ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

This article has no abstract.
Behavioural Neurology 23 (2010) 209–211 209
DOI 10.3233/BEN-2010-0297
IOS Press
Multitasking and Prospective Memory: Can
Virtual Reality be Useful for Diagnosis?
Frederic Banvillea,, Pierre Nolinb, Sophie Lalondeb, Mylene Henryb, Marie-Pier Deryband
Rene Villemureb
aUniversity of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres, Rehabilitation Center Le Bouclier, QC, Canada
bUniversity of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres, QC, Canada
1. Overview
Prospective memory (PM) is defined as the ability
to perform an intended action in the future [4]. It is
with this type of memory that one can observe the high-
est number of memory errors made within the context
of everyday life [6]. Furthermore, researchers have
demonstrated that prospective memory is extremely
sensitive to traumatic brain injury (TBI) [5]. In the
past few years, research in the field of PM has shown
how the frontal lobes are involved in the context of
multitasking.
Multitasking is defined by the ability to execute and
monitor a set of “goal-oriented” behaviours in order to
realize planned actions [3]. Shallice and Burgess [8]
have discussed the importance of multitasking as an
essential component of prospective memory.
During the last few years, neuropsychological tests
have been criticized, especially with regard to every-
day functioning. At present, neuropsychological tools
sometimes fail to detect subtle and complex deficits in
the goal-oriented behaviours in order to realise self-
planned actions [8].
We now seem to have at our disposal virtual reali-
ty (VR) to compensate for the different limits of tra-
ditional assessment. One of the major plusses of VR
is its capacity to bring the real world into a labora-
Corresponding author: Frederic Banville, Neuropsychologist,
P.O. Box 502, Station St-Jerome, St-Jerome, J7Z 5V2, Quebec, Cana-
da. Tel.: +1 450 275 4518; E-mail: fredericbanville@videotron.ca.
tory setting thus permitting the control of stimuli and
the recording of the patient’s answers and behaviours.
Overtime,someexperimentswhich haveused VRtech-
nology have demonstrated its ecological validity and
its capacity to detect planning or prospective memory
deficit [2,7,9].
The objective of the present study is to demonstrate
the capacity of VR to detect prospective memory prob-
lems.
2. Method
2.1. Participants
Thirty-one participants (8 women and 23 men) who
have sustained a TBI participated in this study. Seven
subjects have sustained a moderate TBI and twenty-
four a severe TBI. All subjects were evaluated both in
a VR condition and a traditional neuropsychological
condition. Thirty-one control subjects were matched
in gender, education and age with TBI participants.
The mean age for TBI participants was 27 years old
(SD =11 years); they had an average of 12 years of
education (SD =2,5 years). The mean age for control
subjects was 27 years (SD =11 years); they had an av-
erage of 12 years of education (SD =1,61). Statistical
analysis has not revealed any differences between the
groups in terms of age (F(1,60) =2.21, p=0,14) and
education (F(1,60) =2,15, p=0,15).
ISSN 0953-4180/10/$27.50 2010 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved
210 F. Banville et al. / Multitasking and Prospective Memory: Can Virtual Reality be Useful for Diagnosis?
2.2. Material
This study was conducted with a PC Laptop and an
eMagin z800 visor in order to immerse the participants
into virtual environments. The virtual environments
used to conduct this study were taken from the “Modi-
fiedMaxPayne Environments”developedbyBouchard
et al. [1]. The environments in question are the virtual
city (which is used in the learning phase) and two vir-
tual apartments (which are used in order to realize the
PM assessment).
2.3. Procedure
Three virtual prospective memory tasks are done
while visiting two apartments. The subject must: 1)
feed fish at 11:41, 2) turn off the fan when leaving the
bedroom of the larger apartment, and 3) take the lease
from the counter after visiting the smaller apartment.
Two traditional prospectivememory taskshave beenre-
alized; they were analogous to those found in the River-
mead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) which is fre-
quently used in prospective memory research. More
specifically, the participant has to: 1) ask the evaluator
to give him a business card and 2) ask the evaluator to
give back to him a personal object. Finally, the ongoing
task has consisted in visiting two apartments with the
aim of renting one. The participant was voice-recorded
during the visit and had to describe what he/she saw in
terms of his/her preference in living in one of the two
apartments.
2.4. Results
Three scores were taken from the VR condition: pre-
cision in the realization of prospective task; time taken
to make the visit; and the success (or not) of virtual
PM tasks. One score in fact, comes from the traditional
prospective memory evaluation: it is a measurement
of success (or not) in performing PM tasks. We used
MANOVA for our first statistical analysis. The analy-
sis of the principal effect has shown a significant group
difference(F(1,50)=8,79,p < 0,01) in the four depen-
dant variables. More specifically, the simple effects did
not show a significant group difference in the success
of PM tasks both in VR (F(1,50) =1,25, p > 0,05) or
traditional tasks (F(1,50) =2,73, p > 0,05). However,
and more interestingly, the TBI group was less precise
(F(1,50) =5,70, p < 0,05) and took significantly more
time to complete the task (F(1,50) =7,57, p < 0,01) in
comparison with the control group. Using the same de-
pendant variables, a discriminant analysis has correctly
classified 71% of the participants in the correct group
(TBI or control).
3. Discussion
The principal aim of this experiment was to demon-
strate the utility of VR technology in order to detect
prospective memory problems after traumatic brain in-
jury. The results here have demonstrated, as else-
where [9], that the realization of delayed intention
for both experimental and control groups was normal.
Nevertheless, the TBI participants’ executive dysfunc-
tions can be detected in the way they had difficulties in
managing well the interference and cognitive overload
generated by the multitasking condition. In fact, TBI
participants took more time to realize virtual prospec-
tive memory tasks; they made more errors in terms of
quality of realization; and they were less structured in
the task than control group participants.
These research results seem to suggest that in order
to obtain a good measurement of prospective memory,
one must include multitasking conditions and several
quantitative and qualitative measurements. This way,
we can detect subtle behaviours which indicate a mal-
functioning of cognitive management especially with
regard to the executive component in the realisation
of the intended action. This experiment, like previous
tests, is a testament to the usefulness of virtual reali-
ty, which can classify correctly the majority of partic-
ipants as TBI patients or control agents. Moreover, it
appears that virtual reality protocol can be used as a
complement with traditional neuropsychological tools
in order to assess PM after traumatic brain injury. This
is especially the case when we have to detect subtle
everyday problems in TBI patients. In the end, more
work is needed and more data collection is required
before we can come to a definite conclusion.
References
[1] S. Bouchard, S. Cˆ
ot´
e and S.C.D. Richard, Virtual reality ap-
plications for exposure. In Handbook of Exposures Therapy,
D.C.S. Richard and D. Lauterbach, eds, Chapter 16, 2007,
pp. 347–388.
[2] B.M. Brooks, F.D. Rose, J. Potter, S. Jayawardena and A. Mor-
ling, Assessing stroke patients’ prospective memory using vir-
tual reality, Brain Injury 18(4) (april) (2004), 391–401.
[3] P.W. Burgess, I. Dumontel, S.J. Gilbert, J. Okuda, M.L.
Sch¨
olvinick and J.S. Simons, On the role of rostral prefrontal
cortex (Aera 10) in prospective memory. In: Prospective Mem-
ory: Cognitive, Neuroscience, Developmental andApplied Per-
spective, M. Kliegel, M.A. McDaniel and G.O. Einstein eds,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2008, pp. 235–260.
[4] J. Ellis, Prospective memory or the realisation of delayed in-
tentions: a conceptual framework for research. In: Prospec-
tive Memory: Theory and Applications, M. Brandimonte, G.O.
Einstein and M.A., McDaniels, eds, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, 1996, pp. 1–22.
F. Banville et al. / Multitasking and Prospective Memory: Can Virtual Reality be Useful for Diagnosis? 211
[5] J.M. Fleming, D.Shum, J. Strongand S.Lightbody, Prospective
memory rehabilitation for adults with traumatic brain injury:
A compensatory training program, Brain Injury 19(1) (2005),
1–10.
[6] M. Kliegel and M. Martin, Prospective memory research: Why
is it relevant? International Journal of Psychology 38 (2003),
193–194.
[7] P. McGeorge, L.H. Phillips, J.R. Crawford, S.E. Garden, S.
Della Sala, A.B. Milne et al., Using virtual environments in
the assessment of executive dysfunction, Presence 10 (2001),
375–383.
[8] T. Shallice and P.W. Burgess, Deficits in strategy application
following frontal lobe damage in man, Brain 114 (1991), 727–
741.
[9] S. Sweeney, D. Kersel, R.G. Morris, T. Manly and J.J. Evans,
The sensitivity of a virtual reality task to planning and prospec-
tive memory impairments: Group differences and the efficacy
of periodic alerts on performance, Neuropsychological Reha-
bilitation 20(2) (2010), 239–263.
Submit your manuscripts at
http://www.hindawi.com
Stem Cells
International
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
M E D I ATO R S
IN F LAM M AT I ON
of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Behavioural
Neurology
Endocrinology
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Disease Markers
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
BioMed
Research International
Oncology
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Oxidative Medicine and
Cellular Longevity
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
PPAR Research
The Scientic
World Journal
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Immunology Research
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Journal of
Obesity
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Computational and
Mathematical Methods
in Medicine
Ophthalmology
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Diabetes Research
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Research and Treatment
AIDS
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Gastroenterology
Research and Practice
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Parkinson’s
Disease
Evidence-Based
Complementary and
Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com
... Finally, some contributions supporting the evaluation of prospective memory are Virtual Reality Shopping Task [23], Virtual Week [24] and Banville et al. [25]. The first example reproduces a virtual reality environment in which participants have to perform an ongoing task (i.e., purchasing a list of items) and three event-based prospective memory tasks. ...
... Furthermore, the main limitation of previous studies was the lack of comprehensive psychometric validation. In our case, evidence of the spychometric validity of Panoramix is provided from several perspectives such as construct validity (i.e., addressed in 57.14% of the works analysed except [19], [21], [24] and [25]); criterion validity (i.e., addressed only in [18], [21], [24] and [25]); and finally, external validity (addressed only in the 14.29% of studies [20,57]). ...
... Furthermore, the main limitation of previous studies was the lack of comprehensive psychometric validation. In our case, evidence of the spychometric validity of Panoramix is provided from several perspectives such as construct validity (i.e., addressed in 57.14% of the works analysed except [19], [21], [24] and [25]); criterion validity (i.e., addressed only in [18], [21], [24] and [25]); and finally, external validity (addressed only in the 14.29% of studies [20,57]). ...
Article
Objective: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent diseases among the adult population. The early detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which may trigger AD, is essential to slow down the cognitive decline process. Methods: This paper presents a suit of serious games that aims at detecting AD and MCI overcoming the limitations of traditional tests, as they are time-consuming, affected by confounding factors that distort the result and usually administered when symptoms are evident and it is too late for preventive measures. The battery, named Panoramix, assesses the main early cognitive markers (i.e., memory, executive functions, attention and gnosias). Regarding its validation, it has been tested with a cohort study of 16 seniors, including AD, MCI and healthy individuals. Results: This first pilot study offered initial evidence about psychometric validity, and more specifically about construct, criterion and external validity. After an analysis using machine learning techniques, findings show a promising 100% rate of success in classification abilities using a subset of three games in the battery. Thus, results are encouraging as all healthy subjects were correctly discriminated from those already suffering AD or MCI. Conclusions: The solid potential of digital serious games and machine learning for the early detection of dementia processes is demonstrated. Such a promising performance encourages further research to eventually introduce this technique for the clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment.
... • Arvind Pala et al. (2014) created the Virtual HOMES, a virtual apartment to assess learning capacities. • Banville and Nolin (2012) and Banville et al. (2010) ...
... Finally, Slobounov et al. (2010) observed a different pattern of brain activation after mTBI caused by sports injuries mainly located on the frontal and parietal areas. Banville et al. (2010) have compared the performance of 31 TBI adults to a group of 31 control subjects paired by age, gender and education on a virtual prospective memory task. Subjects had to explore a city in a learning phase and then visit two apartments and realize some prospective memory tasks. ...
... The authors used Max Payne modified virtual environment and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (only two prospective memory items have been used), an ecological and traditional tool to assess everyday memory disorders. The task was the same as the first paper (Banville et al. 2010): participants had to realize some prospective memory tasks during the visit of two apartments. Results illustrated that, when the assessment tools are combined (Virtual and Classical), the experimenters can identify in a proportion of 75% the subject to their group. ...
Chapter
This chapter is a systematic review of the studies that have used virtual reality (VR) as an assessment or a rehabilitation tool of cognitive functions following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To be part of this review, publications must have collected data from individuals who have sustained a TBI, and must have been published between 1980 and 2017. A total of 32 publications were selected from a possible set of 254 articles that were identified in the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Computers & Applied Sciences, ERIC, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, FRANCIS, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection. Most of the selected studies focused on the following cognitive functions: attention, memory and learning, spatial navigation, multitasking (including prospective memory and executive functions). In these studies, VR has been used for assessment/screening of cognitive impairments as well as for rehabilitation/remediation of cognitive dysfunction due to brain lesions. All the studies examined support the value and relevance of VR as an assessment and rehabilitation tool with individuals who have sustained a TBI. Moreover, VR seems to be an ecologically valid approach that has the potential of re-thinking neuropsychology regarding assessment and rehabilitation. In this way, since the virtual environment mimics everyday contexts, the possibility of improving cognitive function as well as facilitating generalizations in everyday living increases. However, it is important to pursue work (research & development) in this emergent field in neuropsychology in order to develop and to validate psychometrically these new assessment and rehabilitation tools.
... Pour mêler ces différentes tâches dans une seule session de test, le multitâche apparaît être tout à fait approprié. La MP est en effet une composante du multitâche (Shallice & Burgess, 1991) et se révèle être utilisable en RV pour mesurer la MP de façon écologique (Banville et al., 2010). De façon expérimentale, une situation de multitâche consiste à proposer aux sujets une situation dans laquelle ils doivent planifier, résoudre des problèmes et/ou choisir entre leurs performances à différentes tâches (Burgess et al., 2000). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Les environnements virtuels (EVs) sont de plus en plus utilisés dans le domaine de la recherche et de la clinique avec pour avantage que chaque environnement peut être adapté au besoin du participant mais avec pour inconvénient que la pluralité des variables mesurées lors des tests virtuels rend la performance du sujet de plus en plus difficile à expertiser. L’objectif de la thèse est de proposer une approche permettant de qualifier, de façon la plus pertinente possible, la performance du participant dans un EV en tentant de comprendre la charge mentale associée à chaque technique d’interaction et comment celle-ci peut venir influencer la performance du participant. Cinquante-trois participants ont réalisé des tâches dans un EV avec une des cinq techniques d’interaction disponible : la souris, le gamepad, le Razer Hydra, le Razer Hydra avec un tracking de tête et le Razer Hydra avec un casque de RV. Ils étaient attribués à une des deux conditions de difficulté de la tâche : une facile et une difficile avec des tâches additionnelles. Le rythme cardiaque du participant était enregistré et ceux-ci ont renseigné des questionnaires de charge mentale, présence et cybermalaise. L’expérimentation a permis de mettre en avant que la différence de charge mentale entre les différentes techniques d’interaction est faible et que celle-ci se manifeste plus sensiblement lorsque les techniques sont regroupées par leurs caractéristiques. Ainsi les techniques avec une sélection en 3D et un steering effectué par les mouvements de la tête demande plus de charge mentale. Le degré d’expertise avec l’utilisation d’une technique d’interaction n’est pas lié à une modulation de la charge mentale. Cependant les utilisateurs qualifiés d’experts sont plus à même d’explorer le VMT que les novices. De plus, la charge mentale est plus perçue dans les conditions où la difficulté de la tâche est faible alors que dans le cas où la difficulté de la tâche est élevée, ce sont les problèmes d’utilisabilité des techniques d’interaction qui s’expriment. Les participants qui ont une charge mentale élevée ont un score plus faible que les participants qui ont une faible charge mentale, en particulier lors des tâches qui réclament des fonctions cognitives variées.
... VR is therefore considered as an ecologically valid tool to assess cognitive functions involved in everyday life. Studies in our group have shown the capacities of VR to detect cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury or dementia [25,26]. We have also demonstrated significant correlations between performance on virtual tasks and neuropsychological measures [27,28]. ...
... VR is therefore considered as an ecologically valid tool to assess cognitive functions involved in everyday life. Studies in our group have shown the capacities of VR to detect cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury or dementia [25,26]. We have also demonstrated significant correlations between performance on virtual tasks and neuropsychological measures [27,28]. ...
Conference Paper
Prospective memory (PM) is defined be the capacity to remember to realize an intended action in the future. This is a very important cognitive function that permit to maximize autonomy in everyday life. Unfortunately, few assessment tool, valid, reliable and ecological is accessible for clinicians. To obtain a verisimilar and ecologically prospective memory assessment tool, virtual reality seems to be a promising way. A specific and sensible tool could help the clinician to detect subtle changes in the cognition of the elderly and, ideally detect pathological aging soon before the beginning of decline. Because older adults are not really at ease with technology, these (dis)abilities could be confounded with cognitive inefficacy and lead to false positives diagnostics. To avoid this, the psychometrician must consider the impact of human-computer interfaces (HMI) on cognition. This paper present three experiments that show the impact of HMI on stress, capacity to achieve a task and on cognitive load. The first pilot study shown that a “heavy to use” HMI generated stress and difficulty to achieve the task with healthy adults. The second pilot study revealed that VMT-2 is judged moderately challenging cognitively and it seems to be more for older participants. The third pilot study shown that a complex virtual environment (in terms of navigation and interaction) is more cognitively challenging than a simple virtual environment for older peoples compared to young participants. These results indicated the importance of considering HMI as a potential variable that could create bias in the cognitive measurement.
Preprint
Full-text available
Immersive virtual reality (VR) emerges as a promising research and clinical tool. However, several studies suggest that VR induced adverse symptoms and effects (VRISE) may undermine the health and safety standards, and the reliability of the scientific results. In the current literature review, the technical reasons for the adverse symptomatology are investigated to provide suggestions and technological knowledge for the implementation of VR head-mounted display (HMD) systems in cognitive neuroscience. The technological systematic literature indicated features pertinent to display, sound, motion tracking, navigation, ergonomic interactions, user experience, and computer hardware that should be considered by the researchers. Subsequently, a meta-analysis of 44 neuroscientific or neuropsychological studies involving VR HMD systems was performed. The meta-analysis of the VR studies demonstrated that new generation HMDs induced significantly less VRISE and marginally fewer dropouts.Importantly, the commercial versions of the new generation HMDs with ergonomic interactions had zero incidents of adverse symptomatology and dropouts. HMDs equivalent to or greater than the commercial versions of contemporary HMDs accompanied with ergonomic interactions are suitable for implementation in cognitive neuroscience. In conclusion, researchers technological competency, along with meticulous methods and reports pertinent to software, hardware, and VRISE, are paramount to ensure the health and safety standards and the reliability of neuroscientific results.
Preprint
Full-text available
Immersive virtual reality (VR) emerges as a promising research and clinical tool. However, several studies suggest that VR induced adverse symptoms and effects (VRISE) may undermine the health and safety standards, and the reliability of the scientific results. In the current literature review, the technical reasons for the adverse symptomatology are investigated to provide suggestions and technological knowledge for the implementation of VR head-mounted display (HMD) systems in cognitive neuroscience. The technological systematic literature indicated features pertinent to display, sound, motion tracking, navigation, ergonomic interactions, user experience, and computer hardware that should be considered by the researchers. Subsequently, a meta-analysis of 44 neuroscientific or neuropsychological studies involving VR HMD systems was performed. The meta-analysis of the VR studies demonstrated that new generation HMDs induced significantly less VRISE and marginally fewer dropouts. Importantly, the commercial versions of the new generation HMDs with ergonomic interactions had zero incidents of adverse symptomatology and dropouts. HMDs equivalent to or greater than the commercial versions of contemporary HMDs accompanied with ergonomic interactions are suitable for implementation in cognitive neuroscience. In conclusion, researchers' technological competency, along with meticulous methods and reports pertinent to software, hardware, and VRISE, are paramount to ensure the health and safety standards and the reliability of neuroscientific results.
Article
Full-text available
Immersive virtual reality (VR) emerges as a promising research and clinical tool. However, several studies suggest that VR induced adverse symptoms and effects (VRISE) may undermine the health and safety standards, and the reliability of the scientific results. In the current literature review, the technical reasons for the adverse symptomatology are investigated to provide suggestions and technological knowledge for the implementation of VR head-mounted display (HMD) systems in cognitive neuroscience. The technological systematic literature indicated features pertinent to display, sound, motion tracking, navigation, ergonomic interactions, user experience, and computer hardware that should be considered by the researchers. Subsequently, a meta-analysis of 44 neuroscientific or neuropsychological studies involving VR HMD systems was performed. The meta-analysis of the VR studies demonstrated that new generation HMDs induced significantly less VRISE and marginally fewer dropouts. Importantly, the commercial versions of the new generation HMDs with ergonomic interactions had zero incidents of adverse symptomatology and dropouts. HMDs equivalent to or greater than the commercial versions of contemporary HMDs accompanied with ergonomic interactions are suitable for implementation in cognitive neuroscience. In conclusion, researchers' technological competency, along with meticulous methods and reports pertinent to software, hardware, and VRISE, are paramount to ensure the health and safety standards and the reliability of neuroscientific results.
Article
The effect of initial planning on complex prospective memory was investigated using a virtual environment and a sample of healthy young adults (N = 34). Participants were assigned to either an initial planning or control condition and asked to complete a series of time- and event-based prospective memory tasks. The planning group completed the tasks more quickly and accurately than the control group. However, the total time spent, including both planning and task execution, was comparable for the two groups. Within the planning group, tasks that were planned were more likely to be completed than unplanned tasks, but inclusion of overly detailed information in the plans resulted in poorer performance. These results suggest that although initial planning can be beneficial to task completion, the complexity of a plan may contribute to decrements in performance.
Article
Full-text available
Points out that there are at least three reasons why research in prospective memory is highly relevant. Relevance of prospective memory for everyday life; Clinical relevance of prospective memory; Theoretical relevance of prospective memory.
Article
Full-text available
A quantitative investigation of the ability to carry out a variety of cognitive tasks was performed in 3 patients who had sustained traumatic injuries which involved prefrontal structures. All 3 had severe difficulties in 2 tests which required them to carry out a number of fairly simple but open-ended tasks over a 15-30 min period. They typically spent too long on individual tasks. All patients scored well on tests of perception, language and intelligence and 2 performed well on a variety of other tests of frontal lobe function. Explanations for their difficulty on the multiple subgoal tasks in terms of memory or motivational problems could be excluded. It is argued that the problem arose from an inability to reactivate after a delay previously-generated intentions when they are not directly signalled by the stimulus situation.
Article
Full-text available
To describe a prospective memory rehabilitation programme based on a compensatory training approach and report the results of three case studies. Programme evaluation using pre- and post-intervention assessments and telephone follow-up. Three participants with traumatic brain injury completed 8 weeks of training with 1-2 hour individual sessions. Assessments were formal prospective memory assessment, self-report and measures of diary use. Intervention aimed to identify potential barriers, establish self-awareness of memory deficits, introduce a customized compensatory tool, a cueing system and organizational strategies. A significant other was involved in training to assist generalization. All three participants improved on formal prospective memory assessment and demonstrated successful diary use after the programme. Self-report of prospective memory failure fluctuated and may reflect increased self-awareness. A compensatory approach may be useful in improving prospective memory performance following TBI.
Chapter
Virtual reality (VR) is an application that lets users to navigate and interact with a three-dimensional, computer-generated (and computer-maintained) environment in real time. The key concept that differentiates VR from the use of other audiovisual media to deliver exposure is interactivity. The mediated experience becomes an alternate reality when participants can explore the surroundings (e.g., look under a closet, open a door, or walk out of a room), and the displayed images change accordingly. The selected technology can immerse the patient to different degrees in the virtual environments, from a simple presentation on a computer screen to the use of head mounted displays and motion trackers, and even to a full-size 10 × 10 × 10 foot room with stereoscopic images projected on walls, floor, and ceiling. In VR, exposure offers a standardized, controlled, and replicable environment that can be used to induce emotions for therapeutic purposes.
Article
The primary aim of this chapter is to develop the analysis of prospective memory tasks into a broad conceptual framework. It draws from research on a variety of cognitive processes and places prospective memory at the interface between memory, attention, and action processes. For this reason the description, realizing delayed intentions, is used whenever appropriate, in preference to the term, prospective memory. The final section briefly examines the implications of this framework for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A study is reported into the role of virtual environments in the assessment of patients with executive dysfunction. Five patients and five matched controls entered the study. The patients did not differ significantly from normative values on the standard executive dysfunction measure, the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome battery (Wilson, Alderman, Burgess, Emslie, & Evans, 1996); however, care staff reported the patients had problems planning. Patients and controls undertook both real and virtual environment multiple-errand planning tasks. The patients completed significantly fewer errands, and produced significantly worse plans than did controls in both the real and virtual environments. There was a significant correlation between performance in the real and virtual environments. The results suggest that virtual environments may provide a valid means of assessing planning impairments and that there may be patients with executive dysfunction (specifically planning deficits) that may not be detected by the currently available standardized tests.
Article
Executive functions have been argued to be the most vulnerable to brain injury. In providing an analogue of everyday situations amenable to control and management virtual reality (VR) may offer better insights into planning deficits consequent upon brain injury. Here 17 participants with a non-progressive brain injury and reported executive difficulties in everyday life were asked to perform a VR task (working in a furniture storage unit) that emphasised planning, rule following and prospective memory tasks. When compared with an age and IQ-matched control group, the patients were significantly poorer in terms of their strategy, their time-based prospective memory, the overall time required and their propensity to break rules. An examination of sensitivity and specificity of the VR task to group membership (brain-injured or control) showed that, with specificity set at maximum, sensitivity was only modest (at just over 50%). A second component to the study investigated whether the patients' performance could be improved by periodic auditory alerts. Previous studies have demonstrated that such cues can improve performance on laboratory tests, executive tests and everyday prospective memory tasks. Here, no significant changes in performance were detected. Potential reasons for this finding are discussed, including symptom severity and differences in the tasks employed in previous studies.
Article
There is a dearth of empirical evidence about prospective memory (remembering to perform actions in the future) in stroke patients. A probable reason for this is that it is difficult to perform a realistic and controlled assessment of prospective memory ability in a rehabilitation setting. Virtual reality may provide a solution to this difficulty by allowing prospective memory to be tested in a simulation of a real-life situation whilst retaining a laboratory level of scientific control. This exploratory study assessed the performance of stroke patients and age-matched control participants on event-, time- and activity-based prospective memory retrieval tasks in a personal computer-based virtual environment. Stroke patients were severely impaired at the event- and activity-based tasks compared with age-matched controls, but only marginally impaired at the time-based task. The additional knowledge gained from this form of assessment could direct rehabilitation more effectively towards specific impairments of individual patients.
On the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (Aera 10) in prospective memory
  • P W Burgess
  • I Dumontel
  • S J Gilbert
  • J Okuda
  • M L Schölvinick
  • J S Simons
P.W. Burgess, I. Dumontel, S.J. Gilbert, J. Okuda, M.L. Schölvinick and J.S. Simons, On the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (Aera 10) in prospective memory. In: Prospective Memory: Cognitive, Neuroscience, Developmental and Applied Perspective, M. Kliegel, M.A. McDaniel and G.O. Einstein eds, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2008, pp. 235-260.