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Abstract

Leaving one mating relationship and entering another, serial mating, is commonly observed in many cultures. An array of circumstances can prompt a mate switch. These include (1) unanticipated costs inflicted by one's mate, or ‘relationship load,’ not apparent on the initial mate selection; (2) changes in the mate value of either partner, creating discrepancies where none previously existed; and (3) the arrival of a new and interested potential mate of sufficiently incremental value to offset the costs of a breakup. The mate switching hypothesis suggests that these circumstances created adaptive problems throughout human evolution that forged adaptations to anticipate and appraise opportunities to mate-switch, implement exit strategies, and manage challenges confronted in the aftermath. We review several studies that support various aspects of the mate switching hypothesis: The cultivation of ‘back-up mates,’ assessing mate-inflicted costs that comprise relationship load, monitoring selfishly-skewed welfare tradeoff ratios in a partner, gauging mate value discrepancies, and anticipating sexual, emotional, and economic infidelities. The mate switching hypothesis provides both a complementary, and in some instances a competing, explanation to the ‘good genes’ hypothesis for why women have sexual affairs, and parsimoniously explains a host of other mating phenomena that remain inexplicable on alternative accounts.

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... Low dependence (reported by 28.8% of the manufacturers and 31.3% of the distributors) can also lead a partner to seek another parallel, illegitimate relationship, because it has little to lose if the relationship is terminated (Kumar et al., 1995). 5 Over time, the offending party may acquire new knowledge, skills, and superior status in the market, which may reduce its dependence on the relationship, as well as allow it to find better alternatives that were nonexistent when the relationship was initiated (Buss et al., 2017). As a result, it ...
... As a result, the offending party will reduce the emphasis placed on the relationship with the current partner and gradually transfer its resources to another more rewarding relationship, such as that of the partner's competitor (Evanschitzky et al., 2020). Satisfaction with the relationship is highly dynamic, in the sense that some changes may negatively affect partner value (e.g., being severely affected by unfavorable economic conditions), while others may positively enhance a competitor's value (e.g., introducing more advanced technology) (Buss et al., 2017;Tóth et al., 2020). This will lead the instigator to transfer its attention and business to the partner's competitor, which now offers the highest value (Dion & Banting, 1995). ...
... In fact, this behavior might be considered as a tactic by the instigator to ensure stability and performance in the market, especially when there is a decrease in the value of the current business partner due to external (e.g., economic crisis) or internal (e.g., bad liquidity) problems (Anderson & Jap, 2005). The instigator may also seek to establish contact with alternative partners when it anticipates that the performance derived from them will be much higher compared to that of the current partner (Buss et al., 2017). ...
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Infidelity has been a common dark‐side phenomenon in manufacturer–distributor (M–D) relationships, which, despite its harmful effects on operating performance and long‐term viability, has received scant theoretical and empirical attention in marketing research. Using data collected from 103 manufacturers and 101 distributors located in the USA, we investigate this phenomenon by conceptualizing it as a developmental process, comprising motives, symptoms, manifestations, consequences, and remedies. Our findings show that, with a few exceptions, there are no significant differences between manufacturers and distributors with regard to their perceptions of: (a) the structural, processual, and contextual factors contributing to the emergence of infidelity; (b) the behavioral and attitudinal factors helping to diagnose partner infidelity; (c) the ambiguous, explicit, and deceptive manifestations of infidelity; (d) the possible passive, mild, or aggressive consequences of infidelity; and (e) the pre‐emptive or post hoc measures that need to be taken to cure infidelity.
... Therefore, relationship satisfaction emerges as a crucial factor for predicting infidelity with reduced satisfaction increasing the risk of seeking alternative partners and thereby engaging in infidelity [17,18]. The mate switching hypothesis focuses on the practice some individuals have, leaving one relationship and entering another, potentially even having cultivated the new partner during the past relationship [19]. However, not every extradyadic sexual activity is committed with regard to finding a new partner. ...
... Sociosexual behavior can therefore be understood as another predictor of infidelity. This is especially relevant when discussing infidelity-driven theories such as the partner switching hypothesis [19] or the investment model [15,16]. Importantly, in a previous examination conducted by our group, higher testosterone levels were identified to be associated with increased infidelity in healthy men, while relationship satisfaction, depressive and sexual symptoms, as well as alcohol consumption differed significantly between faithful and unfaithful men [52]. ...
... More specifically, only in non-fathers was lower relationship satisfaction associated with increased infidelity. This effect can be interpreted according to the mate switching hypothesis, which suggests that non-fathers engage less in extradyadic sexual activities as long as the relationship is perceived as satisfying, while more quickly seeking a new partner in the face of relationship dissatisfaction [19]. This strategy is less appealing to fathers, since changing partners would require a great deal of adaptation with regard to the children involved. ...
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Background: Relationship satisfaction has been identified as an important factor in terms of extradyadic sexual involvement. However, in men, fatherhood might be associated with infidelity by leading to changes in relationship satisfaction and the social life of parents. To date, no study has focused on the association of fatherhood and infidelity, nor the influence of fatherhood on the association between relationship satisfaction and infidelity. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 137 fathers and 116 non-fathers were assessed regarding relationship satisfaction, infidelity, and potential confounds. Results: Significantly more fathers reported having been unfaithful in the current relationship than non-fathers (30.7% vs. 17.2%). Fathers also reported longer relationship duration, higher relationship satisfaction, and lower neuroticism than non-fathers. Furthermore, fatherhood moderated the association between relationship satisfaction and infidelity insofar that only in non-fathers reduced relationship satisfaction was associated with infidelity. Conclusions: The results suggest that fatherhood increases the risk of engaging in extradyadic sexual activities and moderates the link between relationship satisfaction and infidelity. However, results need to be interpreted with caution due to the cross-sectional study design and the lack of information about the specific time point of the infidelity incident(s).
... Despite the fact that men and women may seek OSF to serve as general functions of companionship, there are good reasons to expect that under some circumstances, they may seek OSF to find a short-term or a long-term mate (Lewis et al., 2011). Firstly, according to the back-up mate hypothesis (Duntley, 2007), people would have benefited from cultivating potential replacement mates, as they could have been a solution for several adaptive problems, such as a decline in the current partner's value or an increase in his or her own mate value (see Buss et al., 2017;Buss & Schmitt, 1993). And it seems that this could be more crucial for women than men. ...
... And it seems that this could be more crucial for women than men. For ancestral women, lacking a back-up mate could have meant lacking protection, mate investment, and resources for their children (see also Buss et al., 2017). Secondly, along with the mate-switching hypothesis (Buss et al., 2017), people have psychological adaptations designed to detect and abandon costly mates in order to switch to more beneficial ones. ...
... For ancestral women, lacking a back-up mate could have meant lacking protection, mate investment, and resources for their children (see also Buss et al., 2017). Secondly, along with the mate-switching hypothesis (Buss et al., 2017), people have psychological adaptations designed to detect and abandon costly mates in order to switch to more beneficial ones. Cultivating OSF may help serve this potential need, as opposite-sex friends can provide a kind of 'mate insurance' (Duntley, 2007). ...
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The fact that men and women experience sexual attraction toward their opposite-sex friends has been evidenced in various studies. It has also been shown that there is a close parallel between preferences for opposite-sex friends and mate preferences, i.e., that men prioritize physical attractiveness of their OSFs, while women prioritize their male friends’ ability to provide protection and economic resources. Although this mating activation hypothesis has been validated to an extent, there is hardly any research that points to moderating factors which would define the boundary conditions for these effects. We present two studies that involved heterosexual participants who were in a committed relationship and at the same time had a heterosexual opposite-sex friend. We investigated how both the qualities of one’s current partner and the qualities of one’s opposite-sex friend shape sexual interest in opposite-sex friends for men and women. Results mostly support the mating activation hypothesis. We show that within actual cross-sex friendships: 1) physical attractiveness of opposite-sex friends predicts sexual interest toward them, and this effect is stronger for men than women, 2) current partner’s attractiveness, provided support, and relationship satisfaction moderate this effect only for women, and not men, 3) perceived financial resources of opposite-sex friends predict sexual interest toward them for highly sexually unrestricted women, and, surprisingly, for those who are in committed relationships with high-income men. The results reaffirm previous evidence indicating that perceptions of opposite-sex friends can be viewed as a manifestation of evolved human mating strategies.
... Mate switching. An additional evolutionary framework that may predict why men and women engage in having sexual contact with an ex could involve the potential for mate switching (Buss et al., 2017). The mate switching hypothesis deals with individuals leaving one mate and beginning to enter into another relationship. ...
... The mate switching hypothesis deals with individuals leaving one mate and beginning to enter into another relationship. This decision to end the relationship could be due to the fact a member of the relationship has lost interest in the other and thus has no sexual desire for that individual which could function as a way to detach from the partner (Birnbaum, 2018;Buss et al., 2017). Thus, engaging in sexual contact with an ex and engaging in breakup sex could be the first step of a Note. ...
... mate switching strategy, where a man or woman has lost interest and ended a relationship but before switching with to a new partner engages in sex one last time. Under this mate switching strategy, breakup sex could function as a way for men and women to sequester their mate before they begin a new relationship (Buss et al., 2017). This line of thinking needs empirical verification, but a study investigating motives for engaging in breakup sex to keep someone occupied while one finds a new mate could be a fruitful line of research. ...
Article
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Popular culture has recently publicized a seemingly new postbreakup behavior called breakup sex. While the media expresses the benefits of participating in breakup sex, there is no research to support these claimed benefits. The current research was designed to begin to better understand this postbreakup behavior. In the first study, we examined how past breakup sex experiences made the individuals feel and how people predict they would feel in the future ( n = 212). Results suggested that men are more likely than women to have felt better about themselves, while women tend to state they felt better about the relationship after breakup sex. The second study ( n = 585) investigated why men and women engage in breakup sex. Results revealed that most breakup sex appears to be motivated by three factors: relationship maintenance, hedonism, and ambivalence. Men tended to support hedonistic and ambivalent reasons for having breakup sex more often than women. The two studies revealed that breakup sex may be differentially motivated (and may have different psychological consequences) for men and women and may not be as beneficial as the media suggests.
... Investments in reproductive strategies can be subdivided into energy allocated toward (1) current mates, (2) offspring, and (3) seeking new mating opportunities (Marlowe, 1999;Rowe, Vazsonyi, & Figueredo, 1997). Mating effort, which subsumes effort allocated toward (1) and (3), can be further subdivided into various domains such as allocation of energy to casual sex (e.g., Gangestad & Simpson, 1990;Jackson & Kirkpatrick, 2007;Penke & Asendorpf, 2008), intrasexual competition for access to mates (Buunk & Fisher, 2009), mate switching (reviewed in Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017), mate retention (Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008), and mate poaching (i.e., attempts to mate with those who already have romantic partners; Arnocky, Sunderani, & Vaillancourt, 2013;Schmitt & Buss, 2001). Mating effort is likely to be fundamentally, and perhaps reciprocally, related to mating outcomes. ...
... Only a single measure taps into valuing looks instead of long-term potential, and the same is true for costly signaling. No extant instruments appear to measure partner upgrading (i.e., investment in attracting other individuals who are perceived to be of higher mate value than their current romantic partner; Buss et al., 2017;Greiling & Buss, 2000). ...
... Generating additional items using these methods would help to create a larger item set which could yield a more detailed description of these two factors. In future iterations of the MEQ, we will seek to situate the items representing the partner upgrading factor within a broader pool of items focusing on energy allocated toward mate switching (Buss et al., 2017). Decisions to upgrade partners likely reflect a cost-benefit trade-off which involves considering the energetic and emotional costs associated with dissolving the current relationship and expending energy to attract the desirable alternative partner (Buss et al., 2017;Rusbult, 1983;Rusbult & Buunk, 1993). ...
Article
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In this study, we review the psychometric literature on mating effort and find that extant instruments (1) have not been adequately evaluated in terms of internal structure and measurement invariance, and (2) disproportionately focus on mate retention and intrasexual competition tactics designed to repel competitors, relative to attraction and investment effort. To address these gaps in the literature, we carried out two studies to develop and validate a new Mating Effort Questionnaire (MEQ). In Study 1, we report a pilot study in which participants’ responses to an item pool were submitted to exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, we replicated the structure found in Study 1 using confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample. A three-factor solution yielded the best fit. The three factors reflected respondents’ allocation of energy to attracting high mate value partners when already mated, seeking out romantic partners when single, and investing in their current romantic partner and relationships. Strong partial measurement invariance held across the sexes, implying that observed scores may be used to compare them. We also found evidence of concurrent validity via associations between the MEQ and constructs such as sociosexual orientation, K-factor, mate retention behaviors, and respondents’ sexual behavior. These findings suggest that the MEQ is a valid and novel measure of individual differences in mating effort which is well suited to complement existing mating effort measures.
... Mogilski et al. (2020) state that primary relationships tend to be longer in duration and non-monogamous individuals tend to be selective with whom they maintain longterm relationships, thus higher rates of emotional expression of love and commitment to the primary partner seems natural. Procreation is significantly more often reserved to primary partners, which may be explained by the more significant investment people tend to make in their primary relationships (Buss et al., 2017). However, in line with the dual mating strategy hypothesis, that postulates that people may engage in sex with other partners than one's primary partner to obtain good genes (Gangestad and Haselton, 2015), a number of respondents reported engaging in sex with their secondary partner to conceive a child. ...
... That question should reflect an individual's desire to have multiple partners to minimize the risk of depending on one partner and having a "backup" option. This is supported by the mate switching hypothesis by Buss et al. (2017), that suggests that serial mating (leaving one relationship and entering another one) led humans to anticipate and appraise opportunities to mateswitch. According to this theory, humans monitor potential alternatives to their current partner and cultivate "buck-up mates, " should their current relationship fail (Buss et al., 2017). ...
... This is supported by the mate switching hypothesis by Buss et al. (2017), that suggests that serial mating (leaving one relationship and entering another one) led humans to anticipate and appraise opportunities to mateswitch. According to this theory, humans monitor potential alternatives to their current partner and cultivate "buck-up mates, " should their current relationship fail (Buss et al., 2017). Thus, the authors of this study propose an additional item to the reasons to engage in sex. ...
Article
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This study compared motivations of individuals in non-monogamous relationships to engage in sex with their different partners ( n = 596, out of which 103 non-consensual non-monogamous, 135 polyamorous, 204 swinging, 154 in open relationships; women—38.8%, men—59.7%, other gender—1.5%; age range: from 18 to 65+ years; 86% of respondents between 25 and 54 years old; majority of the respondents are in a long-term relationship). The research aim was to identify whether there are differences in reasons to engage in sex with respondents’ primary versus secondary partners. Presented with 17 reasons to engage in sexual activity, the respondents rated the frequency with which they engage in sex for each reason with their different partners. Questions for 14 reasons to engage in sex were created based on the YSEX? questionnaire and three questions were created specifically for non-monogamous population. The three new questions addressed the desire for a specific type of sex (such as kink, fetish, etc.), desire to have sex with a partner of another gender than one’s primary partner, and desire to experience the thrill of the forbidden. The results indicated that there are significant differences in motivation to engage in sex with one’s primary versus secondary partner for most of the reasons. Additionally, this study investigated whether there are differences in motivation to engage in sex with different partners depending on the relationship arrangement. The data analysis shows that there are differences in reasons to engage in sex with one’s different partners between non-consensually and consensually non-monogamous groups. This research compliments existing body of research with new reasons to engage in sex, it demonstrates that non-monogamous people engage in sex with their different partners for different reasons and reveals that these may vary depending on the type of the relationship arrangement.
... For instance, individuals who find their own mate value has increased or their partner's mate value has decreased (e.g., through status change) may initiate affairs to secure a backup or to switch to a ''better'' partner entirely. 10 Other potential advantages include attracting a partner with more physical beauty than one's primary partner, enjoying sexual variety and novelty, and gaining a partner's available resources. 4 To begin to explore mate poaching as a strategy for initiating relationships on infidelity websites, we ask: What types of relationships do users seek on Ashley Madison (RQ1)? ...
... People often guard their partners from perceived threats, 4 but infidelity websites expand the eligible dating pool by providing access to individuals who are open to extradyadic involvement. There are also consequences to mate poaching that might deter some users of infidelity websites from meeting FtF, including reputational damage, 38 the loss of social network ties, 10 and retribution by a current partner. 39 However, the characteristics of the online environment (e.g., increased anonymity) eliminate some risks, which may explain the enduring popularity of platforms such as Ashley Madison despite the stigma surrounding their use. ...
Article
This study examines digitally enabled mate poaching on Ashley Madison, an online dating platform for extradyadic affairs. To explore mate poaching as a potential explanation for what drives users of Ashley Madison to transition their online relationships to offline encounters, we conducted a multinational survey of 1,676 users (88.5 percent male, Mage = 50.98). Participants provided open-ended data about their mate poaching objectives, which ranged from short-term sexual encounters to long-term sexual and emotional affairs and new exclusive relationships. Structural equation modeling showed that participants' attitudes toward online infidelity predicted whether they would consider meeting someone from the website in person. Mate poaching intentions also mediated the effect of attitudes toward online infidelity on the likelihood of meeting another user face to face in the future. The results extend evolutionary theories of mate poaching to the digital dating environment and demonstrate the value of these perspectives for explaining relationship initiation practices on infidelity websites.
... The dual mating hypothesis points to one such benefit of women's poaching: a woman who simultaneously pursues both long-term and shortterm mating strategies may obtain investments and resources from a committed partner, and better or higher quality genes from a poacher (Gangestad & Haselton, 2015). Recently, the mate switching hypothesis-breaking up with one partner and remating with another-identified another adaptive potential benefit of women's poaching (Buss et al., 2017;Buss & Schmitt, 2019). An already-mated woman can monitor the qualities of potential alternative partners and terminate the existing relationship and form a new one after a period of a platonic relationship, after an extra-pair affair, or after keeping a back-up partner (Buss et al., 2017, Buss & Schmitt, are linked to unrestricted sociosexuality manifested as willingness to engage in uncommitted relationships (Reise & Wright, 1996), exploitative short-term sexual strategy (Jonason et al., 2009), and promiscuous sexual attitudes (McHoskey, 2001). ...
... Although the design of our study did not allow the direct testing of two competing hypotheses about women's poaching, dual mating and mate switching hypotheses, it seems that our results are more in line with mate switching hypothesis (Buss et al., 2017). Namely, personality traits in men that increase the tendency of women's mate poaching are socially undesirable and potentially detrimental for romantic relationship. ...
Article
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Mate poaching is "behavior intended to attract someone who is already in a romantic relationship." We investigated actor and partner effects of the five-factor personality traits and the dark triad traits on several mate poaching experiences. We used actor-partner interdependence modeling with data secured from both members of 187 heterosexual married, cohabiting and dating couples from Croatia. In a round-robin design, each participant rated their own and their partner's personality traits, and their own poaching experiences. The results showed that men's lower agreeableness had the most consistent relationship with poaching experiences in both men (actor effects) and women (partner effects). The role of other personality traits from the five-factor model was limited to specific aspects of poaching. Regarding the dark triad traits, men's psychopathy and Machiavellianism were the most consistently related to poaching experiences in both men and women, whereas narcissism did not demonstrate a consistent actor or partner effect on poaching. The results showed that men's poaching is associated with their own personality traits, whereas women's poaching with their own and their partner's personality traits. We interpret the results in the context of life history theory and mate switching hypothesis.
... Women can secure better genes for their children, as well as material benefits from extra-pair partners (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000;Greiling & Buss, 2000). By engaging in extra-pair relationships, both sexes can establish relationships with "backup" mates, who could turn into legitimate ones in case their current ones abandon them or die (Duntley & Buss, 2007), or probe other mates in order to engage in mate-switching (Buss et al., 2017). These potential benefits of infidelity have favored the evolution of an extra-pair mating strategy, which enables individuals to enjoy the benefits of a long-term intimate relationship, but at the same time, reap the benefits of casual mating. ...
Article
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Infidelity is relatively common, with culprits not always been able to keep it secret from their partners. Accordingly, the current research aimed to study people's reactions to their partners' infidelity. More specifically, using qualitative research methods on a sample of 226 Greek‐speaking participants, Study 1 identified 94 possible reactions to infidelity. Study 2 employed quantitative research methods on a sample of 757 Greek‐speaking participants, and classified these reactions into 17 broad factors. Among the most probable reactions, were experiencing negative emotions, terminating the relationship, keeping physical distance from the unfaithful partner, and getting more information about the incident. Significant gender and age effects were found for several of the extracted factors. Using second‐order principal components analysis, the extracted factors were classified into four broader domains. The current research contributes to understanding an important aspect of human mating behavior, and its findings could be used to develop better ways to deal with infidelity.
... La evidencia señala de forma consistente la marcada preferencia por la variedad sexual de los hombres en las relaciones a corto y largo plazo (Buss & Schmitt, 2019). Asimismo, hay un soporte empírico para las hipótesis que sugieren cómo en el contexto de la reproducción a corto plazo las mujeres prefieren el acceso inmediato a recursos, inician estas relaciones con el fin de evaluar parejas como potenciales relaciones a largo plazo o como forma de búsqueda de mejores parejas a manera de reemplazo de las actuales (Buss et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Sexual reproduction is one of the greatest landmarks of the evolution of life on Earth. Although it helped the generation of genetic variability, it also imposed a series of adaptive challenges in organisms, such as the search for mates and strategies to secure reproduction. The theory of sexual selection offers hypotheses to explain that the search and selection of a mate are not arbitrary for complex organisms. It is proposed that there are criteria for selecting reproductive mates that are reflected in psychological mechanisms called preferences, which can guide the choice of partners who have adaptive traits and can benefit, either survival or future reproduction of the offspring that inherit such traits. This review addresses how the conditions imposed by sexuality shape the evolution of behavior, and how those principles apply to human mating behavior. From there, important questions arise to understand the relationship among evolution, preferences and mate selection.
... Even so, both sexes could receive fitness benefits by adopting a short-term mating strategy; that is, to look for casual mates (Schacht & Kramer, 2019). For instance, men can increase their reproductive success by having multiple casual partners, while women can gain material benefits from casual partners, and good genes for their children from extra-pair mates (Buss, 2000;Buss et al., 2017;Buss & Schmitt, 2019). ...
Article
People adopt a variety of strategies in order to achieve specific mating goals. The current research nominated nine different mating strategies, and attempted to estimate their occurrence. Evidence from an online sample of 6273 Greek-speaking participants, indicated that a mixed strategy was in the highest occurrence, followed by a long-term and a short-term mating strategy. Men were more likely than women to prefer a short-term and a mixed mating strategy, and that younger participants were more likely to prefer a mixed than a long-term mating strategy. In addition, heterosexual women with same-sex attraction were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to prefer a short-term and a mixed strategy than a long-term mating strategy. Furthermore, we found that men were more likely than women and older participants were more likely than younger participants to indicate that they would cheat on their partners if they were in a long-term intimate relationship. Furthermore , heterosexual with same-sex attraction, bisexual and homosexual men and women were more likely than exclusive heterosexual participants to indicate that they would cheat on their partners when in a long-term intimate relationship.
... For instance, it could potentially be profitable for people who have recently started their mating careers to enter and stay in a relationship for some time in order to gain relationship experience, and subsequently use this experience to attract and retain higher mate value mates. Among other benefits, extrapair mating could enable men to have additional children, women to secure better genes for their children, and both men and women to probe other partners (Buss, 2000;Buss et al., 2017). Yet, despite the benefits that these strategies can accrue for one partner, they cause strain to the relationship, one reason being that they are costly for the other partner. ...
Article
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Keeping an intimate relationship is challenging, and there are many factors causing strain. In the current research, we employed a sample of 1,403 participants from China and Greece who were in an intimate relationship, and we classified 78 difficulties in keeping an intimate relationship in 13 factors. Among the most common ones were clinginess, long work hours, and lack of personal time and space. Clinginess was reported as a more common source of relationship strain by women, while bad sex was reported as a more common source of relationship strain by men. Fading away enthusiasm, bad sex, infidelity and children were reported as more important by older participants, while lack of personal time and space, and character issues were reported as more important by younger participants. The factor structure was similar in the Greek and in the Chinese cultural contexts, but there were also differences. In addition, there were significant interactions between the sample and the sex. For instance, for the non-monogamous factor, men gave higher scores than women in both samples, but the difference was much more pronounced in the Greek sample.
... Thus, it is reasonable to expect that waxing interest in casual sex would facilitate acts of extra-pair infidelity and that this may form part of an ovulatory shift mechanism that functions to shift mating effort away from a primary partner and toward another. However extra-pair liaisons are not exclusively casual and may involve feelings of love and commitment, such as in cases of mate-switching (Buss et al., 2017). To the extent that uncommitted sex is not a strict prerequisite for extra-pair relationships, we cannot rule out the possibility of dual-mating mechanisms in humans based solely on an absence of relationship between within-cycle fertility and SO. ...
Article
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Previous research has found that women at peak fertility show greater interest in extra-pair sex. However, recent replications have failed to detect this effect. In this study, we add to this ongoing debate by testing whether sociosexuality (the willingness to have sex in the absence of commitment) is higher in women who are at peak fertility. A sample of normally ovulating women ( N = 773) completed a measure of sociosexuality and had their current fertility status estimated using the backward counting method. Contrary to our hypothesis, current fertility was unrelated to sociosexual attitudes and desires, even when relationship status was included as a moderator. These findings raise further doubts about the association between fertility and desire for extra-pair sex.
... In particular, women may engage in extra-pair relationships in order to receive resources, such as gifts, or find male supporters or future husbands in case their current husbands abandon them or die . Alternatively, they can do so in order to assess possible mates and engage in mate-switching at a future time (Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017). Last but not least, men are unwilling to commit to a long-term relationship with a woman of lower to their own mate value, but are much more willing to engage in an uncommitted casual relationship with such a woman. ...
... Given that people benefit from being with high-value partners (Conroy-Beam et al., 2015), people who believe they are better than their partners should believe they benefit less from, and thus become less committed to, that relationship. Similarly, interdependence perspectives (e.g., Rusbult, 1980;Thibaut & Kelley, 1959) suggest that people become less committed to their partners when they believe they can secure a more desirable partner, and people are more likely to think they can secure a better partner when they believe their mate value is greater than their partners' (Buss et al., 2017). Supporting this idea, research has demonstrated that people tend to be less committed to partners who they deliberatively evaluate less favorably than themselves (Sidelinger & McMullen, 2008). ...
Article
Feelings of gratitude motivate intimates to maintain valuable relationships. However, it is unknown whether expressions of gratitude similarly increase recipients’ relationship commitment. Two experiments tested the idea that expressions of gratitude simultaneously increase and decrease recipients’ commitment via different interpersonal evaluations, and reciprocity of gratitude determines the implications of such expressions. In Study 1, couples exchanged letters that did or did not express gratitude. Study 2 was a high-powered, preregistered experiment that led participants to believe they were or were not grateful for their partners, and their partners were or were not grateful for them. Both studies subsequently assessed automatic partner evaluations, deliberative partner and self-evaluations, and relationship commitment. Results demonstrated that intimates automatically evaluated partners who expressed gratitude more favorably and thus became more committed; however, if intimates did not reciprocate such gratitude, their deliberate self-evaluations became more favorable than their partner evaluations, and thus they became less committed.
... On this basis, researchers have hypothesized that selection favored mechanisms in the female mind that, in response to circumscribed environmental inputs, produce motivations to engage in sexual relations with high genetic quality men, even when the women themselves are in a committed relationship (see Gangestad and Simpson, 2000, for their seminal proposal of this 'dual mating strategy'). Some empirical evidence is consistent with this hypothesis (e.g., Gangestad et al., 2005), although it has recently been challenged on empirical and conceptual grounds (e.g., Buss et al., 2017;Stern et al., in press;Roney, in press). ...
Chapter
The cognitive revolution reshaped our understanding of psychology by considering the mind as an assemblage of information-processing mechanisms. A central proposition of this computational theory of mind was that, to understand human behavior, we must attend to the information-processing mechanisms responsible for producing it. Despite the indispensability of the concept of the psychological mechanism for understanding psychology, this fundamental idea remains absent from many psychologists' toolkits. We propose that a major hindrance to progress is a confusion about key terms and concepts in cognitive psychology and evolutionary biology. In this chapter, we first discuss two key terms and concepts: psychological mechanism and human nature. We then present a three-component model of a psychological mechanism and articulate key properties of evolved psychological mechanisms (EPMs), emphasizing their sensitivity to environmental inputs and their highly flexible outputs. Next, we argue that this central feature of EPMs-their variable behavioral output in response to variable environmental contexts-renders the EPM an invaluable conceptual tool for use in multiple key branches of the psychological sciences. This includes all disciplines in the psychological sciences interested in stable between-individual variation or flexible within-individual variation in response to situational influences: personality , social, developmental, and cross-cultural psychology. We conclude by outlining how the EPM concept can be readily and profitably employed in these key branches of psychology to advance the state of our science.
... Sexual dissatisfaction, conflict and emotional rejection among men and women have also been associated with sexual infidelity (Messripour et al., 2016). Buss et al. (2017) found that decisions to leave a spouse are linked to perceptions of unforeseen relationship costs, changes in partner values, and the idea that a new partner may offset the cost of leaving the current spouse. Social exchange theory predicts that the marital partner with the greater income is more likely to be unfaithful. ...
Article
This phenomenological study investigated the lived experiences of Iranian women who had engaged in an extramarital affair. Seventeen women participated in semi-structured interviews at a residential center for women in Ahvaz Iran. Questions focused on the circumstances and marital experiences that participants felt contributed to their infidelity, as well as information about how the affair began and was maintained. Six main themes emerged: wives’ emotional issues, cultural and social factors, substance abuse, husbands’ psychological issues, financial concerns, and sexual concerns. Findings may be useful in designing education for couples and families that may help prevent the occurrence of marital infidelity.
... In societies characterized by greater paternal investment and lower frequencies of extra-pair sex, jealousy is more severe (Scelza et al., 2019). Its activation is sensitive to relationship risks such as mate poaching (Moran and Wade, 2019;Nascimento and Little, 2019;Schmitt and Buss, 2001), mate switching (Buss et al., 2017), cuckoldry (Starratt et al., 2013), intrasexual conflict (Buunk et al., 2019), sperm competition Shackelford and Goetz, 2007), and disinvestment of relationship resources (Campbell and Loving, 2016). Though both men and women get jealous, there are sex differences in the experience of jealousy. ...
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This chapter outlines how Robert Trivers’ Parental Investment Theory (PIT) has progressed from its original publication in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man through its expansive application to research in the evolutionary psychological sciences. I begin with an abridged redux of the theory’s claims and predictions as they appeared within the original 1972 publication. After, I review groundbreaking research inspired by PIT and evaluate how well the theory has been empirically supported in the past 50 or so years. I then note several major theoretical advancements and address conflicts with other prominent theories of mating and parenting behavior. The chapter closes with several future directions that may help PIT remain a robust and relevant framework for studying human psychology within an increasingly technologically and socially complex world.
... Thus, it might be that less vocally attractive women end up with less opportunity to engage in a committed relationship with a preferred partner on a competitive mating market with mutual mate choice, as is typical for modern humans . If this is the case, these women might use infidelity as a mate switching strategy (Buss et al. 2017). As another alternative, a lower F0 and the disposition for infidelity might share a common cause in both men and women. ...
Article
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Objectives When judging a male speakers’ likelihood to act sexually unfaithful in a committed relationship, listeners rely on the speakers’ voice pitch such that lower voice pitch is perceived as indicating being more unfaithful. In line with this finding, a recent study (Schild et al. Behavioral Ecology, 2020) provided first evidence that voice pitch might indeed be a valid cue to sexual infidelity in men. In this study, male speakers with lower voice pitch, as indicated by lower mean fundamental frequency (mean F0), were actually more likely to report having been sexually unfaithful in the past. Although these results fit the literature on vocal perceptions in contexts of sexual selection, the study was, as stated by the authors, underpowered. Further, the study solely focused on male speakers, which leaves it open whether these findings are also transferable to female speakers. Methods We reanalyzed three datasets (Asendorpf et al. European Journal of Personality, 25, 16–30, 2011; Penke and Asendorpf Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1113–1135, 2008; Stern et al. 2020) that include voice recordings and infidelity data of overall 865 individuals (63,36% female) in order to test the replicability of and further extend past research. Results A significant negative link between mean F0 and self-reported infidelity was found in only one out of two datasets for men and only one out of three datasets for women. Two meta-analyses (accounting for the sample sizes and including data of Schild et al. 2020), however, suggest that lower mean F0 might be a valid indicator of higher probability of self-reported infidelity in both men and women. Conclusions In line with prior research, higher masculinity, as indicated by lower mean F0, seems to be linked to self-reported infidelity in both men and women. However, given methodological shortcomings, future studies should set out to further delve into these findings.
... Some women may show more interest in mate copying due to desires for mate switching since they have more at stake biologically. If a woman feels she is not getting what she needs in her current relationship, she may have a greater desire to mate switch, as Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, and Conroy-Beam (2017) reported. ...
... If trajectories are dispersed, individuals might have long periods "between trajectories" during which they are not romantically interested in anyone (Person B). One literature that is especially relevant to the density concept is the literature on predictors of infidelity (Allen et al., 2008;Blow & Hartnett, 2005;Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017;Drigotas & Barta, 2001). These predictors include actor effects, such as being less agreeable or less conscientious (Schmitt et al., 2004), being anxiously attached (Bogaert & Sadava, 2002), and being male (Petersen & Hyde, 2010); relationship-level effects, such as being less committed (Drigotas, Safstrom, & Gentilia, 1999), less satisfied (Glass & Wright, 1985), and poorer at communicating (Allen et al., 2008); and external factors, such as having weaker ties to the partner's social network (Treas & Giesen, 2000) and having more opportunity to meet potential partners (e.g., Traeen & Stigum, 1998). ...
... Even so, people can also increase their reproductive success by attracting short-term mates. For example, men can increase their number of offspring by having multiple casual partners, while women can gain material benefits from casual partners, and good genes for their children from extra-pair mates (Buss, 2000;Buss et al., 2017;Buss & Schmitt, 2019). ...
Article
Intimate relationships vary in how long they last, and the current study attempted to identify partners' traits which are associated with longer relationship length and better perceived relationship prospects. In particular, Study 1 employed open-ended questionnaires and in-depth interviews in a sample of 207 Greek-speaking participants , and identified 75 partner traits which motivate people to continue an intimate relationship. Using quantitative research methods in a sample of 1189 Greek-speaking participants, Study 2 classified these traits in 11 broader factors. The "Faithful and trustworthy" and the "Does well with my friends and family" factors, were associated with more years in a relationship. Furthermore, the "Faithful and trustworthy," the "Gives me sexual satisfaction," the "Committed to me" and the "Fun to be with" factors, had a positive effect on the perceived prospects of the current relationship, which was mediated by relationship satisfaction. In addition, the "Does well with my friends and family," had a direct positive effect on relationship prospects.
... Several hypothesized bene ts to women of extrapair mating have been suggested including: immediate resource acquisition, genetic bene ts, mate switching, mate skill acquisition, and mate manipulation (Greiling & Buss, 2000). While studies have found support for several of these hypotheses, for example, mate switching and resource acquisition (Buss et al., 2017;Buss & Schmitt, 2019;Dillon et al., 2018;Greiling & Buss, 2000), little evidence has been collected to speak to the question of the genetic bene ts of extrapair mating, as ideally this would compare the genetic quality of in-pair and extrapair o spring which would be challenging to do. ...
Article
Monogamy is sometimes understood as a type of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime. Thus, serial monogamy refers to the practice of having only one partner during a specific period of time. Based on current divorce rates in modern Western populations, humans are often referred to as serially monogamous. However, there is also a distinction to be made between social and sexual monogamy. Social monogamy reflects a socially recognized relationship in which two individuals live together, have sexual relations, and cooperate in the acquisition and sharing of resources, and often the care of offspring. Sexual monogamy consists of two individuals who are sexually exclusive, having no sexual partners outside of the pair. While many pairings can be both socially and sexually monogamous, sexual monogamy is not always found in socially monogamous relationships. This chapter reviews research that examines the factors influencing social and sexual monogamy and the role infidelity can play in social monogamy in humans and nonhuman animals.
... The Instrumentality Principle would indicate that these behaviors meet a motivational priority, moving an individual toward a valuable goal. However, these attractions might reassure individuals that there are other options should the primary relationship falter (i.e., mate switching; Buss et al., 2017). Similarly, many young adults report maintaining "back burner" relationships, that is, a connection with someone who they might someday connect with romantically or sexually (Dibble & Drouin, 2014;Dibble et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Crushes are uncommunicated, often unilateral, attractions to an individual, generally viewed as a state of unfulfilled longing. They are typically attributed to young people, but recent research suggests that these experiences might be common among adults as well, including among those in committed relationships. Combining findings from three studies across four datasets, this mixed-methods research explores crushes experienced by individuals in committed intimate relationships. Study 1 explored types of crushes, preferences and nature of exchanges among adults in committed relationships and compares their reports to a sample of single individuals. Study 2 examined perceived outcomes of crushes as a way to assess needs or goals served by crushes. Study 3 investigated expectations about whether and how the crush relationship might evolve into a more intimate relationship. A total of 3,585 participants (22–45 years, 53.1% women) completed anonymous online surveys addressing crush experiences and related dynamics. Those in committed relationships typically did not intend to communicate their attraction to the target, unlike single individuals. Associated outcomes were primarily positive, including excitement, increased esteem, and fantasy/escape. The vast majority reported no expectations that these crushes would evolve into more intimate relationships, replacing their current relationship. This work adds to our understanding of attraction outside of traditional human courtship processes, with implications for the study of intimate relationship development and maintenance.
... Many other studies have also demonstrated that males have a stronger sense of intrasexual selection compared to females (Puts, 2010;Lassek and Gaulin, 2022). Physical attractiveness and interpersonal relationships constitute a part of the reproductive strategies of males; the former is utilized for short-term attractiveness (Buss et al., 2017;Buss and Schmitt, 2019), while the latter is utilized for long-term sexual relationships (Dixson et al., 2016). Studies have reported a female preference for more masculine craniofacial traits for short-term relationships than for long-term relationships (Little et al., 2011;Dixson et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Androgynous tendencies and persistently low fertility rates have been observed in many countries, causing major social concerns. The theory of sexual selection suggests a possible mechanism between androgyny and decreased sexual activeness, as masculinity and femininity constitute an important aspect of reproductive strategies. This theory has also been proven by evolutionary and societal evidence. Therefore, we investigate the association between masculinity and femininity with sexual activeness, as well as the influence of gender-role conformity on the frequency of sexual intercourse through sexually selected traits among 42,492 Chinese youths. Sexual activeness was measured using sexual attitudes, experience, behaviors, and pleasure. Mediation analysis was employed to investigate the effects of sexually selected traits on the association between masculinity and femininity with sexual activeness, and gender-role conformity with the frequency of sexual intercourse. Low sexual activeness was found to be associated with low gender-role conformity. Our findings also suggest that physical attractiveness, sexual motivation, and interpersonal relationships may mediate the association between sexual activeness and gender-role conformity, supporting the males-compete/females-choose model.
... Having different casual mates can potentially have several advantages. In particular, both men and women can gain sexual experiences or probe individuals for future long-term relationships (Buss, 2000;Buss et al., 2017). Men's reproductive output is positively related to the number of women they gain sexual access to (Symons, 1979). ...
Article
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Many people do not have an intimate partner, one reason being that they prefer to be single. The current research aimed to address the question what makes single life appealing, that is, to identify the possible advantages of being single. More specifically, Study 1 employed open-ended questionnaires on a sample of 269 Greek-speaking participants, and identified 84 such advantages. By using quantitative research methods on a sample of 612 Greek-speaking participants, Study 2 classified these advantages into 10 broader categories. The “More time for myself,” followed by the “Focus on my goals,” and the “No one dictates my actions,” were rated as the most important. Men found the “Freedom to flirt around” more important than women, while women found the Focus on my goals and the “No tensions and fights” more important than men. In addition, younger participants rated the Focus on my goals as more important than older ones. Furthermore, low scorers in mating performance found the identified advantages more important than high scorers.
... Women also face stronger social stigma for liberal sexual activity across societies and more often experience reputational attacks for behaving promiscuously (Arnocky et al., 2019;Vaillancourt & Sharma, 2011). Nonetheless, it is evident that women across the world pursue short-term strategies, which may adaptively function to (1) acquire immediate resources (resource hypothesis), (2) "trade up" for a better long-term mate (mate switching hypothesis), (3) encourage an unwanted mate to leave the relationship (mate expulsion hypothesis), (4) punish a partner to deter their future infidelity (mate manipulation hypothesis), (5) evaluate the suitability of a potential long-term mate, and/ or (6) for genetic benefits that can be passed on to prospective offspring (better genes hypothesis; Buss & Schmitt, 2019;Buss et al., 2017;Gangestad & Simpson, 2000;Symons, 1979). ...
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The constellation of co-adapted traits that facilitate short-term mating promote the use of riskier and interpersonally antagonistic intrasexual competition tactics. Aggressive behavior can be used to vie against rivals for mates and resources that facilitate reproductive success; however, there is limited research regarding whether individual differences in a short-term mating orientation (i.e., unrestricted sociosexuality) are reliably associated with same-sex aggression, particularly indirect aggression. There is also some research suggesting that short-term mating tendencies are linked to inter-individual variability in the desire to compete with same-sex others for access to mates and reproductive resources (i.e., intrasexual competitiveness). We therefore speculated that intrasexual competitiveness might help to explain why those pursuing a short-term mating strategy may perpetrate more indirect aggression toward same-sex peers. In a sample of 290 Canadian heterosexual young adults, unrestricted sociosexuality positively predicted same-sex indirect aggression and intrasexual competitiveness, and intrasexual competitiveness mediated the positive link between unrestricted sociosexuality and indirect aggression. Exploratory analyses revealed that the desire facet of sociosexuality was driving the effect. These findings suggest that those with a short-term mating orientation, particularly those with unrestricted sociosexual desires, engage in more indirect aggression against same-sex peers, and that this association is, in part, explained by an inclination to be combative with same-sex rivals over social and mating resources.
... Furthermore, current mates may turn out to have low or experience a decrease in their mate value. Extra-pair mating can enable individuals to assess other mates, and to engage in mate-switching (Buss et al., 2017). Moreover, men's reproductive success is predicted by the number of partners they have sexual access to (Symons, 1979), and extra-pair mating gives them the opportunity to gain access to more than one partners (Buss, 2000;Buss & Schmitt, 1993). ...
Article
People employ different strategies in order to detect their partners' infidelities. In turn, culprits employ infidelity-hiding strategies in order to avoid detection, and the current research aimed to identify these strategies, and to examine whether they were predicted by the Dark Triad personality traits. More specifically, Study 1 employed qualitative research methods on a sample of 297 Greek-speaking participants, and identified 53 acts that people perform in order to hide their infidelity from their partners. Study 2 employed quantitative research methods on a sample of 300 Greek-speaking participants who had been unfaithful to their current or previous partners, and classified the identified acts into 11 broader infidelity-hiding strategies. The most likely to be used one was the “Be discreet,” followed by the “Eliminate digital evidence” and the “Keep the same behavior.” In addition, more than 70% of the participants indicated a willingness to use seven or more such strategies. It was also found that, participants who scored high in Machiavellianism, were more likely to employ the identified strategies than low scorers. The two sexes indicated a similar willingness to use most of the identified strategies, and for several strategies, significant age effects emerged.
... This was predicted to include vigilance (i.e., keeping a watchful eye on a partner), guarding their mate from interacting with others, and making bids to secure the relationship by affirming commitment or threatening (emotional) consequences if they stray. However, because only intrasexual mate competition poses an actual conception risk (Sagarin et al., 2012), and thus an elevated danger of a man abandoning his partner and switching to a new mate (Buss et al., 2017), it is possible that participant women will report heightened mate-retention tactics in response to women, as opposed to feminine males. Regarding the rivals in mate-retention competition, it was unclear a priori whether the tactics attributed to rival women would differ from rival feminine males. ...
Article
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The present study examined women’s mate competition tactics in response to female and feminine-male rivals in two cultures in which competition against both occurs. In Samoa and the Istmo Zapotec (Southern Mexico), women not only compete with other women (intrasexually) but also compete with rival feminine males (intersexually) in order to access/retain the same masculine men as sexual/romantic partners. Using a mixed-method paradigm, women were asked about their experiences of intra- and intersexual mate competition, and these narratives were recorded. The tactics reportedly employed by participants, and those attributed to mate competitors, were categorized according to established taxonomies of mate competition tactics, and their frequencies compared. Within-culture, the likelihood that participant women had ever experienced intra- and intersexual mate competition did not differ. Furthermore, participants reported a similar pattern of behavioral tactics whether their rival was another woman or a feminine male. These included benefit provisioning tactics during mate acquisition and cost-inflicting tactics during mate retention. Similarly, the mate competition tactics attributed to rival women and rival feminine males bore a striking resemblance, focused on enticing target men. Results highlight the mate competition tactics employed by women outside of a Euro-American context, and the way cultural factors impact mating landscapes presumed to be exclusively heterosexual. The presence of feminine males, alongside masculine men’s willingness to engage in sexual activity with them, induces women in such cultures to compete intersexually in comparable ways to intrasexual competition with rival women.
... Given the limited number of fathers in the current study (n = 7), we are unable to test the role of parental status here, although it will be important to do so in future studies. Engaging in infidelity with an alternative attractive mate may, for example, boost reproductive potential in partnered men (given links between attractiveness and fertility, e.g., Pflüger et al., 2012), but the fitness costs associated with infidelity and potential relationship dissolution may be higher when young, dependent children are involved (e.g., reviewed in Buss et al., 2017;Troxel and Matthews, 2004). Therefore, it remains possible that the effects demonstrated here within partnered men are weakened or potentially reversed (as in Pultorak et al., 2015) among those with dependent children. ...
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Attractiveness judgements influence desires to initiate and maintain romantic relationships. Testosterone also predicts relationship initiation and maintenance; such effects may be driven by the hormone's modulation of attractiveness judgements, but no studies have investigated causal (and situation-dependent) effects of the hormone on these judgements. Using a placebo-controlled cross-over design, our preregistered analyses revealed order- and relationship- dependent effects: single heterosexual men judged the women as more appealing when testosterone was administered first (and placebo second), but marginally less appealing when placebo was administered first (and testosterone second). In a more complex model incorporating the women's attractiveness (as rated by an independent set of observers), however, we show that testosterone increases the appeal of women -but this effect depends upon the men's relationship status and the women's attractiveness. In partnered men (n = 53) who tend to derogate attractive alternatives (by rating them as less appealing), testosterone countered this effect, boosting the appeal of these attractive alternatives. In single men (n = 53), conversely, testosterone increased the appeal of low-attractive women. These differential effects highlight the possibility of a newly discovered mechanism whereby testosterone promotes male sexual reproduction through different routes depending on relationship status, promoting partner up- rather than down-grading when partnered and reducing choosiness when single. Further, such effects were relatively rapid [within 85 (±5) minutes], suggesting a potential non-genomic mechanism of action.
... This factor is compromising to the relationship's prospects, as it involves partners adopting an extra-pair strategy. It is also compromising because it involves reduced commitment to the relationship that is, partners exhibiting interest in other men or women may indicate that they have mate-switching in mind (see Buss et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Intimate relationships are not easy to keep as the high rates of divorce and singlehood testify. The current research aimed to examine the behavioral acts which are likely to have a negative effect on people's willingness to continue an intimate relationship. More specifically, by using qualitative research methods on a sample of 269 Greek-speaking participants, Study 1 identified 88 acts that have a negative impact on people's willingness to continue an intimate relationship. Study 2 employed quantitative research methods on a sample of 536 Greek speaking participants, and classified these acts into six broader factors. The one with the most negative impact was rated to be the "Does not care about me," followed by the "Does not treat well our children," and the "Tries to control me." Women and single participants rated the identified factors more negatively than men and participants who were in a relationship or married. Significant main effects of age, sex, relationship status and having children were also found for several factors.
... Sexual dissatisfaction, conflict and emotional rejection among men and women have also been associated with sexual infidelity (Messripour et al., 2016). Buss et al. (2017) found that decisions to leave a spouse are linked to perceptions of unforeseen relationship costs, changes in partner values, and the idea that a new partner may offset the cost of leaving the current spouse. Social exchange theory predicts that the marital partner with the greater income is more likely to be unfaithful. ...
Article
This phenomenological study investigated the lived experien�ces of Iranian women who had engaged in an extramarital affair. Seventeen women participated in semi-structured inter�views at a residential center for women in Ahvaz Iran. Questions focused on the circumstances and marital experien�ces that participants felt contributed to their infidelity, as well as information about how the affair began and was main�tained. Six main themes emerged: wives’ emotional issues, cul�tural and social factors, substance abuse, husbands’ psychological issues, financial concerns, and sexual concerns. Findings may be useful in designing education for couples and families that may help prevent the occurrence of mari�tal infidelit
... Успех у партнерским односима се огледа у способности јединке да привуче и задржи партнера (Buss et al., 2017). Одржавање партнерског односа је изазовно и многи људи имају потешкоћа у овом процесу (Miller, 2011;Osgood et al., 2005). ...
Article
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A successful partnership implies one's ability to attract and retain a partner. Readiness to forgive contributes to the renewal and improvement of broken relationships, while an attachment style plays an important role in the formation of internal 'working models' that serve as 'guidelines' for the formation of new relationships. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there is a connection between attachment and success in maintaining a partnership, and if so, whether that relationship is direct or mediated by the capacity to forgive. Based on the results obtained with the Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators, we found that insuffcient effort in the process of finding a partner is not directly associated with Avoidance, i.e., the negative working model of others; this connection is created indirectly through the strategy to avoid forgiveness. The sample used in this study is representative and included 387 participants, 82,7% of which were female participants between 18 and 40 years of age (AS = 23,90; SD = 4,22). The instruments used were the Mating Effort Scale (Apostolou et al., 2018), Partner Selectivity Scale (Apostolou et al., 2018), the Scale for Success in Finding a Partner (Apostolou et al., 2018), the Tendency to Forgive Scale (McCullough, Root, & Cohen, 2006), Affective Partner Attachment Scale (Brennan, Clark & Shaver, 1995). The results obtained indicate that insufficient effort in the process of finding a partner is not directly associated with Avoidance; this connection is created indirectly through the strategy to avoid forgiveness (ab=-,043, [-,077, -,017]). As for the connection between Effort and Anxiety, it is mediated by the Revenge dimension (ab = -,051, [-,080, -,026]). Forgiveness avoidance has been shown to be a statistically significant mediator in the relationship between Failure to Find a Partner and Avoidance (ab = -,029, [-,052, -,010]). All obtained mediations are partial. This research shows that success in maintaining a relationship, selectivity when looking for a partner and the effort invested to start and maintain a relationship are closely associated with a person's emotional development: his/her vision of him/ herself, vision of others and emotional capacity developed through life, such as the tendency to forgive. The findings of this research would be much more valuable if the research was conducted on both partners in a certain relationship and if the situation related to forgiveness was kept under control, which is a recommendation for other studies.
... However, it should be noted that, while previous research indicated that makeup usage is not associated with the actual sociosexuality of women (Batres et al., 2018), studies showed that wearing high heels and receiving cosmetic surgeries may be associated with women's short-term mating efforts (Bradshaw et al., 2019;Prokop, 2020). Therefore, we may expect that men may be especially attracted to the cues like wearing high heels or receiving costly cosmetic surgeries when pursuing a shortterm mate, given that sexual accessible women are preferred in this context (e.g., Bleske-Rechek & Buss, 2006;Buss, 2015;Buss et al., 2017;Buss & Schmitt, 2019;Sacco et al., 2009). ...
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Makeup usage in women serves as a behavioral tactic of both intersexual attraction and intrasexual competition. However, this tactic may incur costs to men due to the artificially enhanced mate value achieved by makeup usage. Therefore, to avoid these potential costs, men may be sensitive to the makeup cues and lower their preference for women wearing makeup during mate choice, especially for men who are pursuing a long-term relationship. In the present research, we systematically tested this hypothesis by three studies. Specifically, the three studies consistently showed that adult males who were naïve in applying makeup still displayed the ability to perceive the makeup status of female faces after exposure to female faces for sufficient time (at self-paced speed) or for moderately short time (6500 ms), even when the physical attractiveness and the possibilities that the target faces had undergone cosmetic surgery were controlled. Studies further revealed that the more long-term-mating oriented male participants were able to perceive makeup cues even after exposure to female faces for only 50 ms, and they tended to lower their perceived mate value for female targets wearing makeup in long-term mating scenarios even after exposure to female faces for only 6500 ms. Taken together, these results suggest that men are sensitive to the authenticity of the physical characteristics of potential mates and they can alter their tendency of mate choices accordingly, especially for men who are pursuing a long-term relationship. FULLTEXT: https://rdcu.be/cFZYe
... In addition, men's reproductive success is positively correlated to the number of partners they can gain sexual access to, and extrapair mating could enable them to have sex with more women (Buss & Schmitt, 1993;Symons, 1979). Furthermore, extrapair mating can enable men and women to probe other mates without risking to be left with none (Buss et al., 2017). These potential benefits have favored the evolution of extrapair mating (Buss, 2000). ...
Chapter
In the present chapter, I will summarize evidence from several studies, which indicates that men exhibit considerable tolerance to their opposite-sex partners’ same-sex attractions. This male tolerance facilitates the formation of heterosexual relationships for women who experience same-sex attractions, reducing in effect negative selection pressures on same-sex attraction. Moreover, men frequently employ a forced-sex or rape strategy in order to bypass female and parental choice. This strategy is found across different societies, and could result in reducing negative selection pressures on same-sex predispositions, because it imposes heterosexual sex on women independently of their attractions. Finally, men and women have evolved a desire to have children, which can also play a role in weakening negative selection pressures, because they would motivate people with same-sex attractions to have heterosexual sex in order to have children.
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In this article, I argue that there is a lacuna in evolutionary psychological science. Women most likely adapted, via natural selection processes, to handle the birthing process successfully; not only physically and culturally, but also psychologically and behaviorally. However, current literature of evolutionary psychology largely ignores this reasonable assumption. A look at current prominent literature from the field revealed a consensus that women before and after birth are functioning subjects, shaped by natural selection to maximize success in reproduction. However, it appears that the same literature has little to say about the behavioral and psychological responses of women during birth itself. This is the lacuna discussed in the article. In other fields of research, different behaviors and mental processes have been found to correlate with a successful natural birth. Selection would likely have favored women who had such positive responses during birth because it is a process that all individuals must go through; natural childbirth was an integral part of reproductive success before modern obstetrics existed. Implications for resolving this lacuna vary widely and may contribute to our understanding of how selection might have shaped the human mind in general, as well as the female mind in particular.
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Objectives Infidelity is a widespread phenomenon, with perpetrators being frequently caught by their partners. Yet, not all instances of revealed infidelity lead to the termination of the relationship, and the current research aimed to study the reasons which lead individuals to forgive their partners. Methods: Study 1 employed a combination of qualitative research methods in a sample of Greek-speaking participants (N = 164) in order to identify the reasons that motivate people to forgive their partners’ infidelity. Studies 2 and 3 employed quantitative research methods in two independent Greek-speaking samples (N = 1,243) in order to classify these reasons in broader factors. Results: We identified 32 reasons, which are likely to motivate people to forgive their partners’ infidelity. By using principal components analysis, we classified these reasons in four broader factors. The most important one was having children, followed by own infidelity, reduced likelihood of future infidelity and dependency on partner. In the presence of assurances that they will be unlikely to cheat again in the future, women and older participants were more likely than men and younger participants to forgive their partners. Furthermore, participants who scored high in agreeableness were more likely than those who scored low to forgive their partners’ infidelity. Conclusions: There are at least four main reasons why people forgive their partners’ infidelity, which are predicted by the former’s sex, age and personality.
Article
Mate poaching is engaging in premeditated behaviors to attract either short-term or long-term mates by luring them away from their already established relationship. It is unique as compared to other ways to initiate a relationship because it involves specific behaviours and consequences, given that the target is already mated. Despite the potential for negative outcomes related to the discovery of the poacher’s attempt, including homicide and intimate partner violence, it is a common occurrence. Depending on the context, cultural group, and sex, rates vary from slightly under 30 percent to over 60 percent for how many people report having attempted mate poaching. During the past two decades, there has been a noteworthy growth in our understanding of mate poaching, and this chapter will present a comprehensive review of those developments. We focus specifically on men’s use of mate poaching, with the goal of explaining how it has led to advantages over evolutionary time. There are many reasons to examine men separately from women. For example, data reveal that men, more than women, report attempting to poach short-term mates, and that they have succumbed to poaching attempts in short-term contexts. These differences imply that men receive different benefits from poaching, and being poached, than women. We start with an overview to show how frequently it occurs and some of the general traits of those who poach. Then, we use a functional approach to investigate the problems that mate poaching solves for men, as well as the associated costs. This approach allows us to document which strategies are the most effective for poaching, as well as the identity of potential targets. We conclude with suggestions for future research, including the need to be inclusive in studying mate poaching so as to more fully encompass a variety of sexual orientations, and how mate poaching leads to direct reproductive success via increased numbers of children.
Article
Copulatory urgency is produced by a psychological adaptation that evolved to solve the adaptive problem of sexual conflict resulting from the use of conditional mating strategies. Deployment of a long-term mating strategy, in which individuals invest substantially in the formation and maintenance of an enduring, committed relationship with one partner, puts those individuals at risk of loss of that investment (and more) should their long-term partner pursue a conflicting mating strategy. Consequently, people have evolved motivations, such as copulatory urgency, which protect against that loss. As the potential costs of a partner’s use of a conflicting mating strategy are sex-specific, so too are the manifestations of copulatory urgency. Among men, for whom paternity uncertainty, sperm competition, and cuckoldry are of primary evolutionary concern, copulatory urgency is demonstrated in response to increased risk of a partner’s sexual infidelity and results in behaviors that functioned ancestrally to reduce the risk of cuckoldry. Women, on the other hand, are not subject to maternal uncertainty or cuckoldry. However, women are more likely to be reliant on their long-term male partner’s investment of resources into the ongoing relationship, and so are more likely to demonstrate copulatory urgency and associated motivated behaviors when they are at particular risk of loss of that investment and when the loss of that investment would be particularly costly.
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Understanding how human mating psychology is affected by changes in female cyclic fertility is informative for comprehending the evolution of human reproductive behavior. Based on differential selection pressures between the sexes, men are assumed to have evolved adaptations to notice women's within-cycle cues to fertility and show corresponding mate retention tactics to secure access to their female partners when fertile. However, previous studies suffered from methodological shortcomings and yielded inconsistent results. In a large, preregistered online dyadic diary study (384 heterosexual couples), we found no compelling evidence that men notice women's fertility status (as potentially reflected in women's attractiveness, sexual desire, or wish for contact with others) or display mid-cycle increases in mate retention tactics (jealousy, attention, wish for contact or sexual desire towards female partners). These results extend our current understanding of the evolution of women's concealed ovulation and oestrus, and suggest that both might have evolved independently.
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Objective Extra-pair mating has potentially severe costs, which favor the evolution of mechanisms that would enable people to reduce them by detecting their partners’ infidelity. Such a mechanism is romantic jealousy, and the current research attempted to examine the interplay between romantic jealousy, personality and the probability of detecting infidelity. Method We employed quantitative research methods on a sample of 916 Greek-speaking participants. Results we found that higher scorers in romantic jealousy were more likely to detect infidelity than lower scorers. The effect was independent of one’s own infidelity, sex and age. We also found that neuroticism and openness predicted the probability to detect infidelity indirectly through jealousy. More specifically, high scorers in neuroticism experienced stronger jealousy, which in turn, was associated with increased probability to detect infidelity. On the other hand, high scorers in openness experienced lower jealousy that was associated with a decreased probability of detecting infidelity. Conclusions Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that the jealousy mechanism has evolved to enable individuals to detect infidelity.
Chapter
The notion of ‘rape myths’ (a complex set of implicit or explicit prejudicial, stereotyped, and false beliefs about rape victims, rape perpetrators, and the crime of rape more generally) is well-discussed within the sex offending literature, and is also a concept which has garnered much understanding within the general population. In this chapter we set out how this framework might help us to predict both judgements of and a proclivity towards engaging in image-based sexual abuse offending. Specifically, we critique the notion of rape culture, as it is applied to the image-based sexual abuse context, and outline the process of developing and validating a new measure of beliefs about revenge pornography in the hope of stimulating further debate and research.
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Polyamory is a form of consensual non-monogamy (CNM) based on the belief that people can participate in and build multiple romantic and/or sexual relationships with the consent of all involved. This form of CNM relationship is increasingly visible in societies where monogamy is a prevalent norm. Research in the field of polyamory has yielded many findings regarding the multiple relational benefits of polyamory. However, there is a limited number of studies in the literature focusing specifically on why some people find polyamory more appealing than an exclusive, dyadic partner relationship. Therefore, framed within the historical context in which polyamory emerged and the associated stigmatization, this study presents a model of the psychological motivations for considering/engaging in/remaining in a polyamorous relationship in an era when monogamy and the binary nature of intimate and sexual relationships is being deconstructed. The study is based on a secondary theoretical analysis of recent psychological studies on polyamory, discussed in light of the relevant psychological theories of motivation. The result is an 8-component model of diverse potential polyamory motivations, individually or in aggregate. The motivations were organized into eight domains: fulfilment of needs not met in a monogamous relationship; personal growth and autonomy; identity development and polyamory; expression of political values; exploring minority identities (sexual fluidity and bisexuality); need to belong to a community; desire for sexual diversity; and psychodynamic reasons. This study also shows there may be diversified need of psychotherapeutic approaches for polyamorous individuals.
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Choosing a mate is perhaps the most important decision a sexually reproducing organism makes in its lifetime. And yet, psychologists lack a precise description of human mate choice, despite sustained attention from several theoretical perspectives. Here, I argue this limited progress owes to the complexity of mate choice and describe a new modeling approach, called “couple simulation,” designed to compare models of mate choice by challenging them to reproduce real couples within simulated mating markets. I present proof-of-concept simulations that demonstrate couple simulation can identify a population’s true model of mate choice. Furthermore, I apply couple simulation to two samples of real couples and find that the method (a) successfully reconstructs real-world couples, (b) discriminates between models of mate choice, and (c) predicts a wide range of dimensions of relationship quality. Collectively, these results provide evidence that couple simulation offers a framework useful for evaluating theories of human mate choice.
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Consensual non-monogamy (CNM) refers to any intimate relationship where partners agree to form multiple, concurrent intimate relationships. Stigma against CNM is well-documented, but its antecedents are unclear. Here, we test how apprehension toward CNM is related to moral reasoning. In Study 1, participants (N = 229) identified reasons why people disapprove of CNM from which we created the CNM Apprehension Scale (CNM app). In Study 2, participants (N = 726) completed the CNM app alongside established measures moral decision-making: the moral foundations questionnaire, the social dominance orientation scale, the zero-sum thinking in romantic relationships scale, the moral approbation scale, and the HEXACO-60. We identified five reasons for CNM apprehension: 1) anticipated relationship conflict, 2) moral belief violation, 3) reputational damage, 4) sexual health risk, and 5) same-sex intimacy. People who scored higher on CNM app reported more zero-sum thinking about their romantic relationships, stronger purity and antiegalitarian beliefs, lower openness to experience, and greater desire for moral approbation from others. We argue that CNM apprehension can be traced to two primary concerns: unrestricted sociosexuality and risk of interpersonal conflict. We conclude by considering how moral intuitions about CNM may be adaptively mismatched to environments where technology addresses the recurrent adaptive challenges of non-monogamy.
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Although sexual desire for one's partner is theorized to serve as a gut-level indicator of partner mate value that motivates investment in valued partners, there is scant empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. Five studies addressed this possibility, examining whether experiencing sexual desire encouraged the enactment of relationship-promoting behaviors and whether perceptions of partner mate value motivated this proposed process. In a pilot study and Study 1, participants relived an activity they experienced with their partner, which was either sexual or non-sexual. Then, participants rated their desire to engage in sex and other non-sexual relationship-promoting activities with their partner (pilot study) and their partner's responsiveness to personal disclosures. Participants’ enacted responsiveness was also evaluated by judges (Study 1). Results showed that experiences of desire enhanced relationship-promoting tendencies. Using experimental, daily experiences, and longitudinal methods, Studies 2-4 extended these findings, indicating that both manipulated and perceived partner mate value predicted desire, which, in turn, was associated with engagement in relationship-promoting behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual desire functions as a mechanism encouraging investment in partners who are perceived to be worth pursuing and retaining.
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People frequently adopt extra-pair mating strategies, which could be potentially harmful for their legitimate partners. In order to protect themselves from the costs of cheating, people need first to detect infidelity, and for this purpose, they employ specific infidelity-detection strategies. By using a combination of qualitative research methods, we identified 47 acts that people perform in order to detect their partners’ infidelity. Using quantitative methods, we classified these acts into six broader strategies for detecting infidelity. Participants indicated that they were more likely to employ the “Observe changes in her/his behavior,” followed by the “Ask and observe her/his reactions,” and the “Check where she/he is” strategies. Almost 58% of the participants indicated that they would use three or more strategies in order to detect their partners’ infidelity. We also found that higher scorers in Machiavellianism and psychopathy were more likely to employ the identified strategies than lower scorers. In addition, sex and age effects were found for most strategies.
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The current research aimed to examine the reasons people are single, that is, not in an intimate relationship, across eight different countries-Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, India, Japan, and the UK. We asked a large cross-cultural sample of single participants (N = 6,822) to rate 92 different possible reasons for being single. These reasons were classified into 12 factors, including one's perceived inability to find the right partner, the perception that one is not good at flirting, and the desire to focus on one's career. Significant sex and age effects were found for most factors. The extracted factors were further classified into three separate domains: Perceived poor capacity to attract mates, desiring the freedom of choice, and currently being in between relationships. The domain structure, the relative importance of each factor and domain, as well as sex and age effects were relatively consistent across countries. There were also important differences however, including the differing effect sizes of sex and age effects between countries.
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Most mammalian females possess classic estrus, a discrete phase of the ovulatory cycle during which females engage in sex and undergo dramatic physical changes that make them attractive to males. By contrast, humans engage in sexual activity throughout the ovulatory cycle. But is it the case that humans possess no estrous-like changes across the cycle? Research over the past three decades has shown that, in fact, women's sexual desires change across the cycle, as do men's responses to women. Research over the last few years has sharpened scientific understanding of the precise nature of these changes. Nevertheless, many intriguing questions remain. We highlight recent work in this area and identify key opportunities for research in the future.
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As a species, humans are generally serial monogamists; in some cases mating with the same partner for years or even decades. Nonetheless, humans often mate with more than one partner over the life course, meaning that romantic pair bonds often come to an end. Prior research has tentatively suggested that a mental mechanism might exist that facilitates severing the romantic bond between mates. Put differently, because romantic love is a species-typical trait, all members of the human species may come equipped with the mental hardware for both falling in love as well as for ending a relationship. Currently, the evolutionary, cognitive, neurobiological, and genetic underpinnings of human mate ejection have yet to be fully elucidated. We examine each of these factors to illuminate the possible mechanisms that may underpin the human tendency to fall out of love.
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A recent and controversial hypothesis suggests the presence of an oestrus phase in women as in other mammals. This implies that women at their optimal fertility point of the menstrual cycle exhibit behaviors focused to maximize the genetic quality of their offspring. Several studies support this hypothesis, finding that women in the fertile phase tend to prefer men with traits associated to phenotypic quality, such as greater facial masculinization and symmetry. We experimentally tested some of the observations supporting this hypothesis in a population of 810 young Spanish women. We analyzed whether the preference for masculinized male faces is affected by i) the phase of the menstrual cycle, ii) having a stable partner and iii) the use of birth control pills. We could not reproduce the effect of the first two factors, but we found that women using hormonal contraceptives tend to prefer men with less masculine faces. These results indicate that some of the evidences supporting the oestrus hypothesis in humans must be reviewed, incorporating data from different sociocultural and ethnic populations. © 2014: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. Murcia (España).
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Sexual selection theory suggests that the sex with a higher potential reproductive rate will compete more strongly for access to mates. Stronger intra-sexual competition for mates may explain why males travel more extensively than females in many terrestrial vertebrates. A male-bias in lifetime distance travelled is a purported human universal, although this claim is based primarily on anecdotes. Following sexual maturity, motivation to travel outside the natal territory may vary over the life course for both sexes. Here, we test whether travel behaviour among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists is associated with shifting reproductive priorities across the lifespan. Using structured interviews, we find that sex differences in travel peak during adolescence when men and women are most intensively searching for mates. Among married adults, we find that greater offspring dependency load is associated with reduced travel among women, but not men. Married men are more likely to travel alone than women, but only to the nearest market town and not to other Tsimane villages. We conclude that men's and women's travel behaviour reflects differential gains from mate search and parenting across the life course.
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Significance It is a popular assumption that certain perceptions—for example, that highly feminine women are attractive, or that masculine men are aggressive—reflect evolutionary processes operating within ancestral human populations. However, observations of these perceptions have mostly come from modern, urban populations. This study presents data on cross-cultural perceptions of facial masculinity and femininity. In contrast to expectations, we find that in less developed environments, typical “Western” perceptions are attenuated or even reversed, suggesting that Western perceptions may be relatively novel. We speculate that novel environments, which expose individuals to large numbers of unfamiliar faces, may provide novel opportunities—and motives—to discern subtle relationships between facial appearance and other traits.
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Most evolutionary theories of human mating have focused on the adaptive benefits of short-term mating for men. Men cannot pursue a strategy of short-term mating, however, without willing women. Existing empirical evidence suggests that some women engage in short-term mating some of the time and probably have done so recurrently over human evolutionary history. The current studies tested hypotheses about the potential benefits women might derive from engaging in one type of short-term mating — extra-pair liaisons — and the contexts in which they do so. These include resource hypotheses (e.g. immediate resource accrual), genetic hypotheses (e.g. having genetically diverse offspring), mate switching hypotheses (e.g. acquiring a better mate), mate skill acquisition hypotheses (e.g. mate preference clarification) and mate manipulation hypotheses (e.g. deterring a partner's future infidelity). These hypotheses were tested by examining the perceived likelihood that women would receive particular benefits through a short-term extra-pair mating (Study 1); the perceived magnitude of benefits if received (Study 2); the contexts in which women engage in short-term extra-pair mating (Study 3); and individual differences among women in proclivity to pursue short-term matings in their perceptions of benefits (Study 4). Most strongly supported across all four studies were the mate switching and resource acquisition hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the distinction between functions and beneficial effects of short-term mating, limitations of the current studies and the consequences of women's short-term mating strategies for the broader matrix of human mating.
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The authors hypothesized that people form opposite-sex friendships (OSFs), in part, to acquire long-term mates (both sexes), to gain short-term sexual access (men more than women), and to gain physical protection (women more than men). In Study 1, men and women evaluated reasons for initiating OSFs, characteristics preferred in an OSF, and reasons for ending OSFs. Study 2 extended the framework to include individual differences in sociosexual orientation. Compared with women, men judged sexual attraction and a desire for sex as more important reasons for initiating OSFs, reported a preference for sexual attractiveness when selecting OSFs, and judged the lack of sex as a more important reason for dissolving OSFs. Women judged physical protection as a more important reason for initiating OSFs and the lack of it as a more important reason for dissolving them. Across sex, people with an unrestricted sexual style were more likely to perceive OSFs as opportunities for sex. Discussion addresses the implications of the results for understanding conflict in OSFs.
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In contrast to our closest cousin, the chimpanzee, humans appear at first to lack cues of impending ovulation that would mark the fertile period in which a female can become pregnant. Consequently, that ovulation is “concealed” in women has long been the consensus among scientists studying human mating. A recent series of studies shows, however, that there are discernible cues of fertility in women’s social behaviors, body scents, voices, and, possibly, aspects of physical beauty. Some of these changes are subtle, but others are strikingly large (we report effect sizes ranging from small, d = 0.12 to large, d = 1.20). Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that women’s male partners may adaptively shift their behavior in response to cues of approaching ovulation. These results have far-reaching implications for understanding fluctuations in attraction, conflict, and relationship dynamics.
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Infidelity is a major cause of divorce and spousal battering. Little is known, however, about which individuals are susceptible to infidelity, or about the relationship contexts that promote infidelity. This study of 107 married couples examines three sets of possible predictors of infidelity: Personality factors such as narcissism and conscientiousness; relationship contexts, including recurrent sources of conflict and sexual satisfaction; and the relative “mate value” of the individuals composing a couple. We obtained self-report and spouse-report data on susceptibility to infidelity. We obtained self-report, spouse-report, and interviewer-report data on personality, relationship context, and relative mate value. Personality factors most strongly linked to susceptibility to infidelity were low Conscientiousness, high Narcissism, and high Psychoticism. Relationship contexts most strongly linked to susceptibility to infidelity include sexual dissatisfaction, and specific sources of conflict such as partner complaints about jealousy. Discussion addresses limitations of this study and directions for future research on predicting infidelity.
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There is a class of nonverbal facial expressions and gestures, exhibited by human females, that are commonly labeled “flirting behaviors.” I observed more than 200 randomly selected adult female subjects in order to construct a catalog of these nonverbal solicitation behaviors. Pertinent behaviors were operationally defined through the use of consequential data; these behaviors elicited male attention. Fifty-two behaviors were described using this method. Validation of the catalog was provided through the use of contextual data. Observations were conducted on 40 randomly selected female subjects in one of four contexts: a singles' bar, a university snack bar, a university library, and at university Women's Center meetings. The results indicated that women in “mate relevant” contexts exhibited higher average frequencies of nonverbal displays directed at males. Additionally, women who signaled often were also those who were most often approached by a man: and this relationship was not context specific.I suggest that the observation of women in field situations may provide clues to criteria used by females in the initial selection of male partners. As much of the work surrounding human attraction has involved laboratory studies or data collected from couples in established relationships, the observation of nonverbal behavior in field settings may provide a fruitful avenue for the exploration of human female choice in the preliminary stages of male-female interaction.
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Evolutionary theory predicts that males will provide less parental investment for putative offspring who are unlikely to be their actual offspring. Cross-culturally, paternity confidence (a man's assessment of the likelihood that he is the father of a putative child) is positively associated with men's involvement with children and with investment or inheritance from paternal kin. A survey of 67 studies reporting nonpaternity suggests that for men with high paternity confidence rates of nonpaternity are(excluding studies of unknown methodology) typically 1.9%, substantially less than the typical rates of 10% or higher cited by many researchers. Further cross-cultural investigation of the relationship between paternity and paternity confidence is warranted. © 2006 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved.
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This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees) and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors) in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post- breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to re- entering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.
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The current research tests the hypothesis that women have an evolved mate value calibration adaptation that functions to raise or lower their standards in a long-term mate according to their own mate value. A woman's physical attractiveness is a cardinal component of women's mate value. We correlated observer-assessed physical attractiveness (face, body, and overall) with expressed preferences for four clusters of mate characteristics (N = 214): (1) hypothesized good-gene indicators (e.g., masculinity, sexiness); (2) hypothesized good investment indicators (e.g., potential income); (3) good parenting indicators (e.g., desire for home and children), and (4) good partner indicators (e.g., being a loving partner). Results supported the hypothesis that high mate value women, as indexed by observer-judged physical attractiveness, expressed elevated standards for all four clusters of mate characteristics. Discussion focuses on potential design features of the hypothesized mate-value calibration adaptation, and suggests an important modification of the trade-off model of women's mating. A minority of women--notably those low in mate value who are able to escape male mate guarding and the manifold costs of an exposed infidelity--will pursue a mixed mating strategy, obtaining investment from one man and good genes from an extra-pair copulation partner (as the trade-off model predicts). Since the vast majority of women secure genes and direct benefits from the same man, however, most women will attempt to secure the best combination of all desired qualities from the same man. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Human groups contain reproductively relevant resources that differ greatly in their ease of accessibility. The authors advance a conceptual framework for the study of 2 classes of adaptations that have been virtually unexplored: (a) adaptations for exploitation designed to expropriate the resources of others through deception, manipulation, coercion, intimidation, terrorization, and force and (b) antiexploitation adaptations that evolved to prevent one from becoming a victim of exploitation. As soon as adaptations for exploitation evolved, they would immediately select for coevolved antiexploitation defenses--adaptations in target individuals, their kin, and their social allies designed to prevent their becoming a victim of exploitation. Antiexploitation defenses, in turn, created satellite adaptive problems for those pursuing a strategy of exploitation. Selection would favor the evolution of anticipatory and in situ solutions designed to circumvent the victim's defenses and minimize the costs of pursuing an exploitative strategy. Adaptations for exploitation have design features sensitive to the group dynamics in which they are deployed, including status hierarchies, social reputation, and the preferential selection of out-group victims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous research has documented shifts in women's attractions to their romantic partner and to men other than their partner across the ovulation cycle, contingent on the degree to which her partner displays hypothesized indicators of high-fitness genes. The current study set out to replicate and extend this finding. Forty-one couples in which the woman was naturally cycling participated. Female partners reported their feelings of in-pair attraction and extra-pair attraction on two occasions, once on a low-fertility day of the cycle and once on a high-fertility day of the cycle just prior to ovulation. Ovulation was confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests. We collected two measures of male partner sexual attractiveness. First, the women in the study rated their partner's sexual attractiveness. Second, we photographed the partners and had the photos independently rated for attractiveness. Shifts in women's in-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by women's ratings of partner sexual attractiveness, such that the less sexually attractive women rated their partner, the less in-pair attraction they reported at high fertility compared with low fertility (partial r = .37, p(dir) = .01). Shifts in women's extra-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by third-party ratings of partner attractiveness, such that the less attractive the partner was, the more extra-pair attraction women reported at high relative to low fertility (partial r = -.33, p(dir) = .03). In line with previous findings, we found support for the hypothesis that the degree to which a woman's romantic partner displays indicators of high-fitness genes affects women's attractions to their own partner and other men at high fertility.
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During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121) categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs) and opposite-sex friends (OSFs) according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.
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The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.
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Infanticide among animals is a widespread phenomenon with no unitary explanation. Although the detrimental outcome for the infant is fairly constant, individuals responsible for infanticide may or may not benefit, and when they gain in fitness there may be considerable variation in how they gain. Sources of increased fitness from infanticide include: (1) exploitation of the infant as a resource, (2) elimination of a competitor for resources, (3) increased maternal survival or lifetime reproductive success for either mother or father by elimination of an ill-timed, handicapped, or supernumerary infant, and, finally, (4) increased access for individuals of one sex for reproductive investment by the other sex at the expense of same-sex competitors. Predicted attributes of the perpetrators (such as sex and degree of relatedness to the infant), attributes of the victim (i.e., age and vulnerability), as well as schedule of gain, vary for each class. Under some circumstances, individuals commit infanticide which does not result in any prospect for gain; such instances are considered nonadaptive or “pathological.” In those cases where infanticide does on the average increase fitness, selection pressures favoring it have arisen as a result of the extensive and time-consuming investment involved in production of young, and the extreme vulnerability that characterizes infancy in many animals.
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The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the 'Walk Away' rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and 'Walk Away' from groups providing low returns. Implementing this conditional movement rule in a public goods game leads to a number of interesting findings: 1) cooperators have a selective advantage when thresholds are high, corresponding to low tolerance for defectors, 2) high thresholds lead to high initial rates of movement and low final rates of movement (after selection), and 3) as cooperation is selected, the population undergoes a spatial transition from high migration (and a many small and ephemeral groups) to low migration (and large and stable groups). These results suggest that the very simple 'Walk Away' rule of leaving uncooperative groups can favor the evolution of cooperation, and that cooperation can evolve in populations in which individuals are able to move in response to local social conditions. A diverse array of organisms are able to leave degraded physical or social environments. The ubiquitous nature of conditional movement suggests that 'Walk Away' dynamics may play an important role in the evolution of social behavior in both cognitively complex and cognitively simple organisms.
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Nonpaternity (i.e., discrepant biological versus social fatherhood) affects many issues of interests to psychologists, including familial dynamics, interpersonal relationships, sexuality, and fertility, and therefore represents an important topic for psychological research. The advent of modern contraceptive methods, particularly the market launch of the birth-control pill in the early 1960s and its increased use ever since, should have affected rates of nonpaternity (i.e., discrepant genetic and social fatherhood). This cross-temporal meta-analysis investigated whether there has been a recent decline in nonpaternity rates in the western industrialized nations. The eligible database comprised 32 published samples unbiased towards nonpaternity for which nonoverlapping data from more than 24,000 subjects from nine (mostly Anglo-Saxon heritage) countries with primarily Caucasian populations are reported. Publication years ranged from 1932 to 1999, and estimated years of the reported nonpaternity events (i.e., the temporal occurrence of nonpaternity) ranged from 1895 to 1993. In support of the hypothesis, weighted meta-regression models showed a significant decrease (r = -.41) of log-transformed nonpaternity rates with publication years and also a decrease, albeit not significant (r = -.17), with estimated years of nonpaternity events. These results transform into an estimated absolute decline in untransformed nonpaternity rates of 0.83% and 0.91% per decade, respectively. Across studies, the mean (and median) nonpaternity rate was 3.1% (2.1%). This estimate is consistent with estimates of 2 to 3% from recent reviews on the topic that were based on fewer primary studies. This estimate also rebuts the beliefs and hearsay data widespread among both the public and researchers which contend nonpaternity rates in modern populations might be as high as about 10%.
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We test a novel evolutionary hypothesis predicting that mate value discrepancies, but not mate preference fulfillment, will regulate relationship satisfaction. Across Study 1 (n=259) and Study 2 (n=300), we employed new Euclidean measures able to capture preference fulfillment and compute estimates of mate value discrepancies. Relationship satisfaction was not related to how well mates fulfilled their partner's preferences. Mate value discrepancies, in contrast, interacted to predict relationship satisfaction: relationship satisfaction declined for participants whose mates were less desirable than their alternatives, but only for participants who were higher in mate value than their mates. Additionally, these satisfaction differences mediated a relationship between mate value discrepancies and mate retention behavior. This mediation pathway is unique to satisfaction; the same pathway was not observed through trust, a functionally distinct relationship affective state. Study 3 (n = 301) addressed a methodological limitation of Studies 1 and 2.We replicated the mate value discrepancy interaction to predict relationship satisfaction, but found an effect of ideal preference fulfillment on relationship satisfaction. These results provide evidence that mate preferences have important, functionally specific effects on within relationship processes through contributing to two independent discrepancy variables: partner–self and partner-potential mate value discrepancies. They also largely contravene the hypothesis that mate preference fulfillment is the key to relationship satisfaction.
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In most mammals, cues of impending ovulation—including changes in appearance and sexual behavior—mark the fertile phase within the ovulatory cycle. Such cues were long thought to have been completely concealed in humans. However, research over the past two decades has overturned this assumption, revealing subtle but detectable cues of ovulation to which observers respond both behaviorally and hormonally. We review research in this area over the last several years. Cues of ovulation in human females include attractive changes in scent, voice, and appearance. Women also appear to be more receptive and solicitous towards sexually attractive prospective mates when fertile within the cycle. We discuss reasons why human ovulation cues are subtle and outline questions for future research.
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Human long-term mating is an evolutionary mystery. Here, we suggest that evolutionary game theory provides three essential components of a good theory of long-term mating. Modeling long-term relationships as public goods games parsimoniously explains the adaptive problems long-term mating solved, identifies the novel adaptive problems long-term mating posed, and provides testable predictions about the evolved psychological solutions to these adaptive problems. We apply this framework to three adaptive problems long-term mating may have solved and generate novel predictions about psychological mechanisms evolved in response. Next, we apply the public goods framework to understand the adaptive problems produced by long-term mating. From these adaptive problems, we derive novel predictions about the psychology responsible for (1) selection and attraction of romantic partners, (2) evaluation of long-term relationships, and (3) strategic behavior within relationships. We propose that public goods modeling synthesizes adaptive problems at all stages of long-term mating-from their initiation through their maintenance and through their dissolution. This model provides an important tool for understanding the evolution and complex psychology of long-term committed mating.
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Alexander (1979) has invited "⋯ biologists to contribute to the analysis of human behavior on all legitimate fronts⋯" He considered it "⋯ especially relevant that [they] take up the problem of relating human attributes to evolutionary history." The analysis of human sexual behavior surely qualifies as a legitimate topic in evolutionary biology. This chapter represents a contribution to the argument that sperm competition does occur in humans and has been a selective force in the evolution of certain human characteristics. There has been considerable controversy over what may be the "natural" sexual inclinations (promiscuous, polygynous, serially polygynous, monogamous, or some mixture of these) of human males (e.g., Trivers 1972; Wilson 1975; Alexander 1977; Short 1977, 1979, 1981; Daly and Wilson 1978; Symons 1979; Lovejoy 1981; Barash 1982; Harvey and Harcourt, this volume), but relatively much less debate over the sexual predilections of human females (Hrdy 1981). Females are widely assumed to be monogamous, with little formal recognition of alternative female strategies (but see Hrdy 1981, and Knowlton and Greenwell, this volume). The compromise view of human male mating strategy proposes mixed tactics (Trivers 1972) where males attempt to pair-bond with one or more females by high investment, and opportunistically (more or less promiscuously) mate with other females. All combinations of male tactics from rape (Shields and Shields 1983, Thornhill and Thornhill 1983) to high investment (Trivers 1972) and the environmental and social circumstances that occasion their expression have received analysis in the literature. As Hrdy (1981) observed: "The sociobiological literature stresses the travails of males - their quest for different females, the burdens of intra-sexual competition, the entire biological infrastructure for the double standard. No doubt this perspective has led to insights concerning male sexuality. But it has also effectively blocked progress toward understanding female sexuality - defined here as the readiness of a female to engage in sexual activity." The biological irony of the double standard is that males could not have been selected for promiscuity if historically females had always denied them opportunity for expression of the trait. If strict monogamy were the singular human female mating strategy, then only rape would place ejaculates in position to compete and the potential role of sperm competition as a force in human evolution would be substantially diminished. Here I shall explore the literature for evidence of the evolutionary significance of sperm competition in humans. I present data on the circumstances that would place ejaculates from different human males together in the reproductive tract of a female during a single reproductive cycle. I summarize the evidence that human sperm competition actually occurs. And, finally, I speculate on how selection within the context of potential or actual sperm competition may have operated in human evolutionary history to shape some aspects of human anatomy, physiology, behavior, and culture. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Period divorce measures can misrepresent the underlying behavior of birth cohorts as changes in cohort timing produce changes in period probabilities of divorce. Building on methods used to adjust period fertility and marriage measures, we adjust U.S. period divorce rates for timing effects, calculating a timing index for every year between 1910 and 2000. The adjusted probability of divorce, PMED*, increases nearly linearly from 1910 through 1990, remaining at about that level through 2000. Period measures greatly exaggerate divorce risks from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s, but understate them at other times. Adjusted values for recent years do not suggest a decline in the likelihood of divorce, with year 2000 values indicating a divorce probability of 0.43 – 0.46.
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Comparative, quantitative and statistical methods are increasingly eschewed by sociocultural anthropologists. In an attempt to demonstrate how such research tools can shed light on social behaviour, the changing covariates of marriage payments are examined in relation to the socioeconomic, ecological, and political factors affecting family life over a 40-year period in rural Kenya. Assuming that negotiated bridewealth outcomes reflect some compromise of the costs and benefits of the anticipated marriage to each party, correlates of bridewealth variability will reveal the critical qualities that parents seek in the spouses of their progeny and how these change over time. On the basis of such changing covariates, Kipsigis bridewealth can be characterized as an institution that (I) buttresses the formation of an incipient marriage elite and (2) articulates bargaining over the socioeconomic status and earning power of grooms and, increasingly, brides. The significance of women's reproductive and labour value as a determinant of the size of bridewealth payments has declined over the past decade. The merits and demerits of correlational analysis founded on the assumption of maximization are discussed in this context.
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The authors theorized that adversity elicits relationship maintenance responses when level of adversity is calibrated with level of commitment. To test this, the authors examined the commitment-devaluation effect: Those committed to a close relationship are thought to devalue attractive alternatives. Two levels of adversity were operationalized. Participants evaluated an attractive alternative (moderate threat), or participants evaluated the same target after learning that the target was attracted to them (high threat). Unmarried and low on a relationship commitment scale was considered low commitment; unmarried but high or married but low on the scale were considered moderately committed. Finally married and high on the scale was considered high commitment. Under moderate threat, moderately committed rated the alternative as less attractive than those low and high in commitment. Under high threat, those high in commitment rated the alternative as less attractive than those low and moderately committed. Gender differences and comparisons with single people were examined.
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Committed romantic relationships confer important benefits to psychological health and well-being. However, to effectively maintain these relationships, individuals must avoid threats posed by the temptation of attractive relationship alternatives. Previous work has demonstrated that individuals in committed relationships consciously downplay the allure of romantic alternatives. The current work tested the hypothesis that attractive relationship alternatives evoke an automatic self-protective response at an early stage of cognition. The current study employed a computer simulation that recorded automatic, split-second assessments of threat elicited by social targets that varied in their gender and level of attractiveness. Consistent with hypotheses, attractive opposite-sex targets evoked automatic self-protective responses from participants in committed heterosexual relationships. Moreover, these responses seemed to be particularly pronounced among the male participants in committed relationships. These findings have implications for the maintenance of long-term close relationships.
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Several models of relationship dissolution imply a sequence of steps or stages, for which there might exist a cultural script. Previous research has identified a script for first dates. The present research attempted to identify a relationship dissolution script by asking men and women to list the steps that typically occur when a couple breaks up. Analysis of their 1480 responses indicated a 16-step ordered script for relation-ship dissolution. The relationship dissolution script is discussed in terms of approach-avoidance theories of conflict and relevant relationship dissolution theories.
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Married persons completed anonymous questionnaires rating the extent to which they would feel justified having an extramarital relationship for 17 reasons derived from the clinical and research literatures. Men and women clustered these justifications similarly into four factors: sexual, romantic love, emotional intimacy, and extrinsic. Women approved less of sexual justifications and more of love justifications. Attitude-behavior congruence was demonstrated in the link between sexual justification and sexual involvement for both sexes and in the link between love justifications and emotional involvement for men. The data supported the observation that men separate sex and love; women appear to believe that love and sex go together and that falling in love justifies sexual involvement. Clinical implications include the importance of understanding the extramarital attitudes as cognitions and thresholds related to extramarital behavior. Research implications include the importance of assessing specific reasons including emotional justifications, assessing emotional involvement and sexual involvement, and analyzing for gender differences.
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This . . . book is the first to present a unified theory of human mating behavior. [It] is based on the most massive study of human mating ever undertaken, encompassing more than 10,000 people of all ages from thirty-seven cultures worldwide. If we all want love, why is there so much conflict in our most cherished relationships? To answer this question, we must look into our evolutionary past, according to David M. Buss. The book discusses casual sex and long-term relationships, sexual conflict, the elusive quest for harmony between the sexes, and much more. Buss's research leads to a radical shift from the standard view of men's and women's sexual psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the first century after the "Origin of Species," virtually no one tested Darwin's theory against the evidence of human history. In the last decade, that tide has changed; this book is caught up in it. It tests the proposition that the evolved end of human life is its reproduction, against the literature on conflict resolution from over a hundred societies across space and time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)