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Abstract

In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m(2)) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact that damage afflicted on trees by mobile phone towers usually start on one side, extending to the whole tree over time. Paper in: http://media.withtank.com/592b5448ab/waldmann-selsam_2016_scitotenv572p554-569_rf__trees.pdf http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/KIT/baeume-in-bamberg/ http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Trees-in-Bamberg-and-Hallstadt-Documentation-2006-2016.pdf https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/mobilfunk_newsletter/5r37cJ-EqPI

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... 90% of them showed significant effects on plants such as the inhibition, or more rarely, stimulation of growth, changes in various metabolic activities and alteration of gene expression (Cucurachi et al., 2013;Senavirathna and Asaeda, 2014;Vian et al., 2016;Halgamuge 2017). In some of these studies (Pesnya and Romanovsky 2013;Halgamuge et al., 2015;Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016) the exposure did not exceed the levels that occur in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations (Mann et al., 2000;Urbinello et al., 2014;Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection of Poland, 2018). This means that the biological effects of RF-EMF observed under artificial, experimental conditions may occur also in the environment, at the scale of plant communities or ecosystems. ...
... The relationship between power flux density in the non-thermal range and the magnitude of effect is difficult to identify and is probably non-linear. In most studies the intensity of plants reaction increased with the increasing power density (Halgamuge et al., 2015;Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016). Similar response regardless of the exposure level was observed by Roux et al. (2006). ...
... Attenuation of microwave radiation in vegetation to the levels below plants' response threshold was observed by Waldmann-Selsam et al. (2016). The authors recorded unilateral damages of tree crowns for approximately 700 deciduous and coniferous trees exposed to radiation from phone masts. ...
... Thus, we may assume that plants have evolved learning to use these environmental signals and intercept electromagnetic radiation (light) in order to regulate their circadian and seasonal functions (Haggerty, 2010). This is probably the main reason for which the impact of radiofrequency radiation on plants has received little attention and the physiological effects have been, rather arbitrarily, considered as negligible (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016). ...
... Much concern is given to the effects of this radiation to human life and environmental health (Roux et al., 2006;Pietruszewski et al., 2007;Sheridan et al., 2010;Sharma and Parihar, 2014) although radiofrequency constitutes a genuine environmental stimulus for plants as well. This stimulus is able to evoke specific responses many of them being similar to those observed after a stressful treatment (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016). Moreover, plants proved an outstanding model for studying such interactions since their architecture (high surface/volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. ...
... They remain exposed to radiation at a constant orientation in the electromagnetic field, due to their inability to move (Vian et al., 2016), while it is possible to easily document changes over time, such as disturbed cell structure, growth and yield (Stefi et al., 2017a(Stefi et al., , 2017b, dying branches and colour changes of leaves. These damages can be considered objective and cannot be attributed to psychological or psychosomatic factors (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016). ...
Article
Mobile phones turned to be the most common form of public communication. Therefore, life on our planet continues wrapped in a “cloud” of non-ionizing radiations. Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub, common in Mediterranean formations, exposed and adapted to two seasonally separated and qualitatively different environmental stresses. Thus, we considered it important to investigate the response of this tolerant species to emitted GSM non-ionizing radiations and compare it to already available data from thoroughly investigated plant species. Although the leaves of the exposed plants present unaffected tissue arrangement, their mesophyll cells accumulate large amounts of secondary metabolites, their photosynthetic pigments are dramatically reduced, the ROS counted are significantly increased and the presence of DDC, which cannot be detected in the leaves of the control plants, is recorded in high levels. The exposed leaves seem to experience a severe oxidative stress which probably induces DDC expression and the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, the activation of the shikimate pathway and, eventually, the accumulation of secondary metabolites.
... A detailed long-term (2006-2015) field-monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany) [44]. Observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. ...
... Many trees showed damage patterns that were not attributable to harmful organisms, such as diseases (fungi, bacteria, viruses) and pests (insects, nema-todes) or other environmental factors (water stress, heat, drought, frost, sun, compaction of the soil, air and soil pollutants). Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts was harmful for trees [44]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, there has been a decline of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), mainly in European cities, and several hypotheses have been proposed that attempt to determine the causes of this rapid decline. Previous studies indicated that house sparrows were significantly negatively associated with increasing electromagnetic radiation and sparrows disappeared from areas most polluted. In addition, there are many studies on the impact of radiation on other bird and non-bird species, as well as numerous laboratory studies that demonstrated detrimental effects at electric field strength levels that can be found in cities today. Electromagnetic radiation is the most plausible factor for multiple reasons, including that this is the only one that affects the other hypotheses proposed so far. It is a type of pollution that affects productivity, fertility, decreases insects (chicken feed), causes loss of habitat, decreases immunity and can promote disease. Additionally, the recent sparrow decline matches the deployment of mobile telephony networks. Further, there are known mechanisms of action for non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation that may affect sparrows causing their decline. Thus, electromagnetic radiation must be seriously considered as a factor for house sparrows’ decline, probably in synergy with the other factors previously proposed.
... The most significant example of such phenomena is the collapse of bee colonies as their navigation is affected by wireless radiation, making them unable to return to their hives or even find food [62,118]. A study spanning almost a decade by Selsam et al. (2016) found out that trees are significantly damaged by radiation, particularly those situated near cellular base stations, and the damage intensifies with aging [119]. ...
... E-waste consists of all electronic products that are discarded and are at or near expiration [120]. After the lifetime of the electronic products expires, which is relatively small (2 to 3 years), it becomes a heap of complex toxic chemicals consisting of heavy metal and non-degradable plastic [74,121]. ...
Article
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Smart buildings deploying 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) are viewed as the next sustainable solution that can be seamlessly integrated in all sectors of the built environment. The benefits are well advertised and range from inducing wellness and monitoring health, amplifying productivity, to energy savings. Comparatively, potential negative risks are less known and mostly relate to cyber-security threats and radiation effects. This meta-integrative qualitative synthesis research sought to determine the possible underlying demerits from developing smart buildings, and whether they outweigh the possible benefits. The study identified five master themes as threats of smart buildings: a surfeit of data centers, the proliferation of undersea cables, the consternation of cyber-security threats, electromagnetic pollution, and E-waste accumulation. Further, the paper discusses the rebound impacts on humans and the environment as smart buildings' actualization becomes a reality. The study reveals that, although some aspects of smart buildings do have their tangible benefits, the potential repercussions from these not-so-discussed threats could undermine the former when all perspectives and interactions are analyzed collectively rather than in isolation.
... Radio-Frequency Radiation (RFR) emanating from Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) has been reportedly capable of affecting plants, generally and mostly experimented are vegetables and food crops in the vicinity of the RFR [1][2][3][4]. Studies have shown definitive clues that cell phone electromagnetic field (EMF) can choke seeds, inhibit germination and root growth, thereby affecting the overall growth of plants [5][6][7]. A reduction in wheat and corn yield in the fields near high EMF lines was also reported [8]. ...
... All the proximate analysis parameters were significantly (α<0.05) different at all the 10.06 ± 0.01 * 13.21 ± 0.01 * 8.62 ± 0.01 * 3.28 ± 0.01 * 13.65 ± 0.01 * * indicates significant difference at α<0.05 ++++ indicates specific patterns (increase) for the exposed tomato between 25 m and 100 m mmm indicates specific patterns (decrease) for the exposed tomato between 50 m and 100 m. [6]; Waldmann-Selsam et al., [7]. ...
... The effects of this exposure at plant community level are unknown and difficult to assess in a scientifically appropriate manner. An observational study (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016) described damage of tree canopy on the side facing mobile phone base stations. However, due to the selective approach (i.e., not all trees were selected randomly), no scientific conclusion can be drawn on the basis of these observations alone. ...
Article
This report summarizes the effects of anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with frequencies above 100 MHz on flora and fauna presented at an international workshop held on 5–7 November 2019 in Munich, Germany. Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at these frequencies are commonplace; e.g., originating from transmitters used for terrestrial radio and TV broadcasting, mobile communication, wireless internet networks, and radar technologies. The effects of these radiofrequency fields on flora, fauna, and ecosystems are not well studied. For high frequencies exceeding 100 MHz, the only scientifically established action mechanism in organisms is the conversion of electromagnetic into thermal energy. In accordance with that, no proven scientific evidence of adverse effects in animals or plants under realistic environmental conditions has yet been identified from exposure to low-level anthropogenic radiofrequency fields in this frequency range. Because appropriate field studies are scarce, further studies on plants and animals are recommended.
... For example, honey bees maximally absorb the higher 5G frequencies because the millimetre wavelengths resonate with their body size [53]. Adverse RFR effects also occur for other pollinating insects [54], plants [55], trees [56], birds, frogs, animals [57] and humans [58]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The fifth generation of radiofrequency communication , 5G, is currently being rolled out worldwide. Since September 2017, the EU 5G Appeal has been sent six times to the EU, requesting a moratorium on the rollout of 5G. This article reviews the 5G Appeal and the EU's subsequent replies, including the extensive cover letter sent to the EU in September 2021, requesting stricter guidelines for exposures to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The Appeal notes the EU's internal conflict between its approach to a wireless technology-led future, and the need to protect the health and safety of its citizens. It critiques the reliance of the EU on the current guidelines given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), that consider only heating and no other health relevant biological effects from RFR. To counteract the ICNIRP position, the 2021 cover letter briefly presented recent research from the EU's own expert groups, from a large collection of European and other international studies, and from previous reviews of the effects of RFR on humans and the environment. The 5G Appeal asserts that the majority of scientific evidence points to biological effects , many with the potential for harm, occurring below the ICNIRP public limits. Evidence to establish this position is drawn from studies showing changes to neurotransmit-ters and receptors, damage to cells, proteins, DNA, sperm, the immune system, and human health, including cancer. The 2021 Appeal goes on to warn that 5G signals are likely to additionally alter the behaviour of oxygen and water molecules at the quantum level, unfold proteins, damage skin, and cause harm to insects, birds, frogs, plants and animals. Altogether, this evidence establishes a high priority for the European Union towards (i) replacing the current flawed guidelines with protective thresholds, and (ii) placing a moratorium on 5G deployment so as to (iii) allow industry-independent scientists the time needed to propose new health-protective guidelines. This 2021 Ap-peal's relevance becomes even more pressing in the context of the EU plans to roll out the sixth generation of wireless technologies, 6G, further adding to the known risks of RFR technology for humans and the environment. This all leads to an important question: Do EU decision makers have the right to ignore EU´s own directives by prioritising economic gain over human and environmental health?
... Since radiofrequency seems to constitute a genuine environmental stimulus for plants and given that plants can exploit sunlight, they must also have some means of protecting their living cells from the damages [31]. Electromagnetic radiation can evoke specific responses, many of them being similar to those observed after a natural stress or an in vitro stressful treatment [32,33]. In addition, plants prove to be an outstanding model for studying such interactions since their architecture (high surface/volume ratio) optimizes their co-action with the environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two groups of Cistus creticus seedlings were grown in two chambers under controlled environmental conditions. In one of the chambers, a continuously emitting base unit of a wireless telephone was placed. After fifty days of culture, the two groups of plants were removed and thoroughly investigated and compared. The aboveground parts of the exposed plants were retarded in development while their roots exhibited increased biomass, compared to the controls. There was a minor decrease in the absorbance of the photosynthetic pigments in exposed plants, while an overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) ROS in their leaves and roots was detected. The expression of the L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) seemed to “erupt” following the exposure to radiation in both shoots and roots of the stressed plants, and their roots slow down their secondary development; strangely, the phenolic content is reduced in their leaves, the external topography of which indicates a rather xeromorphic response. We may suggest that Cistus creticus plants, forced by the radiation stress, can finely tune their metabolic pathways in a way that can be useful in the pharmaceutical industry.
... On the other hand, studies performed on animals or trees near base station antennas are especially important, because animals and plants cannot be aware of their proximity and therefore nocebo or psychosomatic effects cannot be attributed (Balmori, 2005(Balmori, , 2010Balmori and Hallberg, 2007;Hässig et al., 2012;Lázaro et al., 2016;Waldmann--Selsam et al., 2016;Levitt et al., 2021). In fact, a similar result of this study for humans was found in a review on the significant ecological effects of RF EMF in 65% of the studies on vertebrates, birds and plants (Cucurachi et al., 2013). ...
Article
The objective of this work was to perform a complete review of the existing scientific literature to update the knowledge on the effects of base station antennas on humans. Studies performed in real urban conditions, with mobile phone base stations situated close to apartments, were selected. Overall results of this review show three types of effects by base station antennas on the health of people: radiofrequency sickness (RS), cancer (C) and changes in biochemical parameters (CBP). Considering all the studies reviewed globally (n = 38), 73.6% (28/38) showed effects: 73.9% (17/23) for radiofrequency sickness, 76.9% (10/13) for cancer and 75.0% (6/8) for changes in biochemical parameters. Furthermore, studies that did not meet the strict conditions to be included in this review provided important supplementary evidence. The existence of similar effects from studies by different sources (but with RF of similar characteristics), such as radar, radio and television antennas, wireless smart meters and laboratory studies, reinforce the conclusions of this review. Of special importance are the studies performed on animals or trees near base station antennas that cannot be aware of their proximity and to which psychosomatic effects can never be attributed.
... There are, however, also potentially unintended negative consequences associated with the use of emerging smart technologies for such 'smart urban forest management' which need further critical exploration (Gulsrud et al. 2018a). These may include impacts of exposure to high frequency millimeter waves on human and tree health (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016), and changes in insect behaviour (Thielens et al. 2018). It may also compound the digital divide and environmental justice issues (Gulsrud et al. 2018a;Gabrys 2020) and there are ethical concerns surrounding data usage and privacy of citizens (Viitanen and Kingston 2014). ...
Chapter
The urban forest, i.e. the stock of urban trees, is a major component of urban green spaces. It can make significant contributions to urban sustainability and climate change adaptation. Urban forest governance and management play a key role in the extent to which these contributions are realized for good. This chapter presents a selection of promising new technologies in support of urban forestry. Techniques and applications are introduced in the domains of remote sensing, modeling and citizen science. These technology-driven developments offer new potentials for ‘smart’ urban forestry but may also create new risks of a shift towards techno-managerialism as opposed to more open and democratic processes.
... The effects of man-made non-ionising electromagnetic fields remain a global flora and fauna conservation concern (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016;Levitt et al. 2022). Since 1997 when the first mobile phone operator, Telcel, launched its cellular service in Zambia, there has been unprecedented growth in the telecommunication sector, leading to the mushrooming of support infrastructure, such as phone masts, with limited or no regulation on their placement. ...
Article
Inappropriate deployment of linear physical infrastructures, such as game fences, roads, electric power-lines, buildings, and phone masts can be detrimental to wild fauna. Fatalities arising from wildlife collisions with such infrastructure have been widely documented. However, there are non-physical and less studied effects, such as the ‘hidden’ negative ecological effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on terrestrial fauna. In this study, the effects of phone mast-generated EMR on abundance, richness and distribution of terrestrial birds and insects in the Kafue National Park were studied. Ten (10) sample plots of 100 m x 100 m each were set at three (3) radial locations, based on the phone mast generated EMR strengths. For birds, point counts, while hand collection, cryptic searching, vegetation beating, sweep netting, pitfall trapping, sorting and identification for insects were employed for data collection. Data were analysed using biological indices (i.e., Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The wildlife diversity significantly reduced with increasing EMR strengths, especially in areas (<12 km from phone mast) with greater than 250±20 µA/m EMR levels. We suggest that deployment of wireless telecommunication infrastructure should take into account EMR levels, safe zones and avoid or minimize biological loss in hotspots.
... Altogether, a large part of the intra-specific variability in terms of stem growth reaction to drought remains unexplained (Table 4), indicating that additional factors have to be considered. Studies suggest that the proximity to street lamps (Liu et al. 2021) or mobile phone towers (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016) may affect the growth and/or vitality of urban trees. Nonetheless, our results are concomitant with a recent study on hydraulic traits which serve as indicators of drought tolerance-such as the water potential at which xylem conductivity has decreased by 50 % (P 50 )-in A. platanoides, T. cordata and C. betulus, where the greatest part of the variance found in the data could be attributed to individual differences rather than climatic or edaphic conditions (Fuchs et al. 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Key Message In an urban area, resistance and resilience of stem diameter growth differ substantially between tree species. Traffic emissions are reflected in wood nitrogen isotopes, but do not affect drought tolerance. Abstract With increasing drought and heat, the benefits of urban trees such as shading and cooling become more important. Yet, it is necessary to identify tree species able to withstand such extreme climatic conditions. We studied the resistance and resilience of stem diameter growth of five deciduous tree species in an urban area in Southwest Germany to three exceptional drought periods (2003, 2011 and 2015) for differences between and within species, especially considering the intensity of traffic emissions (NO x ). Analyses of the stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ ¹³ C) and oxygen (δ ¹⁸ O) as well as the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE i ) in the tree rings were carried out. Further, we investigated the stable isotopic composition of nitrogen in the wood (δ ¹⁵ N) to assess its potential as an indicator of NO x emissions from traffic. Stem diameter growth in all species was strongly limited by low water availability in spring, as was also reflected in elevated δ ¹³ C and δ ¹⁸ O values in Acer platanoides and Tilia cordata , which were particularly sensitive to drought. In contrast, growth of Platanus × hispanica and Quercus robur was less affected by drought, and resistance of Carpinus betulus ranged in between. Across species, δ ¹⁵ N was higher in trees located closer to roads and exposed to higher NO x traffic emissions. Unexpectedly, these conditions did not significantly affect drought resistance/resilience. Our study demonstrates the potential and interpretative challenges of coupled dendroecological and isotope analyses. It also indicates clear species-specific differences in drought tolerance and thus helps to identify suitable urban tree species.
... There are, however, also potentially unintended negative consequences associated with the use of emerging smart technologies for such 'smart urban forest management' which need further critical exploration (Gulsrud et al. 2018a). These may include impacts of exposure to high frequency millimeter waves on human and tree health (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016), and changes in insect behaviour (Thielens et al. 2018). It may also compound the digital divide and environmental justice issues (Gulsrud et al. 2018a;Gabrys 2020) and there are ethical concerns surrounding data usage and privacy of citizens (Viitanen and Kingston 2014). ...
Chapter
The urban forest, i.e. the stock of urban trees, is a major component of urban green spaces. It can make significant contributions to urban sustainability and climate change adaptation. Urban forest governance and management play a key role in the extent to which these contributions are realized for good. This chapter presents a selection of promising new technologies in support of urban forestry. Techniques and applications are introduced in the domains of remote sensing, modeling and citizen science. These technology-driven developments offer new potentials for ‘smart’ urban forestry but may also create new risks of a shift towards techno-managerialism as opposed to more open and democratic processes.
... Otherwise, numerous studies have confirmed the non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation at low radiation levels on different organs and systems in animals, plants and people (Balmori 2014;Cucurachi et al. 2013;Frank 2021;Kostoff et al. 2020;Levitt and Lai 2010;Levitt et al., 2021 a&b;Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016). ...
Article
This note is intended to try to shed light on the discoveries made entitled “Biologging is suspect to cause corneal opacity in two populations of wild living Northern Bald Ibises (Geronticus eremita)”. In this article, researchers participating in a reintroduction program for this endangered species in Europe document the unilateral corneal opacity that took place after birds were equipped with solar radio transmitters fixed on their upper-back position. The authors propose several possible effects caused by the device to explain the problem, and they conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the symptomatology is a repetitive slight temperature rise in the corneal tissue due to electromagnetic radiation by the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) module of the device. The proposal of this communication is that these effects do not necessarily have to be thermal, but they can be non-thermal and thus more subtle and insidious. These effects may be caused by electromagnetic radiation at low levels but in long-term exposure.
... Some studies have attempted to quantify the intensity of EMFs present in the environment [42][43][44] . This variable might uctuate markedly as a function of the geographical area and the number of connected devices close to the individual. ...
Preprint
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Although cell phones and electronic devices are now integral parts of modern life (especially for young people), the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) emitted by these devices is a potential health hazard. The effects of RF-EMFs have been assessed in various fields, including epidemiology and neurology. However, there are few published data on the possible effects of RF-EMFs on immune cells; this is surprising, given the importance of the immune system’s role in defending the body against infections and cancer. To assess whether chronic RF-EMF exposure has harmful effects on the immune system in juvenile rats, rats were exposed or not to 900MHz RF-EMF 23h/day during 5 weeks. Hematological, cytometric and bacteriological assays were used to probe differences between exposed and non-exposed tissues. Exposure of rats to 900 MHz RF-EMF was associated with differences in the innate immune system and even more marked in the adaptive immune system. An analysis of the intestinal microbiota revealed dysbiosis, with an over-representation of Enterococcus , Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. Enterococcus was found to have translocated into the spleen in 67% exposed rats. Exposure to a 900 MHz RF-EMF appeared to alter the immune system (and particularly the adaptive immune system) directly or via intestinal dysbiosis.
... (p. 567) [53] Ÿ In an Israel study of cancer rates near a cell phone base station, it was discovered that 3-7 years' exposure times had cancer rates 4.15 times the cancer rate in the entire population and that the cancer rate for women was 10.5 vs. 1.0 for the whole town of Netanya. The power densities were far below current guidelines of 2 2 5,300 uW/m (0.53 uW/cm )for thermal effects. ...
Article
This article proposesthat the Right to Life Principle, dened as “every person hasthe right to a natural birth and legitimate survival and development into adulthoodwithout environmental or othersystematic injury to theirwell-being,”may be violated byRFRemissionsfromcell phones,Wi-Fi,macro cell phone base stations (MCPBSs), 5G/4G small cell antennas (SCAs), etc. in excess of the standards set by the Building Biology Institute. BBI standardsset1000µW/m2as anextreme anomaly;theprecisedivisionpointofharm/noharmbelow1000µW/m2is unknown. I review literature describing (1) the Right to Life Principle, (2) the attributes of non-ionizing radiation, and (3) proven injury from cell phones, WiFi, MCPBSs, 5G/4G SCAs, etc. to living organisms with 20 categories of illnesses and 58 references. Non-ionizing radiation isshown to place a force eld on negatively charged particles including electrons, neurons, and DNA, and exciting/energizing electrons with shifts to outer orbits with energy emission when they return to ground orbit thereby destabilizing atoms, molecules, cells and organs in the process of orbital shifts. RFR induced illnesses include sperm damage, fetus injury, irreversibility infertility, emotional and hyperactive disorders, cancer, damage to DNA, the immune system, blood brain barrier, and stem cells, increasesin oxidative stress and free radicals, and harm to those living lessthan 500 metersfrom MCPBSs. My recommendationsto reduce injury from RFR are based upon review of the literature, experience in metering residential property and MCPBSsfor RFR, avoiding the use of RFR emitting devices and accessto line-of-sight antennas, and legislative proposalsto show the dangers of RFR devices and antennas by,for example,requiringnotice tobuyers andlessees ofresidentialpropertyof powerdensitieswithinhousingunits.
... Wireless technologies, such as mobile phones, cordless phones, base stations, WiFi, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation, also called microwave radiation. For a long time there has been concern among laymen and a large part of the scientific community that such radiation may be a health hazard and also have a negative effect on the environment including birds [1], insects [2] and plants [3,4]. ...
... Thus, this difference in power flux density reading corresponds to damaged side. The consistent result with the fact that the tree damage was found due to mobile towers that started on one side and gradually extended to the whole tree over time [5]. Balmori in their study focused on the impact of RF radiation from wireless telecommunication on wildlife. ...
Article
Full-text available
The universal study reveals that Electromagnetic Frequency (EMF) exposure is upsetting the environment. It focuses keenly on the people residing in the neighboring of the base stations / mobile towers were affected by environmental radiation pollution. The effect of EMF radiation on human life is unusually increasing on dayto-day basis. As the number of customers using mobiles rises, one would see the mobile phone towers / base trans-receiver station (BTS) increases; and this has a great and huge impact on radiation hazards. Mobile phones have the capability of emitting radiations that would affect human tissues and it runs a two-way communication paradigm. Radio Frequency (RF) wave establishes communication around the globe in the mobile network. However, the radiations emitted by RF waves are harmful if absorbed into the human tissues. The most side effects experienced when nearer to these towers are headaches, discomfort, anxiety and other diseases. The radiation hazards are found to be extraordinarily more where the cell towers were installed nearer to educational institutes, healthcare and few residential areas. They were recommended to move / stay away from such areas, the radiations can cause tumors, disturbance of the nervous system and other diseases. The study is to understand the radiation exposure limits that would protect the public health from the EMF exposure. RF radiations were mapped by geographic information system (GIS) based measuring approach that helps in detecting places where users are in health hazards in exposed areas. This helps government and health organization to estimate the distribution of radiation in areas nearer to the location of mobile towers. Realization among the people was made to live and spend less time based on the radiation levels of exposure with the mobile towers. The analysis was carried out by STATA software to measure the poisson exposure of confidence interval. The poisson regression calculated for the mobile towers is 47473.38 and -0.00001 for Andhra Pradesh state respectively. Similarly, the poisson exposure is 19.2096 and CI is found to be 0.0013 to 0.2900 in Telangana state of India
... Trees located in urban environments at different distances from base stations and phone masts integrate these EMF-r exposures for a long time, since they are perennial and stationary, and therefore, constitute good models to investigate possible effects of continuous exposure. Waldmann-Selsam et al. (2016) have indeed reported several damage symptoms, e.g. leaf loss, irregular color, wilting of leaves, changes in branching pattern, spatial orientation of leaves in trees around mobile phone base stations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The technological advancement and increased usage of wireless and other communication devices have greatly enhanced the level of radiofrequency electromagnetic field radiation (EMF-r) in the environment. It has resulted in unprecedented increased exposure of living organisms to these radiations. Most of the studies in past have, however, focused on animal systems and comparatively less attention has been paid to plants with studies reporting various, sometimes contradictory effects. This review is an attempt to provide a critical appraisal of the available reports regarding the impacts of these radiations on plant development and the underlying physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we propose that the main entry point for the biological effects of EMF-r corresponds to an increase in ROS metabolism and cytosolic calcium that leads to various cellular responses including changes in gene expression and/or enzymatic activities, which could ultimately result in immediate cellular alterations or delayed plant growth. This may constitute a new perspective in the interpretation of plant responses to EMF-r exposure. Understanding the impacts of EMF-r and the inherent abilities of plants to cope up with such changes should lead to EMF-r being considered as full-fledged environmental signals that are perceived by the plants and integrated into their development patterns.
... In Sweden, exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m and total exposures from 0.2 to 2.6 V/m was obtained in a study by Joseph et al. in 2010 (25) . In a study in Germany by Waldmann-Selsam et al. in 2016, the maximum value of 2.53 V/m was obtained (26) , whereas 0.5 V/m was recorded from a study in Malaysia by Khuzairi et al. in 2019 (27) . ...
Article
In this study, the total exposure due to signals within GSM 900, GSM 1800, CDMA-1900 and 3G-2100 frequency bands at 200 m from the foot of 120, 100 and 80 base station masts in the Nigerian cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja, respectively, was assessed. A calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser was used to measure the level of power (in dBm) of each signal within the mobile frequency bands. The exposure quotient associated with the combine electric field strengths from the various frequency bands in each city was estimated. The maximum value of total electric field strength at each point in Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja was 0.83 V/m, 0.53 V/m and 1.63 V/m, respectively. This study shows that the exposure quotient due to the simultaneous exposure to the four bands of mobile communication signals in each city is far less than one, as recommend by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
... Thus, this difference in power flux density reading corresponds to damaged side. The consistent result with the fact that the tree damage was found due to mobile towers that started on one side and gradually extended to the whole tree over time [5]. Balmori in their study focused on the impact of RF radiation from wireless telecommunication on wildlife. ...
... Health concerns over the short and long term effects of 5G to humans and the environment have been raised over time (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016). In an appeal to the European Union, more than 180 doctors and scientists from 36 countries warned about the dangers of 5G rollout, which will lead to an increase in involuntary exposure to electromagnetic radiation (Carlberg & Hardell, 2017;Hardell, 2017;Hardell & Nyberg, 2020;Panagopoulos, 2019). ...
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p> 5G was test-launched in Nigeria in 2019 to improve its communication technology, conspiracy theorists, however, linked 5G to the outbreak of the Covid-19. As with conspiracies, the ‘who’ that lends credence to it affects how far it travels. Pastor Chris Oyakhilome, founder of Believers LoveWorld, added his voice to the 5G debate, claiming that Covid-19 lockdown was decoy to sequester the population for government to covertly deploy 5G. This study is important because it addresses the issue of fake news and its ability to cause civil disobedience in the society. Using secondary research method, content analysis was used to review arguments on 5G controversy in the Nigerian context. Findings revealed that government appealed for calm and stated that no license for the installation of 5G has been issued yet. Technology enthusiasts and media organizations put out fact-checking information in support of the technology. Various arguments indicate that no one really understands the full capabilities of 5G and its long-term effect on living organisms and the environment. It is recommended that more tests be carried out in varying conditions to understand the tolerance limit of the technology, and for the government to be transparent in its public communication. </p
... Even though people are still debating about the ill effects of RF exposure, researchers already proved that the mobile radiations are harmful for human, plants, insects and animals [2][3][4]. Neha Kumar and Girish Kumar [5]found that continues exposure to RF radiations causes many biological and health impacts in humans. Suhag AK et.al [6] studied the problems in human health due to continuous use of mobile phones. ...
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A study on the effect of RF radiations on the health of women in Idukki district of Kerala state in India is discussed. Radiation assessment on the study area is carried out with the help of MECO's 9720. To get a clear picture about its potential effects on women health, a detailed survey is conducted. Priority has been given for 10 predominant diseases. This study is performed as a two stage evaluation. First, the relation between cell tower radiation and female health is examined. As a second stage, the relation between cell phone radiation and women health is also analysed. In the second stage, our primary focuses how the mobile habits of women affect their health. The result of our study points out that ophthalmic problems, sleep disorder, migraine and digestive problems, joint pain related issues and hearing problems have direct relation with cell tower exposure. In the second phase of study, we conclude that, cell phone radiation causes migraine, digestive problems and sleep disorder.
... In addition to diseases in humans, especially children [14][15][16], near antenna-emitters, the adverse effect extends to forests [17], plants, including agricultural (corn, rosé, peas, fenugreek, duckweed, tomato, onion, and mango plants) [18], ants [19][20][21][22][23], bees [22][23], Drosophila [24], birds [25][26][27], animals [28][29][30][31]. Thus, electromagnetic pollution disrupts ecological equilibrium, causes extinction of insects, tree diseases, mutations of microorganisms and viruses, and adversely affects the health of the population. ...
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Electromagnetic pollution of the environment has become a significant environmental factor. The intensity of technogenic electromagnetic fields far exceeds the background indicators to which organisms have adapted in the course of evolution, in particular by their biorhythms. Much data on the biological effects of low-intensity (non-thermal) extremely high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EHF-EMF) at different levels of the organization has been accumulated. There are many possible explanations for these impacts, but the mechanism of action is not established. The purpose of this work is to analyze the negative effects of the use of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. In particular, the use of microwave therapy is considered. A review of reports on the harmful effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic and magnetic fields among the population and professional groups has been made; the presence of the problem of hypersensitivity to such fields was shown. Information on the development of the direction of study of the resonant biological influence of EHF-EMF by Ukrainian specialists was provided. Particular attention is paid to the use of non-thermal microwaves for physiotherapy procedures, pain relief, correction of psycho-emotional disorders, ulcer healing, in particular stomach and duodenum, etc. It is noted that the so-called "therapeutic" frequencies of EHF-EMF, even if controlled, can cause negative effects, although they are not perceived as damaging. Changes in objective vital signs in the case of targeted exposure by low-intensity millimeter-wave radiation, namely, hemodynamics, temperature increase in the exposure zone, muscle activity, and the speed of the passage of a nerve impulse, an encephalogram were established. Precautionary recommendations based on the scientific and practical experience of using microwave acupuncture methods in the conditions of medical institutions are formulated. The synergistic effect of various influences, in particular electromagnetic fields, may not be a direct trigger of the disease, but a factor of not compensated stress. Therefore, clinical studies conducted many years ago cannot simply be dismissed on the grounds that the millimeter radiation penetrates only the outer layer of the skin. Skin cells can also secrete mediators that cause changes in ionic calcium channels and the level of calcium in the cells. The interest in these works is justified by the fact that currently the sources of monochromatic millimeter radiation will be spread with new communication systems. The risks of their biological action should be taken into account when emitters are installed.
... Raynolds et al, 2006;Lin et al., 2014;Robinson et al., 2017;Hoagland et al., 2018). The random points were generated for each land-use type using a random points tool of QGIS 3.6 Noosa (QGIS API, 2020), a reliable and practical tool also utilized in other studies (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016;Wijesingha et al., 2019;Urrutia et al., 2020), that helps avoid bias. These data were used to create box-plots for land surface temperature (LST), net radiation at the time of satellite overpass (R n,over , see Eq. 1), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index -NDVI (Rouse et al., 1974) albedo, and surface emissivity ε 0 , based on MapBiomas classification (http://mapbiomas.org), (Fig. 1). ...
Article
This study aims to ascertain the uncertainties related to the spatiotemporal estimation of net radiation, and its components, using remote sensing data. Geographical focus is an irrigated agricultural hotspot of the Brazilian semiarid region, for which we also investigate the impact that contrasting land-cover types have on the upwelling radiation balance components, and hence on net radiation. Instantaneous (Rn) and daily (Rn,24) values of net radiation were estimated based on OLI/TIRS-Landsat-8 images and key weather variables. In addition, we evaluated two models for downwelling shortwave (Rsw), ten models for downwelling longwave radiation (Rlw), and two models for derivation of Rn,24. The accuracy of each model was evaluated with radiation measurements obtained from research quality sensors installed in micrometeorological towers. The best performances were found for the Allen model, Duarte model, and De Bruin model for Rsw, Rlw, and Rn,24, respectively. The contrasting land-use types exhibited substantial differences in the biophysical variables and radiative properties that affect Rn. The albedo for the irrigated crops has average absolute values that are 0.01–0.03 greater than those found for the pristine caatinga, whereas the land surface temperature, LST, is 3–5 degrees smaller. However, Rn for these two distinctly different surface types was similar, as a result of a considerably lower surface emissivity in the caatinga. For rangeland, the albedo, LST, and hence the upwelling radiation had greater values than those found for the caatinga, which caused reduced values of Rn. The urban areas exhibited the lowest values of Rn, mainly as a consequence of their high albedo values. We show that when in-situ net radiation data are not available, remote sensing data combined with more readily available in-situ weather data can be used to derive spatiotemporal estimates of Rn. This facilitates the identification of anthropogenic impacts on the radiation at the land-surface and ultimately the energy balance, including the short-term seasonal and long-term effects.
... Effects include increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive system, learning and memory deficits, neurological disorders, and negative impacts on general well-being in humans. Damage goes well beyond the human race, as there is growing evidence of harmful effects (38) to both plants (39) and animals (40) (12,42). However, new studies like the NTP study mentioned above and several epidemiological investigations including the latest studies on mobile phone use and brain cancer risks confirm that RF-EMF radiation is carcinogenic to humans (17)'. ...
... However, plant species have demonstrated a specific sensitivity not only to non-ionic radiation frequency (Halgamuge 2017), but also to exposure time. For example, one hour at 4 MHz seems to be sufficient for an oxidative burst in tip root cells of model plants for environmental disturbance, such as onion plants (Rusakova et al. 2017); on the other hand, adult trees next to telephone transmitters take a year to express growth reduction in the whole body (they first show growth reduction in the part of the canopy directed to transmitters and then, in the other parts (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016). This is due to increments in H 2 O 2 and O 2concentrations in the cells, opposed to reductions in activities of detoxification enzymes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase. ...
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How does the new affect the old but mutable living systems? This is the question that electromagnetism stress has been provoking. There are many evidence that non-ionic radiation can affect animal cells since their plasticity is limited when compared to plants. However, the way plants perceive and process this stressor is still poorly understood. So here are some intriguing facts that lead us to reflect on how and why electromagnetism can become a very common stressor for years to come for plant species.
... However, plant species have demonstrated a specific sensitivity not only to non-ionic radiation frequency (Halgamuge 2017), but also to exposure time. For example, one hour at 4 MHz seems to be sufficient for an oxidative burst in tip root cells of model plants for environmental disturbance, such as onion plants (Rusakova et al. 2017); on the other hand, adult trees next to telephone transmitters take a year to express growth reduction in the whole body (they first show growth reduction in the part of the canopy directed to transmitters and then, in the other parts (Waldmann-Selsam et al. 2016). This is due to increments in H 2 O 2 and O 2concentrations in the cells, opposed to reductions in activities of detoxification enzymes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase. ...
Article
Full-text available
How does the new affect the old but mutable living systems? This is the question that electromagnetism stress has been provoking. There are many evidence that non-ionic radiation can affect animal cells since their plasticity is limited when compared to plants. However, the way plants perceive and process this stressor is still poorly understood. So here are some intriguing facts that lead us to reflect on how and why electromagnetism can become a very common stressor for years to come for plant species.
... In this review, we address the current scientific evidence on health risks from exposure to RFR, which is in the nonionizing frequency range. We focus here on human health effects, but also note evidence that RFR can cause physiological and/or morphological effects on bees, plants and trees (3)(4)(5). ...
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Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation 1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.
... Recent research has demonstrated adverse effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on environments and wildlife, including birds, amphibians, insects, fish, mammals and plants [123][124][125]. For example, trees near cell towers can become visibly unhealthy on the side facing a cellular antenna, and can die prematurely[126].A diverse array of species depends upon the Earth's low-level magnetic field to navigate for migration, homing, breeding, foraging and survival. RFR can have significant long- term impacts on the natural environment via disruption of normal positioning and orientation abilities as well as other complex cellular and biologic processes. ...
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Radiofrequency radiation (RFR), used for wireless communications and “smart” building technologies, including the “Internet of Things,” is increasing rapidly. As both RFR exposures and scientific evidence of harmful effects increase apace, it is timely to heed calls to include low RFR levels as a performance indicator for the health, safety and well-being of occupants and the environment. Adverse biochemical and biological effects at commonly experienced RFR levels indicate that exposure guidelines for the U.S., Canada and other countries, are inadequate to protect public health and the environment. Some industry liability insurance providers do not offer coverage against adverse health effects from radiation emitted by wireless technologies, and insurance authorities deem potential liability as “high.” Internationally, governments have enacted laws, and medical and public health authorities have issued recommendations, to reduce and limit exposure to RFR. There is urgent need to implement strategies for no- or low-RFR emitting technologies, and shielding, in building design and retrofitting. These strategies include installing wired (not wireless) Internet networks, corded rather than cordless phones, and cable or wired connections in building systems (e.g., mechanical, lighting, security). Building science can profit from decades of work to institute performance parameters, operationalizing prudent guidelines and best practices. The goal is to achieve RFR exposures that are ALARA, “As Low As Reasonably Achievable.” We also challenge the business case of wireless systems, because wired or cabled connections are faster, more reliable and secure, emit substantially less RFR, and consume less energy in a sector with rapidly escalating green-house gas emissions.
... This applies to people as well as to all ecosystems that include flora and fauna. Results of epidemiological studies of environmental damage caused by EMF on woods [12], plants (including corn, roses, peas, fenugreek, duckweed, tomatoes, onions and mangoes) [13], ants [14][15][16], bees [17,18], drosophila's [19], birds [20][21][22], animals [23][24][25][26], compel us to think about consequences from the point of view of bioethics. ...
... Effects have manifested in different ways and some of them are a cause of concern. A large scale monitoring study (N10 years) revealed that in trees, a closer range to phone masts resulted in significant damages in the side facing the mast in contrast to the opposite side (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016) whereas Roux et al. (2006Roux et al. ( , 2008 found exposed tomato plants to show similar consequences when wounded, trimmed or burnt. In chicken eggs, Batellier et al. (2008) found an increased mortality when exposed to cell phone radiation over the entire incubation period. ...
Article
Mobile phones can be found almost everywhere across the globe, upholding a direct point-to-point connection between the device and the broadcast tower. The emission of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) puts the surrounding environment inevitably into contact with this radiation. We have therefore exposed honey bee queen larvae to the radiation of a common mobile phone device (GSM band at 900 MHz) during all stages of their pre-adult development including pupation. After 14 days of exposure, hatching of adult queens was assessed and mating success after further 11 days, respectively. Moreover, full colonies were established of five of the untreated and four of the treated queens to contrast population dynamics. We found that mobile phone radiation had significantly reduced the hatching ratio but not the mating success. If treated queens had successfully mated, colony development was not adversely affected. We provide evidence that mobile phone radiation may alter pupal development, once succeeded this point, no further impairment has manifested in adulthood. Our results are discussed against the background of long-lasting consequences for colony performance and the possible implication on periodic colony losses.
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All devices using electrical energy emit electromagnetic fields and radiation as a side effect while performing their normal functions. This causes thermal and non-thermal harmful effects on humans, plants, animals, and devices. The effect on humans is not much different from the effects on plants or animals since they are dielectric material and 70-80% of them all consist of water. Other than that, some damages such as cancer appear after 20-30 years medically. Health studies conducted on animals reveal that radiofrequency (RF) waves, as well as the millimeter waves used in the 5G system cause changes in the body, manifested in structural alteration, disturbance in various functions of the organism, including the nervous, cardiovascular, immune, blood and other systems. While microwaves used in 4G cause thermal effects, millimetric waves used in 5G cause non-thermal effects only due to low wave penetration. Based on evidence obtained from various studies carried out by the USA National Toxicology Program, the Italian Ramazzini study, and the EU Reflex study, a growing number of scientists say that electromagnetic (EM) waves are "human carcinogens". As is known that all processes in the human body involve electromagnetic waves. Brain activity, heartbeat, cell division, and neuronal communication always use electrical energy. The activities of hormones and enzymes are regulated electrically. Millimeter waveused in the 5G system have a weak penetrating ability and are easily absorbed by humans, animals, and trees. Therefore, 5G base stations need to be installed approximately every 10 meters. This will result in millions of new base stations in addition to the present ones and increase electromagnetic pollution and health risks by leased by a factor of 100. This study will discuss the biological effects of EM Pollution on humans, animals, and vegetation.
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Аn aesthetic and epistemological departure from ocular centrism has occurred in the wake of current technological evolutions and the posthuman turn. The sonic exploration of the more-than-human takes artists and philosophers beyond anthropomorphism to reveal the hidden patterning of life forms and yet-unfathomed universes. The conflation of nature(s) with culture(s) is one shift that takes place when thinking with sounds and rhythm and studying our environments. On an ontological level, a reordering of subject and object occurs when encountering the reciprocal relationship of sounding. What if culture is actually nature? How does technology connect with botany, and what does it mean to engage the environment with the expanded tactility of the ear? This essay observes current inter-species practices in sound art by revisiting philosopher Susanne Langer's theory of an embodied and embedded mind. Her "new key" in philosophy emphasizes music as a dynamic sound-pattern to conceptualize a semiology of artistic forms that renders human feeling in regard to non-human antecedents. This serves as a tool to trace the preconceptual substrata of mind, leading us through process-oriented studies of nature and psychophysical affect. Thinking with Langer involves the interconnection of natural systems, behavioural patterns, and human expression, which emerges in art.
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Flexible wearable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials have attracted great attentions with the development of portable electronic devices, and paper based EMI shielding materials turn to be an ideal candidate...
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This article uses environmental perspectives as a framework for analysing mobile communication networks, platforms and devices related to fifth generation (5G) expansion. The article focuses on wooden utility poles, recent actions by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and contested Department of the Interior (DOI) interpretations of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. The pell-mell expansion of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT), new deregulatory actions allowing for new equipment on utility poles and controversies regarding the 1918 Bird Act absolving corporations from culpability when they kill birds as part of their business activities (oil spills, construction and similar) create a dangerous mix. These new initiatives pose threats to wildlife including when birds, particularly woodpeckers, interact with wooden utility pole infrastructures. The United States of America is the main geographic setting for this study, although these trends are partially evident in many other nations.
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Rubber and plastic are widely acted as substrates in flexible electromagnetic shielding (EMS) materials. However, these materials have several drawbacks in practical applications, such as potential environmental concerns and difficulties in degrading. In this work, a biodegradability paper-based material composed of electromagnetic wave loss layer (graphene/ silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coating) and reflective layer (aluminum film layer) was successfully fabricated. The electromagnetic wave loss layer constructed three-dimensional (3D) electric conductive network to facilitate the timely transfer of electrons and heat energy obtained from electromagnetic waves. Meanwhile, the reflective layer received electrons and heat from the electric conductive network and make a small quantity of transmission wave back to the wave loss layer. The resulting material exhibited an ultrahigh electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of 92.29 dB within 8-13 GHz, electrical conductivity of 4431 S/m, mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 32 MPa and elongation at break of 6.65%. Compared to the traditional EMS materials, the composite material integrated with excellent EMI SE, heat transfer performance, and weatherability, which has potential applications in microelectronics, high integrated circuits, and flexible electronic fields.
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Electromagnetic energy is utilized over multiple frequency bands to provide seamless wireless communication services. Plants can well perceive electromagnetic energy present in open environments due to reasonably high permittivity and electrical conductivity of constituent tissues. Moreover, a higher surface‐to‐volume ratio of plant structure facilitates increased interaction with the incident electromagnetic waves. To date, a few well‐designed studies have been conducted inside controlled electromagnetic reverberation chambers to investigate either short duration‐low amplitude or long duration‐periodic electromagnetic irradiation‐induced molecular responses in plants. However, as far as is known, studies investigating molecular responses particularly at the mid‐vegetative stage in plants following one‐time (hours‐long) electromagnetic irradiation have not been reported earlier. Hence, the present study aimed at investigating molecular responses in 40‐day‐old Swarnaprabha rice plants following a one‐time 1837.50 MHz, 2.75 mW/m2 electromagnetic irradiation of 2 h 30 min duration. Controlled electromagnetic irradiation inside a simple reverberation chamber was ensured to achieve a pure electromagnetic environment at 1837.50 MHz with deterministic electromagnetic power density at the selected position. Swarnaprabha rice plant was chosen for this investigation since the rice variety is widely cultivated and consumed in the Indian subcontinent. Subsequent alterations in some selected stress‐sensitive gene expressions were assayed using real‐time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique—significant upregulation in calmodulin and phytochrome B gene expressions were noted. This investigation was purposefully focused on subsequent molecular responses immediately following electromagnetic irradiation so that the possible effects of secondary stimulations could be avoided. Observed molecular responses strongly suggested that plants perceive 1837.50 MHz, 2.75 mW/m2 electromagnetic irradiation similar to other injurious stimuli. © 2021 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
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An aesthetic and epistemological departure from ocular centrism has occurred in the wake of current technological evolutions and the posthuman turn. The sonic exploration of the more-than-human takes artists and philosophers beyond anthropomorphism to reveal the hidden patterning of life forms and yet-unfathomed universes. The conflation of nature(s) with culture(s) is one shift that takes place when thinking with sounds and rhythm and studying our environments. On an ontological level, a reordering of subject and object occurs when encountering the reciprocal relationship of sounding . What if culture is actually nature? How does technology connect with botany, and what does it mean to engage the environment with the expanded tactility of the ear? This essay observes current inter-species practices in sound art by revisiting philosopher Susanne Langer’s theory of an embodied and embedded mind. Her “new key” in philosophy emphasizes music as a dynamic sound-pattern to conceptualize a semiology of artistic forms that renders human feeling in regard to non-human antecedents. This serves as a tool to trace the preconceptual substrata of mind, leading us through process-oriented studies of nature and psychophysical affect. Thinking with Langer involves the interconnection of natural systems, behavioural patterns, and human expression, which emerges in art.
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Ambient levels of nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have risen sharply in the last five decades to become a ubiquitous, continuous, biologically active environmental pollutant, even in rural and remote areas. Many species of flora and fauna, because of unique physiologies and habitats, are sensitive to exogenous EMF in ways that surpass human reactivity. This can lead to complex endogenous reactions that are highly variable, largely unseen, and a possible contributing factor in species extinctions, sometimes localized. Non-human magnetoreception mechanisms are explored. Numerous studies across all frequencies and taxa indicate that current low-level anthropogenic EMF can have myriad adverse and synergistic effects, including on orientation and migration, food finding, reproduction, mating, nest and den building, territorial maintenance and defense, and on vitality, longevity and survivorship itself. Effects have been observed in mammals such as bats, cervids, cetaceans, and pinnipeds among others, and on birds, insects, amphibians, reptiles, microbes and many species of flora. Cyto- and geno-toxic effects have long been observed in laboratory research on animal models that can be extrapolated to wildlife. Unusual multi-system mechanisms can come into play with non-human species — including in aquatic environments — that rely on the Earth’s natural geomagnetic fields for critical life-sustaining information. Part 2 of this 3-part series includes four online supplement tables of effects seen in animals from both ELF and RFR at vanishingly low intensities. Taken as a whole, this indicates enough information to raise concerns about ambient exposures to nonionizing radiation at ecosystem levels. Wildlife loss is often unseen and undocumented until tipping points are reached. It is time to recognize ambient EMF as a novel form of pollution and develop rules at regulatory agencies that designate air as ‘habitat’ so EMF can be regulated like other pollutants. Long-term chronic low-level EMF exposure standards, which do not now exist, should be set accordingly for wildlife, and environmental laws should be strictly enforced — a subject explored in Part 3.
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This is a review of the research on the genetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF), mainly on radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and static and extremely low frequency EMF (ELF-EMF). The majority of the studies are on genotoxicity (e.g., DNA damage, chromatin conformation changes, etc.) and gene expression. Genetic effects of EMF depend on various factors, including field parameters and characteristics (frequency, intensity, wave-shape), cell type, and exposure duration. The types of gene expression affected (e.g., genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and stress responses, heat-shock proteins) are consistent with the findings that EMF causes genetic damages. Many studies reported effects in cells and animals after exposure to EMF at intensities similar to those in the public and occupational environments. The mechanisms by which effects are induced by EMF are basically unknown. Involvement of free radicals is a likely possibility. EMF also interacts synergistically with different entities on genetic functions. Interactions, particularly with chemotherapeutic compounds, raise the possibility of using EMF as an adjuvant for cancer treatment to increase the efficacy and decrease side effects of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. Other data, such as adaptive effects and mitotic spindle aberrations after EMF exposure, further support the notion that EMF causes genetic effects in living organisms.
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Electromagnetic energy is the “backbone” of wireless communication systems, and its progressive use is considered to have a low but measurable impact on a wide range of biological systems. Even though a growing amount of data has reported electromagnetic energy absorption in humans along with subsequent biological effects, the consequences of electromagnetic energy absorption on plants have been insufficiently addressed. The higher surface to volume ratio along with the enormous water‐ion concentrations makes the plant an ideal model to interact with non‐ionizing electromagnetic radiation. In this study, controlled and periodic electromagnetic exposure of 1837.50 MHz, 2.75 W/m2 for 6 h a day on a popular rice variety (var. Satabdi) reduced the seed germination rate. The same dose of periodic electromagnetic exposure upregulated phytochrome B and phytochrome C gene transcripts in 12‐day‐old seedlings, whereas, in 32‐day‐old plants, the dose upregulated calmodulin and phytochrome C while the bZIP1 gene showed repression. However, the transcript abundance of bZIP1, phytochrome B, and phytochrome C genes was enhanced even in 12‐day‐old Satabdi seedlings following instantaneous short‐duration (2 h 30 min) controlled electromagnetic exposure to 1837.50 MHz, 2.75 W/m2. The reported responses in rice were observed below the international electromagnetic regulatory limits. Thus, rice plants perceived electromagnetic energy emitted by the wireless communication system as abiotic stress as per its response by upregulation or repression of known stress‐sensing genes.
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Background: Internet browsing has become an indispensable part of day-to-day life. Computers and internet have occupied almost all sectors of human life. However, it is artificial source of electromagnetic radiation, which has adverse effects on all living things in dose dependant manner. Objective: To understand the impact of such electromagnetic radiations on plants, Capsicum annuum L. var. Pusa jwala was grown in the close vicinity of electromagnetic radiations emitted by Wi-Fi routers. Methods: For germination experiment, Chilli seeds were kept in close vicinity (5 cm) from Wi-Fi router for 10 days. For growth and biochemical analysis different growth and biochemical attributes were studied after 21 days of exposure. Control seeds/plants were kept in another room with almost identical conditions like light, temperature etc. Plant growth was measured in terms of fresh weight, shoot length, root length, Leaf Length, Leaf breadth and Leaf area index. In Biochemical analysis, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, soluble protein, lipid peroxidation and proline contents were measured as per standard protocols. Results: The seed germination in vicinity of Wi-Fi router was reduced to 75% and other growth related parameters like root and shoot length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area index and fresh weight were significantly reduced. In Biochemical analysis, Chlorophyll pigments (Chl. a, b and total chlorophyll) were reduced by 4.8, 7.2 and 5.7 fold respectively and protein content reduced by 1.5 fold under influence of electromagnetic radiations. The product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) (18 fold) and proline content (10 fold) was increased synergistically. Conclusion: The electromagnetic radiations emitted by Wi-Fi router have negative influence on growth and biochemical response in Chilli plants.
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The long-overlooked position of American logician and philosopher of art Susanne K. Langer, which appears to be marked by the divide between continental and analytic philosophy, is currently experiencing a renaissance. Adrienne Dengerink Chaplin's The Philosophy of Susanne Langer: Embodied Meaning in Logic, Art and Feeling is an investigation of her concepts, influences and broad intellectual life in the wake of the early twentieth century’s advances in symbolic logic. Mainly known for a semiology that hypothesized an art symbol in order to conceptualize artistic expression (thereby expanding the semantic toolkit of discursive forms in linguistic, scientific and logical symbols), Langer’s contributions to various branches of philosophy had long been misunderstood and unfortunately ignored. Her philosophy continued European movements growing from the ‘linguistic’, respectively ‘symbolic turn’, and developed to a quite idiosyncratic research of the biology of symbolization processes that anticipated later theories on embodied cognition and the intersecting of philosophy and the special sciences. Considering the still-undeveloped research on her work in anglophone academia, and an unfortunate bias regarding the interpretation of her concepts, Dengerink Chaplin's contribution is an extraordinarily valuable source that further illuminates a blind spot in the history of American philosophy and aesthetics.
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The impact of electromagnetic waves on health has been clearly established by many studies in recent decades. No State, with the exception of Russia, takes any real precautions in terms of standards for the population. Conflicts of interest and political lies are used to hide the truth about the dangers of electromagnetic pollution. In addition, it would seem that other sources of radiation than the most well-known ones (mobile phones, digital enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) phones, bluetooth, base stations, Wi-Fi, 4G, 5G) come into play. A system such as HAARP (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program), as well as directed wave beams (related to past and recent scandals) must be analyzed and considered in a comprehensive way to understand why the wave level is only increasing despite the considerable amount of scientific work demonstrating that the standards are not adequate to maintain public health. Thus, official documents show that the impact of electromagnetic waves is not only physical and biological. Indeed, the climate and the behavior of the population are also targeted.
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While residential energy and ventilation standards aim to improve the energy performance and indoor air quality (IAQ) of homes, their combined impact across diverse residential activities and housing environments has not been well-established. This study demonstrates the insights that a recently-developed, freely-available coupled IAQ-energy modeling platform can provide regarding the energy and IAQ trade-offs of weatherization (i.e., sealing and insulation) and ventilation retrofits in multifamily housing across varied indoor occupant activity and mechanical ventilation scenarios in Boston, MA. Overall, it was found that combined weatherization and improved ventilation recommended by design standards could lead to both energy savings and IAQ-related benefits; however, ventilation standards may not be sufficient to protect against IAQ disbenefits for residents exposed to strong indoor sources (e.g., heavy cooking or smoking) and could lead to net increases in energy costs (e.g., due to the addition of continuous outdoor air ventilation). The modeling platform employed in this study is flexible and can be applied to a wide range of building typologies, retrofits, climates, and indoor occupant activities; therefore, it stands as a valuable tool for identifying cost-effective interventions that meet both energy efficiency and ventilation standards and improve IAQ across diverse housing populations.
Preprint
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An die Vereinten Nationen (UNO), die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO), die Europäische Union (EU), den Europarat und die Regierungen aller Nationen Wir, die unterzeichnenden Wissenschaftler, Ärzte, Umweltschutzorganisationen und Bürger aus () Ländern, sprechen uns dringend für einen sofortigen Stopp des Ausbaus und Einsatzes des 5G Funknetzwerks (Internet der fünften Generation) aus, darin eingeschlossen auch der Einsatz von 5G Sendeanlagen auf Weltraumsatelliten. Der Einsatz von 5G wird eine massiv erhöhte Einwirkung hochfrequenter Strahlung (HF) auf den Menschen zur Folge haben, zusätzlich zu den bereits jetzt genutzten 2G-, 3G-und 4G-Telekommunikations-Netzwerken. Die gesundheitsschädigende Wirkung von Hochfrequenzstrahlung auf Mensch und Umwelt ist bewiesen. Die Anwendung von 5G stellt ein Experiment an der Menschheit und der Umwelt dar, was durch internationales Recht als Verbrechen definiert ist.
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Fecal contamination from sewage and agricultural runoff is a pervasive problem in Great Lakes watersheds. Most work examining fecal pollution loads from watersheds rely on discrete samples of fecal indicators and modeling land use. In this study we made empirical measurements of human and ruminant-associated fecal indicator bacteria and combined these with hydrological measurements in eight watersheds ranging from predominantly forested to highly urbanized. Flow composited river samples were collected over low-flow (n=89) and rainfall or snowmelt runoff events (n=130). Approximately, 85% of samples had evidence of human fecal pollution, with highest loads from urban watersheds. Ruminant indicators were found in ~60-100% of runoff-event samples in agricultural watersheds, with concentrations and loads related to cattle density. Rain depth, season, agricultural tile drainage, and human or cattle density explained variability in daily flux of human or ruminant indicators. Mapping host-associated indicator loads to watershed discharge points sheds light on the type, level, and possible health risk from fecal pollution entering the Great Lakes and can inform Total Maximum Daily Load implementation and other management practices to target specific fecal pollution sources.
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It has been shown that low intensity microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act in animals via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the plasma membrane, producing excessive intracellular calcium [Ca²⁺]i, with excessive [Ca²⁺]i leading to both pathophysiological and also in some cases therapeutic effects. The pathophysiological effects are produced largely through excessive [Ca2+]i signaling including excessive nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, peroxynitrite, free radical formation and consequent oxidative stress. The activation of the VGCCs is thought to be produced via EMF impact on the VGCC voltage sensor, with the physical properties of that voltage sensor predicting that it is extraordinarily sensitive to these EMFs. It is shown here that the action of EMFs in terrestrial, multicellular (embryophyte) plants is probably similar to the action in animals in most but not all respects, with calcium channel activation in the plasma membrane leading to excessive [Ca²⁺]i, leading in turn to most if not all of the biological effects. A number of studies in plants are briefly reviewed which are consistent with and supportive of such a mechanism. Plant channels most plausibly to be involved, are the so-called two pore channels (TPCs), which have a voltage sensor similar to those found in the animal VGCCs.
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Abstract This article tries to answer the review paper from Verschaeve (2014 ). This review paper attempted to dismiss every study that shows negative effects of microwave radiation on living organisms. His conclusions are not supported by scientific data and are mostly based on his claims for “inaccurate” dosimetry. This issue is not the case, especially in studies employing real and not simulated exposures by mobile telephony (and related technologies) antennas, since this type of radiation is of highly varying nature, and its levels - regardless of any dosimetry - are simply the same with those exposing daily billions of users.
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The exponential increase of mobile telephony has led to a pronounced increase in electromagnetic fields in the environment that may affect pollinator communities and threaten pollination as a key ecosystem service. Previous studies conducted on model species under laboratory conditions have shown negative effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on reproductive success, development, and navigation of insects. However, the potential effects that widespread mobile telecommunication antennas have on wild pollinator communities outside the laboratory microcosm are still unknown. Here we studied the effects of EMR from telecommunication antennas on key wild pollinator groups (wild bees, hoverflies, bee flies, remaining flies, beetles, butterflies, and wasps). We measured EMR at 4 distances (50, 100, 200 and 400 m) from 10 antennas (5 on Limnos Island and 5 on Lesvos Island, eastern Mediterranean, Greece), and correlated EMR values with insect abundance and richness (the latter only for wild bees and hoverflies). All pollinator groups except butterflies were affected by EMR. In both islands, beetle, wasp, and hoverfly abundance decreased with EMR, whereas the abundance of underground-nesting wild bees and bee flies unexpectedly increased with EMR. The effect of EMR on the abundance of remaining flies differed between islands. With respect to species richness, EMR only tended to have a negative effect on hoverflies in Limnos. As EMR affected the abundance of several insect guilds negatively, and changed the composition of wild pollinators in natural habitats, it might also have additional ecological and economic impacts on the maintenance of wild plant diversity, crop production and human welfare.
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High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α - and β -amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism.
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Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with unspecific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems certainly necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic field (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common EMF sources include Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, Bluetooth devices, ELF magnetic fields from net currents, ELF electric fields from electric lamps and wiring close to the bed and office desk. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term-exposure to certain EMF exposures is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI) leading to a functional impairment (EHS), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms often occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleeping problems, depression, lack of energy, fatigue and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to the diagnosis. The EMF exposure can be assessed by asking for typical sources like Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones and measurements at home and at work. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of EMF at home and in the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. Also the survival rate of children with leukemia depends on ELF magnetic field exposure at home. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports a balanced homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the number of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem disorders - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides concepts for the diagnosis and treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.
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In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.
Conference Paper
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Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by an object when exposed to an electromagnetic field. SAR evaluation at different human organs due to cell phone radiation is very common today. On the other hand, none has yet considered that the plants, fruits and crops get exposed to RF radiation from cell phone towers 24 hours a day without any shielding. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is to evaluate SAR in apple fruit (in tree) due to radiation coming from cell phone towers in GSM bands at controlled and public exposure zones. SAR has been evaluated in an apple with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO (CST-MWS) simulator based on Finite Integration Technique (FIT).
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The rate of scientific activity regarding the effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation in the radiofrequency (RF) range on animals and plants has been small despite the fact that this topic is relevant to the fields of experimental biology, ecology and conservation due to its remarkable expansion over the past 20years. Current evidence indicates that exposure at levels that are found in the environment (in urban areas and near base stations) may particularly alter the receptor organs to orient in the magnetic field of the earth. These results could have important implications for migratory birds and insects, especially in urban areas, but could also apply to birds and insects in natural and protected areas where there are powerful base station emitters of radiofrequencies. Therefore, more research on the effects of electromagnetic radiation in nature is needed to investigate this emerging threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m−1, and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m−1) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m−1) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m−1) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015;9999:1–9. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Despite the widespread use of wireless telephone networks around the world, authorities and researchers have paid little attention to the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation on wildlife. This paper briefly reviews the available scientific information on this topic and recommends further studies and specific lines of research to confirm or refute the experimental results to date. Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe for the environment, particularly, threatened species.
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We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Cross-sectional study. La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions. A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs. The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in -2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86). The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels-independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep.
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On the basis of our previous pilot tests with a TV set we have carried out a series of tests on the growth and germination of spruce seeds, Picea abies, which proved to be susceptible to weak electromagnetic fields: at 35 cm in front of the TV set–Emax 24 V/m, Emax 270 nT at 16 kHz and Emax 800 V/m, Emax 1500 nT at 50 Hz; at 90 cm in front of the TV set–Emax, 0.1 V/m, Bmax 14 nT at 16 kHz and Emax 12 V/m, Emax, 100 nT at 50 Hz. Owing to prolonged (pre)imbibition for 2 days (the B system, mild water stress) the effects on the seeds were very conspicuous: the average lengths of radicles were significantly higher (from 27 to 52% at 35 cm, from 16 to 59% at 90 cm) than in the control groups. In 4 experiments with the normally imbibed seeds (the N system) the average lengths were significantly lower (by -20 to -12% at 35 cm, by -19 to -14% at 90 cm) against the control. There were no such differences in two control experiments without the TV set or with the set turned off. The more pronounced effects on the B system indicate that plant seedlings in different physiological states have different susceptibility to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) even to the point of opposite polarity, suggesting that besides power and frequency windows we may also have physiological ones. Otherwise, the effects were more conspicuous at shorter distances with the B system while the N system revealed no such preferences.
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In this paper, a large number of studies of the effect of the foliage on single or lines of trees on modern wireless communication systems are reviewed. The paper is focused on the experimental works mainly done for commercial applications such as cellular communication and high speed point-to-point fixed link at the microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. For this review study, the development of the foliage loss prediction methods and the factors influencing the tree-induced shadowing effect are highlighted. In view of current research work in this area, some possible future works are proposed to improve the performance of modern wireless communication systems with the effect of foliage.
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Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.
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Numerous incidents of aspen decline have been recorded in North America over the past half century, and incidents of very rapid mortality of aspen clones have been observed in Colorado since 2004. The radio frequency (RF) environment of the earth has undergone major changes in the past two centuries due to the development and use of electricity in power and communications applications, and the anthropogenic RF background continues to increase in intensity and complexity. This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.
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El despliegue de la telefonía sin cable, acontecido durante la última década en todo el mundo, ha elevado la contaminación electromagnética en el rango de las radiofrecuencias en varios órdenes de magnitud, sobre todo en los núcleos habitados. No se han previsto los efectos sobre los seres vivos especialmente sobre los que, por su inmovilidad o sedentarismo, o por su proximidad a las instalaciones, padecen una irradiación crónica de niveles elevados, que según algunos expertos en bioelectromagnetismo tienen efectos acumulativos. El bioelectromagnetismo es una disciplina científica minoritaria que ha despertado interés y experimentado un gran auge recientemente. Una gran mayoría de investigadores independientes reconocen los efectos no térmicos de estas ondas sobre los seres vivos, que todavía no están contemplados en la legislación española. Con niveles de densidad de potencia miles de millones de veces más bajos existe suficiente cobertura para que la telefonía móvil funcione.
Article
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There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P<0.05). The NBTB indicated that the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.
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Using an especially-designed facility, the Mode Stirred Reverberation Chamber, we exposed tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. VFN8) to low level (900 MHz, 5 V m(-1)) electromagnetic fields for a short period (10 min) and measured changes in abundance of three specific mRNA soon after exposure. Within minutes of electromagnetic stimulation, stress-related mRNA (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase and proteinase inhibitor) accumulated in a rapid, large and 3-phase manner typical of an environmental stress response. Accumulation of these transcripts into the polysomal RNA also took place (indicating that the encoded proteins were translated) but was delayed (indicating that newly-synthesized mRNA was not immediately recruited into polysomes). Transcript accumulation was maximal at normal Ca(2+) levels and was depressed at higher Ca(2+), especially for those encoding calcium-binding proteins. Removal of Ca(2+) (by addition of chelating agents or Ca(2+) channel blocker) led to total suppression of mRNA accumulation. Finally, 30 min after the electromagnetic treatment, ATP concentration and adenylate energy charge were transiently decreased, while transcript accumulation was totally prevented by application of the uncoupling reagent, CCCP. These responses occur very soon after exposure, strongly suggesting that they are the direct consequence of application of radio-frequency fields and their similarities to wound responses strongly suggests that this radiation is perceived by plants as an injurious stimulus.
Article
A series of experiments was carried out to investigate any structural or biochemical alterations on Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) plants after a long term exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted from the base unit of a cordless DECT system. Exposed plants, compared to their control counterparts, seem to be affected concerning their biomass and leaf structure. Their leaves are thinner and possess fewer chloroplasts. SEM observations of the exposed leaves reveal that the only feature affected is the pubescence which almost disappears while TEM investigation revealed minor structural effects in the chloroplasts. The reduction in the number of chloroplasts as well as the decrease of stroma thylakoids and photosynthetic pigments are probably the main reasons for a weak photosynthetic potential and a consequent reduction of the biomass production.
Article
Under high levels of radiation (70-100 µW/m2 =175 mV/m), seeds of Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum (cress d’Alinois) never germinated. In fact, the first step of seeds’ germination - e.g. imbibitions of germinal cells - could not occur under radiation, while inside the humid compost such imbibitions occurred and roots slightly developed. When removed from the electromagnetic field, seeds germinated normally. The radiation was, thus, most likely the cause of the non-occurrence of the seeds’ imbibitions and germination.
Article
Wireless technologies are becoming popular due to convenient lower implementation costs and operational costs compared with wired technologies. Various wireless internet and communication technologies, such as worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and long-term evolution (LTE), are expanding rapidly. As with mobile phones, all of these technologies operate using high-frequency electromagnetic waves in the microwave category (3 × 102 – 3 × 106 MHz). An increasing number of operators within a geographical area is resulting in high microwave densities in the environment. At the same time, wireless technologies are now utilizing radio frequency electromagnetic radiation of up to 5500 MHz, and frequency spectrum allocation tables indicate that countries have allocated additional high frequencies for broadcasting purposes. Scientists have widely investigated the effects of microwaves on humans and animals, and some findings confirm that such effects exist. In comparison, a very limited number of published studies have addressed the effects of microwaves on plants. The findings of these studies indicate that the effects of microwaves on plants depend on the plant family and growth stage involved as well as the exposure duration, frequency, and power density, among other factors. However, the number of published studies is not yet sufficient to support drawing strong conclusions regarding the effects of microwaves on whole plant communities. Therefore, further studies are necessary to support present findings and uncover new findings.
Article
The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to design and describe the valuation of Asian option by radial basis function approximation. A one state variable partial differential equation which characterizes the price of European type Asian option is discussed. The governing equation is discretized by the θ-method and the option price is approximated by radial basis function based finite difference method. Numerical experiments are performed with European option and Asian option and results are compared with theoretical and numerical results available in the literature. We show numerically that the scheme is second order accurate. Stability of the scheme is also discussed.
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Im Anschluss an die durch den rasanten Anstieg der drahtlosen Telefonie in den letzten Jahren be- dingte Zunahme der Zahl von Mobilfunksendeanlagen in oder in unmittelbarer Nähe von Wohn- gebieten erfolgte die Aufforderung des Präsidenten des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz, Wolfram König, an alle Ärzte, aktiv an der Abschätzung des Risikos durch Mobilfunkstrahlung mitzuarbei- ten. Das Ziel dieser Untersuchung war daher, zu prüfen, ob Anwohner in der Nähe von Mobilfunk- sendeanlagen einem erhöhten Risiko für Neuerkrankungen an bösartigen Tumoren ausgesetzt sind. Datengrundlage waren PC-gespeicherte und mit den Krankenkassen abgerechnete Patienten- unterlagen der Jahre 1994 bis 2004. In die ohne Fremdmittel erstellte Studie wurden Angaben von knapp 1.000 Patienten aus Naila (Oberfranken) unter Wahrung des Datenschutzes aufgenommen. Als Ergebnis zeigte sich, dass der Anteil von neu aufgetretenen Krebsfällen bei den Patienten, die während der letzten zehn Jahre in einem Abstand bis zu 400 Meter um die seit 1993 betriebene Mobilfunksendeanlage gewohnt hatten, gegenüber weiter entfernt lebenden Patienten signifi- kant höher war und die Patienten in durchschnittlich jüngerem Alter erkrankt waren. Für die Jahre 1999 bis 2004 - also nach fünf und mehr Jahren Betriebszeit des Senders - hatte sich das Malignomrisiko für die näher an der Sendestation lebende Bevölkerungsgruppe im Vergleich mit der Gruppe im Nailaer Außenbereich verdreifacht.
Article
Young spruce and beech trees were planted in field plots and exposed to 2450-MHz microwave radiation generated by a 600-W magnetron source. Power flux densities (PFD) ranged from 0.007 to 300 W/m2, depending on the location within the plots. Microwave exposure was permanent during 3.5 years. Heating effects of the microwave radiation were estimated by measuring the hydrolysis rate of exposed sucrose solutions. This method revealed a temperature increase of ∼4°C at the highest PFDs. During the whole exposure period, the microwave radiation caused no visual symptoms of damage. PFD had no effect on crown transparency, a parameter commonly estimated in forest condition inventories. Height growth was similar at all PFDs for both species, as was photosynthesis in beech leaves, determined by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. A negative relationship existed between foliar concentrations of calcium and sulfur in beech and PFD during the first 2 years of exposure. However, the concentrations of both nutrients remained within the sufficiency range. In the third year of exposure, the effect was absent. The microwave effect on calcium is discussed in connection with literature data.
Article
The effects of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) on plant growth and development are still unclear and contradictory. The aim of this work is to study the impact of RF EMF generated from the Skrunda Radio Location Station, Latvia, on growth and development of pine trees. Pine needles and cones were collected in 1993 from the tops of 50–60-year-old pine trees in four locations near the Skrunda RLS: A — no EMF exposure, B — low EMF exposure, C and D — high EMF exposure. The chloroplasts of mesophyll of second-year needles are ultrastructurally characterised by dense stroma, a compact granal membrane system and variable amounts of starch granules and plastoglobules. Low and especially high EMF exposure from the Skrunda RLS increased the amount of plastoglobules. the structure and export products of Golgi apparatus were changed and in different types of cells, large osmiophilic globules appeared. Evidently, EMF induces modification of Golgi apparatus and switches its functions from synthesis of predecessors of cell walls (lignins) to formation and export of resin predecessors. The stress due to RF EMF generated from Skrunda RLS causes an unspecific response — accelerated resin production and promoted senescence of pine trees.
Article
Background: In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05. Results: The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m). Conclusion: It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.
Article
A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p<0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p<0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.
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The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.
Article
Although the effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on biological systems have been studied frequently, unequivocal results have rarely been obtained, primarily because suitably controlled experiments could not be performed. In the present work, tomato plants were exposed to a homogeneous and isotropic field (900 MHz) using a mode stirred reverberation chamber, and the stress-related transcripts (calmodulin, protease inhibitor and chloroplast mRNA-binding protein) were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR. Exposure to an electromagnetic field induced a biphasic response, in which the levels of all three transcripts increased four- to six-fold 15 min after the end of electromagnetic stimulation, dropped to close to initial levels by 30 min, and then increased again at 60 min. We deliberately focused on the very early molecular responses to high-frequency electromagnetic fields in order to minimize secondary effects.