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Managing the spread of pathogens and aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes recreational fishery: An application of the drivers-pressures-state-impacts-responses framework

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Unimpeded transfer and spread of invasive species throughout freshwater systems is of global concern, altering species compositions, disrupting ecosystem processes, and diverting economic resources. The magnitude and complexity of the problem is amplified by the global connectedness of human movements and the multiple modes of inter-basin transport of aquatic invasive species. Our objective was to trace the fishing behavior of anglers delineating potential pathways of transfer of invasive species throughout the vast inland waters of the Great Lakes of North America, which contain more than 21% of the world's surface freshwater and are among the most highly invaded aquatic ecosystems in the world. Combining a comprehensive survey and a spatial analysis of the movements of thousands of anglers in 12 states within the US portion of the Great Lakes Basin and the Upper Mississippi and Ohio River Basins, we estimated that 6.5 million licensed anglers in the study area embarked on an average of 30 fishing trips over the course of the year, and 70% of the individuals fished in more than one county. Geospatial linkages showed direct connections made by individuals traveling between 99% of the 894 counties where fishing occurred, and between 61 of the 66 sub-watersheds in a year. Estimated numbers of fishing trips to individual counties ranged from 1199–1.95 million; generally highest in counties bordering the Great Lakes. Of these, 79 had more than 10,000 estimated fishing trips originating from anglers living in other counties. Although angler movements are one mechanism of invasive species transfer, there likely is a high cumulative probability of invasive species transport by several million people fishing each year throughout this extensive freshwater network. A comprehensive georeferenced survey, coupled with a spatial analysis of fishing destinations, provides a potentially powerful tool to track, predict, curtail and control the transfer and proliferation of invasive species in freshwater.
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In recent years, large-scale farming of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) has been developing rapidly. However, bacterial infections and environmental stresses limit its healthy development and probiotics have the potential to improve turtles' immunity and reduce disease occurrences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis B10 on intestinal health and immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtles and explore its mechanism. The results showed that the dietary administration of B. subtilis B10 remarkably increased the levels of urea nitrogen and IL-1β, the activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and catalase) in serum of Chinese soft-shelled turtles. Furthermore, B. subtilis B10 up-regulated the expression of genes related to intestinal tight junction protein and TLR8, which improved the intestinal health status and immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Finally, RNA-Seq results showed that TLR5 expression was significantly increased in liver. It could be concluded that probiotics B. subtilis B10 may improve the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtles via TLR5 in the liver.
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The spread of fish pathogens and aquatic invasive species (AIS) is an ongoing challenge in the Great Lakes region. Bait dealers can prevent the spread of fish pathogens and AIS through their business practices and by educating their customers. Little is known, however, about whether and how they fulfill these roles. Licensed bait dealers in the Great Lakes region were surveyed by mail during fall 2013 to assess their awareness and concern about fish pathogens and AIS, actions they took to prevent their spread, and factors influencing these actions. Most bait dealers were aware of AIS and fish pathogens, many were concerned about them, and held beliefs suggesting their desire to take action to prevent their spread. These concerns and beliefs, however, did not always lead to action. We found two factors, not previously examined, that affected the probability of actual behavior. First, we found differences in participation in business practices by whether or not the state/province had regulations pertaining to those business practices. We also found differences by state/province in the degree and type of communication methods used to educate their customers. Second, we found greater economic dependence on bait sales was associated with increased AIS-preventative business actions and communication with customers. If fishery managers want to increase the number of bait dealers taking action to prevent the spread of AIS and fish pathogens, they may wish to promote additional regulations in states and provinces that do not currently have them, or strengthen regulations already in place.
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Invasive non-native species (INNS) endanger native biodiversity and are a major economic problem. The management of pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment is a key target in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020. Freshwater environments are particularly susceptible to invasions as they are exposed to multiple introduction pathways, including non-native fish stocking and the release of boat ballast water. Since many freshwater INNS and aquatic pathogens can survive for several days in damp environments, there is potential for transport between water catchments on the equipment used by recreational anglers and canoeists. To quantify this biosecurity risk, we conducted an online questionnaire with 960 anglers and 599 canoeists to investigate their locations of activity, equipment used, and how frequently equipment was cleaned and/or dried after use. Anglers were also asked about their use and disposal of live bait. Our results indicate that 64% of anglers and 78.5% of canoeists use their equipment/boat in more than one catchment within a fortnight, the survival time of many of the INNS and pathogens considered in this study and that 12% of anglers and 50% of canoeists do so without either cleaning or drying their kit between uses. Furthermore, 8% of anglers and 28% of canoeists had used their equipment overseas without cleaning or drying it after each use which could facilitate both the introduction and secondary spread of INNS in the UK. Our results provide a baseline against which to evaluate the effectiveness of future biosecurity awareness campaigns, and identify groups to target with biosecurity awareness information. Our results also indicate that the biosecurity practices of these groups must improve to reduce the likelihood of inadvertently spreading INNS and pathogens through these activities.
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The use of live bait by anglers is an important vector of both aquatic and terrestrial invasive species. Bait-bucket introductions of invasive crayfishes, fishes, earthworms, pathogens, and other organisms have reduced biodiversity and altered ecosystem function and structure throughout the United States, including the Mid-Atlantic region. In 2008, we conducted a telephone survey of bait shops and a mail survey of anglers to obtain information on the trade and use of bait in Maryland, a US state with many introduced bait species. Our telephone survey of bait shops confirmed that this industry is a source of non-native and invasive species in Maryland. Our survey documented at least six non-native bait species for sale in the state. With the exception of a few locally collected bait species, bait sold in Maryland originated from sources outside of the state, and in some cases, outside the Mid-Atlantic region. Results of our angler survey indicated that 64% of Maryland freshwater anglers, both resident and non-resident, used live bait and that the release of unused live bait was quite common and occurred statewide. The release of unused bait by anglers varied with bait type. Anglers more readily released aquatic than terrestrial baits. For example, 65 and 69% of Maryland anglers using fishes and crayfishes released their unused bait; whereas only 18 and 10% of anglers released their unused earthworms and grubs-mealworms-maggots, respectively. Our surveys indicated that any non-native, potentially invasive species imported into the state via the bait industry is likely to be released by anglers into Maryland’s aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many of these species have the potential to become established in the state. These results illustrate the need for greater oversight of the bait industry, development of consistent regulations on bait use, and a region-wide education campaign aimed at changing anglers’ behavior regarding bait use and its disposal. We recommend specific management actions that, if implemented, would greatly reduce further bait-bucket introductions and provide protection against invasive bait species in Maryland and the Mid-Atlantic region.
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The baitfish industry in Canada and the United States is conservatively estimated to be worth US $1 billion annually. In addition to the economic impacts, this industry also has ecological impacts. We review the potential impacts of the use of baitfish on the harvested (donor) ecosystem as well as the ecosystem in which the baitfish are used (recipient). We summarized the current, provincial, territorial, and state baitfish regulations for both countries and compared our results to the findings of a similar study in 1956. Although the number of regulations in both countries has increased, clearly transport and release of baitfish is still poorly controlled. We undertook a more detailed examination of the US $29 million baitfish industry in Ontario. The listing of 15 baitfish species as vulnerable or threatened and the presence of disjunct populations as a result of bait-bucket transfer of 12 species indicates Ontario baitfish regulations/enforcement have not adequately protected donor and recipient ecosystems. We also conducted a survey of baitfish practices for customers of four major baitfish dealers in Toronto, Ontario. We found that almost half of the anglers surveyed released their unused baitfish at their fishing destinations, even though this practice is prohibited by Ontario fishing regulations. We inspected contents of the dealers' holding tanks and plotted the destinations of anglers who bought these baitfish. Eighteen of the 28 species found in the tanks were potentially used outside their known ranges. In light of these findings, we present a number of recommendations to better manage this economically and ecologically important resource.
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We describe, explain, and "predict" dispersal and ecosystem impacts of six Ponto-Caspian endemic species that recently invaded the Great Lakes via ballast water. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, continue to colonize hard and soft substrates of the Great Lakes and are changing ecosystem function through mechanisms of ecosystem engineering (increased water clarity and reef building), fouling native mussels, high particle filtration rate with selective rejection of colonial cyanobacteria in pseudofeces, alteration of nutrient ratios, and facilitation of the rapid spread of their Ponto-Caspian associates, the benthic amphipod Echinogammarus ischnusand the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus , which feeds on zebra mussels. The tubenose goby, Proterorhinus marmoratus , which does not feed on zebra mussels, has not spread rapidly. Impacts of these benthic invaders vary with site: in some shallow areas, habitat changes and the Dreissena → round goby → piscivore food chain have improved conditions for certain native game fishes and waterfowl; in offshore waters, Dreissena is competing for settling algae with the native amphipod Diporeia spp., which are disappearing to the detriment of the native deep-water fish community. The predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi may compete with small fishes for zooplankton and increase food-chain length.
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Release of contaminated ballast water by transoceanic ships has been implicated in more than 70% of faunal nonindigenous species (NIS) introductions to the Great Lakes since the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959. Contrary to expectation, the apparent invasion rate increased after the initiation of voluntary guidelines in 1989 and mandatory regulations in 1993 for open-ocean ballast water exchange by ships declaring ballast on board (BOB). However, more than 90% of vessels that entered during the 1990s declared no ballast on board (NOBOB) and were not required to exchange ballast, although their tanks contained residual sediments and water that would be discharged in the Great Lakes. Lake Superior receives a disproportionate number of discharges by both BOB and NOBOB ships, yet it has sustained surprisingly few initial invasions. Conversely, the waters connecting lakes Huron and Erie are an invasion hotspot despite receiving disproportionately few ballast discharges. Other vectors, including canals and accidental release, have contributed NIS to the Great Lakes and may increase in relative importance in the future. Based on our knowledge of NIS previously established in the basin, we have developed a vector assignment protocol to systematically ascertain vectors by which invaders enter the Great Lakes.
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Recreational boats in tow between lakes are a known vector of the spread of aquatic invading species (AIS), but we have no test of the hypothesis that recreational boats are also a vector of secondary spread of AIS among freshwater ecosystems via in-water transport i.e., while boating between interconnected waterways. In this study, we surveyed recreational boaters travelling into Lake Simcoe (44�250N, 79�200W), Ontario, Canada, on their recreational activities, boat maintenance, and travel destinations, measured the degree of vessel fouling, and sampled all standing water and attached macrophytes associated with their vessels. A total of 321 zooplankton individuals comprising 15 different species were collected from the standing water in vessels, including veligers of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena. The volume of water collected within the vessels significantly increased the number of zooplankton transported. Zooplankton species from pelagic habitats or with planktonic life stages were collected more frequently than species that occupy littoral or benthic habitats, likely reflecting the recreational activities of boaters. Patterns of boater activities, movements and hygiene habits, suggest recreational boating in the Lake Simcoe region is contributing to the spread of native and invasive species into nearby waterways. Our study validates the widespread assumption that recreational boats are an important in-water vector for the secondary spread of both native and invasive zooplankton species. Future management strategies to reduce the spread of AIS should be aimed at increasing awareness of boater hygiene practices, particularly the frequent draining of standing water.
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Trailered boats have been implicated in the spread of aquatic invasive species. There has been, however, little empirical research on the type and quantity of aquatic invasive species being transported, nor on the efficacy of management interventions (e.g., inspection crews, boat washing). In a study of small-craft boats and trailers, we collected numerous aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including some species that are morphologically similar to known aquatic invasive species. Additionally, a mail survey of registered boaters (n = 944, 11% response rate) and an in-person survey of boaters in the field (n = 459, 90% response rate) both indicated that more than twothirds of boaters do not always take steps to clean their boats. Furthermore, we used a controlled experiment to learn that visual inspection and hand removal can reduce the amount of macrophytes on boats by 88% ± 5% (mean ± SE), with high-pressure washing equally as effective (83% ± 4%) and low-pressure washing less so (62% ± 3% removal rate). For removing small-bodied organisms, high-pressure washing was most effective with a 91% ± 2% removal rate; low-pressure washing and hand removal were less effective (74% ± 6% and 65% ± 4% removal rates, respectively). This research supports the widespread belief that trailered boats are an important vector in the spread of aquatic invasive species, and suggests that many boaters have not yet adopted consistent and effective boat cleaning habits. Therefore, additional management efforts may be appropriate.
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We quantified angler party awareness of regulations for 35 Minnesota fisheries using creel surveys. On average, 14% (range = 0–48%) of angler parties were unaware a regulation was in effect for a particular fishery, while 78% (range = 27–100%) of angler parties were aware a regulation was in effect. Awareness varied within and across regulated species: black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and walleye (Sander vitreum). Greatest mean awareness (89%, range = 80–95%) was observed among smallmouth bass fisheries, while lowest mean awareness (70%, range = 52–82%) was observed among largemouth bass fisheries. Awareness was typically lower for fisheries regulated by complex regulations (e.g., slot limits) and for recently implemented regulations. Angler party awareness appeared to be associated with a number of angler demographic characteristics (e.g., days fished on lake and angler residency). Unaware angler parties were significantly more likely to harvest illegally-sized fish among black crappie, largemouth bass, and walleye fisheries, and for all fisheries combined. Fisheries management agencies may need to reevaluate education and communication efforts in order to improve angler awareness of regulations.
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Predictions of the geographic spread of introduced species are often limited by a lack of data on their mechanisms of dispersal. We interviewed boaters and inspected boating equipment at public boat launches on Lake St. Clair (Michigan, USA) to assess the potential for the zebra mussel, an invasive bivalve, to be dispersed overland to inland waters by transient recreational boating activities. Several mechanisms associated with recreational boating were found to be capable of transporting either larval or adult life stages. Larvae were found in all forms of water carried by boats (i.e., in live wells, bilges, bait buckets, and engines) but were estimated to be 40–100 more abundant in live wells than other locations. Dilution in receiving waters should, however, greatly reduce the risk of establishing new populations by the introduction of larvae. Contrary to common belief, mussel dispersal from these boat launches did not occur by direct attachment to transient boats. Rather, adult and juvenile mussels were transported primarily on macrophytes en-tangled on boat trailers and, less frequently, on anchors (5.3% and 0.9% of departing boats, respectively). Combining these data with estimates of survival in air and reported boater destinations, we predict that a maximum of 0.12% of the trailered boats departing these access sites delivered live adult mussels to inland waters solely by transport on entangled macrophytes. While this is a small probability, high levels of vector activity resulted in a prediction of a total of 170 dispersal events to inland waters within the summer season from the primary boat launch studied. Many other potential vectors remain to be assessed, but the dispersal of zebra mussels by trailered boats, particularly by ''piggybacking'' on macrophytes entangled on the trailers, must be controlled in order to limit further range expansion of the zebra mussel within North America.
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The spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) is an ongoing challenge in the Great Lakes region. Anglers play a pivotal role in preventing or contributing to the spread of these organisms. Anglers in the Great Lakes region were surveyed by mail during fall 2013 to assess their AIS-related awareness, knowledge, and concern as well as the actions they took to prevent the spread of AIS. Many anglers were aware of AIS, knowledgeable and concerned about them, and taking some actions to prevent their spread. However, certain actions, such as drying and disinfecting or rinsing equipment with hot water, were more difficult and were reported less frequently. Because many anglers already recognize the importance of taking action to prevent the spread of AIS, future outreach efforts may be able to deemphasize communication about the importance of taking action and focus more on strategies that will enable anglers to take these actions.
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Jurisdictional authority over Great Lakes fishery management rests with independent, non-federal governments—the Province of Ontario, the eight Great Lakes states, and U.S. tribes. This independence undermined repeated attempts by the jurisdictions from at least the mid-1800s to the 1940s to coordinate their disparate fishery management activities. Cooperation began to emerge after the sea lamprey invasion reached crisis stage by the 1940s and thus forced collective action, after the non-regulatory Great Lakes Fishery Commission was formed in the 1950s and served as a focal point for discussions, and after the commission created lake committees in the 1960s. The threat of federal intrusion into non-federal management, the commission’s continuing leadership, and the spirit of an era of environmentalism in the 1970s prompted the jurisdictions to formalize their interactions by developing A Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries in 1981. With a history of parochialism as a backdrop, this presentation discusses how and why a cooperative regime emerged and argues that today’s fishery management process is rooted in political fragmentation, sovereignty, sentiments of independence, and jealously guarded authorities. Cooperation was prompted by crisis and leadership and the structure and goals of the Joint Strategic Plan reflect the history of Great Lakes fishery management. This presentation concludes with a discussion of current Great Lakes fishery governance through the Joint Strategic Plan.
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The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was developed in the late 1990s to structure and organize indicators in a meaningful way. Since then, the framework has increasingly been applied in research projects with the aim of supporting decision making. A number of attributes of the framework regarding structuring and communication issues in research further strengthen its original purpose of bridging the science policy gap. We reviewed several studies that were mainly concerned with criticism and drawbacks of the DPSIR framework. Based on these studies and our own experiences in applying the DPSIR framework in an EU project to develop a decision support tool, we developed two criteria that we believe are crucial for policy relevant research: (a) the development of conceptual models integrating knowledge from different disciplines, specialists and policy makers, as well as those affected by their decisions; and (b) the potential to explain the results and analysis of research to different disciplines, specialists, stakeholders and the public and to demonstrate alternatives and provide decision options. We analyzed 21 studies using the DPSIR framework with regard to their relevance for decision making. We analyzed the definitions of the five DPSIR elements and whether specific end users were addressed in the respective studies. We found that in many studies, the DPSIR elements were defined in literature review or by researchers and that only a few studies targeted specific government authorities as users of research results. Eight out of 21 studies applied transdisciplinary research concepts and integrated broad ranges of stakeholder opinions and values into the research. Nine out of 21 studies presented alternative outcomes to decision makers and used the valuation of these outcomes by stakeholders to add further support to the decision-making process. The different positive and negative implications of the DPSIR framework are discussed with reference to research that supports policy making. Finally, we conclude that studies employing DPSIR may provide effective solutions for “real world problems” by taking into account additional criteria based on knowledge integration, stakeholder involvement and the provision of alternatives. Therefore, DPSIR is a useful tool to support decision making by means of showing solid evidence with alternatives and decision options, rather than by presenting predetermined solutions.
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We assessed noncompliance with angling regulations on three Idaho waters using random response, a technique designed to quantify embarrassing or criminal behavior. We searched for associations between positive random response answers and angler regulation awareness across a number of demographic variables. Illegal use of bait and creeling of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi within two catch-and-release zones ranged from –0.4 to 3.0%. Creeling of illegal-sized cutthroat trout was a more common violation (5 to 8%) in two zones managed with a minimum size regulation. Estimated noncompliance with barbless hook regulations for the same zones was high (29%), but nearly 75% of these violations were accidental. Noncompliance with harvest restrictions was greatest on Henrys Lake where 9.5% of anglers violated the two-trout creel limit each day. We observed statistically significant associations between the types of regulations and angler ability to correctly recite them on a given stream. Several demographic variables including age, residence, and gear type used were also associated with regulation awareness. We conclude that random response is a viable method for estimating rates of angler noncompliance with regulations. Additional analyses are needed to evaluate potential biological effects of noncompliance on the trout populations.
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Successful application of special regulations, such as slot length limits for northern pike Esox lucius, hinges upon angler compliance with the regulations. Yet, noncompliance was greater than expected under 508-762-mm (two lakes) or 559-762-mm (three lakes) protected slot length ranges in five north-central Minnesota lakes. Illegal fish averaged 13% of the harvested northern pike measured by creel clerks and 19% of the tag returns. Exploitation of similar-sized northern pike was greater in two reference lakes that had no size limits. In reference lakes, an average of 57% of creeled fish and 70% of tag returns were fish of sizes that would have been protected by slot length limits. In spite of extensive promotional efforts, the high (up to 29% on one lake) voluntary tag returns from illegal-size fish implies a simple lack of awareness of special regulations among anglers. Levels of noncompliance reported here show that individual lake management will require a fishing public that is more aware of special management and more receptive to special regulations.
Article
With a growing global human population and an increasing demand for food protein, aquatic animal protein has become an increasingly important resource. In several geographic areas, wild stocks have been severely overfished, increasing the demands on aquaculture. In response, aquaculture production has dramatically risen over the last 30 years. Movement of live aquatic animals, within and between countries, for aquaculture and the ornamental trade, is an important route of disease spread. Over the last decades, many aquatic animal diseases have emerged to have a substantial economic impact on aquaculture, sometimes with ecological consequences. Effective biosecurity strategies provide protection to both farmed and wild aquatic animal populations by minimising the risk of introducing pathogens and minimising the consequences if the pathogen was introduced. We provide an overview of international, supranational and national biosecurity strategies for aquatic animal health. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the reference organisation for the development of standards relating to international trade in animals and animal products is described and an overview of the OIE standards provided; Europe and England andWales are used as examples to illustrate how the international standards are implemented at supranational and national level other important elements of biosecurity not defined by international standards are described. At the national level, the paper describes and discusses the role of the competent authority, instruments to prevent the introduction of exotic diseases and limit the impact of endemic diseases; it highlights the relevance of import risk assessments and the importance for awareness of international developments. At farm level, it summarises available standards and the role of farm biosecurity plans. Challenges to biosecurity strategies at the various levels are discussed.
Article
1. Historically, biogeographic barriers to the movement of aquatic organisms existed at multiple spatial scales and contributed to the development of unique regional faunas. At increasing spatial scales, these barriers consisted of waterfalls and cascades; catchment divides; major mountain ranges and oceans. This hierarchy of movement barriers produced increasingly distinct aquatic biotas at larger drainage units. 2. Humans have provided a variety of pathways by which aquatic species can circumvent historical biogeographic barriers. These include both authorised and unauthorised stocking, construction of canals and water conveyance systems, transport in ship ballast water, fishing and angling gear (including boats) transferred among water bodies and intentional release of ornamental and other captive species. 3. One consequence of human-aided breaching of biogeographic barriers has been the spread of noxious species that have altered aquatic ecosystems and fisheries in ways that are undesirable to humans. 4. Another consequence of human-aided breaching of biogeographic barriers has been the homogenization of aquatic biotas. Homogenization occurs when a few cosmopolitan species come to dominate communities at the expense of unique native species. Among aquatic organisms this phenomenon is best documented for fish faunas where a small set of species introduced for sport fishing, aquaculture, or ornamental purposes have become widespread throughout the world. 5. Slowing biotic homogenization will require slowing the rate at which species breach biogeographic barriers. This will involve implementing regulations that limit stocking opportunities; increasing the public's awareness about the consequences of releasing non-native species and developing technological solutions that prevent movement of aquatic organisms or eliminate them before they become established. 6. River restoration can influence homogenization of aquatic biotas through two major mechanisms: by removing barriers to movement and by restoring natural habitat conditions. Removal of movement barriers may facilitate the spread of non-native species and thus contribute to biotic homogenization. Restoration of natural flow regimes and habitat conditions may reduce biotic homogenization by favouring regional native species over cosmopolitan, non-native species.
Article
Communicated by J. Ellen Marsden Index words Laurentian Great Lakes Eradication Monitoring Early detection Ballast water Risk assessment Ballast water regulations implemented in the early 1990s appear not to have slowed the rate of new aquatic invasive species (AIS) establishment in the Great Lakes. With more invasive species on the horizon, we examine the question of whether eradication of AIS is a viable management strategy for the Laurentian Great Lakes, and what a coordinated AIS early detection and eradication program would entail. In-lake monitoring would be conducted to assess the effectiveness of regulations aimed at stopping new AIS, and to maximize the likelihood of early detection of new invaders. Monitoring would be focused on detecting the most probable invaders, the most invasion-prone habitats, and the species most conducive to eradication. When a new non-native species is discovered, an eradication assessment would be conducted and used to guide the management response. In light of high uncertainty, management decisions must be robust to a range of impact and control scenarios. Though prevention should continue to be the cornerstone of management efforts, we believe that a coordinated early detection and eradication program is warranted if the Great Lakes management community and stakeholders are serious about reducing undesired impacts stemming from new AIS in the Great Lakes. Development of such a program is an opportunity for the Laurentian Great Lakes resource management community to demonstrate global leadership in invasive species management.
Article
Most programs to foster sustainable behavior continue to be based upon modelsof behavior change that psychological research has found to be limited. Although psychology has much to contribute to the design of effective programs to foster sustainable behavior, little attention has been paid to ensuring that psychological knowledge is accessible to those who design environmental programs. This article presents a process, community-based social marketing, that attempts to make psychological knowledge relevant and accessible to theseindividuals. Further, it provides two case studies in which program planners have utilized this approach to deliver their initiatives. Finally, it reflects on the obstacles that exist to incorporating psychological expertise into programs to promote sustainable behavior.
Article
The Laurentian Great Lakes basin has been invaded by at least 182 non-indigenous species. A new invader is discovered every 28 weeks, which is the highest rate recorded for a freshwater ecosystem. Over the past century, invasions have occurred in phases linked to changes in the dominant vectors. The number of ship-vectored invaders recorded per decade is correlated with the intensity of vessel traffic within the basin. Ballast water release from ocean vessels is the putative vector for 65% of all invasions recorded since the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959. As a preventive measure, ocean vessels have been required since 1993 to exchange their freshwater or estuarine ballast with highly saline ocean water prior to entering the Great Lakes. However, this procedure has not prevented ship-vectored species introductions. Most ships visiting the Great Lakes declare ‘no ballast on board’ (NOBOB) and are exempt from the regulation, even though they carry residual water that is discharged into the Great Lakes during their activities of off-loading inbound cargo and loading outbound cargo. Recently introduced species consist predominantly of benthic invertebrates with broad salinity tolerance. Such species are most likely to survive in a ballast tank following ballast water exchange, as well as transport in the residual water and tank sediments of NOBOB ships. Thus, the Great Lakes remain at risk of being invaded by dozens of euryhaline invertebrates that have spread into Eurasian ports from whence originates the bulk of foreign ships visiting the basin.
Article
This study aims to investigate and model driving forces that lead to increased fishing pressure and an altered state of the environment in the coastal areas near Samsun on the Turkish Black Sea coast. We have applied a modified DPSIR model to structure our investigation and analysis and have investigated the drivers that generate fishing pressure in the Samsun fisheries. The overall health of the ecosystem is declining, and there is a consistent trend of deterioration in the condition of the three major species targeted by the trawl fisheries. Although introduced invasive species have brought significant changes to the Black Sea, it is clear that the state of the environment is significantly and negatively affected by the pressure exerted by fisheries. Fishing pressure has to a certain extent been redirected to pelagic trawling as bottom trawling has become less profitable and a rise in catch capacity has levelled off. This reduction is, however, offset by an increase in illegal trawling and dredging by a very rapidly growing sector of multi-purpose small boats, resulting in a considerable increase in the overall accumulated engine power of fishing boats in Samsun during 2000–2005. Fisheries in Samsun, in particular sea snail fisheries, have constituted a frontier of sorts open to the poorer populations of Samsun during the last 20 years, and, thereby, constitute one of the major drivers for fishing pressure. We identify eight drivers of importance for the period 2000–2005. Although the authorities can impact all or most of those drivers, most of them are beyond the scope of conventional ‘fisheries management’.
Article
This paper reviews the present state of reef fishing activities in Kenya and the tropics using the driver–pressure–state–impacts–response (DPSIR) framework. It identifies appropriate indicators that would evaluate the problem of overfishing and the use of destructive fishing gear, and discusses policy considerations for the Kenyan small-scale fishery. We conclude that the DPSIR framework works well at simplifying the complexity of reef fisheries management and serves to inform policy makers, scientists and general public on the relevance of indicators to monitor changes in the status of reefs.
Article
The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based on recent scientific advances and increased investments to counter invasions, harm from invasive species is likely to accelerate. Federal leadership, with the cooperation of state and local governments, is required to increase the effectiveness of prevention of invasions, detect and respond quickly to new potentially harmful invasions, control and slow the spread of existing invasions, and provide a national center to ensure that these efforts are coordinated and cost effective. Specifically, the Ecological Society of America recommends that the federal government take the following six actions: (1) Use new information and practices to better manage commercial and other pathways to reduce the transport and release of potentially harmful species; (2) Adopt more quantitative procedures for risk analysis and apply them to every species proposed for importation into the country; (3) Use new cost-effective diagnostic technologies to increase active surveillance and sharing of information about invasive species so that responses to new invasions can be more rapid and effective; (4) Create new legal authority and provide emergency funding to support rapid responses to emerging invasions; (5) Provide funding and incentives for cost-effective programs to slow the spread of existing invasive species in order to protect still uninvaded ecosystems, social and industrial infrastructure, and human welfare; and (6) Establish a National Center for Invasive Species Management (under the existing National Invasive Species Council) to coordinate and lead improvements in federal, state, and international policies on invasive species. Recent scientific and technical advances provide a sound basis for more cost-effective national responses to invasive species. Greater investments in improved technology and management practices would be more than repaid by reduced damages from current and future invasive species. The Ecological Society of America is committed to assist all levels of government and provide scientific advice to improve all aspects of invasive-species management.
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