DataPDF Available
Supplement 1
A: Procedure of subject-category formation:
B: Final Subject-categories by keywords
Subject-category Keyword
1. Addiction abuse
addict*
alcohol
chronic
compulsion
craving
dependence
drug*
drug-seeking
10. Brain Death / Severe disorders of
consciousness
brain dea*
brain injur*
coma*
death
end of life
head injur*
icu
intensive care
life sustaining
locked in
coding of contents of 400
randomly selected
publications from MND
(independently by JL and EH)
44 preliminary subject-
categories
Merging preliminary subject
categories with less than five
publications to reduce number
Identification of five intuitive
and consensual keywords
retrieved from the grouped
publications for each subject-
category
Automatic search for
consensual keywords in the
headlines, abstracts and
keywords in all publications
from the time intervall 1995-
2012
Identification of additional
terms related to the topic of
each subject-category by close
reading of a random sample of
15 publications from each
subject-category
Merging of categories, which
share more than half of their
keywords, when all authors
agree after having discussed
the issue
Repeat steps 4-7 until no
further plausible keywords
deteceted.
Apply additional refinements
to the final 15 subject
categories.
minimally conscious state
mcs
resuscitation
severe
suicide
terminal care
terminally
terminal disease
traumatic
vegetative state
30. Brain stimulation dbs
deep brain stimulation
neuromodulation
stimulation
transcranial
tms
36. Enhancement biomedical enhance*
cognitive enhance*
cognition enhancing
cosmetic neurology
human enhance*
moral enhance*
neuroenhance*
neurocognitive enhance*
pharmacological enhance*
psychopharmacological enhance*
46. Legal studies court*
forensic
jail
judicial
jurisprudence
law
legal
legislature
responsibility
55. Medical research and medicine ethics committee*
ethical behavior*
conflict* of interest
consent procedure*
formal consent
implied consent
incidental
informed consent
medical ethics
medical research
placebo
56. Moral Theory autonomy
aggressi*
blame
conflict
consequentialis*
deontolog*
free will
moral agency
moral belief*
moral cognition*
moral decision
moral dilemma
moral emotion*
moral judgment*
moral mind
moral philosophy
moral psychology
moral value*
punishment
trolley problem
utilitarian
welfare
57. Molecular and genetic neuroscience cell*
epigene*
epigenome
gene*
genome
molecular
58. Neuroimaging Brain image*
CT
EEG*
diffusion tensor
fMRI
MRI
magnetic resonance imag*
neuroimaging
PET
scan
59. Neuroscience and society communicating science
communicating scientific
coverage
cultur*
education*
policies
policy
policy recommendation
politic*
public
social
social implication*
60. Neurosurgery BCI*
donat*
implant*
neurosurg*
psychosurg*
Surgery
surgic*
transplant*
61. Philosophy of mind and consciousness brainhood
cartesian
conscious*
Descartes
embodied mind
epistemolog*
extended mind
instrumental
introspection
life world
mental state
mind
personhood
phenomen*
phenomenolog*
philosoph*
Qualia
rational
reduction
self-knowledge
subjective*
theory of mind
62. Psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases
and disorders
ADHD
Ageing
age related
Alzheimer*
Asperger*
attention deficit*
Autism
autist*
BIID
Bipolar
dement*
Electroconvulsive
epileps*
epilept*
mental disorder*
mental illness
nervous system disorder
Neurodegenerative
obsessive compulsive
Parkinson*
Psychiatry
psychopath*
Psychosis
schizo*
63. Psychopharmacology antidepressant*
antiepileptic*
antipsychotic*
benzodiazepine
lorazepam
methylphenidate
modafinil
pharmaceut*
pharmaco*
propranolol
prozac
psychopharma*
psychotropic
SSRI*
64. Social and economic neuroscience altruis*
antisocial
choice behavior
consumer*
cooperat*
decision-making
economics
emotion
empathy
financial
Game
happiness
incentive*
love
microeconomic*
nash
neuroeco*
pleasure
prosocial
reinforcement
reward*
social brain
social cognit*
social judgment*
social ties
trust
C: Content-based description of subject-categories
Subject-category Description Example publication
1. Addiction - covers articles related to
agency, drug abuse and the
challenges addiction poses on
concepts of free will and
autonomy
- includes publications
addressing addiction from a
social and psychological
point of view
- comprises work on the
assumed potential of
cognitive enhancing drugs to
cause or at least to contribute
to addiction
Bell, Stephanie K., Lucke, J. C.
and Hall, W. D. (2012) Lessons
for enhancement from the history
of cocaine and amphetamine use.
AJOB Neuroscience, 3(2), p. 24-
29
Goldstein, A. (2001) Addiction:
from biology to drug policy, OUP,
Oxford.
2. Brain Death /
Severe disorders of
consciousness
- includes publications
concerning the differentiation
and diagnostics of brain death
and minimally conscious
states and the clinical
disorders resulting in these
states.
- addresses ethical questions of
intensive care and end-of-life
decision making
Freeman, E. A. (1997) Protocols
for the vegetative state. Brain Inj,
11(11), p.837-49.
Varelas, P.N., Abdelhak, T.,
Hacein-Bey, L, (2008)
Withdrawal of life-sustaining
therapies and brain death in the
intensive care unit. Semin Neurol,
28(5), p. 726-735.
3. Brain stimulation - addresses issues of
technologies for brain
stimulation in a general
manner.
- discusses clinical, technical
and ethical issues of deep
brain stimulation (dbs) and
transcranial brain stimulation
Kringelbach, M. L., Jenkinson,
N., Green, A. L., et al. (2007)
Deep brain stimulation for
chronic pain investigated with
magnetoencephalography,
NeuroReport, 18(3), p.223-228.
Müller, S., Christen, M. (2011)
Deep Brain Stimulation in
Parkinsonian Patients? Ethical
Evaluation of Cognitive,
Affective, and Behavioral
Sequelae, AJOB Neuroscience,
2(1), 3-13.
4. Enhancement - contains articles related to the
effects of brain-technologies
for cognitive or mood
enhancement but not for
treatment use
- centers around the ethical and
social discussions on the
improvement of cognitive
performance and on the
biotechnical enhancement if
humans in general
Bublitz, J.C., Merkel, R., (2009)
Autonomy and authenticity of
enhanced personality traits.
Bioethics, 23(6), p.360-374.
Chatterjee, A. (2004) Cosmetic
neurology: The controversy over
enhancing movement, mentation,
and mood. Neurology, 63(6), p.
968-74.
5. Legal studies - includes studies on the
implications of
neurobiological and
psychological investigations
into the nature of free will for
the legal system
- comprises studies on the legal
aspects of clinical research
ethics and end-of-life
situations
Knabb, J.J., Welsh, R.K., Ziebell,
J.G., Reimer, K.S. (2009)
Neuroscience, moral reasoning,
and the law. Behav Sci Law,
27(2), p. 219-236.
Kulynych, J.J. (2002) Legal and
ethical issues in neuroimaging
research: human subjects
protection, medical privacy, and
the public communication of
research results. Brain and
Cognition, 50(3), p.345-357.
6. -
Medical research and
medicine
- comprises publications
dealing with ethical questions
relating to the practice of
clinical research and patient
treatment in the
neurosciences such as
incidental findings or
informed consent
Eijkholt, M., Anderson, J. A.,
Illes, J., (2012) Picturing
neuroscience research through a
human rights lens: imaging first-
episode schizophrenic treatment-
naive individuals. Int J Law
Psychiatry, 35(2), p. 146-152.
Illes, J.,, Reimer, J.C., Kwon,
B.K., (2011) Stem Cell Clinical
Trials for Spinal Cord Injury:
Readiness, Reluctance,
Redefinition. Stem Cell Re, 7(4),
p. 997-1005
7. Moral Theory - addresses the psychology and
neurobiology of moral-
decision making
- focusses on questions of
determinism and free-will
- questions the function of
moral theory in
neurosciences.
- discusses challenges to
established interpretations of
morally significant concepts
such as autonomy,
responsibility and human
nature.
Bruni, T. (2012) Ventromedial
Prefrontal Cortex Lesions and
Motivational Internalism. AJOB
Neuroscience, 3(3), p. 19-23.
Nichols, S. (2004) After
objectivity: an empirical study of
moral judgment. Philosophical
Psychology, 17 (1), p. 3-26.
8. Molecular and
genetic neuroscience
- focusses on the epidemiology
and molecular biology of
psychiatric and
neurodegenerative diseases or
addiction
Kocerha, J., Kauppinen, S.,
Wahlestedt, C. (2009) microRNAs
in CNS Disorders.
NeuroMolecular Medicine, 11(3),
p. 162-172.
- questions ethical decision-
making in molecular and
genetic neuroscience
Schneider, S.A., Schneider, U.H.,
Klein, C.A. (2011) Genetic testing
for neurologic disorders. Semin
Neurol, 31(5), p. 542-552.
9. Neuroimaging - includes all publications
referring to the methodology
of neuroimaging regardless
of the overall topic
addressed.
Kozel, F.A., Johnson, K.A., Mu,
Q., Grenesko, E.L., et al. (2005)
Detecting deception using
functional magnetic resonance
imaging. Biological Psychiatry,
58(8), p. 605-613.
Gregory, S., Ffytche, D.,
Simmons, A., Kumari, V., et al.
(2012) The Antisocial Brain:
Psychopathy Matters: A
Structural MRI Investigation of
Antisocial Male Violent
Offenders. Arch Gen Psychiatr,
69(9), p. 962-972.
10. Neuroscience and
society
- includes articles on the
interfacing between
neurosciences and the public
- comprises publications on the
awareness of the
neurosciences and
neuroethics in the public and
in the media
- contains work on ethical
issues of policy making with
regard to neuroscience
research and its applications
in society
Illes, Judy, Moser, M. A.,
McCormick, Jennifer B,, Racine,
Eric, et al. (2010) Neurotalk:
improving the communication of
neuroscience research. Nat Rev
Neurosc, 11, p.61-69
Coveney, C. M., Nerlich, B.,
Martin, P., (2009) Modafinil in
the media: metaphors,
medicalisation and the body. Soc
Sci Me, 68(3), 487-495
11. Neurosurgery - comprises work on
neurosurgical innovation and
on neural grafting
- does not include related
philosophical issues such as
questions of personal identity
with regard to brain surgery
Galpern, W.R., Corrigan-Curay,
J., Lang, A.E., et al. (2012) Sham
neurosurgical procedures in
clinical trials for
neurodegenerative diseases:
scientific and ethical
considerations. Lancet Neurol,
11(7), p. 643-650.
Gillett, G.R., Honeybul, S., Ho,
K.M., Lind, C.R., (2010)
Neurotrauma and the RUB:
where tragedy meets ethics and
science. J Med Ethics, 36(12), p.
727-730.
12. Philosophy of mind
and consciousness
- includes articles discussing
theories of consciousness, the
problems of other minds and
in general the possibility of
mind in a material world with
relation to research from
cognitive science
Levy, D.A. (2003) Neural holism
and free will. Philosophical
Psychology, 16(2), p. 205-226.
Northoff, G. (2012) From
emotions to consciousness - a
neuro-phenomenal and neuro-
relational approach. Front
Psychol, 3:303.
13. Psychiatric and
neurodegenerative
diseases and
disorders
- focus on neuroethics as the
ethics relating to care for
pathological conditions.
- special attention given to the
questions of free will,
responsibility and informed
consent in mental illness as
well as the underlying
neurobiological mechanisms
of psychiatric disorders.
Riepe, M.W., Mittendorf, T.,
Förstl, H., et al. (2009) Quality of
Life as an outcome in Alzheimer's
disease and other dementias -
obstacles and goals. BMC Neurol,
9(47).
Keefe, R.S., Goldberg, T.E.,
Harvey, P.D., Gold, J.M. et al.
(2004) The Brief Assessment of
Cognition in Schizophrenia:
reliability, sensitivity, and
comparison with a standard
neurocognitive battery. Schizophr
Re, 68(2-3), p. 283-297.
14. Psychopharmacolog
y
- covers articles on the effect
of pharmacological
substances for treatment and
on the effects of drug
(ab-)use in the brain
- addresses the role of the
pharmaceutical industry in
the (neuro-)ethics discourse.
- comprises work on the
pharmacological treatment of
neurological and mental
illnesses and the ethical
issues of clinical research in
psychopharmacology
Andrews, W., Parker, G., Barrett,
E. (1998) The SSRI
antidepressants: exploring their
"other" possible properties. J
Affect Disor, 49(2), p.141-144.
Wasserman, D.T., Liao, S.M.,
(2008) Issues in the
Pharmacological Induction of
Emotions. Journal of Applied
Philosophy 25(3), 178-192.
15. Social and economic
neuroscience
- includes publications
analyzing discourses on the
handling of neurological and
psychiatric diseases from a
sociological perspective
- comprises analysis of
research policy changes with
relation to neuroscience.
- discusses decision-making
processes in economic
contexts with a focus on
current research from a
neuroscience and cognitive
science perspective.
Kable, J.W., Glimcher, P.W.
(2007) The neural correlates of
subjective value during
intertemporal choice. Nat
Neurosc, 10(12), p.1625-1630.
Adolphs, R . (2003) Cognitive
Neuroscience of Human Social
Behaviour. Nature Reviews
Neuroscience, 4(3), p.165-178.
D: Terms with the highest tf-idf value per category
Category Term (tf-idf)
1. Addiction alcohol (29.4)
addiction (29.149351)
alcohol dependent group (9.0)
gambler (9.0)
drug (8.139535)
addictive (6.095238)
heroin (6.0)
mmt (6.0)
substance abuse (5.0625)
drug neuroethics (4.5)
willpower (4.5)
addiction aim (4.5)
craving (4.1666665)
slowed (4.0)
methadone (4.0)
drug alcohol (4.0)
21 male (4.0)
illicit (4.0)
pomc (4.0)
leptin (4.0)
addicted to food (4.0)
treating drug (4.0)
reevaluation (4.0)
obesity have addiction (4.0)
vaccine (3.7692308)
2. Brain Death / Severe
disorders of
consciousness
death (97.31579)
brain death (72.25)
resuscitation (64.0)
hasting (36.0)
brain injury (27.008928)
anesth (25.0)
organ donation (23.676056)
vegetative (22.74436)
life sustaining (19.862068)
donor (17.066668)
tomography (16.333334)
severely brain (16.0)
brain death in adult (16.0)
traumatic brain injury (15.754098)
withdrawal (14.58)
coma (13.884615)
palliative (12.461538)
prognosis (12.15)
death dcd (12.0)
life care (11.56)
minimally conscious (11.445544)
physician assisted (10.666667)
brain dead (10.666667)
tbi (10.125)
euthanasia (10.027778)
3. Brain Stimulation deep brain stimulation (106.5)
dbs (105.020836)
tdc (56.25)
deep brain stimulation dbs (36.75168)
direct current stimulation tdc (24.5)
stimulation tdc (24.5)
transcranial magnetic stimulation (20.828571)
tms (16.487804)
stn (13.795918)
refractory (13.432836)
psychiatric (11.244147)
electrode (9.68)
parkinson disease (9.6)
subthalamic nucleus (9.256411)
obsessive compulsive disorder (9.152381)
transcranial direct (9.142858)
transcranial direct current stimulation (9.142858)
erregbarkeit (9.0)
lateral sclerosis (9.0)
zusammenfassung (9.0)
methoden (9.0)
par (9.0)
phantom limb pain (9.0)
paradoxe (9.0)
excitability (9.0)
4. Enhancement enhancement (83.56626)
cognitive enhancement (50.46)
neuroenhancement (33.517242)
enhancer (29.641026)
cognitive (25.940752)
neurocognitive enhancement (21.043478)
moral enhancement (16.40909)
ethics of cognitive (16.0)
enhancing (14.797203)
ne (12.8)
neuroenhancement ne (12.5)
cognitive enhancer (11.523809)
enhancing drug (11.25)
drug (10.810811)
neurocognitive (10.204724)
net wt (10.0)
pharmacological (9.82313)
cosmetic neurology (9.8)
aspekte (9.0)
work therapy (9.0)
neurocognitive enhancement therapy (9.0)
unbidden (9.0)
atypical antipsychotic (9.0)
mastery (9.0)
unnaturalness (9.0)
5. Legal Studies law (80.19802)
desire for limb amputation (36.0)
bodied (36.0)
forensic (22.773195)
ethical (19.747288)
neuroscience (19.46768)
left sidedness (16.0)
supreme court (16.0)
somatosensory disturbance (16.0)
criminal responsibility (15.428572)
criminal law (15.0)
limb amputation (12.0)
death (9.285024)
subclinical (9.0)
mermer (9.0)
efm (9.0)
>ngland> academy of clinical (9.0)
>ngland>n (9.0)
>ngland (9.0)
pardo (9.0)
carer (9.0)
academy of clinical neuropsychology (9.0)
event in question (9.0)
diagnosed with disorder (9.0)
religiosity (9.0)
6. Medical research and
medicine
informed consent (74.141365)
incidental finding (49.877777)
placebo (45.066666)
ethical (40.04885)
ethics (36.661274)
medical ethics (23.076923)
clinical (22.150843)
neuroscience nursing (16.0)
ethics committee (15.157895)
medical school (12.5)
disclosure (12.448276)
moral duty (12.0)
neuroradiologist (11.645162)
mri (9.958621)
depressionen (9.0)
working with older (9.0)
implied consent (9.0)
incidentalome (9.0)
cs (9.0)
postgraduate neurology (9.0)
city (9.0)
hyperthermia (9.0)
neuroscience nurse (9.0)
neuroclinical (9.0)
older person (9.0)
7. Molecular
Neurobiology and
Genetics
embryonic (17.285715)
molecular (14.880953)
neural crest (12.0)
stem cell (11.593103)
cellular (10.451612)
primate stroke (9.0)
gene regulatory (9.0)
mol (9.0)
nc (9.0)
mirnas (8.0)
genome (7.6923075)
progenitor (5.3333335)
rna (5.3333335)
embryonic stem cell (4.6538463)
rat brain (4.5)
molecule (4.5)
micrornas mirnas (4.5)
transient (4.5)
neural crest stem cell (4.5)
embryonic tissue (4.0)
human nc cell (4.0)
cellular and molecular (4.0)
micrornas (4.0)
rna molecule (4.0)
human medial temporal lobe (4.0)
8. Moral Theory moral judgment (97.98387)
compatibilist (64.0)
lsquo (49.0)
rsquo (49.0)
crescioni (36.0)
incompatibilist (36.0)
alquist (36.0)
impersonal moral (36.0)
haidt (36.0)
moral decision (35.161617)
behavior (29.886793)
utilitarian (29.76087)
neural (29.288918)
baumeister (27.0)
emotional (23.52)
neuroscience (22.986942)
moral cognition (22.272728)
dilemmas (20.346153)
animal welfare (20.25)
cortex (19.88499)
human moral (19.692308)
moral dilemmas (19.6)
aggression (18.775862)
personal moral (18.75)
psychology (18.127167)
9. Neuroimaging imaging (227.35068)
neuroimaging (191.16347)
fmri (101.929245)
cortex (101.50244)
activation (87.38298)
magnetic resonance imaging (84.8984)
stimulation (83.565216)
neural (75.001465)
thalamic (64.0)
mri (60.009617)
brain imaging (57.188118)
prefrontal cortex (45.733334)
scan (45.63158)
medial (44.32787)
incidental finding (44.04301)
parietal (40.015385)
neuroscience (37.431637)
gyrus (35.851852)
cingulate (31.25)
insula (30.153847)
brain image (28.8)
orbitofrontal (27.675676)
emotional (26.162163)
neural activation (25.0)
synchronization (25.0)
10. Neuroscience and
society
public (59.05899)
cheapening (36.0)
psychoactive (18.0)
ethical (17.635628)
neuroscience (17.46334)
ethics (16.429422)
simplistic (16.0)
steven spielberg (16.0)
cultural (14.159292)
educator (13.5)
coverage (12.970589)
interactive (12.5)
worldview (9.090909)
neurobiology of intelligence (9.0)
embryonic stem (9.0)
neuroscience society (9.0)
classroom (9.0)
brain and culture (9.0)
ethics service (9.0)
director (9.0)
ethical discourse (9.0)
cardiac (9.0)
memetic (9.0)
humanist (9.0)
dependency (9.0)
11. Neurosurgery transplantation (49.20714)
stem cell (37.72269)
refractory psychiatric (36.0)
surgery (32.839622)
deep brain stimulation (28.789167)
dbs (28.45889)
surgical (28.0)
donor (26.74074)
embryonic (25.0)
ganglia (25.0)
mesenchymal stem cell (25.0)
death (24.252632)
organ donation (23.676056)
neurosurgical (20.378948)
ethical (18.579351)
neurosurgery (16.118422)
autologous adult (16.0)
transplant (15.612904)
therapy (15.0865135)
tissue (14.083333)
magnetic (12.5)
cardiac death (11.645162)
implantation (11.636364)
neurosurg (11.255814)
dcd (11.172414)
12. Philosophy of Mind
and Consciousness
severe brain (75.0)
awareness (61.12371)
phenomenology (50.0)
memoir (36.0)
phenomenological (28.9)
disorder of consciousness (28.40909)
dialogical (25.0)
philosophical (24.832512)
vegetative (20.807407)
conscious cogn (20.166666)
reductionism (18.0)
neuroscience (17.46334)
minimally conscious (16.842106)
vm (16.0)
automated (16.0)
memoir writing (16.0)
cartesian (16.0)
synthese (16.0)
descarte (16.0)
enlightenment (16.0)
spiritual experience (16.0)
sociality (16.0)
cognitive (12.800769)
naturalism (12.5)
mind and machine (12.5)
13. Psychiatric and
neurodegenerative
diseases and
disorders
alzheimer (832.0)
disease pd (324.0)
parkinson (284.4878)
advocacy (169.0)
psychiatric (142.37038)
dementia (141.512)
disease ad (130.66667)
psychiatry (109.70149)
schizophrenia (97.31645)
clinical (83.19358)
impairment (79.08497)
deficit (73.78723)
cognitive (65.53293)
patienten mit (64.0)
strungen (64.0)
replacement therapy (64.0)
advocacy website (64.0)
ethical (63.64449)
adhd (60.166668)
symptom (57.18919)
dbs (54.335403)
alzheimer disease (54.258064)
therapy (53.440475)
prefrontal (52.403225)
nucleus (52.07143)
14. Pychopharmacology drug (47.162792)
aed (40.5)
antidepressant (31.114286)
pharmacological (30.008064)
enhancement (28.050434)
pharmaceutical (27.472527)
enhancer (27.225)
psychotropic (16.666666)
pregnant women (16.0)
antiepileptic drug aed (16.0)
maternal separation (16.0)
maternally separated (16.0)
running wheel (16.0)
cognitive (15.667443)
antipsychotic (13.793103)
psychopharmacology (13.787234)
psychopharmaka (13.5)
medication (12.030075)
antiepileptic drug (12.0)
psychopharmaceutical (12.0)
neurocognitive (11.552)
psychopharmacological (11.307693)
cognitive enhancement (10.546875)
ethical (9.90753)
ssris (9.8)
15. Social and Economic
neuroscience
empathy (21.460318)
mirror neuron (21.125)
monkey (20.25)
neuroeconomic (20.055555)
behavior (18.449919)
mind society (16.0)
social behaviour (16.0)
society abstract nbsp nbsp (16.0)
organisation (16.0)
mind society abstract nbsp (16.0)
neural (15.478643)
cortex (15.087619)
altruistic (15.0)
prefrontal cortex (12.444445)
emotional (11.111111)
altruism (11.076923)
empathic (10.125)
love (10.0)
social cognition (9.346154)
substrate (9.03125)
social behavior (9.025)
imitator (9.0)
feeling of engagement (9.0)
equilibrium (9.0)
risky decision (9.0)
E: Calculation of the connectivity of subject categories
ia ,b
is a measure for the intensity of the connection between two topical subject-
categories
a
and
b
:
na , b
= number of bibliographical references which have been categorized as belonging
both to subject-categories
a
and
b
na
= total number of bibliographical references categorized in
a
nb
= total number of bibliographical references categorized in
b
ia,b=na, b
na× nb
In practice, the values
ia ,b
are too small to be visualized in Gephi, the network
visualization software used to produce figure 4. Therefore, we multiplied the intensities of all
connections by a constant c, for the purpose of scaling them to a range of values
w
(for
weight, the term used in network analysis for the strength of a connection).
m
= number of bibliographical references in the topic which has the maximum number of
references (in practice:
m=632
).
w=ia ,b × c

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