Smith & Schwartz, 2003). Additionally, rivalries can carry positive benefits for fans such as uniqueness and cohesion (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016;Berendt, Uhurich, & Thompson, 2018;Delia, 2015). The presence of rival team can make fans more likely to attend, watch, or read about favorite team games (Havard, Eddy et al., 2016;Havard, Shapiro et al., 2016;Paul, 2003;Sung, Mills, & Tainsky, in press), and pay premium prices to attend games (Sanford & Scott, 2016). ...
... Following Theodoropoulou (2007), the current study maintains that hatred can be caused and triggered by fandom, meaning that hatred for the opposing brand is dictated by love for the individual's favourite brand. Certainly, part of being a sport fan and part of the culture of many sport clubs consists of hating rival teams and their fans (Berendt and Uhrich, 2016). As Dalakas and Melancon (2012) have indicated, in the context of sport, fans' hatred towards other sport teams and their hope for bad things to happen to others associated with those teams occurs "not because these teams failed to provide high-quality service but because the fans are highly identified with their own favourite team and place high importance on winning" (p. ...
Article
Purpose The growing proportion of older fans and their potential economic value have increased the need for an improved understanding of age differences in fan behaviour. Building on socioemotional selectivity theory, the current study examines the impact of age differences on fan hatred as well as on the extent to which fans actually engage in aggressive activities and fans' perceptions of the levels of appropriateness of certain physical and verbal acts of aggression. Design/methodology/approach The study used an online panel-based survey that offered access to a real-world population of sport fans. The participants were 742 fans of professional football (soccer). Findings Results from structural equation modelling indicated that older fans reported lower levels of fan hatred, lower self-reported aggression and lower acceptance of physical and verbal aggression. Moreover, fan hatred partially mediated the relationship between age and levels of aggression and between age and acceptance of verbal aggression. In addition, fan hatred fully mediated the relationship between age and acceptance of physical aggression. Originality/value The current study makes two important contributions. First, it demonstrates that sport clubs may particularly benefit from understanding the potential but often neglected importance of older sport fans in relation to the problematic phenomenon of fan aggression. Second, it offers a thorough theoretical account of the manner in which fan hatred plays a significant role in the relationships between age and fan aggressiveness.
... The competing bids for Fox put forth by the Walt Disney Company and Comcast in 2018 beg the question: What role does rivalry play in companies' decisions? Rivalry allows organizations and people to feel unique from another group, [16] and it addresses the inherent need to favorably compare to competitors' influence on people's decisions. [17] For example, companies like Chick-fil-A, Nordstrom, and Disney pride themselves on providing customer service superior to their ...
Article
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To better understand rivalry and how to appropriately utilize it to an organization's benefit, it is helpful for managers to study examples and findings from other areas of research. This article addresses what business managers can learn from the study of rivalry in the sport context. Anecdotally, many businesses and managers use sport rivalry to describe behaviors and goals. This article provides important findings on the rivalry phenomenon that have come from the sport setting. This commentary also offers examples for managers to use the findings outside of the sport setting.
... During the 2014 football season, 1975). Th e rivalry phenomenon plays an important role in group identity and membership, providing feelings of group cohesion and uniqueness (Berendt and Uhrich 2016;Berendt et al. 2018). For example, students reported feeling a closer bond to others at their institutions leading up to contests against rival teams (Smith and Schwartz 2003). ...
... College students tended to describe fellow students at their institution to be more similar to them leading up to a rival game (Smith & Schwartz, 2003). Additionally, rivalries can carry positive benefits for fans such as uniqueness and cohesion (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016;Berendt, Uhurich, & Thompson, 2018;Delia, 2015). The presence of rival team can make fans more likely to attend, watch, or read about favorite team games (Havard, Eddy et al., 2016;Havard, Shapiro et al., 2016;Paul, 2003;Sung, Mills, & Tainsky, in press), and pay premium prices to attend games (Sanford & Scott, 2016). ...
... The literature presented throughout this section highlights studies aimed at understanding this social phenomenon. Such context can be understood as the result of a highly positive feeling for a particular team, leading to a passionate and loyal follow-up, as well as the feeling of hatred for other teams, especially those that, sportingly, can be understood as common opponents or rivals [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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The Bedouin syndrome represents social interactions based on four premises: a friend of my friend is my friend, a friend of my enemy is my enemy, an enemy of my friend is my enemy, and an enemy of my enemy is my friend. These extensive associations exist in many social and economic relationships, such as market competition, neighborhood relations, political behavior, student gangs, organized crime, and the violent behavior of sports spectators (hooliganism) worldwide. This work tests the Bedouin syndrome hypothesis considering the violent behavior in the football fan culture. We construct relational networks of social affinities to represent the social interactions of organized fan bases (Torcidas organizadas) involved in hooligan violence in Pernambuco, Brazil. Contrary to prior expectations, the results evidence no statistical support for the Bedouin syndrome in 13 of the 15 analyzed clubs. There is weak statistical support in two interactions and strong statistical support in one interaction to state that a friend of my enemy is my friend (instead of an enemy). The only support for the Bedouin syndrome is circumstantial based on a prior assumption of an alliance. We propose a network development that can be more suitable to represent football fans’ violent behavior. The results contribute to understanding the hooliganism social phenomenon in football-rooted cultures and their impact on public health, identifying potential determinants for organized violence by young spectators’ and supporting police strategies by defining relevance scores for the most potential clashes and coalitions of gangs.
... 40 Rivalry is influenced by variables such as conference or league membership, 41-43 competition realignment, 44,45 and promotional campaigns and messaging. 46,47 As rival groups interact, they not only compare themselves with the other in direct competition situations, but also derive comparison from indirect competition. Group members can experience joy from the perceived failure of a rival, [48][49][50] but may also actively cheer for failure by the out-group. ...
... On the other hand, the football clubs could also have an influence on this feeling of belonging through the actions aimed at improving the community where they are located, such as, e.g., corporate social responsibility activities (Kenneth, 2014;Walker & Kent, 2009). The existing historical rivalry between football teams was another way of achieving fan identification due to the sympathies or antipathies that could be created in the fans (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). The hate that football fans feel towards rival clubs has an effect on fan identification (Argan & Özgen, 2019). ...
Article
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A great number of elements can be differentiated that could be the precursors of fan identification and loyalty towards a football team. In light of this, the objective of this review is to study and understand the elements that make football fans feel identified with their favorite teams in order to achieve their loyalty. For the development of the study, the Cochrane, EBSCO SPORTDiscus, PUBMED and Web of Science (WOS) databases were used. Of the 290 initial articles, 84 were selected. This systematic review was performed following the PRISMA criteria. The results obtained showed the existence of multiple strategies for achieving fan identification, such as: social interaction, the history of the club and the city, the style of play, the stadium or the loyalty. As a conclusion, football clubs will be able to use the different strategies described above to achieve the identification of their fans with the team. Through the development of fan identification, an increase in customer consumption can be achieved. RESUMEN: Se pueden diferenciar un gran número de elementos que podrían ser los precursores de la identificación y fidelidad del aficionado hacia un equipo de fútbol. Por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión es estudiar y comprender los elementos que hacen que los aficionados al fútbol se sientan identificados con sus equipos favoritos para conseguir su lealtad. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se utilizaron las bases de datos Cochrane, EBSCO SPORTDiscus, PUBMED y Web of Science (WOS). De los 290 artículos iniciales, se seleccionaron 84. Esta revisión sistemática se realizó siguiendo los criterios PRISMA. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la existencia de múltiples estrategias para lograr la identificación del aficionado, como son: la interacción social, la historia del club y de la ciudad, el estilo de juego, el estadio o la lealtad. Como conclusión, los clubes de fútbol podrán utilizar las diferentes vías mencionadas anteriormente para lograr la identificación de sus aficionados con el equipo. A través del desarrollo de la identificación de los aficionados se puede lograr un aumento del consumo de los clientes.
... The problem gets worse due to the methods normally used: surveys, self-report measures [82], interviews, ethnographies [83], and focus groups [84]. Sport is no exception [85]. Through behavioral psychology, these traditional methods seek to discover what is going on in the consumer's brain, both psychologically and emotionally [83]. ...
Chapter
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Sports fans and fandoms are special (and extreme) cases of the consumer-brand relationship concept. The implications for markets may be positive (e.g., purchasing merchandizing), but also negative (e.g., ostracizing rivals’ sponsors). Such behavior calls for a deeper understanding, but traditional market research methods tend to fail to capture the underlying unconscious/emotion dimensions. Here, we explore the pertinent concepts (brands, self-construal, consumer-brand relationships, brand communities and tribes, and fan identity) and suggest the participation of consumer neuroscience to tackle the neural and psychological grounds of fan behavior.
... The concept of rivalry is inherent in sport contests and, in many respects, almost essential for fans' experience and enjoyment (Bee and Dalakas, 2015). Indeed, the last several years have witnessed increased scholarly attention to the concept of sport rivalry (Angell et al., 2016;Berendt and Uhrich, 2016;Havard, 2014;Kilduff et al., 2010;Tyler and Cobbs, 2015). Notably, strong team identification was found to be positively related to rivalry such that the stronger the rivalry, the stronger the identification, and vice versa (Havard et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal identities (derived from views of themselves as unique, individual sport fans). The study examined the relationship between identity salience and both positive and negative aspects of fans' attitudes, emotions and behaviours. Design/methodology/approach Seven hundred and twelve (712) Israeli professional football fans participated in this study. The study employed a survey drawn from an Internet panel with more than fifty thousand members. Findings Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), the authors demonstrated that while social identity salience is related to positive aspects of being a sport fan (love of a favourite team and loyalty), it is also related to negative aspects of being a sport fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Personal identity salience was found to be related to the decrease in negative outcomes of being a fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Research limitations/implications Marketers and sport organizations will benefit from stimulating sport fans' personal identity salience to mitigate possible negative consequences of team affiliation. Originality/value The current study expands upon past sport management studies by demonstrating the existence of relationships between sport fans' identity salience and their emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The identity salience of fans is relevant from both academic and applicative perspectives.
... Japanese fans who have a deep interest in baseball also strongly identify with their favourite team. Furthermore, intergroup competition between teams increases the salience of social identification (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016). The more baseball fans in Japan identify with their favourite team or team members, the more they engage in the task of community management of their favourite team (Yoshida et al., 2014). ...
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We aimed to examine the external validity of social identity theory (SIT) and the bounded generalized reciprocity hypothesis (BGR) generated ingroup cooperation in real groups. Previous studies demonstrated that ingroup cooperation predicted by both theories was observed in the minimal group, whereas neither theory was supported in real groups. However, ingroup cooperation predicted by both theories was revealed among Japanese baseball fans after controlling confounding factors. Furthermore, previous studies showed that ingroup cooperation was better explained by the BGR than SIT when the cost of cooperation was high. The limitation of these studies is that ingroup cooperation was measured in terms of behavioural intention (a vignette experiment). This study employed a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game to measure ingroup cooperation among Japanese baseball fans. The results only supported BGR, that ingroup cooperation was enhanced in situations wherein participants could expect a reciprocal relationship with their partner of the game.
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0.1] Abstract-This study of the current knowledge and research being conducted about the phenomenon of sport rivalry introduces new avenues of research in an effort to encourage researchers outside of sport fandom to investigate it, thus providing insight from a perspective outside the field.
Article
This study aimed to test the validity of social identity theory (SIT) and bounded generalized reciprocity hypothesis (BGR) to explain ingroup cooperation in real social groups. Each of the validity of SIT and BGR have been discussed by social psychologists for a long time. However, recent studies indicate that both theories could explain ingroup cooperation simultaneously. Nakagawa et al. (2015) showed that ingroup cooperation among Japanese fans of a baseball team was derived from the psychological mechanisms predicted by both theories. The present study tested the reproducibility of these results when the cost of cooperation was emphasized. Japanese fans of all 12 baseball teams (N = 1,635) participated in this experiment. In each scenario, the cost of helping was emphasized, and reciprocal expectation was manipulated by knowledge about the feeling of belonging by participants and their partner’s group. The results showed that ingroup cooperation was shown by the psychological mechanism of BGR more than SIT when the cost of cooperation was emphasized.
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The current study further investigated rivalry and group behavior by comparing the perceptions and likely behaviors of sport fans regarding their biggest rival teams to that of Star Wars and Star Trek fans. Results showed that sport fandom was correlated with more negativity toward the relevant rival than among science fiction fans. Further, being a fan of both a sport team and a science fiction brand was correlated with more negativity toward the sport rival but more positivity toward the relevant science fiction rival brand. Finally, fans of the Star Wars brand reported greater positivity toward their in-group and more negativity toward the Star Trek brand than the other way around. Discussion focuses on academic and practical implications, along with future avenues of research.
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The study addressed the phenomenon of group membership and how group members engage in online commentary. Specifically, the paper investigated comments left in online chatrooms during the three presidential debates in 2016 and three prominent college football rivalry games. Findings showed that people choosing to leave comments in an online chatroom did so to (1) comment on the nature of the rivalry or relationship, (2) comment on the game itself, or (3) to derogate the out-group. Further, a higher proportion of comments left in the political chatrooms were negative toward the out-group compared to the sport setting. Implications are discussed, and the paper presents directions for future inquiry and ideas for addressing out-group negativity in political fandom.
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This chapter provides a foundation for those new to rivalry inquiry. First, it introduces seminal social psychology concepts, such as group identity, social identity theory, social categorization theory, and ingroup/outgroup formation. Next, the chapter explains three properties of rivalry and the 100-point single-item measure of rivalry intensity. Study 1 examines these in new leagues (MLB, MLS, NBA), finding robust support for rivalry as 1) non-exclusive (fans perceive multiple rivals), 2) continuous in scale (intensity varies among rivals), and 3) bidirectional (opposing fans rarely share equivalent perceptions of the rivalry). Study 2 explains 11 rivalry antecedents and investigates their manifestation within five sport leagues (MLB, MLS, NBA, NFL, NHL). These are, in descending order of influence: frequency of play, defining moments, recent parity, star factors, geography, relative dominance, historical parity, competition for personnel, cultural difference, unfairness, and cultural similarity. The authors close by noting limitations and future directions for rivalry research.
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The chapter investigates differences in the ways college students compare to out-groups using the different NCAA competition divisions. In particular, students enrolled at schools in all six (i.e., Power Five, Group of Five, FCS, DI No Football, DII, DIII) reported their perceptions of rival school's athletics teams using the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS). Differences were found regarding student perceptions among competition divisions. Specifically, attendance at a Power Five School influenced student's willingness to support rival teams against other teams, the enjoyment from defeating the rival team, perceptions of rival academic prestige and fan behavior, and likelihood of experiencing Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing), or celebrating when the rival experiences indirect failure. Further, students attending DI No Football Schools and DIII Schools chose academic prestige as a way to derogate their rival schools. Discussion focuses on implications to higher education and avenues for future research.
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Sport rivalry research has grown from sport fandom research. And, while sport fandom research has a strong knowledge base, sport rivalry research is still in its infancy. This chapter briefly reviews the extant literature on sport rivalry. Topics include research examining geopolitical rivalries within international football (soccer), the psychological effects of sport rivalry, schadenfreude, and the creation of the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale, a measure of sport rivalry. The marketing implications of sport rivalry research are discussed and areas for future research are provided.
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The main focus of the chapter is to bring out the extremes—immoderations and intemperance—in sports rivalry by primarily considering the case of Monica Seles' stabbing on court by a crazy Steffi Graf fan in 1993. Rivalries among players eventually extend to fans to bring about diverse dark shades (hostility and violence) among the latter. An outcome of being a part of a fan base is extreme devoutness and fervor towards one's own favorite player while considering partisans of an adversary group as an “outgroup.” Sports rivalries customarily create a safe environment to support the creation of ingroup and outgroup, although in fanatical situations, real fights do break out among rival fans. The chapter shall delve into these aspects and consider a distinct case of extreme fan behavior as an upshot of arch rivalry in sports world. The authors shall further examine the role of different stakeholders in bringing about a healthy playing environment and fostering positive fan behavior that shall bring laurels to the game.
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This chapter provides background and context for the importance of self-conscious emotions, particularly shame, pride, and envy/jealousy, in understanding fan behaviors. Particular attention is provided to how self-conscious emotions are elicited, how they differ from basic emotions such as anger and joy, the adaptive and maladaptive purposes that they each serve, how social identity and vicarious experience are connected to self-conscious emotions, and how researchers can utilize these topics to better understand fans and fan behaviors.
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Sports marketing has evolved driven by the growth of the sports industry, playing an important role in the dynamics of the industry. Thus the area acquired relevance in the promotion scenario, with studies attesting to the effectiveness of the use of advertising associated with sports, with the practice of sponsorship driving various investments. In this context, as it is the most popular sport in the world, soccer is a vehicle with wide advantage in communicating values to consumers. In fact, the relationship between the fan-consumer, their favorite team and rival teams has motivated studies over the last decade. This project aims to clarify how the polarization between two clubs influences the consumption and non-consumption of sponsored brand products. Coincidence Analysis (CNA) was used as a research approach, in order to understand the various combinations of conditions for a given event, while providing a causal explanation for the phenomenon. It has been proposed to use a calibration for fuzzy sets that has not yet been used in Comparative Configurational Methods. Using the aggregation of the scores, the constitution of the four factors that made up the analysis was dealt with, finding a solution of constitution of rivalry relevant to future works in the area. The relationships between the main factors pointed to the influence of rivalry in the rejection of a product or service manufactured by rival club sponsor, but relevant to the fan's relationship with the club’s own sponsor. The work contributes to future research pointing to the capacity of Coincidence Analysis to model relationships involving constructs of marketing and finding relevant solutions in a concept of non-symmetrical relationships. The managerial implications for this tend to increase the importance of the sponsor's activation and engagement work with the soccer fan, in order to enhance the fan's affection.
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The following chapter provides an intimate look at sport fans, the identification they have with a favorite team, and their relationship with teams identified as rivals. In particular, team identification and rival perceptions were used to investigate the Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing, excitement when the rival loses to someone other than the favorite team) phenomenon and fan likelihood of considering anonymous acts of aggression. Results showed that team identification influenced the perceptions fan have of their rival teams, the likelihood of considering anonymous aggression, and the GORFing phenomenon. Further, fan rival perceptions also influenced fan anonymous aggression and the likelihood of GORFing. The chapter also answered the call by Havard, Inoue, Dalakas, and Ryan (2017) by showing that GORFing is the competitive nature of schadenfreude and the phenomena are distinct. Discussion focuses on implications of the findings and areas for future research.
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The current study introduces a hierarchy and spectrum of group member behavior and out-group derogation. Specifically, perceptions and likely behaviors among fans of: sport, politics, online electronic gaming, electronic platform gaming, science fiction, mobile phones, Disney theme parks, comics, and straight-to-consumer streaming entertainment platforms are compared to examine how various settings influence negativity toward relevant out-groups. To accomplish this, the Group Behavior Composite (GBC) is introduced, made up of the four facets of the Rivalry Perception Scale (RPS) and the Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) scale, to introduce a hierarchy of rival negativity and group member behavior. Discussion focuses on theoretical and practical implications of the GBC and hierarchy, while also calling for future areas of research.
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The current study investigated rival perceptions and likely behaviors in the sport and mobile phone settings. In particular, perceptions and likely behaviors of relevant out-groups were compared in the sport setting with users of Apple and Samsung mobile phones. Findings indicate that fans of sport teams reported higher identification with their favorite brands and more negativity toward the out-group than did users/fans of Apple and Samsung mobile phones. Additionally, being a fan of both a sport team and either Apple or Samsung mobile phones was correlated with more positive perceptions of the in-group and out-group. Finally, users of Samsung phones reported more satisfaction when their favorite brand compares favorably to Apple than vice versa. Implications and future research are discussed.
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The current study investigated the differences in perceptions of rival brands and out-group members between fans of sport team and electronic gaming or eSports. Using the theoretical underpinnings of Social Identity Theory, rivalry, in-group bias, and the common in-group model, the authors compare the influence of setting and belonging to multiple in-groups on fandom and rival perceptions in sport and gaming. A series of MANCOVAs found that in most instances, fans of sport teams tended to report stronger negative perceptions of their rival teams and supporters than did gaming fans and participants. Additionally, being a fan of both a sport team and gaming influenced more positive perceptions of rival brands and out-group members than did being a fan of only sport or gaming. Finally, gamers that use the online platform reported more negative perceptions of the console platform than vice versa, and ethnicity presents interesting influence of gaming participants. Implications for marketing professionals along with avenues for future investigation are discussed.
Article
This article explores the significance of sports sponsorships by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to limited resources, and the high-intensity competition among sponsors for the recipient’s attention, SMEs have to look for alternative ways to exploit the potential of their sponsorships. With the help of an experimental research design, two studies examine the effects of integrating existing sporting rivalries between sports teams into the leveraging of sponsorships. Among both fans (study 1) and local residents (study 2), the reference to a sporting rivalry in sponsorship leveraging has positive effects on sponsorship-fit, attitudes towards sponsorship and brand attitudes towards the sponsor. Negative attitudes of rival fans on this type of sponsorship leveraging are mostly irrelevant for SME sponsors due to their limited market scope. This type of sponsorship leveraging offers SMEs the opportunity to differentiate themselves as sponsors in contrast to large enterprises with a supra regional, national or international sponsorship scope.
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This study investigates how female college students in the USA differ in their perceptions and behaviours toward rival schools using a nationwide sample. Preliminary analysis suggests that female fans are more positive than male fans toward their rival schools. The study also identifies significant differences depending on the school year of the respondent and the competition level of the school attended (eg Power 5 Conference versus non-Power 5 Conference). The discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of the findings and discusses future avenues of investigation. Introduction Within the field of sport management, the growing amount of literature about rivalry is helping to further understanding about the subject. For example, the antecedents and characteristics of rivalry,1,2 along with various outcomes of the phenomenon3-5 have been investigated. A limitation of the existing research, however, is that the bulk of studies have focused on male respondents. Indeed, an analysis of the demographic breakdown from 25 articles about rivalry in the sport setting reveals that roughly 75 per cent of respondents were male. Given the small percentage of female respondents (roughly 24.8 per cent) used in studies on rivalry, little research has investigated the differences between men and women regarding rivalry. To date, only one study has investigated gender differences in perceptions of rival teams6 and, to the authors' knowledge, no research about rivalry has focused exclusively on female respondents. The current study aims to address this gap by investigating how female fans perceive their rivals, and how they view and react to the presence of a rival team or group. Specifically, the study investigates differences among female fans 2 attending college in the USA, and evaluates how competition level (eg Power 5 or non-Power 5) and year in school influence the ways female fans perceive their greatest or most significant rival. It is important to better understand how rivalry influences female fans for various reasons. First, understanding how female fans view and react to a rival team allows researchers to better investigate differences between fan groups. Further, the understanding of a rival team's influence on female fans allow managers to focus promotional and advertising messages to this vital group, which has continually increased buying power in consumer markets. Understanding the influence of rivalry on female fans can also help managers prepare for contests between rival groups, as sport organisations are increasingly trying to appeal to female fans.
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Although the world of sports has witnessed numerous corruption scandals, the effects of perceived corruption in sports have not been sufficiently investigated in the literature. The aim of this paper is to examine how sports team identification weakens people’s perceptions of corruption in sports, and how it dampens corruption’s negative effects on spectator behavior. The study also examines how prevalent social norms regarding corruption in a country strengthen or weaken these effects. A survey of 1,005 sports spectators from four Sub-Saharan African countries reveals how the interplay between team identification and perceived corruption can encourage or discourage sports attendance under different conditions. Corruption is investigated through the theoretical lenses of the pluralistic nature of morality. Findings indicate that particularistic values linked to moral obligations toward the team collide with the universalistic values that demand fairness in sports. In addition, social norms of corruption moderate the clash between universalistic and particularistic values.
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עם גל בניית אצטדיוני הכדורגל בישראל בעשור השני של המאה ה־ 21 , התגבר העיסוק הציבורי בשיוּמם. נושא זה זוכה לחשיבות בעיקר בשל נראותו ובשל חשיבותו העירונית של המתקן — וכן בשל היותו בית סמלי של קהילות אוהדים. עם זאת, המקרה הישראלי מלמד כי הנסיבות של כל אצטדיון ובחירת שמו מייצרים שיח ציבורי בעל אופי ייחודי. מאמר זה בוחן את הגורמים המעצבים את הדיון הציבורי בשיום אצטדיונים ובעיקר את יחס האוהדים אל המקום. לשם כך נערך חקר של שני מקרים: אצטדיון טוטו־טרנר בבאר שבע ואצטדיון סמי עופר בחיפה. המחקר שבוצע כלל ניתוח תוכן של מגוון מקורות טקסטואליים, בהם פורומים מקוונים, כתבות בעיתונות, תגוביות, אתרי אוהדים, יומני רשת, שירי אוהדים ועוד. ממצאי המחקר מצביעים על שלושה רכיבים משמעותיים המשפיעים על אופי השיח הציבורי: הגמוניה עירונית, אפשרויות השיום ומושא ההנצחה הספורטיבי. המאמר מציג דיון במקרים הנבחרים ובמשמעות רכיבים אלו בהקשר ספורטיבי רחב.
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Purpose The purpose of this research was to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another when they communicate. Design/methodology/approach This national survey of U.S. sport consumers used a novel approach to explore whether and with whom rivals discuss National Football League (NFL) game outcomes. The survey captured both uniplex and multiplex data by asking respondents to name rival discussants with whom they had recently interacted, and the fan behaviors they exchanged with those named rival discussants. Findings Through use of this novel data collection approach, new findings were uncovered related to blasting, glory out of reflective failure, schadenfreude, and the influence of team identification on the exchange of rivalry fan behaviors. The results of the uniplex and multiplex data analyses uniquely showcases the ways in which social identity theory combines with team identification to enact rivalry behavior. Originality/value This research is the first to precisely dichotomize the psychological antecedents from the communicated behavior between rival fans. Results reveal the precise ways in which team identification influences discordant communication between rival fans, which differs from past research in an interesting new way. Keywords: rivalry; fan behavior; team identification; GORFing; Schadenfreude; blasting
Article
Ένα από τα πιο πολυσυζητημένα και αμφιλεγόμενα μεθοδολογικά και στατιστικά ζητήματα που απασχολούν τους ερευνητικούς σχεδιασμούς με τη χρήση εργαλείων αυτοαναφοράς είναι η μεροληψία κοινής μεθόδου, η οποία ενδέχεται να εμφανιστεί όταν τα δεδομένα για τις μεταβλητές πρόβλεψης και κριτηρίου προέρχονται από το ίδιο άτομο χρησιμοποιώντας την ίδια μέθοδο απόκρισης. Η μη ελεγχόμενη διακύμανση μεθόδου μπορεί να παράγει μεροληπτικές εκτιμήσεις της αξιοπιστίας και της εγκυρότητας των υποκείμενων εννοιών και λανθασμένες παραμετρικές εκτιμήσεις στις σχέσεις μεταξύ των εννοιών. Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας είναι η επισκόπηση της βιβλιογραφίας γύρω από τις έννοιες της μεροληψίας και της διακύμανσης κοινής μεθόδου. Τα 143 άρθρα που προήλθαν από τη σύνθετη αναζήτηση σχετικών μελετών σε τέσσερις βάσεις δεδομένων κατέδειξαν τις βασικές θεματικές ενότητες της εργασίας αυτής. Η κλασική θεωρία μέτρησης χρησιμοποιήθηκε για να εξηγηθούν οι πηγές σφαλμάτων μέτρησης και οι επιπτώσεις της διακύμανσης κοινής μεθόδου. Στη συνέχεια, έγινε περιγραφή των κυρίαρχων μεθοδολογικών και στατιστικών τεχνικών προσδιορισμού και ελέγχου της διακύμανσης κοινής μεθόδου. Οι πιθανές επιδράσεις της διακύμανσης κοινής μεθόδου στην έρευνα με ερωτηματολόγια αυτοαναφοράς είναι περίπλοκες και δυσνόητες, όμως, παρά την υπάρχουσα διαφωνία αναφορικά με τη φύση και την έκτασή της, οι ερευνητές από τον χώρο της ψυχολογίας και των κοινωνικών ή οργανωσιακών επιστημών θα πρέπει να λαμβάνουν μέτρα ελαχιστοποίησης της μεροληψίας μεθόδου.
Chapter
The main focus of the chapter is to bring out the extremes—immoderations and intemperance—in sports rivalry by primarily considering the case of Monica Seles' stabbing on court by a crazy Steffi Graf fan in 1993. Rivalries among players eventually extend to fans to bring about diverse dark shades (hostility and violence) among the latter. An outcome of being a part of a fan base is extreme devoutness and fervor towards one's own favorite player while considering partisans of an adversary group as an “outgroup.” Sports rivalries customarily create a safe environment to support the creation of ingroup and outgroup, although in fanatical situations, real fights do break out among rival fans. The chapter shall delve into these aspects and consider a distinct case of extreme fan behavior as an upshot of arch rivalry in sports world. The authors shall further examine the role of different stakeholders in bringing about a healthy playing environment and fostering positive fan behavior that shall bring laurels to the game.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) phenomenon and its relationships regarding team identification, rival perceptions, and favorite team behavior intentions. A sample of 555 sport fans provides responses regarding their team identification, the perceptions of rival teams, their likelihood to experience GORFing, and behavioral intentions toward the favorite team when their rival loses to a third, neutral team. Structural model results showed that rival perceptions are associated with the likelihood of experiencing GORFing, which in turn was associated with behavioral intentions following a rival team’s loss to a comparable team, and mediated the relationship between rival perceptions and behavioral intentions. Contributions and implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed, and avenues for future study are introduced.
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This final chapter discusses some of the instruments that have been used to measure rivalry, two websites where people can find information about the phenomenon, and work currently underway or planned to advance our understanding of fan and group member behavior. This chapter serves as a final call to action for researchers, practitioners, and students seeking to better understand the phenomenon. In that, this chapter and book seek to play a role in encouraging future directions of inquiry and provide a road map to do so.
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Of the many ways, sport can positively impact individuals and society as a whole, it also possesses the ability to separate people into groups, with an unfortunate side effect being in-group bias and out-group derogation. This chapter provides an overview of the rivalry phenomenon and discusses an organization’s role in responsibly promoting rivalry. Sport managers and researchers have to collectively engage in open dialogue to find solutions to some of the negative consequences of rivalry. If sport truly is a catalyst for bringing people from diverse backgrounds together, managers and researchers must look at practices and work toward providing solutions that can not only help the sport product, but ultimately provide a positive influence on society as a whole.
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This study examines how female football (soccer) fans use the social media platform Tumblr to interact and talk about their fandom, what purposes Tumblr serves for them, and why they prefer it to other social media platforms. As women are often marginalised in offline and online sports discourse, Tumblr’s football fandom was chosen to investigate how women experience their fandom on a platform with a mostly female and young user population. The results of 14 in-depth qualitative interviews with heavily invested female Tumblr users show that the fandom’s communication culture allows fans to interact in a variety of creative ways that involve the use of a specialist vocabulary. This Tumblr fandom is overwhelmingly female, which makes the interviewees feel that they can talk freely about football. Thus, Tumblr has the potential to serve as a safe space for female fans. Yet, its highly opinionated discussions and rivalries mirror those in the traditional football fandom. This study contributes to the literature that explores how women express their sports fandom online and demonstrates how they have found a niche in which to discuss their favourite sport on their own terms.
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Abstract We investigate the psychological phenomenon of rivalry, and propose a view of competition as inherently relational, thus extending the literatures on competition between individuals, groups, and firms. Specifically, we argue that the relationships between competitors – as captured by their proximity, relative attributes and prior competitive interactions – can influence the subjective intensity of rivalry between them, which in turn can affect their competitive behavior. Initial tests of these ideas within NCAA basketball indicate that (1) dyadic relationships between teams are highly influential in determining perceptions of rivalry (2) similarity between teams and their histories of prior interactions are systematically predictive of
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Research question: Despite pervasive attention to the concept of rivalry, there is neither uniform definition nor universal understanding. The purpose of this paper is to explore sport rivalry and derby matches from the fan perspective and identify the most influential elements that characterize rivalry. Research methods: This work employs a sequential exploratory mixed method design. Study 1 engaged 38 fans through open-ended questions to explicate antecedents to 76 rivalries. Study 2 used an exploratory factor analysis based on survey responses (n=429) that measured a broader sampling of rivalries to quantify the importance of the rivalry elements identified in Study 1. Results and findings: We define a rival group as a highly salient outgroup that poses an acute threat to the identity of the ingroup or to ingroup members’ ability to make positive comparisons between their group and the outgroup. Study 1 identified 11 recurring elements of rivalry: frequency of competition, defining moment, recent parity, historical parity, star factors, geography, relative dominance, competition for personnel, cultural similarity, cultural difference, and unfairness. Study 2 confirmed these elements within three primary dimensions: Conflict, Peer, and Bias. Implications: Our findings expand rivalry research by recognizing core rivalry antecedents useful for scholars investigating topics such as ticket demand, promotions, and sponsorship strategy. From a managerial perspective, these findings provide guidance to sport entities seeking to leverage rivalry to increase fan interest; conversely, when animosity surrounding a rivalry becomes overheated or violent, better understanding rivalry’s underpinnings can help managers de-emphasize the rivalry’s most salient contributors.
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In situations with rival groups, people strategically use language to strengthen group identity and foster intergroup competition. We distinguished 2 communication mechanisms to accomplish this: (a) linguistic aggression toward out-group members, (b) communicating group expectancies. We contrasted these mechanisms across 2 experiments by studying verbal irony. Experiment 1 targeted speaker behavior and showed that Dutch soccer fans found irony more appropriate to comment on out-group (vs. in-group) members, regardless of behavioral valence. Experiment 2 demonstrated differential inferences from irony by neutral observers: Fans using ironic comments about competent (vs. incompetent) behavior were seen more as out-group and less as in-group members. Our experiments demonstrated a communication asymmetry between speaker behavior and addressee inferences.
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Marketers in a variety of industries are trying to increase customer loyalty, marketing efficiency, and brand authenticity by building communities around their brands. Few companies, however, understand what brand communities require and how they work. Drawing from their research as well as their experience at Harley-Davidson, the authors dispel some common misconceptions about brand communities and offer design principles, cautionary tales, and new approaches to leveraging those communities. For instance, many managers think of a brand community in terms of marketing strategy. In fact, for a community to have the greatest impact, it must be framed as a corporate strategy. Realizing this, Harley-Davidson, for example, retooled every aspect of its organization to support building and maintaining its brand community and treated all community-related activities not just as marketing expenses but as a companywide investment. Another common misconception is that a brand community exists to serve the business. An effective brand community exists to serve its members, who participate in order to fulfill many kinds of needs, such as building relationships, cultivating new interests, and contributing to society. Strong communities work to understand people's needs and to engage participants by offering a variety of roles. Finally, managers often think that a brand community must be tightly controlled. In reality, a robust community defies managerial control. Effective brand stewards can, however, create an environment in which a community can thrive - by, for example, designing multiple experiences that appeal to different audiences. The authors offer an online "Community Readiness Audit" that can help you find out if your organization is up to the task of building a brand community.
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Most studies on participant or fan rivalry have employed quantitative methods to investigate the phenomenon (Kilduff, Elfenbein, & Staw, 2010; Kimble & Cooper, 1992; Smith & Schwartz, 2003). The current study adds to the existing literature by using qualitative analysis to investigate the way fans make meaning of the rivalry. Intercollegiate football and men’s basketball fans in the United States were interviewed about their perceptions of their favourite and rival teams, and the enjoyment they experienced when someone other than their favourite team defeated the identified rival. Social identity theory guided the investigation (Tajfel, 1974), and four themes were identified regarding fan reactions to rivalry: (1) socialisation, (2) in-group bias, (3) sense of satisfaction and (4) out-group indirect competition. Further, Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) extends research on disidentification (Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001), in-group bias (Tajfel, 1969; Turner, 1982), and schadenfreude (Heider, 1958) and asserts that fans will rejoice when their rival team has been defeated in indirect competition. Findings from the current study provide academics and administrators many avenues to further the understanding of fan social psychology and sport rivalry. Theoretical and practical implications of the current study along with areas for future research are presented.
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Academic literature on football fans has shifted focus, away from the study of ‘exceptional fans’, most notably hooligans, towards ‘everyday fans’ and their experiences. Especially, the rivalry-related aspect of football fandom has been given growing attention. Gradually increasing literature has demonstrated that rivalries are unique and complex, underpinned by social, historical and/or cultural factors. This suggests that each rivalry must be studied in-depth in order to understand the underlying factors that shape oppositions and social identities. Although attempts have been made to sociologically explore rivalries in such a way, two fundamental issues have not been fully addressed: paucity of in-depth empirical evidence and lack of transparency in terms of research methodologies. Therefore, this essay, after locating football rivalries within the broader genre of fandom, proposes to use ethnographic research methodologies to elicit rich, qualitative data, thus providing empirically grounded interpretations of fans’ perceptions. Also, it calls for more open and detailed methodological and theoretical discussions which would aid our understanding of the unique and complex factors underpinning football fan rivalries.
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Lewis A. Coser versucht in diesem Klassiker der modernen Sozialwissenschaften im Anschluß an Georg Simmels berühmter Untersuchung über den "Streit" den Begriff des sozialen Konfliktes zu klären und dessen empirische Anwendungsmöglichkeiten aufzuzeigen. Als eines der wichtigsten Bücher der neueren Konfliktforschung hat es in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts die in diesem Zusammenhang geführten theoretischen Kontroversen maßgeblich bestimmt und eine Vielzahl von empirischen Untersuchungen angeregt.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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Although a large amount of research has demonstrated that sports fans are biased in their evaluations of their favorite teams, no research had reviewed spectators’ evaluations of other spectators. Such an examination was the focus of the present study. In order to test the hypothesis that spectators would show a bias toward fellow ingroup fans and that this bias would be most prominent among spectators high in identification with the team, 103 undergraduate basketball fans were asked to read a scenario describing the behavior of a fellow or rival fan attending a basketball game. Respondents’ evaluations of this target fan and the fan’s behavior supported the hypothesized interaction. Discussion centers on the motivations underlying the relationships between identification, group membership, and evaluations.
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Advanced Theory and Practice in Sport Marketing is the first book to address this increasingly popular subject at an advanced level. Where existing sport marketing texts restate concepts learned at an introductory marketing level, this book goes beyond, by expanding the knowledge of the student with advanced marketing theory which is specifically related to the crucial areas in sport marketing. Advanced Theory and Practice in Sport Marketing is vital reading for any sport marketing student wishing to progress their knowledge and take their understanding of the industry to the next level.
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Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism.
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Research question: Sports economic theory and management models have frequently been criticised for not sufficiently explaining phenomena in sport management. This article addresses this gap by proposing a conceptual framework that can be used to understand sport management problems and derive appropriate strategies. Research methods: The framework proposed in this conceptual article has been developed through a critical review of existing literature on sport management and theoretical considerations based on the service-dominant logic. Results and findings: The sport value framework (SVF) provides 10 foundational premises on value co-creation in sport management and suggests three levels for its analysis. The main contribution is a new and better theoretical basis for explaining phenomena in sport management compared with traditional sport economic thinking. Moreover, the SVF provides guidance in structuring research in sport management. Implications: The framework encourages researchers and practitioners to rethink their strategies by applying a different logic that captures the complexity of sport management.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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I review and reconceptualize identity threat, defining it as an experience appraised as indicating potential harm to the value, meanings, or enactment of an identity. I also develop a theoretical model and propositions that generate insights into how individuals respond to identity threats originating from a range of sources. I use this theory to explore individual and organizational consequences of different identity threat responses and their implications for research on identity dynamics within organizations.
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This study investigated whether sponsorships can have negative brand effects in some subgroups in the target market. The study focused on European football (soccer), and results showed that fans of the Stockholm team AIK transferred their dislike of the rival team Hammarby to its sponsor, the beer brand Falcon. Mean scores on brand variables were considerably lower for AIK fans than for a control group who were fans of neither AIK nor Hammarby. Researchers and managers are recommended to consider possible negative effects of sponsorships in subgroups and to evaluate the target audience's attitude toward the sponsored object.
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Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.
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Results of this study highlight the importance of brand image for fan loyalty in team sport. First, the existing conceptualization and operationalization of the brand image-construct is refined. It can be shown that a parsimonious four-factor and 20- indicator structure successfully seize the construct’s content. In contradiction to Keller’s proposed model, relationships between the brand image’s components were discovered. Thus, in line with means end theory, a brand image model should incorporate causalities between brand attributes, benefits and attitudes. Second, fan loyalty is positively influenced by a fan’s brand attitude. The hypothesized relationships between the brand image dimensions and loyalty are confirmed via structural equations modeling. The causal analysis reveals that the non-product related brand attributes (i.e., logo or tradition) have a particularly large impact on attitudes and behavior. They, thus, represent promising starting points for a successful and differentiating team brand strategy.
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When people are ignored their expectations as to the type and amount of attention they should receive are not fulfilled. The experience of being ignored was analyzed in terms of violations of some of the implicit rules for social interaction. A technique was developed in which two female confederates systematically ignored female college students in a laboratory setting. The hypothesis that ignored Ss would participate less in the conversation than Ss in the control condition was confirmed. Ss did not react to being ignored by leaving, or expressing anger, but by evaluating themselves and their confederates less favorably than did controls. When given an opportunity to reward one of the confederates, ignored Ss responded by rewarding less than did controls.
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The paper reviews the theoretical formulations and the empirical tests of the proposition that external conflict increases internal cohesion. Literature from sociology, anthropology, psychology, and political science is discussed. Though it is often assumed to be true and is easily illustrated, the empirical studies suggest that there are a number of intervening variables and that the hypothesis is not uniformly true. While hardly adequate, these empirical studies provide a subtler specification of the hypothesis, knowledge of which can lead researchers to structure their studies differently. Examples of this are provided and other areas of application are also discussed.
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Researchers have argued that consumers frequently view marketing efforts as intrusive and that they fail to exhibit either trust or commitment. However, studies have found that some customers develop strong emotional relationships with firms, often independently of firm-driven relationship-building efforts. These confusing findings indicate that there is a need for additional research to explore the dynamics underlying service firm—customer relationships. The aim of this study is to elucidate customers' conception and manifestation of their relationships with service firms. Therefore, the objectives are to uncover the extent to which various types of customers exhibit relational links with service firms and to generate insights into the manner in which such identification is manifested. After a review of recent studies into relationship marketing, the authors present and explain the research design and method. Then, the authors present the findings that emerged during the focus groups and in-depth interviews with soccer supporters.
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Within the realm of sport management, team identification, a type of group identity, has been examined as a uni-dimensional construct (Wann & Branscombe, 1993). Research in social psychology, however, has examined group identity as a multi-dimensional concept. The current study examined team identity as a multi-dimensional construct. The TEAM*ID scale was developed based on the work of Ashmore, Deaux, and McLaughlin-Volpe (2004). Initial tests of reliability and validity of the proposed scale were completed based on a pilot study and feedback from an expert panel. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data collected from undergraduate students at a large South Eastern university (N=311) to test the group identity constructs. Six dimensions (Public evaluation, Private evaluation, Interconnection of Self, Sense of Interdependence, Behavioural Involvement, and Cognitive Awareness) were retained from the analysis. A comparison of the TEAM*ID scale with a portion of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) and a revised version of the Psychological Commitment to Team Scale (Mahony, Madrigal, & Howard, 2000) provided initial evidence of nomological validity.
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The reliability of a single-item measure of student-rated college teaching effectiveness was estimated with two different methods and at two levels of analysis. The two methods are the correction for attenuation formula and factor analysis. The two levels of analysis are the group level (10, 682 classes) and the individual level (323, 262 students). Reliability estimates were higher using factor analysis (.88) than the correction for attenuation formula (.64), and they were higher using group-level data (.82) than individual-level data (.70). Based on the assumptions and limitations of each method used, the authors conclude that a minimum estimate of .80 for single-item reliability is reasonable for group-level data. The authors reaffirm a minimum reliability estimate of .70 for individual-level data, as previously concluded by Wanous, Reichers, and Hudy, who estimated single-item reliability for measures of overall job satisfaction using individual-level data.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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This paper examines the role of sport in determining attitudes and behavior in intergroup situations. The purpose is to suggest that participation in highly competitive sport encourages strong identification of fans with teams, which has important psychological implications for individuals and may foster negative sentiments toward outgroups. Manifestations of group consciousness in sport and the levels of antipathy described by Allport (1958) are discussed. Theories of conflict, categorization, and social competition form the basis of a discussion of some determinants of identification with sport teams, and implications for the physical education profession are drawn.
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This paper introduces a single-item social identification measure (SISI) that involves rating one's agreement with the statement 'I identify with my group (or category)' followed by a 7-point scale. Three studies provide evidence of the validity (convergent, divergent, and test-retest) of SISI with a broad range of social groups. Overall, the estimated reliability of SISI is good. To address the broader issue of single-item measure reliability, a meta-analysis of 16 widely used single-item measures is reported. The reliability of single-item scales ranges from low to reasonably high. Compared with this field, reliability of the SISI is high. In general, short measures struggle to achieve acceptable reliability because the constructs they assess are broad and heterogeneous. In the case of social identification, however, the construct appears to be sufficiently homogeneous to be adequately operationalized with a single item.