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2016 Krysko et al. New Verified Nonindigenous Amphibians and Reptiles in Florida through 2015, with a Summary of over 152 Years of Introductions.

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More nonindigenous species occur in Florida, USA, than any other region worldwide and may threaten many of Florida's natural resources. The frequency of new reports mandates the need for regular updates. Herein, we use photographic and specimen vouchers in addition to literature records to provide updated information on verified nonindigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Between our most recent summary in 2012 and the end of 2015, 38 additional species are known to have been intercepted (n=2) or introduced (n=36). We also update the invasion stage of seven species previously reported from Florida and report that five additional taxa are now established. In total 191 independent known introductions of 180 herpetofaunal taxa led to the establishment of 63 taxa. This suggests that one in three introduced herpetofaunal species becomes established in Florida. The pet trade represents the most common introduction pathway among these species and a single animal importer in Hollywood, Broward County, is the probable source for introduction of a quarter of all herpetofauna introduced to Florida.
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 IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
New Verified Nonindigenous Amphibians
and Reptiles in Florida through 2015, with a
Summary of over 152 Years of Introductions
Kenneth L. Krysko1, Louis A. Somma1, Dustin C. Smith2,ChristopherR.Gillette3,DanielCueva3,JosephA.Wasilewski4,
KevinM.Enge5,SteveA.Johnson6,ToddS.Campbell7,JakeR.Edwards8,MichaelR.Rochford9, Rhyan Tompkins10,
JeffreyL.Fobb11,ScottMullin12,ChristopherJ.Lechowicz13,DallasHazelton14,andAlícieWarren14
1DivisionofHerpetology,FloridaMuseumofNaturalHistory,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,Florida32611,USA
(KLK:kenneyk@ufl.edu;LAS:somma@ufl.edu)
2NorthCarolinaZoologicalPark,4401ZooParkway,Asheboro,NC27205,USA(dustin.smith@nczoo.org)
3FloridaInternationalUniversity,DepartmentofEnvironmentalStudies,ModestoMaidiqueCampus,11200SW8thStreet,Miami,Florida33199,USA
(CRG:cgill002@fiu.edu;DC:dvede001@fiu.edu)
4NaturalSelections,24305SW142thAvenue,Homestead,Florida33032,USA(jawnatsel@bellsouth.net)
5FloridaFishandWildlifeConservationCommission,1105SWWillistonRoad,Gainesville,Florida32601,USA(kevin.enge@myfwc.com)
6DepartmentofWildlifeEcologyandConservation,UniversityofFlorida,110Newins-ZieglerHall,Gainesville,Florida32611,USA(tadpole@ufl.edu)
7DepartmentofBiology,UniversityofTampa,401W.KennedyBlvd.,Tampa,Florida33606,USA(tcampbell@ut.edu)
8FloridaFishandWildlifeConservationCommission,3205CollegeAvenue,FortLauderdale,Florida33314,USA(jakeedwards26@gmail.com)
9UniversityofFlorida,FortLauderdaleResearchandEducationCenter,3205CollegeAvenue,FortLauderdale,Florida33314,USA(miker@ufl.edu)
10U.S.FishandWildlifeService,TampaInspectionOffice,4662AirCargoRd.,Suite#1100,Tampa,Florida33614,USA(rhyan_tompkins@fws.gov)
11Miami-DadeFireRescue,VenomResponseTeam,9300NW41stStreet,Miami,Florida33178,USA(jfobb@miamidade.gov)
12Miami-DadeFireRescue,14150SW127thStreet,Miami,Florida33186,USA(mullins@maimidade.gov)
13WildlifeHabitatManagementProgram,Sanibel-CaptivaConservationFoundation,3333Sanibel-CaptivaRoad,Sanibel,Florida33957,USA(clechowicz@sccf.org)
14NaturalAreaManagementDivision,Miami-DadeCountyParks,RecreationandOpenSpaces,22200SW137thAvenue,Miami,Florida33170,USA
(DH:hazeld@miamidade.gov;AW:axw@maimidade.gov)
Abstract:MorenonindigenousspeciesoccurinFlorida,USA,thananyotherregionworldwideandmaythreaten
manyofFlorida’snaturalresources.Thefrequencyofnewreportsmandatestheneedforregularupdates.Herein,we
usephotographicandspecimenvouchersinadditiontoliteraturerecordstoprovideupdatedinformationonverified
nonindigenousamphibiansandreptilesinFlorida.Betweenourmostrecentsummaryin2012andtheendof2015,
38additionalspeciesareknowntohavebeenintercepted(n=2)orintroduced(n=36).Wealsoupdatetheinvasion
stageofsevenspeciespreviouslyreportedfromFloridaandreportthatfiveadditionaltaxaarenowestablished.Intotal,
191independentknownintroductionsof180herpetofaunaltaxaledtotheestablishmentof63taxa.Thissuggests
thatoneinthreeintroducedherpetofaunalspeciesbecomesestablishedinFlorida.Thepettraderepresentsthemost
commonintroductionpathwayamongthesespeciesandasingleanimalimporterinHollywood,BrowardCounty,is
theprobablesourceforintroductionofaquarterofallherpetofaunaintroducedtoFlorida.
In most instances, once introductions have been allowed to establish, no amount of money or effort can change the situation
much as is widely recognized for other lamentable and irreversible developments such as death, amputation, or the invention
of disco music.”
FredKraus(2009)
110
IRCF REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS • VOL15, NO 4 • DEC 2008 189TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FEATURE ARTICLES
Chasing Bullsnakes (Pituophis catenifer sayi) in Wisconsin:
On the Road to Understanding the Ecology and Conservation of the Midwest’s Giant Serpent ...................... Joshua M. Kapfer 190
The Shared History of Treeboas (Corallus grenadensis) and Humans on Grenada:
A Hypothetical Excursion ............................................................................................................................Robert W. Henderson 198
RESEARCH ARTICLES
The Texas Horned Lizard in Central and Western Texas ....................... Emily Henry, Jason Brewer, Krista Mougey, and Gad Perry 204
The Knight Anole (Anolis equestris) in Florida
.............................................Brian J. Camposano, Kenneth L. Krysko, Kevin M. Enge, Ellen M. Donlan, and Michael Granatosky 212
CONSERVATION ALERT
World’s Mammals in Crisis ............................................................................................................................................................. 220
More Than Mammals ...................................................................................................................................................................... 223
The “Dow Jones Index” of Biodiversity ........................................................................................................................................... 225
HUSBANDRY
Captive Care of the Central Netted Dragon ....................................................................................................... Shannon Plummer 226
PROFILE
Kraig Adler: A Lifetime Promoting Herpetology ................................................................................................ Michael L. Treglia 234
COMMENTARY
The Turtles Have Been Watching Me ........................................................................................................................ Eric Gangloff 238
BOOK REVIEW
Threatened Amphibians of the World edited by S.N. Stuart, M. Hoffmann, J.S. Chanson, N.A. Cox,
R. Berridge, P. Ramani, and B.E. Young .............................................................................................................. Robert Powell 243
CONSERVATION RESEARCH REPORTS: Summaries of Published Conservation Research Reports ................................. 245
NATURAL HISTORY RESEARCH REPORTS: Summaries of Published Reports on Natural History ................................. 247
NEWBRIEFS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 248
EDITORIAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................................................................................... 251
FOCUS ON CONSERVATION: A Project You Can Support ............................................................................................... 252
Front Cover. Shannon Plummer.
Totat et velleseque audant mo
estibus inveliquo velique rerchil
erspienimus, quos accullabo. Ilibus
aut dolor apicto invere pe dolum
fugiatis maionsequat eumque
moditia erere nonsedis ma sectiatur
ma derrovitae voluptam, as quos
accullabo.
Back Cover. Michael Kern
Totat et velleseque audant mo
estibus inveliquo velique rerchil
erspienimus, quos accullabo. Ilibus
aut dolor apicto invere pe dolum
fugiatis maionsequat eumque
moditia erere nonsedis ma sectia-
tur ma derrovitae voluptam, as
IRCF
REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS
CONSERVATION AND NATURAL HISTORY
Copyright©2016.KennethL.Krysko.Allrightsreserved.
WWW.IRCF.ORG/REPTILESANDAMPHIBIANSJOURNAL
Floridahasthelargestnumberofestablishednonindigenous
herpetofaunalspeciesintheworld(Kryskoetal.2011a,2012;
Fujisakietal.2015).Inthispaper,weupdateourpreviouslists
ofnonindigenousherpetofaunalspecies(Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012)byaddingnewlyconfirmedintroductionsandintercep-
tions,andbyprovidingtaxonomiccorrections,updatedinva-
sionstages,introductionpathways,andearliestintroduction
datestopreviouslydocumentedspecies.
Methods
Vouchers and recent literature were used to add newly-
confirmedintroducedandinterceptednonindigenousher-
INTRODUCED SPECIES
111
petofaunalspeciestotheFloridalistandupdatetaxonomy,
nomenclature,introductionpathways, andearliestintro-
ductiondates.Weusedphotographicvoucherswhenphysi-
calspecimenswerenotdonatedbycollectors(Kryskoetal.
2012),eludedcapture,orweresubsequentlylost.
 FollowingKryskoetal.(2011a),wedocumentthecur-
rentinvasionstageofeachspeciesusingabiologicalinvasion
model(ColauttiandMacIsaac2004)thatconsistsofaseries
ofsixconsecutiveobligatorystages:
•Stage0=Potentialinvaderbeginsasaresidentinitsnative
oradonorregion.
•Stage1=Potentialinvaderistransportedtoanewareaand
isinterceptedwithoutbecomingintroduced.
•Stage2=Potentialinvadersurvivestransport,escapes,oris
released(i.e.,becomesintroduced),andisthusnonindig-
enoustothenewarea.
•Stage3=Nonindigenousspeciessurvivesandestablishes
(reproduces)inthenewsuitableenvironmentbutremains
uncommonandlocalized.
•Stage4=Nonindigenousspeciesbecomeseither(a)wide-
spreadbutisuncommon,or(b)dominantinabundanceor
densitybutisgeographicallylocalized.
•Stage5=Nonindigenousspeciesbecomesbothwidespread
and dominant.
 Wedidnotseektoprovideadditionalvouchereddataon
introducedspeciesthathavealreadybeendocumentedwith-
outevidenceofestablishmentoranewinvasionpathway.We
did:(1)assessthenumberofindependentinvasionpathways
(Cargo,BiologicalControl,ZooandPetTrade,asdefinedby
Kraus[2009])ofintroduced(Stages2–5)taxaforeachdecade
from1860through2015(notethatinterceptedtaxaarenot
included);(2)accumulatethetotalnumberofindependent
introductionpathwaysofbothintroducedandestablished
(Stages3–5)taxaforeachdecade(calculatedusingthefirst
yearataxonbecameestablished);and(3)statisticallycompare
thenumberofindigenousspecies(Kryskoetal.2011b)and
establishednonindigenoustaxaamongvariousgroups(sala-
manders,frogs,turtles,crocodilians,amphisbaenians,lizards,
andsnakes).
 Voucheredspeciesthatareknownaspets,butnotescap-
eesfromlocalzoos,norusedinbiologicalcontrolprogramsor
obviouslyintroducedfromcargo,werecategorizedinthePet
Tradepathway.Wehavenoevidencethatanyofthesewere
releasedthroughotherpathways.Becausesomesamplesizes
weresmallandthedatawerethusnotnormallydistributed,
weconductednonparametrictests(SokalandRohlf2012)to
determinedifferencesinthedistributionofnonindigenous
taxaamongtheinvasionpathways(eachpathwaywascounted
onlyonceforeachtaxon,evenifthattaxonhasbeenintro-
ducedmultipletimesviathesamepathway)andcomparethe
numbersofindigenousspeciesandestablishednonindigenous
taxaamonggroups.Statisticalanalyseswereconductedusing
JMP(ver.11.SASInstituteInc.,Cary,NorthCarolina)with
α=0.05.
 Speciesaccountsareprovided fornewnonindigenous
speciesdocumentedforthefirsttimefromFlorida,although
thespeciesmighthavebeenpreviouslyreportedinthelitera-
ture.Foreachspeciesaccount,weprovidecomprehensivelit-
eratureontheirindigenousandnonindigenousdistributions,
andnecessarytaxonomic and nomenclaturalliteratureas
crucialresourcesforfutureresearchersstudyingthesespecies.
NomenclatureprimarilyfollowsGambleetal. (2008),Fritz
andHavaš(2013),Iversonetal.(2013),OlsonandDavid
(2014),Ruaneetal.(2014),TurtleandTortoiseWorking
Group[TTWG](2014),Wallachetal.(2014),Barkeretal.
(2015),Frost(2015),MaddisonandSchulz(2015),andUetz
andHošek (2015).
Results
From1863 through2010, voucherspecimens and pho-
tographsconfirmedthree interceptions(Stage1)and137
introductions(Stages2–5)ofnonindigenousamphibianand
reptiliantaxainFlorida(Kryskoetal.2011a,2012),56of
whichwereestablished(Stages3–5).Literaturerecordsdocu-
mentwithvoucherstheintroductionoftenadditionalspe-
ciessincetheoriginalnonindigenousherpetofaunalspecies
list(Kryskoetal.2011a,2012):Ambystoma gracilein2014
(Rochfordetal.2015),Chelydra serpentinaintheFlorida
Keysin2013(CoveandMaurer2015),multipleintroduc-
tionsof Macrochelys suwanniensis (Thomaset al.2014),
Mauremys sinensisin1971(Jackson2012),Pseudemys rubri-
ventrisin2009(MunscherandWeber2012),Dendropsophus
marmoratusin2011(Rochfordetal.2011),Leiolepis rubri-
taeniatainthe2000s(Kryskoetal.2013),Crocodylus niloti-
cusfrom2009–2011(Rochfordetal.2016),Anolis allisoni in
2014(Kryskoetal.2015),andAcrantophis dumeriliin2014
(Hansloweetal.2015).
 Wedocumented38newlyconfirmedintercepted(n=2)
andintroduced(n=36;Figs.1–35)nonindigenousspecies
through2015,fiveofwhichwerepreviouslyreportedinthe
literaturebutwereundocumentedwithanassociatedvoucher
(Table1).Weupdatedtheinvasionstageofsevenpreviously
introducedspecies,fiveofwhichwereStage2butarenow
established(Stages3–5).
Corrections and revisions.—The species reported by Krysko
etal.(2011a)asCuvier’sDwarfCaiman,Paleosuchus palpe-
brosus,isactuallya Schneider’sSmooth-frontedCaiman,
Paleosuchus trigonatus (Table 1). The specimen (EVER
40566,UF-Herpetology153469)exhibitsmorphologically
confusingcharacterslikelycausedbycaptive-inducedgrowth
abnormalities(F.W.KingandK.A.Vliet,pers.comm.2013;
M.Hoogmoed,pers.comm.2013).Nocurrentrecordsdoc-
umentthepresenceofP. palpebrosusinFlorida.
 IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016KRYSKOETAL.
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
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Table 1.Confirmedintercepted(n=5)andintroduced(n=180)nonindigenousamphibiansandreptilesinFloridafrom1863through2015usingvouchers(i.e.,specimensorphoto-
graphs).YearIntroduced=knownorestimatedyearoffirstinvasionpathway(additionalyearsareprovidedfordifferentinvasionpathways);YearEstablished=knownorestimatedyear
offirstestablishedpopulationforeachinvasionpathway;Source=firstknownreferenceforinterceptionorintroduction.Additionalsourcesareprovidedfordifferentinvasionpathways,
orasThis Studyifweprovidethefirstknownvoucher,providemoredetailsonaspecieswepreviouslydocumented,orupgradeaspeciesinvasionstage(boldfont)toestablished(stages
3–5);Firstvoucher=firstknownvoucher;Stage=currentinvasionstage(seeIntroduction);Pathway=invasionpathway:cargo(i.e.,cargo/plants),biologicalcontrol,zoo,orpettrade.
AllUF-Herpetologycatalognumbersareabbreviatedwiththe“UF”acronym.Wehaveindicated(*)stage2speciesforwhichmorethan12vouchersexist.Thus,inordertoillustratethe
largepropagulepressureofcertainspecies,wefinditnoteworthytostatethattherearecurrently36Centrochelys sulcatavouchersdocumentedfrom27counties,21Varanus exanthematicus
vouchersdocumentedfrom15counties,and106Python regius vouchersdocumentedfrom30counties.
Family/Species Common Name Year
Introduced
Year
Established
Source First Voucher Stage Pathway
SALAMANDRIDAE
Hypselotriton orientalis (David1873) OrientalFire-belliedNewt 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157033 2 PetTrade
Pachytriton labiatus (Unterstein1930) SpotlessStoutNewt 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157219 2 PetTrade
AMBYSTOMATIDAE
Ambystoma gracile(Baird1859) NorthwesternSalamander 2014 N/A Rochfordetal.2015 UF174498 2 Cargo
AMPHIUMIDAE
Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier1827 Three-toedAmphiuma 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157220,
157286
2 PetTrade
BOMBINATORIDAE
Bombina orientalis (Boulenger1890) OrientalFire-belliedToad 2007 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF152327 2 PetTrade
PIPIDAE
Xenopus laevis (Daudin1802) AfricanClawedFrog 1970s? 1970s? King&Krakauer1966;
Kryskoetal.2011a;This
Study
UF158477,
172054–55,
173050
3PetTrade
MICROHYLIDAE
Kaloula pulchra Gray1831 MalaysianPaintedFrog 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF153704 2 PetTrade
HYPEROLIIDAE
Afrixalus fornasini (Bianconi1849) Fornasini’sSpinyReedFrog 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF163085 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
113
BUFONIDAE
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider1799) AsianBlack-spottedToad 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF159699 1 Cargo
Rhinella marina (Linnaeus1758)sensu lato CaneToad 1936 N/A Lobdell1936 UMMZ
113000
2 Biological
Control
1955 1950s King&Krakauer1966 5 PetTrade
2002 2000s Himes2007 UF151348–51 3 Zoo
ELEUTHERODACTYLIDAE
Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas1966 Coqui 1973 N/A Austin&Schwartz1975 MPM24418 2 Cargo
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Cope1862) GreenhouseFrog 1863 1860s Cope1863 USNM30955 5 Cargo
HYLIDAE
Dendropsophis marmoratus(Laurenti1768) MarbledTreefrog 2011 N/A Rochfordetal.2011 UF164381 2 PetTrade
Hyla savingyiAudouin1827 Savigny’sTreefrog 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166454 1 Cargo
Litoria caerulea (White1790) GreatGreenTreefrog 2003 N/A Bartlett1994;Krysko
etal.2011a
UF146573 2 PetTrade
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril&Bibron
1841)
CubanTreefrog 1920s 1920s Barbour1931 USNM
85392–97
5 Cargo
Pseudacris sierra (Jameson,Mackey&
Richmond1966)
SierranChorusFrog 1983 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF116750–51 1 Cargo
CHELYDRIDAE
Chelydra serpentina(Linnaeus1758) SnappingTurtle 2013 N/A Cove&Maurer2015 UF174814 2 PetTrade
Macrochelys suwanniensisThomasetal.2014 SuwanneeAlligatorSnapping
Turtle
1916 N/A Thomasetal.2014 AMNH8287 2 PetTrade
EMYDIDAE
Chrysemys dorsalis Agassiz1857 SouthernPaintedTurtle 2008 2000s Kailetal.2011b;Krysko
etal.2011a
UF153957 3 PetTrade
Chrysemys picta bellii (Gray1830) WesternPaintedTurtle 1933 N/A Carr1940;Kryskoetal.
2011a
UF1898 2 PetTrade
Chrysemys picta picta (Schneider1783) EasternPaintedTurtle 2007 N/A Deckert1918;Krysko
etal.2011a
UF153764 2 PetTrade
Glyptemys insculpta (LeConte1830) WoodTurtle 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF159391 2 PetTrade
Graptemys ouachitensis Cagle1953 OuachitaMapTurtle 2006 N/A Engeetal.2007 UF150157 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
114
Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii(Baur
1890)
MississippiMapTurtle 2010 N/A Kailetal.2011a UF159338 2 PetTrade
Graptemys pseudogeographica pseudogeograph-
ica(Gray1831)
FalseMapTurtle 2000 2000s Lau&Johnston2008;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF121459 3 PetTrade
Trachemys callirostris (Gray1855) ColombianSlider 1972 N/A Bartlett1967b;Krysko
etal.2011a
UF154026,
155125
2 PetTrade
Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied-Neuwied
1839)
Red-earedSlider 1958 1960s King&Krakauer1966 CU13034 5 PetTrade
Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunbergin
Schoepff1792)
Yellow-belliedSlider 2002 2000s Johnston&Johnston
2003;Kryskoetal.
2011a
UF134595 3 PetTrade
Trachemys venusta (Gray1855) HuastecanSlider 2009 N/A Kailetal.2010 UF157304 2 PetTrade
TESTUDINIDAE
Aldabrachelys gigantea(Schweigger1812) AldabraGiantTortoise 2012 N/A ThisStudy UF166523 2 PetTrade
Centrochelys sulcata(Miller1779) AfricanSpurredTortoise 2002 N/A*Kryskoetal.2011a UF151752 2 PetTrade
Chelonoidis carbonarius(Spix1824) Red-footedTortoise 2007 N/A Meshakaetal.2004;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF153958 2 PetTrade
Chelonoidis denticulatus(Linnaeus1766) Yellow-footedTortoise 2012 N/A Bartlett1967b;This
Study
UF166994 2 PetTrade
Kinixys homeanaBell1827 Home’sHinge-backed
Tortoise
2011 N/A ThisStudy UF165857 2 PetTrade
Manouria emys emys(Schlegel&Müller
1840)
AsianBrownGiantTortoise 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166451 2 PetTrade
Stigmochelys pardalis(Bell1828) LeopardTortoise 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF155440 2 PetTrade
Testudo horsfieldii(Gray1844) Horsfield’sTortoise 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2010a,
2011a
UF152758,
159551
2 PetTrade
PELOMEDUSIDAE
Pelusios sinuatus(Smith1838) SerratedHingedTerrapin 2012 N/A ThisStudy UF169961 2 PetTrade
GEOEMYDIDAE
Mauremys sinensis(Gray1834) ChineseStripe-neckedTurtle 1972 N/A Jackson2012 UF166135 2 PetTrade
Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima(Gray1856) PaintedWoodTurtle 2006 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012
UF121604 2 PetTrade
Rhinoclemmys punctularia(Daudin1801) Spot-leggedWoodTurtle 2008 N/A Bartlett&Bartlett2006;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF153697 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
115
TRIONYCHIDAE
Apalone spinifera(LeSueur1827) SpinySoftshell 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF153765 2 PetTrade
KINOSTERNIDAE
Sternotherus carinatus(Gray1856) Razor-backedMuskTurtle 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF154191 2 PetTrade
STAUROTYPIDAE
Staurotypus salviniiGray1864 PacificCoastGiantMusk
Turtle
2010 2010s Smithetal.2011;
ThisStudy
UF160342 3PetTrade
CHELIDAE
Platemys platycephala(Schneider1792) Twist-neckedTurtle 1985 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF154589 2 PetTrade
CROCODYLIDAE
Crocodylus niloticusLaurenti1768 NileCrocodile 1996-1997? N/A Quinn1994;Rochford
etal.2016
UF175632 2 Zoo
2009 N/A Quinn1994;Friar&
Plumb2014;Rochford
etal.2016
UF175743,
165995,
173082
2 PetTrade
Mecistops cataphractus(Cuvier1825) WestAfricanSlender-snouted
Crocodile
1983 N/A Anonymous1983;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF163093 2 Zoo
ALLIGATORIDAE
Caiman crocodilus (Linnaeus1758) SpectacledCaiman 1950s 1950s King&Krakauer1966 UF75207 4b PetTrade
Paleosuchus trigonatus(Schneider1801) Schneider’sSmooth-fronted
Caiman
1999 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a;
ThisStudy
UF165484,
UF153469
2 PetTrade
CORYTOPHANIDAE
Basiliscus plumifronsCope1875 GreenBasilisk 2015 N/A Butterfieldetal.1997;
ThisStudy
UF177256 2 PetTrade
Basiliscus vittatusWiegmann1828 BrownBasilisk 1963 1960s King&Krakauer1966 UF124584 5 PetTrade
CROTAPHYTIDAE
Crotaphytus collaris(SayinJames1822) EasternCollaredLizard 2015 N/A ThisStudy UF177209 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
116
IGUANIDAE
Ctenosaura pectinata(Wiegmann1834) MexicanBlackSpiny-tailed
Iguana
1960s 1960s Eggert1978 KU206675 4b PetTrade
Ctenosaura similis(Gray1831) Gray’sSpiny-tailedIguana 1970s 1970s Butterfieldetal.1997 UF91662 5 PetTrade
Cyclura cornuta(Bonnaterre1789) RhinocerosIguana 1960s N/A King&Krakauer1966 2 Zoo
2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF155189 2 PetTrade
Cyclura nubila nubila(Gray1831) CubanRockIguana 2004 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF164356 1 Cargo
1999 N/A ThisStudy UF166567 2 PetTrade
Iguana iguana(Linnaeus1758) GreenIguana 1964 1960s King&Krakauer1966 UF22910 5 PetTrade
PHRYNOSOMATIDAE
Phrynosoma cornutum(Harlan1825) TexasHornedLizard 1928 1930s DeSola1934 FMNH
11037
4a PetTrade
DACTYLOIDAE
Anolis allisoniBarbour1928 CubanBlueAnole 2014 N/A Kryskoetal.2015 UF170513 2 PetTrade
Anolis chlorocyanusDuméril&Bibron1837 HispaniolanGreenAnole 1987 1980s Moler1988 KU210033 4b PetTrade
Anolis coelestinus Cope1862 JeremieAnole 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157133 2 PetTrade
Anolis cristatellusDuméril&Bibron1837 PuertoRicanCrestedAnole 1975 1970s Schwartz&Thomas
1975
MCZR-
146223–26
5 PetTrade
Anolis cybotesCope1862 Large-headedAnole 1964 1967 King&Krakauer1966 UF91063 4b PetTrade
Anolis distichusCope1861 BarkAnole 1946 1940s Smith&McCauley
1948
MCZ
R-50001
5 Cargo
1960s 1960s King&Krakauer1966 5 PetTrade
Anolis equestrisMerrem1820 KnightAnole 1952 1950s Neill1957 LACM61680 5 PetTrade
Anolis garmaniStejneger1899 JamaicanGiantAnole 1975 1970s Roberts1977 LSUMZ
35367
4b PetTrade
Anolis porcatusGray1840 CubanGreenAnole 1904 1900s Barbour1904 UF91293 4or5 Cargo
Anolis sagrei CocteauinDuméril&Bibron
1837
BrownAnole 1887 1880s Garman1887 USNM
85175–99
5 Cargo
1941 1940s Oliver1950 5 PetTrade
Anolis trinitatisReinhardt&Lütkin1862 St.VincentBushAnole 2004 2004 Kryskoetal.2011a UF144299,
151034
3 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
117
TROPIDURIDAE
Tropidurus hispidus(Spix1825) Peters’sLavaLizard 2003 N/A Engeetal.2004;Krysko
etal.2011a
UF137411–
13
2 PetTrade
Uranoscodon superciliosus(Linnaeus1758) Mop-headedIguana 2004 N/A Kryskoetal.2010a,
2011a
UF145734 2 PetTrade
LEIOCEPHALIDAE
Leiocephalus carinatusGray1827 NorthernCurly-tailedLizard 1935 1930s Barbour1936 UF7893 5 Zoo
1940s 1940s Weigletal.1969 5 Biological
Control
1950s 1950s Duellman&Schwartz
1958;King1960
5 PetTrade
Leiocephalus personatusCope1862 HaitianCurly-tailedLizard 2004 N/A Bartlett1994;Kryskoet
al.2010a,2011a
UF145733 2 PetTrade
Leiocephalus schreibersii(Gravenhorst1837) Red-sidedCurly-tailedLizard 1978 1970s Wilson&Porras1983 UF121397–
99
4b PetTrade
AGAMIDAE
Agama picticauda Peters1877 Peters’sRockAgama 1976 1976 Wilson&Porras1983;
Nuñez2016
UF43490 5 PetTrade
Calotes cf. versicolor(Daudin1802) BloodsuckerLizard 1978 1970s Enge&Krysko2004 UF137448 4b PetTrade
Gonocephalus grandis(Gray1845) GiantForestDragon 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166447 2 PetTrade
Leiolepis belliana(Gray1827) BeautifulButterflylizard 1992 1990s Krysko&Enge2005 UF141589–91 3 PetTrade
Leiolepis rubritaeniataMertens1961 Red-bandedButterflyLizard 2010s 2010s Kryskoetal.2013 UF167804,
167182,171120
3 PetTrade
Physignathus cocincinus Cuvier1829 ChineseWaterDragon 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF158809 2 PetTrade
Pogona vitticeps(Ahl1826) InlandBeardedDragon 2005 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF152677 2 PetTrade
Stellagama stellio(Linnaeus1758) Rough-tailedRockAgama 1996 N/A Meshakaetal.2004 EVER304176 2 PetTrade
Uromastyx dispar maliensisJoger&Lambert
1996
SouthernSaharanSpiny-
tailedLizard
2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF159616 2 PetTrade
CHAMAELEONIDAE
Chamaeleo calyptratusDuméril&Bibronin
Duméril&Duméril1851
VeiledChameleon 2000 2000s Kryskoetal.2004 UF133251,
133255–57,
133259–63
4a PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
118
Chamaeleo senegalensis (Daudin1802) SenegalChameleon 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157301 2 PetTrade
Furcifer lateralis(Gray1831) White-linedChameleon 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166453 2 PetTrade
Furcifer oustaleti(Mocquard1894) Oustalet’sChameleon 2000 2000s Gilletteetal.2010 UF163066–
084
4b PetTrade
Furcifer pardalis(Cuvier1829) PantherChameleon 2008 2013 Kryskoetal.2011a;
Rochfordetal.2013
UF153489,
1707801–02
3PetTrade
Trioceros jacksonii(Boulenger1896) Jackson’sChameleon 2014 N/A Bartlett&Bartlett1995;
ThisStudy
UF174349 2 PetTrade
Trioceros melleri(Gray1865) Meller’sChameleon 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF153465 2 PetTrade
EUBLEPHARIDAE
Eublepharis macularius(Blyth1854) LeopardGecko 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166452 2 PetTrade
SPHAERODACTYLIDAE
Sphaerodactylus argusGosse1850 OcellatedGecko 1944 1940s Savage1954 CAS-SU
10439–
40,10442
3 Cargo
Sphaerodactylus elegansMacLeay1834 AshyGecko 1921 1920s Stejneger1922 MCZ
31636–43
5 Cargo
Gonatodes albogularis(Duméril&Bibron
1836)
Yellow-headedGecko 1933 1930s Carr1939 YPM01308 4a Cargo
1965 N/A King&Krakauer1966 2 PetTrade
GEKKONIDAE
Chondrodactylus bibronii(Smith1846) Bibron’sGiantThick-toed
Gecko
2015 N/A Bartlett&Bartlett1999;
ThisStudy
UF177320 2 PetTrade
Chondrodactylus turneri (Gray1864) Turner’sGiantThick-toed
Gecko
2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157971 2 PetTrade
Gehyra mutilata(Wiegmann1834) MutilatingGecko 1996 N/A Meshakaetal.2004 EVER303436 2 PetTrade
Gekko badenii Szczerbak&Nekrasova1994 GoldenGecko 2008 2000s Kryskoetal.2011a UF153894 3 PetTrade
Gekko gecko(Linnaeus1758) TokayGecko 1964 1960s King&Krakauer1966 UF99183 5 PetTrade
Gekko grossmanni Günther1994 MarbledGecko 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF152730 2 PetTrade
Gekko vittatus (Houttuyn1782) LinedGecko 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157035,
157327
2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
119
Hemidactylus frenatusSchlegelinDuméril
&Bibron1836
HouseGecko 1993 1990s Meshakaetal.1994 USNM
504381–83,
504379–80
5 PetTrade
Hemidactylus garnotiiDuméril&Bibron
1836
Indo-PacificGecko 1963 1960s King&Krakauer1966 MCZ77585 5 Cargo
Hemidactylus mabouia(MoreaudeJonnès
1818)
WoodSlave 1980s 1980s Lawsonetal.1991 CAS174849–
53
5 Cargo
Hemidactylus platyurus(Schneider1792) AsianFlat-tailedHouse
Gecko
1984 1980s Meshaka&Lewis1994 KU222278–
80,223403
4b PetTrade
Hemidactylus turcicus(Linnaeus1758) MediterraneanHouseGecko 1910 1910s Fowler1915 ANSP18035 5 Cargo
1960s 1960s King&Krakauer1966 5 PetTrade
Lepidodactylus lugubris(Duméril&Bibron
1836)CloneC
MourningGecko 2005 2000s Meshakaetal.2004;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF151603 3 PetTrade
Lygodactylus luteopicturatusPasteur1964 Yellow-headedDwarfGecko 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166455 2 PetTrade
Lygodactylus williamsi Loveridge1952 TurquoiseDwarfGecko 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF161359 2 PetTrade
Phelsuma dubia (Boettger1881) DullDayGecko 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157201 2 PetTrade
Phelsuma grandisGray1870 MadagascarGiantDayGecko 1990s 1990s Bartlett&Bartlett1999 UF130735–
37,131553–54
5 PetTrade
Phelsuma laticauda(Boettger1880) GoldDustDayGecko 2003 2010s Bartlett&Bartlett2006;
Kryskoetal.2011a;
Krysko&Borgia2012
UF137087,
168519–20
3PetTrade
Phelsuma standingiMethuen&Hewitt1913 Standing’sDayGecko 1995 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF163090 2 PetTrade
Ptychozoon kuhliStejneger1902 Kuhl’sGlidingGecko 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166458 2 PetTrade
Ptychozoon lionotum Annandale1905 Smooth-backedGliding
Gecko
2003 N/A Engeetal.2004;Krysko
etal.2011a
UF137764 2 PetTrade
PHYLLODACTYLIDAE
Tarentola annularis (GeoffroySaint-Hilaire
1827)
White-spottedWallGecko 1990 1990s Bartlett1997 EVER
302922,
303438–43
3 PetTrade
Tarentola mauritanica (Linnaeus1758) MoorishGecko 1996 1990s Bartlett&Bartlett1999;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF157285 3 PetTrade
TEIIDAE
Ameiva ameiva(Linnaeus1758) GiantAmeiva 1953 1950s Neill1957;Duellman&
Schwartz1958
UMMZ
111408
5 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
120
Ameiva praesignis(Baird&Girard1852) BorriguerroAmeiva 1970s 1970s Wilson&Porras1983;
UguetoandHarvey2012
KU206536 4b Zoo
Aspidoscelis motaguae(Sackett1941) GiantWhiptail 1994 1990s Bartlett1995 KU222210–11 4b PetTrade
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus(Linnaeus1758) RainbowWhiptail 1964 1960s King&Krakauer1966 KU209859 4b PetTrade
Dracaena guianensisDaudin1801 GuyanaCaimanLizard 2012 N/A ThisStudy UF168600 2 PetTrade
Salvator merianaeDuméril&Bibron1839 ArgentineBlack&White
Tegu
2002 2000s Engeetal.2006 UF135044 5PetTrade
Salvator rufescens(Günther1871) RedTegu 2007 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF151510 2 PetTrade
Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus1758) GoldTegu 1990 2000s Anonymous1990;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF153696 3PetTrade
LACERTIDAE
Takydromus sexlineatus ocellatus(Guérin-
Méneville1829)
OcellatedGrassLizard 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012
UF157202 2 PetTrade
SCINCIDAE
Chalcides ocellatus(Forskål1775) OcellatedSkink 1999 2000s Kryskoetal.2011a UF135284 3 PetTrade
Egernia cunninghami(Gray1832) Cunningham’sSkink 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF153760 2 PetTrade
Eutropis multifasciata(Kuhl1820) BrownMabuya 1990 1990s Meshaka1999 USNM
523790
4b Cargo
Tiliqua scincoides(White1790) EasternBlue-tonguedSkink 2007 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF152392 2 PetTrade
Trachylepis perrotetii(Duméril&Bibron
1839)
Fire-sidedSkink 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012
UF153513 2 PetTrade
Trachylepis quinquetaeniata(Lichtenstein
1823)
AfricanFive-linedSkink 2010 2000s Kryskoetal.2010b UF157446-
50
4b PetTrade
CORDYLIDAE
Smaug mossambicus(FitzSimons1958) GorongosaGirdledLizard 2006 N/A Kryskoetal.2010a,
2011a
UF153698 2 PetTrade
GERRHOSAURIDAE
Zonosaurus laticaudatus(Grandidier1869) WesternGirdledLizard 2012 N/A ThisStudy UF174445 2 PetTrade
VARANIDAE
Varanus albigularis albigularis (Daudin1802) SouthernWhite-throated
Monitor
2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012
UF153409 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
121
Varanus albigularis microstictusBoettger1893 EastAfricanWhite-throated
Monitor
2007 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012
UF152520 2 PetTrade
Varanus exanthematicus(Bosc1792) SavannahMonitor 1992 N/A*Prusak1992 UF135537 2 PetTrade
Varanus doreanus(Meyer1874) Blue-tailedMonitor 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2012
UF160345 2 PetTrade
Varanus jobiensisAhl1932 Peach-throatedMonitor 2008 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF154404 2 PetTrade
Varanus niloticus(Linnaeus1766)sensu lato NileMonitor 1981 1990s Dalrymple1994;
Campbell2003;This
Study
UF165874 5 PetTrade
Varanus panoptesStorr1980 Yellow-spottedMonitor 2015 N/A ThisStudy UF175626 2 PetTrade
Varanus salvadorii(Peters&Doria1878) CrocodileMonitor 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF159511 2 PetTrade
Varanus salvatorLaurenti1768 WaterMonitor 1978 N/A Beltz1992;Kryskoetal.
2011a
UF65461 2 PetTrade
ACROCHORDIDAE
Acrochordus javanicusHornstedt1787 JavanFileSnake 1970s 1970s Kryskoetal.2011a UF151593–
94
3 PetTrade
BOIDAE
Boa constrictor constrictorLinnaeus1758 CommonBoa 1960s 1970s King&Krakauer1966 UF137070 3 PetTrade
Boa constrictor occidentalisPhilippi1873 ArgentineBoa 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157190 2 PetTrade
Chilabothrus granti(Stull1933) VirginIslandsBoa 2014 N/A ThisStudy UF173081
(FWC46759)
2 Cargo
Chilabothrus inornatus(Reinhardt1843) PuertoRicanBoa 2014 N/A ThisStudy UF174740 2 Cargo
Chilabothrus strigilatus(Cope1863) ExumaCaysBoa 2014 N/A ThisStudy UF173412 2 PetTrade
Epicrates cenchria (Linnaeus1758) RainbowBoa 1997 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF123128 2 PetTrade
Epicrates maurusGray1849 BrownRainbowBoa 2014 N/A ThisStudy UF173416,
177205
2 PetTrade
Eryx colubrina(Linnaeus1758) EgyptianSandBoa 2007 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF151512 2 PetTrade
Eryx muelleriBoulenger1892 WestAfricanSandBoa 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF155335 2 PetTrade
Eunectes murinus(Linnaeus1758) GreenAnaconda 2004 N/A Dalrymple1994;
Snowetal.2007b;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF143935 2 PetTrade
Eunectes notaeusCope1862 YellowAnaconda 2007 N/A Dalrymple1994;
Reed&Rodda2009;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF152688 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
122
SANZINIIDAE
Acrantophis dumeriliJaninJan&Sordelli
1860
Dumeril’sMadagascan
GroundBoa
2014 N/A Hansloweetal.2015 UF175573 2 PetTrade
CALABARIIDAE
Calabaria reinhardtii(Schlegel1848) CalabarBurrowingBoa 2014 N/A ThisStudy UF174481 1 Pettrade
PYTHONIDAE
Leiopython fredparkeriSchleip2008 Parker’sPython 2006 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF159916 2 PetTrade
Malayopython reticulatus(Schneider1801) ReticulatedPython 1989 N/A Neil&SmithDampier
1989;Kryskoetal.
2011a
UF163091 2 PetTrade
Morelia spilota(Lacepède1804) CarpetPython 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157128 2 PetTrade
Python bivittatus Kuhl1820 BurmesePython 1979 1980s Dalrymple1994;
Meshakaetal.2000
EVER
301944,
305096
5 PetTrade
Python regius (Shaw1802) BallPython 1995 N/A*Beltz1995;Kryskoetal.
2011a
UF15256 2 PetTrade
Python sebae(Gmelin1789) NorthernAfricanRock
Python
2002 2000s Dalrymple1994;
Meshakaetal.2004;
Reedetal.2010,2011
UF153699 4b PetTrade
COLUBRIDAE
Ahaetulla nasuta(Lacepède1789) CommonVineSnake 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166449 2 PetTrade
Ahaetulla prasina(Boie1827) Short-nosedVineSnake 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166448 2 PetTrade
Chrysopelea ornataWerner1925 GoldenFlyingSnake 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166451 2 PetTrade
Dendrelaphis pictus(Gmelin1789) PaintedBronze-backed
Treesnake
2011 N/A ThisStudy UF166444 2 PetTrade
Lampropeltis abnorma (Bocourt1886) GuatemalanMilksnake 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF157203 2 PetTrade
Lampropeltis alterna(Brown1901) Gray-bandedKingsnake 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF158776 2 PetTrade
Lampropeltis californiae(Blainville1835) CaliforniaKingsnake 1992 N/A Bartlett&Bartlett2003;
Kryskoetal.2011a
UF135053 2 PetTrade
Lampropeltis polyzona Cope1861 AtlanticCentralAmerican
Milksnake
2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF155625 2 PetTrade
Lampropeltis gentilis(BairdandGirard1853) WesternMilksnake 2015 N/A ThisStudy UF177327 2 PetTrade
Orthriophis taeniurus(Cope1861) BeautySnake 2011 N/A ThisStudy UF175345 2 PetTrade
Pantherophis obsoletus (SayinJames1822) WesternRatsnake 2009 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a UF155624 2 PetTrade
KRYSKO ET AL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
123
Pituophis catenifer(Blainville1835) Gophersnake 2015 N/A ThisStudy UF175774 2 PetTrade
Pituophis ruthveniStull1929 LouisianaPinesnake 2010 N/A Kryskoetal.2011a,
2014
UF157954 2 PetTrade
Spilotes pullatus(Linnaeus1758) TigerChickenSnake 1976 N/A Bartlett1967a;This
Study
UF117934 2 PetTrade
DIPSADIDAE
Borikenophis portoricensis(Reinhardtand
Lütken1862)
PuertoRicanRacer 2014 N/A ThisStudy UF174739,
174815
2 Cargo
HOMALOPSIDAE
Erpeton tentaculatum Lacepède1800 TentacledSnake 2010 N/A Holbrook&Krysko
2011
UF163086 2 PetTrade
LAMPROPHIIDAE
(or PSEUDOXYRHOPHIIDAE)
Langaha madagascariensisBonnaterre1790 MadagascarLeaf-nosedSnake 2015 N/A ThisStudy UF175756 2 PetTrade
ELAPIDAE
Naja kaouthiaLesson1831 MonocledCobra 2015 N/A Wilson&Porras1983 UF176955 2 PetTrade
Ophiophagus hannah(Cantor1836) KingCobra 2001 N/A Stutzman2001;This
Study
UF176852,
176873
2 PetTrade
TYPHLOPIDAE
Indotyphlops braminus(Daudin1803) BrahminyBlindSnake 1979 1970s Wilson&Porras1983 AUM32681 5 Cargo
Typhlops lumbricalis (Linnaeus1758) EarthwormSnake 1930 N/A Myers1958 UF8995 2 Cargo
124
 IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016KRYSKOETAL.
 WeverifiedtheidentityoftheWesternAfricanSlender-
snoutedCrocodile,Mecistops cataphractus(Cuvier1825)sensu
stricto(Shirleyetal.2014),reportedbyKryskoetal.(2011a:
photographicvoucher UF-Herpetology163093).The cir-
cumstancesofthisanimal’sreleasearemoreuncertainthan
originallyreported.However,itclearlyoriginated from a
zooinMiami-DadeCounty(JAW,pers.obs.;J.Groves,M.
Shirley,K.Vliet,andB.Ziegler,pers.comm.).
 Theestablished speciespreviously referredto asthe
AfricanRainbowLizard,Agama agama(Linnaeus1758),has
beenreidentifiedusingmoleculartechniquesasPeters’sRock
Agama,Agama picticauda Peters 1877,byNuñez(2016;
NuñezinPowelletal.2016).
 UguetoandHarvey(2012)andHarveyetal. (2012)
revisedtheAmeiva ameivacomplexandrecognizedtwospe-
ciesintroducedinFlorida.Thelong-knownandestablished
A. ameivaiswidespreadandknownfromBroward,Collier,
Miami-Dade,andMonroecounties(Stage5)(Powelletal.
2016),whereastheBorriguerroAmeiva,Ameiva praesignis,
occursonlyonKeyBiscayne,Miami-DadeCounty(Stage
4b)(Kryskoetal.2011a;Kraus2012;UguetoandHarvey
2012;Powelletal.2016).
 Arevision of theLampropeltis triangulum complexby
Ruaneetal.(2014)resultedinchangesofspeciesstatusoftwo
previouslyrecordednonindigenoustaxa:Lampropeltis triangu-
lum hondurensistotheGuatemalanMilksnake,Lampropeltis
abnorma(Bocourt1886)andL. t. sinaloaetotheAtlantic
CentralAmericanMilksnake,Lampropeltis polyzonaCope1861.
Invasion stage updates.—TheinvasionstatusoftheAfrican
ClawedFrog,Xenopus laevis,isupgradedfromStage2(Krysko
etal.2011a)toStage3,basedonthediscoveryofabreed-
ingpopulationinabandonedaquaculturepondsinRiverview,
HillsboroughCounty. A single X. laeviswas foundnear
Tampa,HillsboroughCounty,withnodateofcollectionor
voucherrecorded(TinsleyandMcCoid,1996)andreferenced
byKryskoetal.(2011a),althoughS.Godley,M.McCoid,
andR.McDiarmid(pers.comm.inSomma2015)statedthat
thespecimenwascollectedsometimeduringthemid-1970s
andgavethelocalityasRiverview,whichisintheTampa
area.Thisspecimenhassincebeenlost(R.McDiarmidand
H. Mushinsky pers. comm. inSomma2015).Afterrainfall
on9December2013and1January2014,twoX. laeviswere
collectedbyStaceySwilleyinagarageonConeGroveRoad
(27.8494°N,82.33446°W),Riverview(photographicvouchers
UF-Herpetology172054–55).SwilleycollectedanotherX. lae-
visfromthesamelocationon10June2014(UF-Herpetology
173050)andafourthspecimen(UF-Herpetology178169)
from a separate Riverview locality on McMullen Loop
(27.86339°N,82.31917°W)on23June2016.Thesefrogs
arefromaknownpopulationinhabitingacomplexofaqua-
culture(manyabandoned)andretentionponds,andlikely
havebeenestablished(Stage3)sincethe1970s.Wehavebeen
unabletodeterminewhetherX. laevishasinvadedthenearby
AlafiaRiverthatdrainsintoHillsboroughBayorothernearby
waterways.Afterrainfallon9August2014,ZacharyFratto
foundanadultX. laevis(UF-Herpetology173224[FWC
47425]) on SW 318 Terrace, Homestead, Miami-Dade
County(25.47131°N,80.50322°W)(Stage2);althoughthis
isanewcountyrecord,nocurrentdatasuggestanestablished
populationthere.Theseindividualsandpreviousfoundersin
Riverviewlikelywerereleasedorescapedfromnearbyenclo-
suresandbreedingponds.
 ForthePacificCoastGiantMuskTurtle(Staurotypus salvi-
nii),furtherevidence(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology
166516,5January2012,male,127mmCL,85mmCW,
315g;andphotographicvoucherUF-Herpetology168005,
23July2012,male,122mmCL,88mmCW,271g)col-
lectedatthesamesite(ZooMiami)aspreviousspecimens,
includingagravidfemale(Smithetal.2011),haschangedits
invasionstatusfromStage2to3inFlorida.
 Basedonadditionalindividualsandvouchersincluding
juvenilesand/oradultsofbothsexes,wehaveupdatedthe
invasionstatusfromStage2to3forthePantherChameleon
(Furcifer pardalis)(seeRochfordetal.2013),fromStage3
to4bfortheNorthernAfricanRockPython(Python sebae)
(seeNuñez2016;Mendyketal.2016),andfromStage2
to3for theGoldDust Day Gecko(Phelsuma laticauda)
(seeKryskoandBorgia2012).WealsoupdatedtheGold
Tegu(Tupinambis teguixin)fromStage2to3,Oustalet’s
Chameleon(Furcifer ousteleti)fromStage3to4b,andthe
ArgentineBlackandWhiteTegu(Salvator merianae)from
Stage4bto 5,baseduponnumerousvoucherscatalogued
sincetheirfirstlisting,indicatingthepresenceofmultiple
individualsinabroadarea.
Introduction pathway updates.—We added the Pet Trade
introductionpathwayforCyclura nubila, based on an indi-
vidual(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166567)col-
lectedinOctober1999onLongBeachDrive,BigPineKey,
MonroeCounty(24.63744°N,81.34483°W).Thisindivid-
ualwasfoundonfloatingvegetationafterHurricaneIrene
andlikelyoriginatedfromanearbyCyclurapettrader(Krysko
etal.2011a)onthisisland.
Earliest introduction updates.—Weprovide anearlier
voucher(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology165874)
fortheNileMonitor,Varanus niloticus sensu latoDowell
etal.(2016),basedonanindividualcollectedbyKMEat
LakeKanapaha,Gainesville,AlachuaCounty(29.62197°N,
82.40220°W),in1981.
 Wefound earlierliterature records,unsupported by
vouchers, forseven species:ColombianSlider(Trachemys
callirostris)andtheYellow-footedTortoise(Chelonoidis den-
ticulatus)inMiami-DadeCounty(Bartlett1967b);Varanus
niloticus, Green Anaconda (Eunectes murinus), Yellow
 IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
125
KRYSKOETAL.
Anaconda(Eunectes notaeus),BurmesePython(Python bivit-
tatus),andP. sebaeinsouthernFlorida(Dalrymple1994).
Species Accounts
Hylidae
Savigny’sTreefrog, Hyla savignyiAudouin1827,isindig-
enoustoalargeregionoftheLevant(Israel,Lebanon,west-
ernSyria,northwesternJordan),Turkey,easternSyria,Iran,
Iraq,Georgia,Azerbaijan,Armenia,Nogorno-Karabakh,and
Cyprus(Litvinchuketal.2006;Gvoždíketal.2008,2010;
Arakelyanetal.2011).On7October2011,U.S.Customs
andBorderProtectionintercepted(Stage1)aH. savignyi
(photographicvoucher UF-Herpetology 166454;Fig. 1)
fromacargoshipmentoftilesoriginatingfromSyriaatPort
Everglades,FortLauderdale,BrowardCounty(26.09677°N,
80.12647°W).
Testudinidae
The Yellow-footed Tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulatus
(Linnaeus1766), isindigenous toa largearea ofSouth
AmericafromsouthernVenezuelaandColombia,Trinidad,
theGuianas,andintothenorthernandwesternAmazonian
lowlands;disjunctpopulationsoccurontheAtlanticCoastin
southeasternBrazil(PritchardandTrebbau1984;Boninetal.
2006;Rueda-Almonacidetal.2007;Coleetal.2013;TTWG
2014).Thisspecies hasbeenintroduced to Guadeloupe,
LesserAntilles(Boninetal.2006;Kraus2009;Henderson
andBreuil2012;TTWG2014).On12April2012at1630
h,DHcollectedaC. denticulatus(33cmCL,24cmPL,2kg,
photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166994;Fig.2)asit
walkeduptohimonasidewalkat22200SW137Avenue,
Miami,Miami-DadeCounty(25.55896°N,80.41449°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
The Aldabra Giant Tortoise,Aldabrachelys gigantea
(Schweigger1812),iscurrentlyindigenousandreintroduced
toseveralislandsoftheAldabraAtoll,GraniticIslands,and
othersintheSeychelles;populationsinMauritiusandZanzibar
areintroduced(Stage3or4)(Boninetal.2006;Balmeretal.
2010;Gerlachetal.2013;TTWG2014).Fortheconten-
tiousnomenclaturalandtaxonomicdebatesurroundingthis
speciesseeCrumly(1986),Bour(2006),BourandPritchard
(2009),Frazier(2009),Savage(2012,2013),Gerlachetal.
(2013),ICZN(2013),Roos(2013),andTTWG(2014).On
18January2012,EdwardWrightcollectedanA. gigantea
(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166523;Fig.3)from
aroadatNorthBoulevardandW.SlighAvenue,Tampa,
HillsboroughCounty(28.01074°N,82.46782°W).Thisindi-
viduallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Home’sHinge-backedTortoise,Kinixys homeanaBell1827,is
indigenoustoanarrowregionofwesternAfricaalongtheGulf
ofGuineafromCameroontoLiberia;adisjunctpopulation
Fig. 1. Savigny’s Treefrog, Hyla savignyi (photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology 166454), intercepted on 7 October 2011, at Port
Everglades,FortLauderdale,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 2.Yellow-footedTortoise,Chelonoidis denticulatus(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166994)collectedbyDHon12April2012at22200SW
137Avenue,Miami,Miami-DadeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyAW.
Fig. 3. Aldabra Giant Tortoise,Aldabrachelys gigantea(photographic
voucher UF-Herpetology 166523) collected by Edward Wright on
18January2012 at North BoulevardandW.SlighAvenue, Tampa,
HillsboroughCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDanCostell.
KRYSKOETAL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
126
occursintheRepublicofCongo(Boninetal.2006;Böhmeet
al.2011;TTWG2014).Itwasintroducedandsubsequently
extirpatedonGuadeloupe,LesserAntilles(Hendersonand
Breuil2012). On7September2011,SuzanneSantoscol-
lectedaK. homeana(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology
165857;Fig.4)onSW69thAvenue,Miami,Miami-Dade
County(25.708108°N,80.306246°W).Thisindividuallikely
wasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
The Asian Brown Giant Tortoise, Manouria emys emys
(Schlegel and Müller 1840), is indigenous to southern
Thailand,Vietnam,Cambodia,Laos,Malaysia, Sumatra,
andBorneo(MantheyandGrossmann1997;Boninetal.
2006;Das2010; TTWG2014).Manouria emys has been
introduced(Stage2)toTexas,USA,andSingapore(Nget
al.1993;Dixon2013).On19September2011,anuniden-
tifiedpersoncollectedaM. e. emys(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology169960;Fig.5)fromanunnamedintersec-
tioninBrowardCounty(26.14633°N,80.48337°W).This
individuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Pelomedusidae
TheSerrated HingedTerrapin, Pelusios sinuatus (Smith
1838),isindigenoustonortheasternSouthAfrica,eastern
AfricaasfarnorthasSomaliaandsouthernEthiopia,and
westwardtoRwandaandtheCongo(Spawlsetal.2004;
Boninetal.2006;AlexanderandMarais2007;Broadleyand
Boycott2009;TTWG2014).On28April2012,amaleP.
sinuatus(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology169961;
Fig.6)wascollectedat1051SouthFederalHighway,Fort
Lauderdale,BrowardCounty(26.10991°N,80.13812°W).
Thisturtlewasfoundupsidedowninaparkinglotwiththe
number2844paintedonitscarapace.Thisindividuallikely
wasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).Thisrepresentsthefirst
knownvoucherfortheSuborderPleurodiraandforthisfam-
ilyinFlorida.
Corytophanidae
TheGreen Basilisk, Basiliscus plumifrons Cope1875, is
indigenoustoCostaRica,Panama,andnorthwardthrough
theAtlanticversantintoeasternHonduras(Savage2002).
VariousauthorshaveclaimedB. plumifrons has been intro-
duced(Stage2or3)toMiami-DadeCountywithoutpro-
vidingvoucheredevidence(Butterfieldetal.1997;Bartlett
andBartlett1999,2006,2011;Meshakaetal.2004).On23
September2015,ajuvenileB. plumifrons(UF-Herpetology
177256;Fig.7)wascollectedbyDCjustoutsidetheprop-
Fig. 4.Home’sHinge-backedTortoise,Kinixys homeana(photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology165857)collectedbySuzanneSantoson7
September2011on SW 69th Avenue, Miami, Miami-DadeCounty,
Florida.PhotographbySuzanneSantos.
Fig. 5.AsianBrownGiantTortoise,Manouria emys emys(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology169960)collectedon19September2011inBroward
County,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
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ertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Crotaphytidae
TheEasternCollared Lizard,Crotaphytus collaris (Say in
James1822),isindigenoustotheNorthAmericansouthern
GreatBasinfromnorthernMexiconorthwardintoColorado
andKansas,westwardtoArizonaandNevada,andeastward
tonorthwesternArkansas,southwesternandeastern-central
Missouri,andsouthernIllinois(BrandonandWilson1994;
McGuire1996;Stebbins2003;Powelletal.2016).Eastern
CollaredLizardsfoundinMoffatCounty,Colorado,could
benonindigenousintroductions(Stage2or3;RothinLivo
etal.1998).On19November2015,ajuvenileC. collaris
(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology177209;Fig.8)was
collectedbyRyanZachonOntarioCircleEast,Melbourne,
BrevardCounty(28.156901°N,80.651760°W).Thisindi-
viduallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).Thisrepresents
thefirstknownvoucherforthisfamilyinFlorida.
Fig. 6.SerratedHingedTerrapin,Pelusios sinuatus(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology169961)collectedon28April2012at1051SouthFederal
Highway,FortLauderdale,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 7.GreenBasilisk,Basiliscus plumifrons(UF-Herpetology177256)col-
lectedbyDCon23September2015justoutsidethepropertyofananimal
importer’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,
Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 8.EasternCollaredLizard,Crotaphytus collaris(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology177209)collectedbyRyanZachon19November2015
onOntarioCircleEast,Melbourne,BrevardCounty,Florida.Photograph
byRyanZach.
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Agamidae
TheGiantForestDragon,Gonocephalus grandis(Gray1845),
isindigenoustosouthernThailand,westernMalaysia,Borneo,
Sumatraandnearbyislands,andportionsofVietnamandLaos
(MantheyandGrossmann1997;Das2010).On7November
2011,DanielRodriguezcollectedaG. grandis(photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology166447;Fig.9)justoutsidethe
propertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Chamaeleonidae
TheWhite-linedChameleon,Furcifer lateralis(Gray1831),
isindigenoustoMadagascar(Nec˘as2004;GlawandVences
2007;Tilbury2014;Glaw2015)andistolerantofanthropo-
genichabitats(TolleyandMenegan2014).On7November
2011,Robert Freer collecteda F. lateralis(photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology166453;Fig.10)alongStateRoad
9336,0.17kmNSW352Street,FloridaCity,Miami-Dade
County(25.4420555°N,80.5014444°W).Thisindividual
likelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Jackson’sChameleon,Trioceros jacksonii(Boulenger1896),
isendemictolimitedregionsofKenyaandTanzania,and
ithasbeensuccessfullyintroducedtoHawaii(Stage4a)and
California(Stage3),USA(McKeown1996,1997;Stebbins
Fig. 9.GiantForestDragon,Gonocephalus grandis(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166447)collectedbyDanielRodriguezon7November
2011justoutsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450
StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 10.White-linedChameleon,Furcifer lateralis(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166453)collectedbyRobertFreeron7November2011
onStateRoad9336,0.17kmNSW352Street,FloridaCity,Miami-
DadeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyRobertFreer.
Fig. 11. Jackson’sChameleon, Trioceros jacksonii(UF-Herpetology
174349)collectedbyCarolinaCabal-Speroterraon16November2014on
NE6thCourtCircle,Miami,Miami-DadeCounty,Florida.Photograph
byCarolinaCabal-Speroterra.
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2003;Nec˘as2004;Spawlsetal.2004;Kraus2009,2012;
TilburyandTolley2009;Glaw2015).BartlettandBartlett
(1995)notedthepresence ofabreedingpopulationofT.
jacksonii in theTampa Bayarea, Hillsborough County,
fromthemid-1960stotheearly1970sthatwaseventually
extirpated(Bartlett and Bartlett2001), butprovidedno
voucheredevidence.Byers(2014)mentionedtheexistence
ofanestablishedpopulationofT. jacksonii around the Ft.
Lauderdalearea,BrowardCounty,alsowithoutproviding
voucheredevidence.On16November 2014, alivemale
T. jacksonii (UF-Herpetology 174349;Fig. 11)wascol-
lectedfromaroadbyCarolinaCabal-SperoterraonNE6th
CourtCircle,Miami,Miami-DadeCounty(25.960441°N,
80.190211°W).Thisindividualwaslikelyreleasedorescaped
(Stage2).
Eublepharidae
TheLeopardGecko,Eublepharis macularius(Blyth1854),
is indigenous to northwestern India, Pakistan, eastern
Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (Szczerbak and Golubev
1996;Daniel2002).On26May2011,DanielRodriguez
collectedajuvenile E. macularius(photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology166452;Fig. 12) justoutsidetheprop-
ertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisis a patternlessmorph (sometimes called leucistic,
althoughnotwhite;T.Gamble,pers.comm.).Thisindivid-
uallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).Thisrepresents
thefirstknownvoucherforthisfamilyinFlorida.
Gekkonidae
Bibron’sGiantThick-toedGecko,Chondrodactylus bibronii
(Smith1846),isindigenoustowesternSouthAfrica,extreme
southern Namibia, and extreme southwestern Botswana
(Branch1998;Jacobsen2005;AlexanderandMarais2007).
SeveralauthorsclaimC. bibronii was established(Stage3)
inBradenton,ManateeCounty,sincethe1970s,butthese
authorsdonotprovideaspecificlocalityoravoucher(Bartlett
andBartlett1999,2006,2011;Meshakaetal. 2004;Meshaka
2011;Powelletal.2016).On23September2015,aC. bibro-
nii(UF177320;Fig.13)wascollectedbyDCjustoutsidethe
propertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
TheYellow-headedDwarfGecko,Lygodactylus luteopictura-
tusPasteur1964,isindigenoustosoutheasternKenya,east-
ernTanzaniaandoffshoreislands(includingZanzibar),and
southwardtocoastalnorthernMozambique(Spawlsetal.
2004).On6November2011,DanielRodriguezcollected
a L. luteopicturatus(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology
166455;Fig. 14) justoutside thepropertyof ananimal
Fig. 12.LeopardGecko,Eublepharis macularius(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166452)collectedbyDanielRodriguezon26May2011
justoutsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450Stirling
Road,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 14.Yellow-headedDwarfGecko,Lygodactylus luteopicturatus(photo-
graphicvoucherUF-Herpetology166455)collectedbyDanielRodriguez
on6November2011justoutsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’s
facilityat6450 Stirling Road, Hollywood, BrowardCounty,Florida.
PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 13.Bibron’sGiantThick-toed Gecko, Chondrodactylus bibronii
(UF-Herpetology177320),collectedbyDCon23September2015just
outsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
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importer’s facility at 6450 Stirling Road, Hollywood,
BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).Thisindi-
viduallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Kuhl’sGliding Gecko, Ptychozoon kuhli Stejneger1902,
isindigenoustosoutheasternAsiaandmuchofIndonesia
(MantheyandGrossmann1997;Das2010).On3November
2011,DanielRodriguezcollectedaP. kuhli(photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology166458;Fig.15)justoutsidethe
propertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Gerrhosauridae
The Western Girdled Lizard, Zonosaurus laticaudatus
(Grandidier1869),isindigenoustomuchofMadagascar,
especiallycoastalregions(GlawandVences2007).On24
August2008,BrookeWilliamsphotographedaZ. laticau-
datus(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology174445;Fig.
16)onW.SanRafaelStreet,Tampa,HillsboroughCounty
(27.926275°N,82.5306555°W).Itwasnotcaptureddespite
asubsequent searchby TSC.This individuallikely was
releasedorescaped(Stage2).Thisrepresentsthefirstknown
voucherforthisfamilyinFlorida.
Teiidae
TheGuyana CaimanLizard,Dracaena guianensis Daudin
1801,isindigenoustomuchoftheAmazonBasinandPantanal
RegionofSouthAmericaasfarnorthasFrenchGuiana(de
Massaryetal.2000;Harveyetal.2012).On7April2012at
1437h,CathyOlsonobservedanadultD. guianensis(pho-
tographicvoucherUF-Herpetology168600;Fig.17)atthe
ShellCreekobservationplatform,35461WashingtonLoop
Road, Hathaway Park, Punta Gorda, Charlotte County
(26.97506°N,81.89095°W).Thisindividual,whichwasnever
collected,likelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
Fig. 15.Kuhl’sGlidingGecko,Ptychozoon kuhli(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166458)collectedbyDanielRodriguezon3November
2011justoutsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450
StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 16.WesternGirdledLizard,Zonosaurus laticaudatus(photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology174445)foundbyBrooke Williams on 24
August2008 onW.SanRafaelStreet, Tampa,HillsboroughCounty,
Florida.PhotographbyBrookeWilliams.
Fig. 17.GuyanaCaimanLizard,Dracaena guianensis(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology168600)foundbyCathyOlsonon7April2012attheShell
Creekobservationplatform,35461WashingtonLoopRoad,HathawayPark,
PuntaGorda,CharlotteCounty,Florida.PhotographbyCathyOlson.
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Varanidae
TheYellow-spottedMonitor,Varanus panoptesStorr1980,
isindigenoustosouthernNewGuinea,Kimberleyandwest-
ernregionsofWesternAustralia,andthenorthernportionof
theNorthernTerritorytoCapeYorkPeninsulaandcentral
Queensland,Australia(Christian2004;WilsonandSwan
2010;Cogger2014).On26April2015,NaomiandRobert
AllyobservedanadultV. panoptes(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology175626;Fig.18)onFloraLane,Wellington,
PalmBeachCounty(26.661201°N, 80.273065°W).This
individual,whichwasnevercollected,likelywasreleasedor
escaped(Stage2).
Boidae
TheVirginIslandsBoa,Chilabothrus granti (Stull 1933),
isindigenoustoislandsinthePuertoRicoBankincluding
PuertoRico,Culebra,St.Thomas,JostVanDyk,Tortola,
GreatCamanoe,andperhapsGuanaIsland;ithasbeenintro-
ducedtoStevenCay(SchwartzandHenderson1991;Rivero
1998;Mayer2012;Reynoldsetal.2013).On 28 March
2014,aC. granti(UF-Herpetology173081;Fig.19)wascol-
lectedbyEmilyRushtonandWandaPadillafromaship-
mentofelectronicwastefromPuertoRicoataportat5806
N53rdStreet,Tampa,HillsboroughCounty(28.00182°N,
82.39778°W).Thissnakewasfromunloadedcargo(Stage2).
The Puerto Rican Boa, Chilabothrus inornatus (Reinhardt
1843),isendemictoPuertoRico(SchwartzandHenderson
1991;Rivero1998; Mayer2012;Reynolds etal.2013).
On17 July 2014,a C. inornatus(photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology174740;Fig.20)wascollectedbyofficials
fromashipmentofelectronicwaste from PuertoRicoat
thesameportat5806N53rdStreet,Tampa,Hillsborough
County, as the C. granti listed above (28.00182°N,
82.39778°W).Thissnakewasfromunloadedcargo(Stage2).
TheExumaCaysBoa,Chilabothrus strigilatus(Cope1863),
isindigenous toseveral islands in the ExumaGroup of
the Bahamas, which includes Eleuthera (Schwartz and
Henderson1991;Buckneretal.2012;Reynoldsetal.2013).
On27March2014,aC. strigilatus(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology173412;Fig.21)wascollectedbyJLFfrom
aparkinglotofarentalcarbusiness,notinvolvedinshipping,
Fig. 18. Yellow-spotted Monitor, Varanus panoptes (photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology175626)foundbyNaomiandRobertAllyon
26April2015,onFloraLane,Wellington,PalmBeachCounty,Florida.
PhotographbyNaomiandRobertAlly.
Fig. 19.VirginIslandsBoa,Chilabothrus granti(UF-Herpetology173081)
collectedbyEmilyRushtonandWandaPadillafromashipmentofelectronic
wastefromPuertoRicoataportat5806N53rdStreet,Tampa,Hillsborough
County,Florida.PhotographbyEmilyRushtonandWandaPadilla.
Fig. 20. Puerto Rican Boa, Chilobothrus inornatus(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology174740)collectedbyofficialsfromashipmentofelectronic
wastefromPuertoRicoatthesameportat5806N53rdStreet,Tampa,HillsboroughCounty,astheC. grantilistedabove.PhotographbyRT.
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neartheMiamiInternationalAirport,Miami,Miami-Dade
County(25.8017°N,80.2557°W),anditsspecificidentity
wasverifiedbymtDNAanalysis(R.G.Reynolds,pers.comm.
2014).Thisboalikelyescapedorwasreleased(Stage2).
TheBrownRainbowBoa,Epicrates maurusGray1849,is
indigenoustoCostaRica,Nicaragua,Panama,Colombia,
northeasternBrazil, Suriname,Guyana,French Guyana,
TrinidadandTobago,andtheislandofMargarita(Passos
andFernandes2009;Reynoldsetal.2013).InJanuary2014,
ajuvenileE. maurus(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology
173416)wascollectedbyTusharMavanionSW60thStreet
Road,Ocala,MarionCounty(29.12575°N,82.20539°W).
On17November2015,CLcollectedanE. maurus(pho-
tographicvoucherUF-Herpetology 177205;Fig.22)on
WillowcrestWay,FortMyers,LeeCounty(26.4927916°N,
81.9067166°W).Thesesnakeslikelywerereleasedorescaped
(Stage2).
Calabariidae
TheCalabarBurrowingBoa,Calabaria reinhardtii(Schlegel
1848),isindigenoustowestern-centralAfrica(Schmidt1923;
Böhmeetal.2011;Wallachetal.2014).On7May2014,aC.
reinhardtii(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology174481;
Fig.23)brieflyescapedfromacargocontainerataKoreanAir
cargofacility,MiamiInternationalAirport,Miami,Miami-
DadeCounty(25.793052°N,80.306164°W),wasdiscovered
andcollectedbyairportstaff,andreturnedtoitscrate(Stage
1)boundforananimalimporter’sfacilityinHollywood,
BrowardCounty.Thisindividualisthefirstknownvoucher
forthisfamilyinFlorida.
Colubridae
TheCommonVineSnake,Ahaetulla nasuta(Lacepède1789),
isindigenoustoabroadregionofsoutheasternAsia,westward
intoIndia,Nepal,andSriLanka(MantheyandGrossmann
1997;Daniel 2002;David andDubois 2005;Whitaker
andCaptain2007; Das2010).On19June2011,Daniel
Rodriguezcollected anA. nasuta (photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166449;Fig. 24) justoutsidetheprop-
ertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
TheShort-nosedVineSnake,Ahaetulla prasina(Boie1827),
isindigenoustoabroadregionofsoutheasternAsia,parts
ofIndonesia,China,andwestwardintoeasternIndiaand
Bhutan(Manthey and Grossmann1997; Whitaker and
Captain2007;Das;2010;MirallesandDavid2010).On7
June2011,DanielRodriguezcollectedan A. prasina(photo-
graphicvoucherUF-Herpetology166448)justoutsidethe
propertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
On18 December 2011,CRG, KevinMessenger, Mike
Martin,andNathanShepardcollected another A. prasina
(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166450;Fig.25)at
thissamelocality.Theseindividualslikelywerereleasedor
escaped(Stage2).
Fig. 21. Exuma Boa, Chilabothrus strigilatus (photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology173412) collectedbyJLFon 27March2014from a
parkinglotofarentalcarbusinessneartheMiamiInternationalAirport,
Miami,Miami-DadeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyJLF.
Fig. 22.BrownRainbowBoa,Epicrates maurus(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology177205)wascollectedon17November2015byCJLon
WillowcrestWay,FortMyers,LeeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyCJL.
Fig. 23.Calabar Burrowing Boa,Calabaria reinhardtii(photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology174481)interceptedbyairportstaffon7May
2014ataKoreanAircargofacility,MiamiInternationalAirport,Miami,
Miami-DadeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyJLF.
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TheGoldenFlyingSnake,Chrysopelea ornataWerner1925,
isindigenoustoabroadregionofsoutheasternAsiaandpor-
tionsofChina,Nepal,IndiaandSriLanka(Mantheyand
Grossmann1997;WhitakerandCaptain2007;Das2010).
On15July 2011, DanielRodriguezcollecteda C. ornata
(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166451;Fig.26)just
outsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450
StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,
80.21976°W).Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped
(Stage2).
ThePaintedBronze-backed Treesnake, Dendrelaphis pic-
tus(Gmelin1789),isindigenoustosoutheasternAsiaand
Sunda,portionsofsouthernChina,andmorespeculatively
westwardintonortheasternIndia(MantheyandGrossmann
1997;WhitakerandCaptain2007;VogelandvanRooijen
2008,2011;Das2010).On3August2011,CRG,Daniel
Rodriguez, and Ashley Lawrence collected a D. pictus
(UF-Herpetology166444;Fig. 27)justoutsidetheprop-
Fig. 25.Short-nosedVineSnake,Ahaetulla prasina(photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology166450)collected by CRG, Kevin Messenger,Mike
Martin,andNathanShepardon18December2011justoutsidetheprop-
ertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,Hollywood,
BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyCRG.
Fig. 24.CommonVineSnake,Ahaetulla nasuta(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166449)collectedbyDanielRodriguezon19June2011just
outsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
Fig. 26.GoldenFlyingSnake,Chrysopelea ornata(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology166451)collectedbyDanielRodriguezon15July2011just
outsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyCRG.
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ertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
The Western Milksnake,Lampropeltis gentilis(Bairdand
Girard1853),isindigenoustoabroadregionoftheUnited
StateswestofeasternLouisiana,eastern Arkansas and the
MissouriRiver,andintothe Great BasinthroughTexas,
Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and varying sections of
NewMexico,Arizona,Colorado,Wyoming,Nevada,and
Montana(Ruane et al.2014; Ruane 2015;Powell et al.
2016).On16November2015,DCcollecteda L. gentilis
(UF-Herpetology177327;Fig. 28)justoutsidetheprop-
ertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,
Hollywood,BrowardCounty(26.04591°N,80.21976°W).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).
The Beauty Snake, Orthriophis taeniurus (Cope1861),is
currentlydefinedasapolytypicspeciesindigenoustomost
ofsoutheasternAsia,includingtheRyukyuArchipelagoof
Japan;itsrangeextendsnorthwardtosouthernandeastern
ChinaandsoutheasternRussia,andwestwardintoBhutan
andnortheastern India (MantheyandGrossmann 1997;
Daniel2002;WhitakerandCaptain2007;Das2010;Schulz
2010,2013;Schulzetal.2015).Ithasbeenintroducedto
NewZealand(Stage2)andtheTaiwanesesubspeciesofO.
Fig. 27.PaintedBronze-backedTreesnake,Dendrelaphis pictus(UF-Herpetology166444)collectedbyCRG,DanielRodriguez,andAshleyLawrenceon3
August2011justoutsidethepropertyofananimalimporter’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyCRG.
Fig. 28.WesternMilksnake,Lampropeltis gentilis(UF-Herpetology177327)collectedbyDCon16November2015justoutsidethepropertyofananimal
importer’sfacilityat6450StirlingRoad,Hollywood,BrowardCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDC.
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taeniurusisanestablished(Stage4b),nonindigenous,inva-
sivesnakeinOkinawa,Japan(Ota1999;Gilletal.2001;
Otaetal.2004;Kraus,2009;Youetal.2013).On8April
2011,1932h,anadultO. taeniuruswascollectedbySMon
SW37thStreet,Miami,Miami-DadeCounty(25.73573°N,
80.35012°W) (photographic voucher UF-Herpetology
175345;Fig. 29).This individuallikely wasreleased or
escaped(Stage2).
TheGophersnake,Pituophis catenifer(Blainville1835),is
currentlyconsideredapolytypicspeciesindigenoustoabroad
regionofNorthAmericafromIndianaandeastern-central
TexaswestwardtothePacificcoast;northwardtosouthern
Saskatchewan,AlbertaandBritishColumbia,Canada;and
southwardtomainlandandnorthernBajaCalifornia,Mexico
(SweetandParker1990;Rodríguez-Roblesand de Jesús-
Escobar2000;ErnstandErnst2003;Powelletal.2016).
Thisspecieshasbeenintroducedto(Stage2)andintercepted
(Stage1)in Hawaii,anditperhaps hasbeenintroduced
(Stage2)toCookCounty,Illinois,USA(Anton1999;Kraus
andCravalho2001;Kraus2009).On10July2015,aP.
catenifer(TL122cm)wasphotographed,butnotcollected,
byJoshuaSmithinabromeliad garden onSW Crawfish
Drive,PortSaintLucie,SaintLucieCounty(27.207955°N,
80.363070°W) (photographic voucher UF-Herpetology
175774;Fig. 30).This individuallikely wasreleased or
escaped(Stage2).
TheTigerChickenSnake,Spilotes pullatus(Linnaeus1758),
isindigenoustoabroadregionofLatinAmericaextending
fromcentralMexico,southwardthroughCentralAmerica,
andmoreputatively,intonorthernSouthAmerica(Jadin
etal.2014;Coleetal.2013;Wallachetal.2014). Ithas
beenintroduced(Stage2)toIndiana,USA(Minton1972).
Bartlett(1967a)reportedaS. pullatuscollectedinMiami-
DadeCounty,withnoindicationofavoucherdeposited.On
24July1976,aS. pullatus(UF-Herpetology117934;Fig.
31)wascollectedbyJimStevensononRoute84oldAlligator
Alley(currentlyreplacedbyI-75AlligatorAlley)1.61km
eastwardofthewesterntollbridge,CollierCounty(approxi-
mately26.15°N,81.5°W).Thisindividuallikelywasreleased
orescaped(Stage2).
Fig. 29. Beauty Snake, Orthriophis taeniurus (photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology175345)collectedbySMon8April2011onSW37th
Street,Miami,Miami-DadeCounty,Florida.PhotographbySM.
Fig. 30. Gophersnake, Pituophis catenifer (photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology175774)photographedbyJoshuaSmithon10July2015
onSWCrawfishDrive,PortSaintLucie,SaintLucieCounty,Florida.
Fig. 31.TigerChickenSnake,Spilotes pullatus(UF-Herpetology117934)
collectedbyJimStevensonon24July1976onoldAlligatorAlley,Collier
County,Florida.PhotographbyKLK.
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Dipsadidae
The Puerto Rican Racer, Borikenophis portoricensis(Reinhardt
andLütken1862),isamedicallyimportant,venomousdip-
sadidindigenoustothePuertoRicanBank,includingIsla
Desecheo,andithasbeenintroduced(Stage2)toSt.Croix
(Rivero1998;Hedgesetal.2009;García-Gubernetal.2010;
Mayer2012).On17July2014,twoB. portoricensis(photo-
graphicvoucherUF-Herpetology174739,UF-Herpetology
174815; Fig.32)were collectedby officials from aship-
mentofelectronicwastefromPuertoRicoatthesameport
inwhichtheC. granti and C. inornatuslistedabovewere
collectedat 5806 N53rd Street, Tampa,Hillsborough
County(28.00182°N, 82.39778°W).Thesesnakes were
fromunloadedcargo(Stage2)andrepresentthefirstknown
vouchersforthisfamilyinFlorida.
Lamprophiidae(orPseudoxyrhophiidae)
TheMadagascarLeaf-nosedSnake,Langaha madagascarien-
sisBonnaterre1790,isendemictoMadagascar(Glawand
Vences2007;Tingle2012)andcanpotentiallyspreadthe
endoparasitic nematode Hexametra angusticaecoides to the
endemic herpetofauna of Florida (Morton and Krysko
2012).On31May2015,anadultmaleL. madagascariensis
wascollectedonaresidentialpatiobyJLFonSW120Street,
Miami,Miami-Dade County (25.6567°N,80.3736°W)
(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology175756;Fig.33).
Thisindividuallikelywasreleasedorescaped(Stage2).This
representsthefirstknownvoucherforthisfamilyinFlorida.
Elapidae
TheMonocledCobra,Naja kaouthiaLessson1831,isamedi-
callyimportantvenomousspeciesindigenoustonorthernand
easternIndia,Nepal,Bhutan,andeastwardintosouthwest-
ernChinaandcontinentalsoutheasternAsiaintoCambodia
andsouthernVietnam(Wüster and Thorpe1989,1992;
MantheyandGrossmann1997;WhitakerandCaptain2007;
Das2010).IthasbeenintroducedtotheRyukyuIslands,
Japan(Stage2or3),andTexas,USA(Stage2)(Ota1999;
Kraus2009;Jankowski2015).WilsonandPorras(1983)
indicated that a N. kaouthiawasreleasedbyareligioussect
inMiami-DadeCountyinthe1970sandlatercollectedas
aroadkill,buttheyprovidednovoucheredevidence.On7
November2015,aN. kaouthiawascollectedandconfiscated
atKittyHawkDriveand Stratton Road, FortMyers,Lee
Fig. 32. Puerto Rican Racer, Borikenophis portoricensis (photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology174739)collectedbyofficialson17July2014
fromashipmentofelectronicwastefromPuertoRicoataportat5806N
53rdStreet,Tampa,HillsboroughCounty,Florida.PhotographbyRT.
Fig. 33.MadagascarLeaf-nosedSnake,Langaha madagascariensis(pho-
tographicvoucherUF-Herpetology175756) collected by JLF on 31
May2015on SW 120 Street, Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida.
PhotographbyJLF.
Fig. 34. Monocled Cobra, Naja kaouthia (photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology176955)confiscatedbyDavidBarretton7November
2015atintersectionofStrattonRoadandKittyHawkDrive,FortMyers,
LeeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyDavidBarrett.
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County(26.678902°N,81.696186°W),by David Barrett
(photographicvoucherUF-Herpetology176955;Fig.34).
Thissnakewasapetthatescaped(D.BarrettandL.Gregory,
pers.comm.2016;Virata2015).
TheKingCobra,Ophiophagus hannah(Cantor1836),iscur-
rentlydefinedasapolytypicspecies—likelyaspeciescom-
plex—indigenoustoabroadregionofsoutheasternAsia
andtheEastIndieswestwardtonorthernPakistan,eastward
tothePhilippines,andnorthwardtoNepalandeasternand
southernChina(MantheyandGrossmann1997;Whitaker
andCaptain2004;Das2010;Wallachetal.2014).Although
bitesfromO. hannaharerare,itsvenomismedicallysignifi-
cant(Lim1990;Toriba1990;WhitakerandCaptain2004).
On6October2001,RickEslinger,ChrisEdson,andBrian
Edson shot an O. hannah(TL=411.48cm;photographic
voucherUF-Herpetology 176852;Fig. 35)in Eslinger’s
residential garage southwest of 3206 Harrison Avenue,
Orlando,OrangeCounty(28.580588°N,81.384080°W)
(Stutzman2001).On7October2015,animalcontroloffi-
cersJeniferPorter,KirstenSmith,andBilly Ledfordcol-
lectedanO. hannah(TL=~243.4cm;photographicvoucher
UF-Herpetology176873)thatescapedfromcaptivityone
monthpriorfrombeneathaclothesdryerinaresidential
garageatthe5000blockofSawdustCircle,Ocoee,Orange
County(28.602116°N,81.502362°W)(Allen and Harris
2015).Thissnakewasreturnedtoitsowner.Bothofthese
snakes,eachchristened“Elvis,”werepetsthatescapedfrom
thesameindividual’s enclosuresoveraperiodof15years
(Stutzman2001;AllenandHarris2015).Theserepresentthe
firstknownvouchersforthisfamilyfromFlorida.
Discussion
Atotalof180introducedherpetofaunaltaxaareknownin
Florida(notincludingthenowfiveknowninterceptions);
thesearederivedfromatleast191totalindependentintro-
ductions(Table1,Figs.36–38).Ofthese,two(1.04%)are
relatedtotheBiologicalControlpathway,six(3.14%)tothe
Zoopathway,19(9.94%)totheCargopathway,and164
(85.86%)tothePetTradepathway.Evidenceofestablish-
mentnowexistsfor63taxa,includingfourfrogs,fiveturtles,
onecrocodilian,48lizards,andfivesnakes(Figs.37–38).
Ourdatasuggestthatoneofeverythreeintroducedherpeto-
faunalspeciesbecomesestablishedinFlorida.Thisisgreater
thantheoneofeveryfourformostintroducedvertebrates
worldwide(Wilson2016).Furthermore,weseenoevidence
thattheincreaseinnumbersofherpetofaunalintroductions
isslowingdown.
 Thenumberofestablishedtaxaincreasedfrom23inthe
1960sto63in2015(Fig.37).Currently,thenumbersof
nativeandnonindigenoustaxa,respectively,foreachgroup
are:salamanders27and0,frogs28and4,turtles28and5,
crocodilians2and1,amphisbaenians1and0,lizards16and
48,andsnakes48and5(Fig.38).Anastonishing75%of
theextantlizardspeciesinFloridaarenonindigenous.We
Fig. 35. King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah (photographic voucher
UF-Herpetology176852)shotbyRickEslinger,ChrisEdsonandBrian
Edson6October,2001,southwestof3206HarrisonAvenue,Orlando,
OrangeCounty,Florida.PhotographbyChrisEdson.
Fig. 36. Numberofindependentintroduction pathways(n=191)of
amphibianandreptiletaxa(n=180)inFloridaforeachdecadefrom
1860through2015.Notethatinterceptedtaxa(n=5)andnumbersfor
thesecondhalfofthelastdecadearenotincluded.
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foundasignificantdifferencebetweennumbersofindigenous
andestablishednonindigenoustaxaamongtaxonomicgroups
(Fig.38;χ2=107.65,df=6,p<0.0001). Differencesin
thedistributionofthesenonindigenoustaxaamonginvasion
pathwaysweresignificant(χ2=380.66,df=3,p<0.0001),
withthepettradebeingbyfarthelargestcontributingpath-
way.From1995through2015,asingleanimal importer
inHollywood,BrowardCounty(seeKryskoetal.2011a),
isthemostlikelysourcefortheintroductionofatleast46
(25.5%)ofthe180confirmedherpetofaunaltaxaintroduced
inFloridaandisanobviouscauseforconcern.Thesetaxa
eitherhavenotbeenfoundelsewhereinFloridaorpreviously
werenotknowntohaveestablishedpopulationsinareasadja-
centtotheimporter’sfacility,andmanyhavebeenincluded
ontheirinventorylists.Theimpactoflargenumbersofpar-
ticularspeciesreleasedorescapedfromthisfacilityisunstud-
ied,asisthatofmostotherintroducedtaxadiscussedhere.
Additionally,asingleportinTampa,HillsboroughCounty,
receivingelectronicwastefromPuertoRico,isresponsiblefor
theintroductionoffournonindigenoussnakes,representing
threespecies,andrequiresfurtherdiligentmonitoring.
Acknowledgments
Wearegratefultomanygenerousindividualsforprovidingus
withinformationorvouchersforsomeofthespeciescovered
herein.TheyareLarryConner(FWC),DanCostell,Heather
Lyn Henry (Lowry Park Zoo), David Barrett (FWC),
JenniferEckles (FWC), Chris Edson (OrlaconGeneral,
Inc.),PamL.Fuller(USGS),KellyGestring(FWC),Larry
“Lar”Gregory(FWCInvestigator),JohnGroves,Catherine
Kennedy (FWC), Jacob Kline (FWC), Edward Mercer
(FWC), TessieOffner (FWC), MelindaOwen(Orlacon
General,Inc.),RobertN.Reed(USGS),LeRoyRodgers,
NancyRussell(National Park Service),AngelineScotten
(FWC),StaceySwilley,JoshuaSmith,RyanZach,andBill
Ziegler(BrookfieldZoo).Forassistancewithspeciesconfir-
mation,wethankVáclavGvoždík(Hyla savignyi),Suzanne
Santos(Kinixys homeana),JohnB.Iverson(Chelonoidis den-
ticulata, Manouria emys emys, Pituophis catenifer),PeterA.
Meylan(C. denticulata, M. e. emys),CharlesSchaffer(M.
e. emys),F. WayneKingand KentVliet(Mecistops cata-
phractus, Paleosuchus trigonatus),MatthewH.Shirley(M.
cataphractus),ChristopherV.Anderson(Furcifer lateralis),
WolfgangBöhme(Varanus panoptes),TonyGamble and
AaronBauer(Chondrodactylus bibronii, Eublepharis macular-
ius, Lygodactylus luteopicturatus, Ptychozoon kuhli),Graham
AlexanderandWilliamLove(Zonosaurus laticaudatus),Rafe
Brown(P. kuhli),S.BlairHedges(Borikenophis portoricen-
sis),MarinusHoogmoed(Dracaena guianensis, Paleosuchus
trigonatus,andrelevantliterature),AndreKoch(V. panop-
tes),PatrickDavid(Ahaetulla nasuta, A. prasina, Orthriophis
taeniurus,andrelevantliterature),PaulE.Moler(P. cateni-
fer),JamesB.Murphy(Basiliscus plumifrons, Naja kaouthia,
Ophiophagus hannah),R. GrahamReynolds(Chilabothrus
strigilatus),Javier Rodriguez(B. portoricensis), SamuelS.
Sweet(P. catenifer),RichardThomas(B. portoricensis),Peter
J. Tolson (Chilabothrus granti, Chilabothrus inornatus),
RomulusWhitaker(N. kaouthia, O. hannah),andGeorge
Zug(A. prasina, Chrysopelea ornata, Dendrelaphis pictus,
Gonocephalus grandis, P. kuhli).Ultimately,anymisidenti-
ficationsareours alone.Additionally,wethankWolfgang
Böhme, Amy J. Benson (USGS), Michael Dloogatch
(ChicagoHerpetological Society),Jeffrey Eby(Assistant
Library Technician, Division of Plant Industry [DPI]),
Fig. 37. Accumulationcurvesforthetotalnumberofindependentintro-
ductionpathways (n =191)ofamphibianandreptile taxa andestab-
lishedtaxa(n=63)foreachdecadefrom1860through2015.Notethat
establishmentiscalculatedonlyonceforeachtaxonusingthefirstyearit
becameestablished,andinterceptedtaxa(n=5)arenotincluded.
Fig. 38.Numbersofindigenousandestablishednonindigenoustaxa
amongtaxonomicgroups.
KRYSKOETAL.  IRCFREPTILES&AMPHIBIANS•23(2):110–143•AUG2016
139
PamL.Fuller,SusanB.Halbert(FloridaStateCollectionof
Arthropods,DPI),FredKraus,JamesR.McCranie,Claudia
MacKenzie-Krysko,HidetoshiOta,BeverlyPope(Librarian,
DPI),RobertPowell,Klaus-DieterSchulz,SalandNancy
Somma,CRCPress,NewHollandPublishersLtd.(UK),
GranthamBook Services, theLibrary of Congress, and
librarysupportofDPI(FloridaDepartmentofAgriculture
andConsumerServices)forimportantliterature.
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... The establishment of viable populations of exotic reptiles and amphibians (R&A) is closely linked to the development of the international pet trade. An extreme example is found in Florida, the region housing the highest density of exotic R&A, where the accidental introduction or voluntary release of 180 taxa, most of them imported for the pet trade, has caused the establishment of 63 taxa (Krysko et al., 2016). The popularity of R&A as pets keeps growing (Pietzsch et al., 2006;Nardoni et al., 2008;Martinho and Heatley, 2012;Wang et al., 2013). ...
... In Florida, established alien species include the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus, the Nile monitor Varanus niloticus, the Burmese python Python bivittatus and the Northern African rock python P. sebae (Krysko et al., 2016). All of them can reach large sizes and are capable of inflicting serious bites if cornered or handled; the largest pythons can even kill humans (Campbell, 2003;Rodda et al., 2009). ...
... The Tokay gecko Gekko gecko has been introduced in several areas outside its natural range, like in Florida (Krysko et al., 2016), and can generate noise pollution and locally affect human well-being because its loud territorial vocalizations are often heard at night in urban areas. In Hawaii in the early 1980s, when the exotic Tokay gecko population was becoming established, residents called Honolulu Zoo to ask it to identify these nocturnal vocalizations (McKeown, 1996). ...
... The Greater Everglades ecosystem in southern Florida is known for its diversity of habitats and abundance of wildlife, particularly ectotherms such as herpetofauna that flourish in its subtropical climate. Many species of non-native herpetofauna have established populations in this ecosystem (Krysko et al. 2011(Krysko et al. , 2016, including well-publicized examples such as the invasive Burmese python (Python bivittatus; Snow et al. 2007, Dorcas et al. 2012, Hanslowe et al. 2018, Krysko et al. 2019. The Argentine giant tegu (Salvator merianae; tegu) is a large (up to 5 kg) teiid lizard native to South America's tropical to temperate environments (Andrade et al. 2004) that was brought to southern Florida because of its popularity in the pet trade (Enge et al. 2006, Krysko et al. 2016. ...
... Many species of non-native herpetofauna have established populations in this ecosystem (Krysko et al. 2011(Krysko et al. , 2016, including well-publicized examples such as the invasive Burmese python (Python bivittatus; Snow et al. 2007, Dorcas et al. 2012, Hanslowe et al. 2018, Krysko et al. 2019. The Argentine giant tegu (Salvator merianae; tegu) is a large (up to 5 kg) teiid lizard native to South America's tropical to temperate environments (Andrade et al. 2004) that was brought to southern Florida because of its popularity in the pet trade (Enge et al. 2006, Krysko et al. 2016. Tegus are omnivorous habitat generalists that have quickly established populations in natural, urban, and agricultural areas of southern Florida and now threaten the persistence of native ground-dwelling and groundnesting vertebrate populations (Barraco 2015. ...
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Invasive species globally threaten biodiversity and economies, but the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying their success are often understudied. For those alien species that also exhibit high phenotypic plasticity, such as habitat generalists, adaptations in response to environmental pressures can take place relatively quickly. The Argentine giant tegu (Salvator merianae; tegu) is a large omnivorous lizard from South America that is prolific, long‐lived, vagile, and highly adaptable to disturbed environments. They are well suited to the climate of southeastern United States, introduced to several disjunct areas, including the Everglades, where their voracious appetite threatens native wildlife. Tegus undergo winter dormancy (hibernation) to cope with colder temperatures, and while this behavior may facilitate invasion into more temperate regions, it may also present management opportunities. We studied the thermal habits of wild S. merianae within their invaded range in southern Florida, USA. We used radiotelemetry and trail cameras to verify aboveground behaviors, and temperature dataloggers to monitor surface (sun‐exposed [Te] and shaded [Ts]), ambient (Ta), subsurface ground (Th), and internal body (Tb) temperatures of a population of free‐ranging tegus over several seasons. We evaluated thermal and behavioral data and identified five biologically significant periods: pre‐hibernal, hibernal, cold snaps, hibernal‐basking, and post‐hibernal. We found tegus maintained thermal stability throughout the hibernal period, frequently at temperatures above available thermal microhabitats. Variation in Tb was lowest during hibernation and cold snaps and was less variable than subsurface temperatures despite not leaving their hibernaculum. Hibernal ingress and egress were best predicted by temperature differentials between exposed soil and ambient daily mean temperatures (Te − Ta) and daylength. Though we detected no sex differences, larger animals started hibernation sooner, stayed in hibernation longer, and retained higher fat stores over the study period. One individual did not hibernate, representing only the second record of this behavior. Despite limitations of these descriptive data, this is the first study finely detailing Tb of a population of wild, free‐ranging S. merianae over multiple biologically significant time periods and to associate Tb with thermal habitats within its invasive range. Tegus' apparent ability for thermal stability expands the adaptability breadth of this species and underscores the invasion threat.
... C O N S E R V AT I O N A N D N AT U R A L H I S T O R Y Krysko et al. 2016). Of those nonnative crocodilians, C. crocodilus is the only species that has established a breeding population (Ellis 1980;Krysko et al. 2016). ...
... . Of those nonnative crocodilians, C. crocodilus is the only species that has established a breeding population (Ellis 1980;Krysko et al. 2016). Herein we report Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii Duméril & Bibron 1851) as the fifth nonnative species of crocodilian introduced to Florida. ...
... However, keeping and trading reptiles as pets, which accounts for a considerable portion of the live animal trade [15], raises ever more issues mostly related to their welfare, public health and safety (e.g., reptile-associated salmonellosis), species preservation, invasiveness and environmental degradation [11,16]. Florida is one of the best-known examples with the highest number of established, i.e., reproducing non-native herpetofaunal species in the world, with the pet trade being the most common invasion pathway [17]. ...
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Exotic pet medicine is rapidly evolving, with reptiles becoming increasingly popular pet animals. Yet, there are only a few literature reports on veterinary perception of reptiles kept as pets. The aim of the study was to assess opinions and knowledge of the Croatian veterinarians-to-be about pet reptiles and their welfare. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the academic year 2019–2020 and included students of all six years of the integrated undergraduate and graduate study at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb. First-year students were surveyed twice, before and after having attended the compulsory course on animal welfare. Questionnaire statements were 5-point Likert scale questions, requiring the students to express their opinions about turtles, lizards and snakes as pets, issues related to their welfare, risks they pose to the health and safety of humans, other animals and the environment, and their self-reported knowledge about pet reptiles. Although expressing higher opinions after having attended the course on animal welfare, first-year student responses remained neutral to most of the statements. Such a trend continued until the end of the study. Student responses revealed that they were uncertain about their knowledge of reptiles as pets, considering different educational areas observed. Study results emphasised the need of alterations in veterinary curriculum and additional student education in reptile medicine. The results obtained have broad implications involving not only the welfare of pet reptiles in clinical practice and elsewhere but also the health and safety of humans and other animals, as well as environmental protection.
... This small lizard likely arrived accidentally in a shipment of cargo originating from Cuba. Since then, more than 150 additional nonnative reptile species have been documented in Florida, the vast majority of which were brought here through the pet reptile trade (2). ...
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This publication presents information about the nonnative lizard Basiliscus vittatus (brown basilisk) in Florida. It contains information about brown basilisk identification, natural history, and distribution in Florida. The intended audience includes homeowners and land managers primarily in central and south Florida.