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Amaranth—Sustainable crop for the 21st century: food properties, and nutraceuticals for improving human health.

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Abstract

Amaranth seeds have a high content of bioactive compounds with a remarkable nutritional and nutraceutical positive potential for human health. Their composition includes key proteins, some interesting essential amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, dietary fiber and important phytochemicals. Since the last decades amaranth has been considered the most promising plant due to its agronomic performance, protein quality and essential amino acids of their seeds superior to other important cereals. Globulins are the main protein fraction containing valuable amounts of essential amino acids. When amaranth proteins are subjected to enzymatic proteolysis by food processing, bioactive peptides are released and their absorption may bring benefits to health. The functional properties of the bioactive peptides including their antihypertensive and antioxidant properties may prevent the onset of cardiovascular diseases and favor other outstanding health benefits. The use of prediction of sequence peptides and other molecular tools are giving place to genetic transformation and modifications which may conduct to the improvement of the nutraceutical potential of these proteins.

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... The crude protein content in the four studied accessions of A. hypochondriacus seeds (17 to 18 g/100 DM) is in agreement with the value reported by Rutkowska [51] (17.9% DM) and higher than the mean value (15.6% DM, on average) observed by Barba de la Rosa et al. [35] in four varieties of A. hypochondriacus grown in Mexico. The crude protein content is also within the range reported in literature for amaranth seeds, which ranges from 13 to 18% [46,[52][53][54][55][56]. Moreover, as a general rule, we could affirm that A. hypochondriacus exhibits a higher content of crude protein when compared to cereals such as corn (10.3% of DM), wheat (14% DM), and rice (8.5% DM) [54]. ...
... The crude protein content is also within the range reported in literature for amaranth seeds, which ranges from 13 to 18% [46,[52][53][54][55][56]. Moreover, as a general rule, we could affirm that A. hypochondriacus exhibits a higher content of crude protein when compared to cereals such as corn (10.3% of DM), wheat (14% DM), and rice (8.5% DM) [54]. ...
... Our data resulted also in agreement with the data found by Gresta et al. [31] in eight accessions of A. cruentus seeds (5.6-7.3%, as fed). On the whole, as a general observation, A. hypochondriacus exhibits a higher oil content (5.7% DM, on average) when compared to cereals such as corn (4.5% DM), wheat (2.1% DM), and rice (2.1% DM) [54]. ...
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With the aim to explore the use of A. hypochondriacus seeds for animal feeding, the agronomic traits, nutrients, and bioactive compounds of four accessions with different origin (India, Nebraska, Iowa, and Pennsylvania) grown in a Mediterranean environment were studied. Proximate composition was determined using the official methods of analyses, fatty acid profile by gas chromatography, total phenolic content (TPC) and the scavenging activity (DPPH• and ABTS•+) by colorimetric method. A one-way ANOVA model was performed to determine the differences between accessions. The four A. hypochondriacus accessions showed interesting seed yield results. No significant differences were observed for crude protein and crude fiber; the oil content showed the significant highest values in the seeds from Nebraska and Pennsylvania, but their nutritional characteristics were significantly different. The accession from Nebraska showed the highest oleic and linoleic acid levels, the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the best atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio, and the highest TPC content. The accession from Pennsylvania showed the highest antioxidant activity and lowest peroxidation index. On the whole, A. hypochondriacus seeds can be used as pseudo-cereal to balance the animal diet and the accession should be chosen according to the different metabolic pathways of unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant and monogastric animals.
... Amaranth spp are adapted to growing in temperate and tropical climates and are used mostly as a vegetable or grain. Consequently, amaranth species have become an essential crop which are now being cultivated in several countries and regions of the world including Africa, India, South America, the United States and China, due to their high adaptability to temperate and tropical regions [7,8]. They are considered a pseudo-cereal with high nutritional value, containing a higher protein content than rice, wheat, and maize, which are the three most important staple cereals, that contribute with more than half of the total protein at global level [6,9]. ...
... According to a study by Orona-Tamayo & Paredes-Lopez [8], relative to the amaranth specie, total CP ranges from 13.2-18.4%, lysine (3.2-13.1g/100g ...
... Evidence from various studies in other parts of Africa and other places of the world note that wild fruits and plants provide a significant component of the diet, predominantly for children. Wild fruits and plants contribute significantly to diet quality rather than quantity [8,10,20]. An additional key characteristic of some wild plants and fruits is their storage capacity. ...
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The livestock sector plays a very vital role in improving the food security status of people in the world. Maize and soybean are traditionally the main energy and protein sources in livestock diets respectively. However, with the consideration that the livestock sector is growing as well as the world’s population, an alternative ingredient or supplement to maize and/or soybean can be quite helpful and has to be taken into consideration. For the greater part in livestock production feed accounts for the largest single cost of about 60%-80% of the total cost and maize and soybean prices are on the rise. Since the prices are on the rise for these convectional ingredients, it implies that for farmers, in particular those in developing countries, that maize and soybean is going to be less accessible. This makes the prospects of utilizing amaranth as an alternative energy and/or protein supplement feasible. Considering its availability in some of these areas and its ease of propagation. This review article will detail the options to reconsider amaranth as an alternative supplement to maize or soybean in animal feed.
... Amaranth seeds have a high nutritional value that is even higher than those of some cereals. The protein content in them reaches 13 -18% [3,[7][8][9][10][11], which is comparable to corn (12%), wheat (12 -14%) and rice (7 -10%) [9,11]. The oil content of the seeds is relatively low (from 4.9 to 10.0%) [3,[10][11][12] with predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (61.0 -87.3%), mainly oleic (20.2 -32.9%) and linoleic acid (37.0 -47.8%). ...
... Amaranth seeds have a high nutritional value that is even higher than those of some cereals. The protein content in them reaches 13 -18% [3,[7][8][9][10][11], which is comparable to corn (12%), wheat (12 -14%) and rice (7 -10%) [9,11]. The oil content of the seeds is relatively low (from 4.9 to 10.0%) [3,[10][11][12] with predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (61.0 -87.3%), mainly oleic (20.2 -32.9%) and linoleic acid (37.0 -47.8%). ...
... Linolenic, arachidic and behenic acids are found in smaller amounts (from 0.11 to 1.54%). The lipid fraction also contains a number of biologically active substances (tocopherols, sterols and phospholipids) that define this oil as a valuable source of useful compounds for the human body [9,16]. ...
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A comparative study on chemical and lipid composition of amaranth seeds with different origin (Indian and Turkish) was performed. The amount of glyceride oil in the seeds was 6.2 and 6.6%, respectively. The content of proteins, total carbohydrates, fibers and ash was 19.4-20.0%, 60.5-61.4%, 1.8-5.3% and 2.0-2.4%, respectively. Starch consisted of 53.5-56.5% of all carbohydrates and the amount of the available sugars was 2.2-2.6%. The moisture of the samples varied between 10.6 and 10.9%. The main components in triacylglycerols of seed oil from India were oleic (38.7%) and palmitic acid (38.4%), while in that from Turkey-palmitic (33.1%), oleic (31.7%) and linoleic acid (22.6%). Total content of unsaponifiable substances in the oils was found to be 8.5-9.3%. The amount of sterols in the oils was 1.3-2.6% and the main component was -sitosterol (38.1-41.9%), followed by stigmasterol (24.9-26.1%) and  5-avenasterol (20.1-23.5%). Total tocopherol content was 1015-1060 mg/kg and the main components were -tocopherol (54.2-55.5%), -tocopherol (26.1-26.3%), and -tocopherol (13.6-14.6%). The total content of phospholipids in the oils was 3.4-3.5%. The major representative in the oil from seeds with Indian origin was phosphatidylserine (21.5%), while in that with Turkish origin all identified phospholipid classes were present in similar quantities (10.1-14.9%). Overall, significant differences were observed in the fatty acid and phospholipid composition of the oils from Indian and Turkish amaranth seeds, as well as in their content of macro-and microelements.
... The leaves can be consumed as a soup, but also for the extraction of proteins, dyes or inflorescences can be used for various decorations (Toader and Roman, 2011). Amaranthus grains have a high nutritional value due to the presence, in a large quantity, of important biochemical compounds for human nutrition and health (Nadathur, 2016). Most of the biochemical components (proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins), are present in greater quantity, compared to other species (Nadathur, 2016). ...
... Amaranthus grains have a high nutritional value due to the presence, in a large quantity, of important biochemical compounds for human nutrition and health (Nadathur, 2016). Most of the biochemical components (proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins), are present in greater quantity, compared to other species (Nadathur, 2016). Orona-Tomayo and Paredes-Lopez, in 2017, reported that, for the different Amaranthus species, proteins can reach up to 19.3%, even 20%; the richness of the essential amino acids was also highlighted: 5-7% lysine (g 100 -1 g protein), 3-4% tryptophan, 3-4% leucine, which gives it a high nutritional value compared to the conventional cereals (Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-Lopez, 2017). ...
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Currently, according to the specialists in the field, Amaranthus species are part of alternative agricultural crops recommended for organic farming. In this context, our scientific approach is to analyse the adaptability of these species in the specific conditions of the southern part of Romania (Reviga village, Ialomita County). Thus, for two consecutive years, two varieties of Amaranthus cruentus, namely ‘Bolivia 153’ and ‘Golden Giant’, were studied regarding: morphology, biology, cultivation technology, plant productivity and quality of yields in the organic farming conditions. After the study period, the ‘Golden Giant’ variety was characterized by the following: 8 days - sowing-emergence period; flowering start on 21 July; 124 days - vegetation period; 839.3 Growing Degree Days (GDD) (Σ t °C > 15 °C); 23.24 g - grains mass per plant; 1.375 g - Thousand Weight Grains (TWG); 2,647 kg ha-1 - grains yields. By comparison, ‘Bolivia 153’ variety plants were presented as follows: 11 days - sowing-emergence period; flowering start on 21 July; 127 days - vegetation period; 842.4 GDD; 22.09 g - grains mass per plant; 1.46 g TWG; 23.78 kg ha-1 - grains yields. In average, the chemical composition of Amaranthus cruentus grains was: 15.20% proteins; 51.70% starch; 5.96% lipids; 13.36% cellulose and 3.35% ash. In conclusion, the experimentation area proved to be favourable to Amaranthus cruentus cultivation, so that the tested varieties behaved well, had a fairly uniform emergences, and the good level of grains yields and quality.
... Amaranthaceae family, found mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of the world (Taylor and Emmambux, 2008;Corke et al., 2016).The plant originated (Svodziwa 2015) from the Aztec civilisation of Central America, where it was regarded as a religious crop. In Africa, the crop is gaining prominence because of its high nutritional content and easy-to-grow nature (Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). The crop is rich in high-quality protein and balanced amino acid (Venskutonis and Kraujalis, 2013;Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). ...
... In Africa, the crop is gaining prominence because of its high nutritional content and easy-to-grow nature (Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). The crop is rich in high-quality protein and balanced amino acid (Venskutonis and Kraujalis, 2013;Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). ...
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This study seeks to popularise the traditional grain and vegetable aramanth crop in Manjolo and Sikalenge wards of Binga Rural District of Matabeleland North in Zimbabwe. The study of the grain and vegetable amaranth project by Ntengwe for Community Development (NCD) in collaboration with Tugwi Mukosi Multidisciplinary Research Institute (TMMRI) of the Midlands State University comprised of 74 farmers in the two wards aims at enhancing household nutrition, food and income security for the communities. Data for the study was collected by interviewing the aramanth farmers, 3 retail outlets (supermarkets) manangers, 3 hoteland lodges managers, as well as 2 crop science specialists in April and May 2020. The SPSS version 24 was used to analyse the data. Findings from the study indicate that the communities were not aware of the food value of the but knew aramanth as an indigenous weed which grew on abandoned cattle pens and homesteads. Findings further indicate that the farmers have a positive perception towards the production and consumption of amaranth which can be exploited to create demand for the vegetable locally and beyond. Observed dynamics militating against commercial production of amaranth in the two wards include the poor transport delivery system, water shortages, costly farm inputs and information asymmetry on potential markets and suppliers. The study recommends further researches into amaranth productivity with regards to possibilities of value addition and beneficiation to tap international markets.
... The industry is a versatile system that seeks continuous improvement, taking into account physical and chemical changes that contribute to improving the quality of food with certain properties that help improve health, and in recent years a healthy consumption of food has been a trend (Barragán Valbuena, 2011;Giacomini et al., 2019;Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al., 2020;Reyes-Moreno et al., 2019;Ritchie et al., 2019). The use of bioactive components extracted from seeds, allow obtaining products with nutritional and biological properties to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, among others, and can also prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular cardiovascular diseases (Orona-Tamayo & Paredes-López, 2017). Today the wet grain milling industry has focused only on the performance of the obtained fractions such as starch, protein, fats and fibers, mainly in the corn industry; However, they have not explored the use of the different mixtures of compounds that come out as a by-product of the process, which may have a certain biological and functional capacity, which could be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries in the development of new and innovative products (Roa et al., 2017). ...
... It can be said that high starch yield and low protein content in the starch granules are indicators of a good wet milling process (Calzetta Resio et al., 2006b;Myers & Fox, 1994). On the other hand, the higher protein yield in the co-product is also due to the fact that albumins are the main protein fraction in the amaranth grain, which is from 42 to 46% of the total proteins, which are highly soluble in alkaline solutions (Orona-Tamayo & Paredes-López, 2017;Roa et al., 2015;Tosi et al., 2000). ...
Article
In order to determine the effect of the operational conditions in wet milling, it was used a factorial design Box-benhken type of three factors with three levels, the factors were surfactant concentration (SDS), sodium hydroxide concentration (NaOH) and maceration temperature; through this design it was obtained fifteen samples, which were studied through infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and CIElab coordinates (L*,a*,b*). The increase luminosity (L*) was affected by the temperature and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) simultaneously, which indicates that there is a greater amount of starch and less protein in the by-product. The coordinates a* and b* were affected by sodium hydroxide (NaOH), showing that at low process conditions, the values of both coordinates decrease. On the other hand, results showed that bands 1012 cm-1 , 1077 cm-1 y 1150 cm-1 associated to glycosidic bonds, were sensitive to sodium hydroxide concentration (NaOH), indicating a possible structural change in the amylose/amylopectin relation of the starch granule, while, the bands 1563 cm-1 and 1633 cm-1 , assigned to Amide II and Amide I respectively, were sensitive to NaOH effect and the maceration temperature. The above indicates that protein content in the byproducts is variable and depends on significantly of wet milling conditions.
... While leafy vegetables are known to be essential for a healthy diet [1], amaranth is a favorite, consumed worldwide, as it contains a variety of nutrients [2]. Amaranth however also owns high contents of antinutrients, i.e., nitrate (NO 3 − ) and oxalate [3], in particular that grown in soils amended with mineral fertilizer [4]. ...
... Nitrification inhibition (%) = (Net nitrification rate) un −(Net nitrification rate) am (Net nitrification rate) un (2) where (Net nitrification rate) un is the net nitrification rate of the Un treatments, and (Net nitrification rate) am in the treatment of MF, CrF Low , CrF Medium , or CrF High . A two-way analysis of variance based on a factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design was used to evaluate the effects of soil amendments and neem seed extract on tissue NO 3 − and oxalic acid contents of amaranth and its related soil properties. ...
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A vegetable’s high antinutrients, nitrate (NO3−) and oxalate, could be remediated by neem seed extract. The combined use of neem seed extract with mineral fertilizer and cricket frass was conducted to evaluate their effects on amaranth’s tissue NO3− and oxalic acid contents by inhibiting nitrification. The effects of five soil amendments were investigated: unamended, mineral fertilizer, and three rates of cricket frass (3.125 Mg ha−1, 6.25 Mg ha−1, and 12.5 Mg ha−1), combined with two rates of neem seed extract: without (−Nm) and with (+Nm) extract. Only the neem extract applied to soils receiving mineral fertilizers decreased soil tissue NO3−−N contents (0.82 g kg−1 for −Nm vs. 0.62 g kg−1 for +Nm). The oxalic acid content of amaranth decreased with mineral fertilizer (0.60 and 0.46 g kg−1 for −Nm and +Nm, respectively), yet increased with the higher rates of cricket frass (1.42–1.52 g kg−1 for −Nm, and 1.23–1.51 g kg−1 for +Nm) compared to the unamended soil (1.05 and 1.00 g kg−1 for −Nm and +Nm). Cations, including K, Ca, Mg, and Na derived from cricket frass, may enhance biosynthesis and the accumulation of oxalic acid. The neem seed extract decreased the tissue’s oxalic contents regardless of soil amendments.
... Amaranth seed has interesting nutritional characteristics as well. One of the most important is the content and quality of protein (Fidantsi and Doxastakis, 2001;Venskutonis and Kraujalis, 2013;Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). Interest in the way amaranth is cultivated and consumed has grown in the past two decades because of favorable reports of its nutritional value and health benefits. ...
Article
The Amaranth is a plant considered as a third millennium crop due to its nutritional properties and its agronomic versatility. Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) can be cultivated in greenhouses or the open field. Greenhouse cultivation provides better yields but may affect chemical composition. In this study we compared antioxidant capacity, content of total phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and anti-nutritional factors (phytic acid and trypsin inhibition) in amaranth plants grown in the greenhouse and in the open field. An area of 100 m² was used for each cultivation system. Cultures were performed by direct sowing in furrows, with a system of drip irrigation and no fertilizers were used. Student's t test was used for comparison of variables in the two systems. Greenhouse-grown amaranth showed the highest values for total anthocyanins in leaf and α-tocopherol (leaf and seed), while in the open-field system, higher values of trypsin inhibition, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins were found in leaves and seed.
... (depending on the species) the majority of which are globulins. Amaranth's protein content is highly hydrolysable and is rich in lysine, methionine, and cysteine (Orona- Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). Enzymatic hydrolysis of amaranth proteins has reportedly produced peptides with antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects ( Fillería and Tironi, 2017;Moronta et al., 2016;Sabbione et al., 2015). ...
... It could also be used in the preparation of gluten-free products, i.e., functional foods for use in treating certain diseases associated with food consumption [27,28]. The nutritional and agronomic characteristics of amaranth make it a plant of potential interest for use in the human food and animal feed industries [29][30][31]. ...
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The effect of consuming breads made with wheat flour and Amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) wholemeal flour on Sprague Dawley rats with hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia induced through feeding was studied. Four diets were provided: control (CD: Ratarina®), commercial bread (CBD), bread with 100 g·kg−1 (ABD10) and 200 g·kg−1 (ABD20) amaranth flour. Zoometric and blood chemistry parameters were measured before and after consuming the diets. A completely random factorial design of 2 × 4 × 2 was used. The factors were blood lipids and glucose level (normal, N and elevated, E), diet (CD, CBD, ABD10 and ABD20) and sex (female, F and male, M). The rats consuming ABD10 and ABD20 diets presented the lowest glucose values, although with no differences (p > 0.05) between the groups of elevated blood lipids and glucose rats (E). Triglyceride concentrations decreased in ABD10 and ABD20 treatments in comparison with CD, elevated blood lipids and glucose (E) rats, while ABD10 rats showed lower total cholesterol level than normal (N) rats. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values increased in the ABD10 and ABD20 groups (p < 0.05), while it did lower for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiac risk index (p < 0.05). In ABD10 and ABD20 treatments, the abdominal circumference decreased in both sexes (p < 0.05) between weeks 23 and 31. In conclusion, consumption of bread with amaranth improved lipid profiles of rats and could help to prevent metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.
... Among these, Amaranth and Quinoa are two pseudocereals that stand out for its sustainable agronomical properties and nutritious value, moreover, another plant base food that is receiving special attention due to its superior nutritional value is the central american native Chia. These three species share an outstanding high protein content, compare to other more common cereals like wheat and rice, making it suitable for the obtention of bioactive hydrolysates and BAPs that potentially exhibit anti-diabetic effects (Grancieri, Martino, and Mejia 2019;Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-Lopez 2016). ...
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Worldwide prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has become a major concern with several implications for public health, economy, and social well-being, especially in developing countries. Conventional pharmacological management of T2D have proved effective, but possess underlying side effects, leading the scientific community to research alternative compounds that exert beneficial effects on current therapeutic targets of T2D. Bioactive peptides (BAPs) from food sources, have shown relative advantages in this matter, moreover, BAPs have proved to impart anti-diabetic activity through one or more mechanisms such as enzymatic inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPP–IV. Several plants and animal have been used as protein sources of anti-diabetic BAPs, in the sense of this matter, the pseudo-cereals amaranth and quinoa, along with the ancestral grain chia, have gained attention. Due, to their high protein content and balanced amino-acid composition, along with proved anti-diabetic features, the three seeds are top choices for the obtention of anti-diabetic BAPs. With a comprehensive overview of the most recent reported in silico and in vitro anti-diabetic studies in relation to biomarkers α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPP-IV, the present review aims to examine the current knowledge of amaranth, quinoa and chia derived anti-diabetic BAPs and their effects on T2D therapeutic markers.
... One of its outstanding characteristics is that it has great nutritional value as it contains antioxidants and minerals and offers great benefit to solve food insecurity and malnourishment plaguing rural poor communities in South Africa. Furthermore, it is a C4 plant that has a short cycle, easy to cultivate and is known to adapt in various agro-ecologies even in harsh conditions (Orona-Tamayo & Paredes-López, 2017). Being a C4 plant, it yields more dry matter per unit of water utilized. ...
Article
Amaranthus spp occupies a strategic position in combating food and nutrition insecurity, as it is widely consumed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is drought tolerant and can grow on marginal soils, however, with adequate management; it can produce about 40 tons/ha of fresh leaves. The leaves are rich in nutrients that can combat malnutrition and support healthy eating. Despite the huge benefits offered by amaranth, it has been underutilized in South Africa. Its consumption is concentrated in rural areas, where it is harvested from the wild during the rains. There are no large-scale productions of amaranth, hence the lack of data on its production. Inadequate knowledge of its uses, agronomic requirement, low research efforts and the absence of an organized market are part of the reasons why amaranth is still underutilized in South Africa. This paper argues that with increased awareness of the benefits of amaranth and research geared towards agronomic improvement, social and economic acceptance, amaranth will be utilized nationwide with time. It recommends that conscious effort should be aimed at introducing amaranth into mainstream agricultural value chains through increased research attention and awareness of its nutritional benefits. This will ensure sustainable production to match the anticipated increase in consumption.
... viridis, A. retroflexus, A. hybridus, and A. gracilis) worldwide. Some of these have also been reported for their medicinal uses in diarrhea, diabetes, blood pressure, and antimicrobial activities despite growing in the wild [2][3][4][5][6][7]. ...
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Fat/carbohydrate-rich diet consumption or elevated secretion of pancreatic lipase (PL) in pancreatic injury results in increased fat digestion and storage. Several metabolites in plant-based diets can help achieve the requirements of nutrition and fitness together. Presently, nutritional metabolites from Amaranthus tricolor, A. viridis, and Achyranthes aspera were assessed and predicted for daily intake. The volatile-metabolite profiling of their extracts using GC-MS revealed various antioxidant and bioactive components. The implication of these specialized components and antioxidant-rich extracts (EC50 free radical scavenging: 34.1 ± 1.5 to 166.3 ± 14.2 µg/mL; FRAP values: 12.1 ± 1.0 to 34.0 ± 2.0 µg Trolox Equivalent/mg) in lipolysis regulation by means of interaction with PL was checked by in-silico docking (Betahistine and vitamins: ΔGbind −2.3 to −4.4 kcal/mol) and in-vitro fluorescence quenching. Out of the various compounds and extracts tested, Betahistine, ATRA and AVLA showed better quenching the PL fluorescence. The identification of potential extracts as source of functional components contributing to nutrition and fat regulation can be improved through such study.
... [1][2][3][4] Until a few decades ago, amaranth species were considered invasive weeds, but in recent years they have gained importance and now they are considered pseudo-cereals. The grains exhibit a valuable combination of nutritional traits, with a higher crude protein (CP: 130-180 g kg −1 ) and ether extract (EE: 63-81 g kg −1 ) content 5,6 than conventional cereals such maize (CP: 100 g kg −1 and EE: 45 g kg −1 ), wheat (CP: 140 g kg −1 and EE: 26 g kg −1 ), rice (CP: 85 g kg −1 and EE: 42 g kg −1 ), 7,8 and sorghum (CP: 120 g kg −1 and EE: 40 g kg −1 ) 9 along with a qualified fatty acid profile comprising about 360 g kg −1 of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 640 g kg −1 of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), the latter mainly represented by oleic (320-330 g kg −1 ) and linoleic (270-280 g kg −1 ) acids. 5,6 Moreover, amaranth contains interesting secondary metabolites, which contribute to its potential health benefits, 10 such as phenolic compounds, which are considered to be cholesterol-lowering, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer factors, 10 and a potential source of dietary antioxidants. ...
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BACKGROUND In the last decades, grain amaranths have gained interest due to their valuable combination of nutritional traits, with a higher protein and oil content than conventional cereals. Anyway, before it can be proposed as an unconventional ingredient for animal feeding, many aspects still need to be investigated from field production to nutritive value. The present research aimed to study the agronomic traits, proximate composition and digestibility/degradability, fatty acid profile, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of two grain amaranth species, Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus (for a total of six accessions), grown in a Mediterranean environment. RESULTS Both species showed seed yields comparable to or higher than the traditional cereal crops of this environment. As a whole, A. cruentus resulted in a higher seed production compared to A. hypochondriacus. Mexico and Montana accessions, both belonging to A. cruentus, showed the highest yield (3.73 t ha⁻¹, on average). For nutritive value, few differences emerged between species and accessions: the Illinois accession of A. cruentus showed the best performance in terms of in vitro degradability and gas production, but not for VFA production; the fermentation kinetics was the slowest in Illinois and the fastest in Montana accession of A. cruentus and India accession of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. CONCLUSION From a health point of view, Nebraska of A. hypochondriacus represents the best accession showing the lowest saturated fatty acids and the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid content. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Amaranth seeds possess a protein content near to 15 % (w/w); the essential amino acid composition is close to the optimum amino acid balance required in the human diet (Ogrodowska et al., 2014;Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2016). They are an excellent source of healthy lipids, like such as unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, tocopherols, squalene, and biopeptides, among others (Tovar-Perez et al., 2019;Velarde-Salcedo et al., 2019). ...
Article
México sufre graves problemas de desnutrición, sobrepeso y obesidad, afectando gran parte de la población. Asimismo, las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas (ECD), como enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y diabetes son la principal causa de mortalidad en el país. La tortilla representa un vehículo viable para mejorar el estado nutricional de los mexicanos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la adición de 30 % de harina de amaranto extrudido (HAE) sobre las propiedades nutricionales [perfil de aminoácidos esenciales (AAE), digestibilidad de proteínas in vitro (DPIV), relación de eficiencia proteica calculada (C-PER)], nutracéuticas [actividad antioxidante (AAox) y potenciales antihipertensivo e hipoglucémico] y sensoriales de tortillas de harina de maíz azul criollo extrudido (HMACE). Las tortillas funcionales (tortillas de HMACE adicionadas con 30 % de HAE) presentaron más proteínas, fibra dietética, DPIV y C-PER que las tortillas de solo HMACE; sin embargo, presentaron AAox más baja (13,187 vs. 15,298 μmol ET / 100 g, BS) y mejores potenciales antihipertensivo e hipoglucémico que las tortillas 100 % HMACE. La adición de HAE, permitió obtener tortillas funcionales sensorialmente aceptables con mejores propiedades nutricionales y nutracéuticas. Las tortillas funcionales podrían reducir la desnutrición y las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas en México.
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The burden of malnutrition in Africa calls for deeper exploration of underutilized species which are rich in nutrients and have the potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity. The common staple crops are not able to meet daily requirements for both macro- and micro-nutrients. In order to lessen this burden; protein, calorie and micronutrient deficiencies must be properly addressed for optimal growth and development to be attained. African indigenous underutilized vegetables can play a significant role in the food security of vulnerable groups like under-five children and women in both urban and rural settings. The potential of grain amaranth in meeting the nutrition needs of humans has remained a subject of interest in scientific research. Amaranth is considered one of the most commonly produced and consumed indigenous vegetables on the African continent with high nutritional potentials but yet to be fully exploited. This review therefore aims at discussing the current knowledge of the inherent potentials of grain amaranths, its current application in the food industry and proposes a framework for actions and partnerships required to scale up and improve amaranth value chain
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The Northwestern Himalayan region is a rich storehouse of nutraceuticals enriched potential crops which have been underutilized and neglected by mankind for a long. The pseudocereals “ABC”, namely amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.), and chenopodium (Chenopodium quinoa) are excellent examples of such nutraceutical superfoods which are generally cultivated marginally in limited areas but can perform a significant role in nutritional security. The phytochemical constituents and unique nutritional profile of these pseudocereals have made them popular worldwide nowadays. They also form suitable alternatives as gluten-free products for celiac patients. The high dietary fiber, well-balanced amino acid content, and health beneficial metabolites make them a popular choice for functional food and biofortification. This chapter presents comprehensive information about the bioactive compounds available in these crops which may possess outstanding biological activities and have nutraceutical potential. The role of these pseudocereals as potential nutritional food sources for the masses is also discussed besides highlighting the on-going national and international biotechnological interventions for the genetic improvement of these crops.
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In the Andean region of Ecuador, amaranth is a key species not only for its high nutritional value but also for its association with Ecuadorian culture, since it is one of the main indigenous crops of the pre-Columbian era. Over the time, the cultivation of this species ceased for several reasons result. However, in recent years, a number of strategies have been developed to retrieve it on a national level. In accordance with these strategies, the "Amaranth Improvement Program for Cotopaxi" (PROMAC) is being developed at the Technical University of Cotopaxi, with the main objective of selecting varieties with high levels of biologically active substances. This program is been executed through two main lines of investigation: (a) selection of varieties of amaranth of high nutritional value and (b) the improvement of techniques for conservation of the seeds. This chapter analyzes and shows the main results obtained to date from the study of eight varieties of amaranth seeds and the drying of one of the seeds by means of microwave energy in order to improve its conservation. In the light of the results obtained, the strategies to develop the following research lines within the PROMAC framework are exposed.
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In this work, the microwave drying of amaranth seeds at different temperatures has been studied. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of temperature on three key variables of the drying process and viability of amaranth seeds (drying time, energy consumption, and germination rate) after drying with microwave energy. The tests were performed in a domestic microwave oven, modified for research use, at six drying temperatures (between 35 and 60 °C). For comparative purposes, the amaranth seeds were dried by forced convection of hot air in an electric oven. It was observed that an increase in the drying temperature causes a simultaneous decrease in drying time (from 378 to 126 min) and in the energy consumption (from 9.07 to 2.61 Wh g−1, and from 412.6 to 111.7 MJ kg−1 [H2O]) and cost (from $0.065 to 0.019 USD) required to dry the seeds. However, there is also an unacceptable decrease (from ∼85% up to 23%) in the germination rate of the seeds with the drying temperature. In order to ensure the amaranth seeds’ viability after the drying process, it is necessary to employ lower drying temperatures-i.e., between 35 and 40 °C. Moreover, drying of amaranth seeds with microwave energy at 40 °C proved to be a faster and more effective method than convective drying by reducing drying time by 22% (from 336 min to 261 min) and energy consumption by 74% (from 928.4 to 274.0 MJ kg−1 [H2O]) without significantly affecting their viability.
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Background Plant proteins are gaining popularity as a safe and sustainable source of protein for the world's population because of their lower carbon footprint. Pseudocereals (buckwheat, quinoa, and amaranth) are sources of proteins with an ideal composition of amino acids (AAs) and have become standard foods because of their health benefits. Multifunctional peptides prepared from the proteins of pseudocereals are used to treat various chronic diseases. Thus, it is essential to understand the biological functions of these peptides. Scope and approach This review summarizes the producing, separating and identifying methods as well as biological properties of pseudocereals protein-derived bioactive peptides with identified sequence. A comparative analysis of the quality of pseudocereal proteins and peptides and their biological functions is presented. The current limitation and future possibilities of pseudocereal cultivation and challenges and opportunities of pseudocereal peptides were discussed. Key findings and conclusions Various protein fractions from pseudocereals are enzymatically hydrolysed to produce a dynamic range of biologically active peptides. The critical factors in the production of these novel peptides are the enzyme type, the reaction conditions, and the type of treatment. Amaranth peptides have been shown to have antihypertensive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, and buckwheat and quinoa hydrolysates have excellent antimicrobial, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities. The 11S globulin protein fractions show potent activity to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. It was observed that the short sequence AAs have been shown to possess good antihypertensive activity. We conclude that pseudocereals are an alternative source of complete protein that can be used to make peptides with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of chronic diseases.
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Prosopis alba flour (PAF) is an adequate ingredient for preparing gluten-free sweet snacks of high nutritional value. Therefore, the objective of this work was to use this flour, together with sugar and honey, as agglutinant agent in the elaboration and functional characterization of sweet snacks. Snacks were formulated with ancestral American seeds (22% amaranth, 22% quinoa, 7.8% quinoa) and variable amounts of each of the three agglutinants (48.2% total) according to an experimental design for mixtures with the restriction of non using only PAF as agglutinant. Five formulations were obtained and characterized by color, moisture, water activity and texture parameters. Sensorial attributes of the two best snacks selected by a test of preference (A and E), were determined using a 9 points hedonic scale. Snacks with sugar or sugar from PAF presented after heating the major variation of color. Snacks with PAF presented intermediate values of moisture and higher values of consistency, resilience and elasticity. The snack containing equal amounts of each agglutinant (A) presented equivalent sensory attributes as that elaborated only with sugar (E). Concluding, PAF resulted a suitable ingredient along with sugar and honey for sweet snacks destined to celiac people that also resulted well accepted by consumers.
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This review reported an updated survey on the molecular functional properties of bioactive peptides derived from different Latin American ancient grains such as Maize, common Bean, Amaranth, Quinoa and Chia seeds. Seed storage proteins encrypted in their sequences diverse peptides associated with a wide range of benefit effects on the human health and the most studied are antihypertensive, anti-cholesterolemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties, additionally, in the last decades molecular properties have been also used for their characterization to understand their activities and it makes it highly attractive to be incorporated into food formulations and to complement or replace some conventional cereal grains. Due to the nutraceutical effects, today, these seeds are one of the main gastronomic trends of consumption worldwide due to its nutritional benefits and are part of the shopping lists of many people, among them vegetarians, vegans, celiacs or lovers of raw food. These seeds are a legacy of pre-Columbian civilizations reason why in our time they are considered as “Superfoods of the Gods”, “The pre-hispanic superfoods of the future” and “The new golden seeds of the XXI century”.
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The use of whole and defatted amaranth flours for protein isolation is described. Extraction of proteins at pH 11 with NaOH and isoelectric precipitation between pH 4.5 and 5.5 with HCl gave the highest recoveries for both flours. Yields of salt-soluble proteins increased upon increasing the NaCl concentration to 0.8-1 M. Protein fractionation by an Osborne-modified procedure gave for both flours 46-49% albumins + globulins, 1-3% prolamins, and 30-33% glutelins. Albumins/globulins ratios, determined after dialysis, were about 2 and 1.7 for whole and defatted flours, respectively. Glutelins were the most abundant protein class in both flours.
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BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that household exposure to allergenic proteins via an impaired skin barrier, such as atopic dermatitis, may contribute to the development of IgE sensitization. Household presence of peanut is a risk factor for the development of peanut allergy in children. Sunflower seed butter is a peanut-free alternative to peanut butter, and sunflower seed allergy is an uncommon but reported entity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3 year old boy presented with oral discomfort that developed almost immediately after he ate sunflower seeds for the first time. He was given a dose of diphenhydramine. Subsequently he vomited, and his symptoms gradually resolved. A similar episode occurred to a commercial snack made with sunflower seed butter. Skin prick testing demonstrated a large positive (10 mm wheal) wheal-and-flare response to a slurry of fresh sunflower seed within 3-4 minutes associated with severe pruritus. This child has an older sibling with confirmed peanut allergy (PNA). After the PNA diagnosis was made, the family home became peanut-free. In lieu of peanut butter, sunflower butter was purchased and eaten frequently by family members, but not by the child reported herein. Subsequent to the episodes above, the child ate a bread roll with visible poppy seeds and developed itchy throat, dyspnea, and urticaria. Epicutaneous skin testing elicited a >10 mm wheal size within 3-4 minutes in response to a slurry of whole poppy seeds and 8 mm to fresh pumpkin seed, which had never been consumed. CONCLUSIONS: A case of sunflower allergy in the context of household consumption of sunflower butter has not yet been reported. We suggest that homes which are intentionally peanut-safe may provide an environment whereby infants with impaired skin barrier are at increased risk of allergy to alternative "butter" products being used, via cutaneous exposure to these products preceding oral introduction to the child.
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Recent advances in the development of genome editing technologies based on programmable nucleases have substantially improved our ability to make precise changes in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Genome editing is already broadening our ability to elucidate the contribution of genetics to disease by facilitating the creation of more accurate cellular and animal models of pathological processes. A particularly tantalizing application of programmable nucleases is the potential to directly correct genetic mutations in affected tissues and cells to treat diseases that are refractory to traditional therapies. Here we discuss current progress toward developing programmable nuclease-based therapies as well as future prospects and challenges.
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Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) is a pseudocereal with higher protein concentration than most cereal grains. Enzymatic hydrolysis and food processing could produce biopeptides from amaranth proteins; however, there is limited information about the bioactivity of peptides from amaranth proteins. The objective of this comprehensive review was to determine bioactive peptide sequences in amaranth proteins that may prevent cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. Amaranth proteins, reported in UniProt database, were evaluated for potential bioactive peptide using BIOPEP database. The 15 main proteins present in amaranth seed are 11S globulin, 7S globulin, α-amylase inhibitor, trypsin inhibitor, antimicrobial proteins, nonspecific lipid-transfer-protein-1, superoxide dismutase, ring-zinc finger protein, prosystemin, amaranth albumin 1, glucose-1-phosphate adenyltransferase, glucosyltransferase, polyamine oxidase, granule-bound starch synthase 1, and acetolactate synthase. All proteins showed high occurrence frequencies of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides (A = 0.161 to 0.362), as well as of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (A = 0.003 to 0.087). Other proteins showed antioxidative (A = 0.012 to 0.063) and glucose uptake-stimulating activity (A = 0.023 to 0.042), and also antithrombotic (A = 0.002 to 0.031) and anticancer sequences (A = 0.001 to 0.042). The results of this study support the concept that amaranth grain could be part of a “healthy” diet and thereby prevent chronic human diseases.
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We evaluated the capacity of simulated gastrointestinal digests or alcalase hydrolysates of protein isolates from amaranth to scavenge diverse physiologically relevant reactive species. The more active hydrolysate was obtained with the former method. Moreover, a prior alcalase treatment of the isolate followed by the same simulated gastrointestinal digestion did not improve the antioxidant capacity in any of the assays performed and even produced a negative effect under some conditions. Gastrointestinal digestion produced a strong increment in the scavenging capacity against peroxyl radicals (ORAC assay), hydroxyl radicals (ESR-OH assay), and peroxynitrites; thus decreasing the IC50 values to approximately 20, 25, and 20 %, respectively, of the levels attained with the nonhydrolyzed proteins. Metal chelation (HORAC assay) also enhanced respect to isolate levels, but to a lesser extent (decreasing IC50 values to only 50 %). The nitric-oxide- and superoxide-scavenging capacities of the digests were not relevant with respect to the methodologies used. The gastrointestinal digests from amaranth proteins acted against reactive species by different mechanisms, thus indicating the protein isolate to be a potential polyfunctional antioxidant ingredient.
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Seed storage proteins have been nutritional and functionally valuable in the food industry and for human consumption. The Osborne's classical technique has been used to extract and classify seed storage proteins; additionally, in the last decades molecular properties have been also used for their characterization. Amaranth proteins, most of them being globulins (salt soluble proteins), have good essential amino acid levels. The nutritional, nutraceutical and technological properties shown by amaranth make it highly attractive to be incorporated into food formulations and to complement or replace some conventional cereal grains. The functional properties of its proteins provide good technological characteristics to food matrices. Several studies have shown that globulins are involved in some immunological processes suggesting that the immune-stimulating effects may lead to B lymphocyte activation and subsequent T cell proliferation in vitro. Other bioactive properties have been found in peptides from globulins mainly as outstanding antihypertensive agents. The previous characteristics, plus some others, are showing that the strong potential of amaranth and especially of its globulins should lead both of them to wider food and nutraceutical uses.
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Abstract Owing to the importance of antioxidants in the protection of both natural and man-made materials, a large variety of testing methods has been proposed and applied. These include methods based on inhibited autoxidation studies, which are better followed by monitoring the kinetics of oxygen consumption or that of formation of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. Analytical determination of secondary oxidation products (e.g. carbonyl compounds) has also been used. The majority of testing methods, however, does not involve substrate autoxidation. They are based on the competitive bleaching of a probe (e.g. ORAC assay, β-carotene and crocine bleaching assays, luminol assay), on reaction with a different probe (e.g. spin-trapping and TOSC assay), or they are indirect methods based on the reduction of persistent radicals (e.g. galvinoxyl, DPPH and TEAC assays), or of inorganic oxidizing species (e.g. FRAP, CUPRAC and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). Yet other methods are specific for preventive antioxidants. The relevance, advantages and limitations of these methods are critically discussed stepping from their chemistry and the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. A variety of cell-based assays has also been proposed to investigate the biological activity of antioxidants. Their importance and critical aspects are discussed, along with arguments for the selection of the appropriate testing methods, according to the different needs.
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The acidic-subunit of amarantin, main seed storage protein of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, carrying four antihypertensive biopeptides Val-Tyr was expressed in the fruit of transgenic tomato plants. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the expressed recombinant protein was stably accumulated at levels up to 12.71 % with respect to total protein content of transgenic fruits. There was a remarkable change in total protein content (5–22 % increase) of transgenic tomato fruits compared to non-transformed samples. Specific increases of the essential amino acids valine (31–40 %), tyrosine (29–34 %), isoleucine (21–31 %), leucine (28–31 %) and phenylalanine (28–29 %) were also detected in some transgenic lines versus wild type lines. Protein hydrolysates from transgenic tomato fruits showed in vitro inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme, with IC50 values that ranged from 0.376 to 3.241 μg ml−1; this represents an increase of up to 13-fold in the inhibitory activity compared with the protein hydrolysates of non-transformed fruits. These results suggest the possible application of transgenic tomato fruit for massive production of this engineered version of amarantin, which could be especially useful in the prevention and control of hypertension.
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Agriculture is under pressure to produce greater quantities of food, feed and biofuel on limited land resources. Current over-reliance on a handful of major staple crops has inherent agronomic, ecological, nutritional and economic risks and is probably unsustainable in the long run. Wider use of today's underutilized minor crops provides more options to build temporal and spatial heterogeneity into uniform cropping systems and will enhance resilience to both biotic and abiotic stress. Many traditional vegetables and underutilized legume crops are an essential source of vitamins, micronutrients and protein and, thus, a valuable component to attain nutritional security. Vegetables in general are of considerable commercial value and therefore an important source of household income. Significant research, breeding and development efforts are needed for a range of promising crops to convert existing local landraces into competitive varieties with wide adaptation and promising commercial potential. Access to genetic diversity of these selected crops is a pre-condition for success. Three underutilized minor crops—amaranth, drumstick tree, and mungbean—are highlighted and briefly described. All three crops are well-represented in AVRDC's genebank with substantial inter-and intra-specific genetic diversity, and already have demonstrated their potential for wider adoption and commercial exploitation.
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Amaranth seeds are one of the most promising food ingredients, due to their high protein content, among which the most important are storage proteins known as globulins. However, little is known about the physicochemical of the globulin proteins. In this work, we study the physicochemical behavior of films made of amaranth 7S globulin and its interaction with a model membrane made of L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (L-α-DPPC) at the air/liquid interface. The study was done by means of Langmuir balance, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), Fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that isotherms of pure 7S globulin directly deposited on either water or buffer subphases behave similarly and globulin forms a condensed film made of globular and denature structures, which was confirmed by BAM observations. Good mixtures of the protein with L-α-DPPC are formed at low surface pressure. However, they phase separate from moderate to high surface pressure as observed by BAM. Isotherms detect the presence of the protein in the mixture with L-α-DPPC, but we were unable to detect it through BAM or AFM. We show that fluorescence microscopy is a very good technique to detect the presence of the protein when it is well mixed within the LE phase of the lipid. AFM images clearly show the formation of protein mono- and multi-layers and, in phase mode, we detected domains that are formed by protein and LE lipid phase, which were corroborated by fluorescence microscopy. We have shown that globulin 7S mix well with lipid phases, which could be important in food applications as stabilizers or emulsifiers, but we also show that they can phase separate with a moderate to high surface pressure.
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A new method was developed for extraction and isolation of 7S and 11S fractions from soybean seed, based on methods of Nagano et al., Thanh and Shibasaki [Nagano, T., Hirotsuka, M., & Mori, H. (1992). Dynamic viscoelastic study on the gelation of 7S globulin from soybeans. Journal of Agricultural and food chemistry 40, 941–944 and Thanh, V. H., & Shibasaki, K. (1976). Major proteins of soybean seeds. A straightforward fraction and their characterization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 24, 1117–1121]. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of 11S and 7S globulins from soybean seed was investigated under various conditions by the Kjeldahl method and SDS-PAGE. The optimal conditions were as follows: 0.03–0.06 M Tris–HCl buffer (pH 8.5) containing 0.01 M sodium bisulfite as extract solution, extraction twice at 45 °C for 1 h, and with a 1:15 ratio (w/v) of flour:Tris–HCl. The 11S fraction was precipitated at pH 6.4, and the supernatant, after centrifugation, was adjusted to pH 5.5 to remove the insoluble intermediate fraction by further centrifugation. The supernatant obtained was then adjusted to pH 4.8 to afford the 7S fraction as a precipitate by centrifugation. With the improvements, the protein contents and purities of the isolated 11S and 7S fractions were significantly increased. The contents of all subunits of the isolated 11S and 7S fraction were markedly higher than those by Thanh and Shibasaki method, while the contents of α, β and B3 were also significantly higher than those by Nagano et al. method.
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A globulin from amaranth was extracted and purified by gel filtration and ultracentrifugation. The protein with molecular mass around 398 ku (kDa) showed by SDS-PAGE, under reductive conditions, polypeptides of 59, 36 and 24 ku. The N-terminal amino acids of 59ku polypeptide were sequenced. A cDNA library was made from poly(A+) RNA isolated from developing amaranth seeds, and amaranth globulin cDNA clones were identified by hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotide designed from the N-terminal amino-acid sequence. Eight globulin clones were distinguished and two of them were sequenced, resulting in identical sequences. The deduced amino-acid sequence confirmed that the protein is synthesized as a precursor similar to other US-like proteins, suggesting that amaranth globulins could have the same ancestral gene common to dicot and monocot species.
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Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is a promising C4 crop for semi‐arid regions because of its high nutritive value and its ability to adapt to diverse environments. Data on the tolerance of amaranth to salinity stress are lacking. The response of four amaranth genotypes (A. tricolor, Accession ‘83, A. hypochondriacus, and A. cruentus) to saline water was analysed for growth, gas exchange, water use, and leaf anatomical changes. The study was conducted in a greenhouse. The treatments consisted of saline water at 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl, equivalent to electrical conductivities of 1.2, 4.1, 7.0, 12.8, and 24 dS m, respectively. Increasing NaCl in the medium decreased plant height, leaf number, and leaf area. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced by salinity. A. tricolor and Accession ‘83 did not survive in the 200 mMNaCl treatment. Shoot growth was reduced and at 50 and 100 mMNaCl the reduction was greater in A. tricolor and Accession ‘83 than in A. hypochondriacus and A. cruentus. Water‐use efficiency increased with increasing salinity and ranged from 3.9g in A. tricolor to 6.7 g dry mass kg H2O in A cruentus when plants were salinised with 100 mM NaCl. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased with salinity and differed between genotypes. A negative relationship between SLA and water‐use efficiency was observed over the four amaranth genotypes. A. tricolor and Accession ‘83 had thinner leaves, more stomata per unit leaf area, and larger stomatal apertures than A. hypochondriacus and A. cruentus.
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Protein hydrolysates constitute an alternative to intact proteins and elemental formulas in the development of special formulations designed to provide nutritional support to patients with different needs. The production of extensive protein hydrolysates by sequential action of endopeptidases and exoproteases coupled with the development of post-hydrolysis procedures is considered the most effective way to obtain protein hydrolysates with defined characteristics. This paper reviews the development and use of protein hydrolysates for dietary treatment of patients with phenylketonuria, food allergy and chronic liver failure.
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GM crops have great potential to improve food quality, increase harvest yields and decrease dependency on certain chemical pesticides. Before entering the market their safety needs to be scrutinized. This includes a detailed analysis of allergenic risks, as the safety of allergic consumers has high priority. However, not all tests currently being applied to assessing allergenicity have a sound scientific basis. Recent events with transgenic crops reveal the fallacy of applying such tests to GM crops.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a seed crop from the Andes region of South America, has been reported to have an exceptional seed protein amino acid composition. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize a major seed storage protein of quinoa, an US-type globulin called chenopodin. Extraction of quinoa seed protein was optimized with regard to extraction time, salt concentration, and buffer volumes. Extraction with 0.5 M NaCl solubilized polypeptides having molecuiar weights of 8000-9000,22 000-23 000,32 000-39 000, and 50 000. Enrichment of the chenopodin polypeptides (the A subunit group at 32 000-39 000 and the B subunit group at 22 000-23 000) was achieved by acid precipitation of the extract at pH 5.O. Gel filtration was necessary to purify the native (320 000) chenopodin. The disulfide-bonded A (acidic) and B (basic) polypeptides were separated by denaturation, reduction, and alkylation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The amino acid compositions of the A and B polypeptides were similar to those of the acidic and basic subunits from other US seed globulins. The N-terminal sequence of one of the B polypeptides (GLEETICSARLSENIDDPSKA) was highly homologous to the basic subunits of several other 1 IS storage proteins, especially to rapeseed cruciferin.
Article
Thirteen genotypes of amaranth procured from NBPGR Research Station, Shimla during the year 2009 were evaluated for various physical and biochemical constituents of dietary significance by following standard procedures. Significant variation in biochemical constituents viz. moisture (8.76 - 9.98 %), crude protein (9.65 - 12.69 %), oil (3.24 - 6.06 %), ash (2.02 - 2.91 %), crude fibre (2.85 - 4.77%), carbohydrate (64.40 - 71.92 %), total sugars (3.08-3.29 %), methionine (1.26 - 1.94 % protein), tryptophan (0.75 - 1.03 % protein), in vitro protein digestibility (66.09 - 76.74 %), total phenols (123 - 153 mg/100g), oxalate (85 -129 mg/100g), calcium (147 - 201 mg/100g), phosphorus (449 - 526 mg/100g), iron (4.60 -6.55 mg/100g) and zinc (3.08 - 4.72 mg/ 100g) among various amaranth genotypes was observed. Cumulative genotypic ranking done for desirable quality traits taken together indicated genotype(s) IC-423117, IC-422845 and IC-422652 as versatile genotypes in order of excellence.
Article
Throughout recorded history, amaranth species have been consumed both as green vegetables and as cereal grains. These food sources were banned by Cortez upon the conquest of Mexico, and they are now seldom consumed. Their reintroduction as food plants is examined: varieties, breeding, genetics, and agronomy; seed structure, chemistry, and milling characteristics; leaf chemistry; nutritional characteristics; consumption practices; and discussion and action required. Refs.
Chapter
The term albumin was initially applied to plant proteins which resembled hen egg albumin in being coagulable but was subsequently restricted to proteins which were soluble in water and coagulable by heat (Osborne, 1924). Osborne (1924) also recognised a problem in defining albumins which remains to this day: direct water extracts of tissues will contain low concentrations of salts which need to be removed by dialysis in order to obtain a true albumin fraction. Osborne concluded that albumins are generally present in small quantities in seeds and listed four types which had been characterized in most detail: leucosin from barley, wheat and rye, legumelin from a range of legumes (including pea, soybean and cowpea), phaselin from kidney bean and ricin from castor bean.
Article
Seed storage albumins are water-soluble and highly abundant proteins that are broken-down during seed germination to provide nitrogen and sulfur for the developing seedling. During seed maturation these proteins are subject to post-translational modifications and trafficking before they are deposited in great quantity and with great stability in dedicated vacuoles. This review will cover the subcellular movement, biochemical processing and mature structures of seed storage napins.
Article
Maintenance of redox homeostasis plays a central role in both health and preventing disease, and antioxidant foods are thought to exert protective effects by counteracting oxidative stress. The term "dietary antioxidant" implies a classical reducing or radical-scavenging capacity, but more data on the in vivo bioactivity of such compounds are needed. Indeed, several dietary antioxidants activate signaling cascades that lead to effects that extend beyond radical scavenging, such as the induction of endogenous cryoprotective mechanisms and detoxification. Currently, the overall uptake of antioxidants with diet exceeds actual needs, as food additives that include vitamins, colorants, flavoring agents, and preservatives are often also relatively strong antioxidants. Chronic antioxidative stress favors adverse effects, such as the suppression of T helper (Th) type 1 immune responses and consequent activation of Th2 responses that support the development of asthma, allergies, and obesity. In this context, we discuss the immunoregulatory pathway of tryptophan breakdown by enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which represents a central regulatory hub for immune, metabolic, and neuroendocrine processes. Activation of IDO-mediated tryptophan metabolism is strongly redox-sensitive and is therefore susceptible to modulation by dietary components, phytochemicals, preservatives, and drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined in hydrolysates produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of chia protein-rich fractions. Those chia hydrolysates with the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) were added to product's, and product biological potential analysed. The chia protein-rich fraction was sequentially hydrolysed with Alcalase (R) for 60 min followed by Flavourzyme (R) for a total of up to 150 min. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity was highest in the hydrolysate produced at 150 (8.86 mu g protein/mL) and 90 min (7.31 mmol/L-mg protein), respectively. None of the chia protein hydrolysates exhibited antimicrobial activity. Addition of the chia protein hydrolysates at two levels to white bread and carrot cream resulted in products with improved ACE-inhibitory activity (141.29 -297.68; 0.24-1.71 mu g protein/mL) compared to the controls. Hydrolysate addition had no effect on antioxidant activity in the white bread (0.53-0.55 mmol/L-mg protein) and only a slight effect in the carrot cream (17.52-18.88 mmol/L-mg). (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.
Article
A few decades ago Amaranthus was rediscovered as a most promising plant genus that may provide high-quality protein, unsaturated oil, and various other valuable constituents. Since then research has focused on various Amaranthus spp. and has been rapidly expanding, and a large number of reports have been published. Several review articles focusing on different aspects, such as botanical, agrotechnological, compositional, biological, chemical, and technological properties, as well as applications and health effects, have also been published since then. This comprehensive review is focused on amaranth composition, antioxidant properties, applications, and processing. The composition includes macrocomponets (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and other important constituents, such as squalene, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, phytates, and vitamins. These aspects of amaranth studies have not been comprehensively reviewed for a long time.
Article
Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is a promising C4 crop for semi-arid regions due to its high nutritive value and an ability to adapt to drought stress. A pot experiment in a temperature-controlled greenhouse was conducted to investigate the effects of drought stress on biomass production, partitioning, and water use efficiency (WUE) of four genotypes of vegetable amaranth, viz. ‘Hin Choi’ (A. tricolor), ‘Co.2’ (A. tricolor), ‘WS80-192’ (A. blitum), and ‘RRC 1027’ (A. cruentus). Drought stress significantly decreased plant total dry mass, but the proportion of changes differed among root, stem, and leaf. Under drought, root dry mass ratiowas increased in Co.2, WS80-192, andRRC1027, whereas leaf dry mass ratio was decreased in Hin Choi, Co.2, and RRC 1027. Leaf area per root dry mass was decreased by drought stress in all genotypes examined. These results indicate that drought induced a more conservative balance betweenwater-losing andwater-obtaining organs. Specific leaf area (SLA) was decreased by drought stress and differed between genotypes. WUE of the four genotypes of vegetable amaranth was unaffected by drought stress, and ranged from 2.9 to 3.8 gDMkg−1 H2O, being the highest in RRC 1027 and the lowest in WS80-192. A negative relationship between SLA and WUE was observed over the four genotypes of vegetable amaranth under well-watered conditions.
Article
The objective was to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of unprocessed and extruded amaranth pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates in LPS-induced human THP-1 macrophages-like and mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages focusing on their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action related to NF-κB signaling pathway. Amaranth hydrolysates were characterized by MS-MS and tested for anti-inflammatory effects on human and mouse macrophages. Peptides found in extruded amaranth hydrolysates displayed antioxidant capacity, angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor activity, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor activity. Gly-Pro-Arg peptide was present and reported as antithrombotic. Extruded amaranth hydrolysates (1 mg/mL) significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion in THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells by 36.5 and 33.5%, respectively; with concomitant reduction in PGE2 (15.4 and 31.4%), and COX-2 (38.1 and 67.6%), respectively. Phosphorylation of IKK-α was significantly reduced by 52.5 and 88.2% leading to reduced phosphorylation of IκB-α (86.1 and 66.2%), respectively; resulting in a reduction in the expression of p65 NF-κB subunits in the nucleus by 64.2% for THP-1 and 70.7% for RAW 264.7 cells. Amaranth hydrolysates inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in human and mouse macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling. Extrusion improved anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth hydrolysates in both cells, which might be attributed to the production of bioactive peptides during processing.
Article
In this work, the amino acid and fatty acid profiles were determined in two advanced lines of amaranth seeds: Amaranthus hypochondriacus × Amaranthus cruentus AH17a and Amaranthus cruentus AcG6/17a; as well as in two new varieties: Amaranthus cruentus var. Candil and Amaranthus hypochondriacus var. Dorado. The following contents were found: protein (18.76–26.00 %), dietary fiber (15.91–17.80 %) and total lipids (10.62–11.44 %), high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (77.80–82 % of total lipids), linoleic acid (41.94–55.50 % of total lipids) and lysine (47.3–68.6 mg g−1 of protein) were also found. Based on these composition data, chemometric tools were used to classify these new varieties and lines by unsupervised methods—principal component analysis and cluster analysis; as well as by supervised methods—sequential discriminant analysis (DA) and partial least squares DA. It was possible to correctly classify all varieties and lines using 11 variables. In conclusion, it was found that new varieties and advanced lines of amaranth show proper nutritional quality, which reveals the potential of this genus as agro-food. Also, a complete chemometric assessment allowed us to distinguish between these new varieties and lines.
Article
The increased use of non-cereal grains as supplements for nutritional and functional foods purposes will require a more in-depth understanding of the 11S globulin (their main storage protein). Studies indicate that 11S globulins from both mono- and dicotyledonous plant seeds are highly conserved with regards to their overall molecular weights, classification of subunits and internal conformation. In contrast, surface physicochemical properties appear to be highly variable between globulins. Evidence clearly indicates that great potential exists in the screening of seeds of various plant species for both “highly preferred subunit profiles” for enhanced food functional properties as well as for high concentrations of physiologically active peptides.
Article
Antioxidative and antihypertensive bioactive peptides were successfully derived from Parkia speciosa seed using alcalase. The effects of temperature (25 and 50°C), substrate-to-enzyme ratio (S/E ratio, 20 and 50), and incubation time (0.5, 1, 2 and 5h) were evaluated based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assays. Bioactive peptide extracted at a hydrolysis condition of: temperature=50°C, S/E ratio=50 and incubation time=2h, exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (2.9mg GAE/g), reducing power (11.7mM) and %ACE-inhibitory activity (80.2%). The sample was subsequently subjected to fractionation and the peptide fraction of <10kDa showed the strongest bioactivities. A total of 29 peptide sequences from peptide fraction of <10kDa were identified as the most potent contributors to the bioactivities. These novel bioactive peptides were suggested to be beneficial to nutraceutical and food industries.
Article
The complete amino acid sequence of plant storage protein molecules has been determined over the past decade by sequence analysis of full‐length cDNA and genomic clones for most cereal and legume seeds. At the same time, knowledge on the biosynthesis of the storage proteins has also been accumulated at the molecular level. According to the data on the gene structures of the plant storage proteins, the homology of their amino acid sequences, and the mechanisms of their accumulation into the protein bodies in the biosynthesis, the storage proteins which are classified as glutelins by a traditional sequential extraction method should be classified as either globulins or prolamins on the basis of the molecular structures. For instance, both orizenin, the rice main storage protein, and glutenin, the most important protein component of wheat proteins, have been classified as glutelins, but they should be classified as globulins and prolamins from the molecular base standpoint, respectively. The amino acid sequences of 7S and 11S globulins of legumes such as soybeans, peas, kidney beans, etc., showed considerable sequence homology and predicted secondary structural identity among 7S globulins or among 11S globulins. In addition, there was a high degree of re‐latedness on the secondary structures, even between the 7S and 11S globulins. The 11S‐type globulins exist widely, not only in legumes, but also in sesame, rape seed, rice, oat, pumpkin, etc. Furthermore, the amino acid sequences of these globulins showed quite a high homology each other. These facts indicate that the 11S globulins, which are distributed very widely among the different species, have all evolved from a common origin. The storage proteins of corn, wheat, rye, and barley are the typical prolamins, of which amino acid sequences are quite different from those of the globulin. The characteristic structural feature of the prolamin molecules is the presence of a repetitive peptide structure in their polypeptide chains. The functional properties of storage proteins and their mechanisms are described at the molecular level both from the gelation of soybean 7S and 11S globulins, and from the viscoelastic properties of the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of wheat glutenin. In the gel formation of 7S globulins, no ‐SH/S‐S interchange reaction participates and therefore the gels are soft and transparent, whereas in the gel formation of 11S globulins, the interchange reaction participates, which makes the resultant gels firm and turbid. In addition, the subunit compositions of the 11S globulin molecules markedly effect the hardness, turbidity, and rates of gelation of the 11S gels. The viscoelastic properties of wheat HMW subunit are ascribed to the β‐spiral structures of the repetitive central domain, which are assembled into long linear polymers through covalent crosslinks via cysteine residues between the ‐NH2 and ‐COOH termini. A discussion on the improvement of the plant storage proteins as food by genetic engineering techniques is presented.
Article
The objective of this work was to study the hydrolytic release of encrypted peptides with antihypertensive activity from storage proteins of Amaranthus mantegazzianus, as determined by in vitro assays, for the first time by in vivo studies in animal models, and by ex vivo assays. Hydrolysates with hydrolysis degree (DH) of 45% and 65% (IC50 0.12mg/ml, equivalent to 300–600μM) exhibited an angiotensin-I converting enzyme 1 (ACE) inhibitory activity equal or higher than the potential inhibitory of the average antihypertensive peptides registered in the BIOPEP database and of semi-purified Amaranthus hypochondriacus albumin and globulin protein fractions. Intragastric administration of hydrolysates with DH of 45% was effective in lowering blood pressure of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experiments performed in papillary muscles isolated from hearts and with isolated aortic smooth muscle of SHR suggest that the hypotensive effect could be attributed to a lowering of the peripheral resistance. We assume that the amaranth hydrolysates would be acting at the level of the local or autocrine renin–angiotensin system (RAS).
Article
Amaranth proteins were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the products. A protein isolate (I) was first hydrolyzed with pepsin (Pe) (pH 2, 37 °C) and then with pancreatin (Pa) (pH 6, 37 °C). Different hydrolysis conditions were assayed and control reactions (without enzymes) were performed. Hydrolysis degree (HD) determined by TNBS method ranged from 13 to 37%. Soluble fractions in 35 mmol/L phosphate buffer, pH = 7.8 were obtained from freeze-dried samples, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS+·scavenging and the ORAC assays. Antioxidant activity increased significantly (p
Article
This study investigated the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of peptides obtained from protein fractions of Adzuki bean seeds. Peptides were obtained by the use of hydrolytic enzymes in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. A determination was made of the activity of the peptide inhibitors of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), and the antiradical and ion chelating activity of peptides from different protein fractions. The highest peptide levels after the absorption process (<7kDa) were noted in the albumin fraction (50.69μg/ml). Furthermore, it was found that peptides from the prolamin fraction were characterised by the highest antiradical activity and ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=0.17mg/ml). Peptides obtained from the globulin fraction showed the highest ability to chelate iron ions, and peptides from the glutelin fraction were characterised as being the most effective in the chelation of copper ions.
Article
Gel forming properties of amaranth proteins at different thermal conditions and protein concentration were studied. Gel point (G′ and G″ crossover) and gelation kinetics (G′ vs. time) were analyzed. The type of gel formed from the rheological point of view was studied analyzing the rheograms obtained from frequency sweeps. Texture properties of cold-set gels were analyzed by TPA assays. Minimum conditions for gelation were 7%, w/v and 70°C. Elasticity of heated dispersions and gels increased with the increase of protein concentration. A high value of the network structure index was observed. This behavior could be related to the great proportion of disulfide bonds formed during amaranth protein gelation. At temperatures above 70°C (80, 90 and 95°C), gelation of dispersions (15%, w/v) took place at times less than 5min. A first order kinetic gelation process with reaction rate specific constant values that increased with the increase of heating temperature was observed. A rapid denaturation of globulins followed by sulfhydryl/disulfide interchange reactions between protein molecules conduced to a gelation phenomenon enhanced by protein aggregation. Gels prepared over critical conditions (T>70°C, protein concentration >7%, w/v) presented a strong gel-like behavior. These type of gels were elastic in nature (tan δ
Article
Content of amino acids and fatty acids in whole amaranth flour from Amaranthus hypochondriacus was investigated. In comparison with fine wheat flour, used in our experiments, high lysine content was observed (5,95 g/16 g N in comparison with 2,90 g/16 g N). Similarly, a higher amount of essential amino acids in amaranth was found. The highest content from fatty acids had linoleic acid about 50%. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysed raw material proves to be very valuable for the enrichment of some cereal products especially regarding protein content, amino acid composition, mainly essential ones, fatty acid composition, and some important mineral substances and vitamins. It is expected, that amaranth will be utilized in some branch of food industry as well.
Article
Amino acid content before and after heat treatment was assessed in grain of six selected amaranth varieties and four species: Amaranthus cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and A. hybridus, cultivated in the Czech Republic. High content of Lys and Arg was detected in both heat treated and untreated grains, as well as satisfactory content of Cys and lower levels of Met, Val, Ile and Leu. The latter three amino acids appear as limiting. Chemical scores of essential amino acids and essential amino acid index (EAAI) were determined. EAAI value of 90.4% shows the favourable nutritional quality of amaranth protein, which is almost comparable with egg protein. Heat treatment by popping at 170 to 190°C for 30 s resulted in decreased EAAI to 85.4%. Of the essential amino acids under study, Val and Leu contents decreased significantly ( P < 0.05). The relatively high content of essential amino acids in amaranth grain predetermines its use as a substitution of meat-and-bone meals.
Article
Amaranth, a former Aztec crop, has the advantage of drought tolerance, high nutritional value, using C/sub 4/ carbon fixation, being a domesticable plant having high yields and needing only minor modification of farm equipment. Besides its present use as a health food it could be used as livestock fodder, in baby food, in aerosols and for squalene extraction. Amaranth has the potential to become an economically important crop although more research needs to be done into its breeding, harvesting, growth performance, disease resistance and marketing.
Article
The grain amaranths (Amaranthus hypochon- driacus L., A. cruentus L., and A. caudatus L.) are important pseudo-cereals native to the Americas. The objective of this project was to produce and characterize a set of highly infor- mative, reproducible microsatellite markers for the grain amaranths. A total of 1457 clones were sequenced from three microsatellite-enriched libraries. Of these, 353 contained unique mic- rosatellites. An additional 29 microsatellite loci were identifi ed from 728 bacterial artifi cial chro- mosome-end sequences. A total of 179 micro- satellites were polymorphic across accessions from the three grain amaranths. Among these polymorphic microsatellite loci, a total of 731 alleles were identifi ed with an average of four alleles per locus. Heterozygosity values ranged from 0.14 to 0.83, with a mean value of 0.62. Thirty-seven (21%) of the markers were polymor- phic between the parents of a segregating pop- ulation. Phylogenetic analysis using the marker data placed A. hybridus L. accessions into two of the three grain amaranth clades, suggesting the polyphyletic evolution of the three cultivated species from different A. hybridus ancestors. The transferability of these markers to A. hybri- dus, A. powellii S. Wats., and A. retrofl exus L. is reported and suggests that these markers may be useful in studying other species within the genus Amaranthus, including several economi- cally important weeds and ornamentals.