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SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS "HAPPY OLD AGE" AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SOCIAL SERVICES IN ITS PROVISION

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Abstract

In this article the authors examine the anthropological, physiological, socio-psychological, medical background happy old age; analyze the data of a number of domestic and foreign experimental work to identify factors, conditions that ensure comfortable livelihoods of the elderly person. Special attention is paid to the role of the sociogerontological competence of managers of the sanatorium and resort sphere in the creation of socio-cultural gerontology centre environment to ensure a happy old age customers, as well as the traditions of the Kuban Cossacks in relation to older people. A separate section of the article is devoted to the development of the Institute of foster families for older people in the Krasnodar region. Significant place in the article devoted to the analysis of various areas of professional activity of specialists of social service agencies within the community to enhance the revitalization of the manifestation of older people in different types of cultural and educational activities. The article reveals the essence and content of the concept of "socio-gerontological competence of the specialist institution of social service of the population". The authors examine the nature and structural components of the socio-cultural environment gerontology centre (pension) sanatorium profile, which is a special kind of communicative space of the Board, determining its existence and prospects of development as a specialized Agency for the elderly.
ISSN 2075-9908 Историческая и социально-образовательная мысль. Toм 7 №7 часть 1, 2015
Historical and social educational ideas Tom 7 #7 part 1, 2015
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UDC 364.6
Diana SPULBER,
University Rome and University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
diana.spulber@unige.it
GREBENNIKOVA Veronika M.,
Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia
vmgrebennikova@mail.ru
NIKITINA Natalya I.,
Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia
NN0803@mail.ru
SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS "HAPPY
OLD AGE" AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SOCIAL
SERVICES IN ITS PROVISION
DOI: 10.17748/2075-9908-2015-7-7/1-67-75
Diana SPULBER,
Университет в Риме и Университет Генуи
Генуя, Италия
diana.spulber@unige.it
ГРЕБЕННИКОВА Вероника Михайловна,
Кубанский государственный университет, Краснодар,
Россия
vmgrebennikova@mail.ru
НИКИТИНА Наталья Ивановна,
Российский государственный социальный универси-
тет, Москва, Россия
NN0803@mail.ru
СОЦИАЛЬНО-ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ
АСПЕКТЫ «СЧАСТЛИВОЙ СТАРОСТИ» И
ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ СЛУЖБ В
ЕЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИИ
In this article the authors examine the anthropological,
physiological, socio-psychological, medical background
happy old age; analyze the data of a number of domestic
and foreign experimental work to identify factors, condi-
tions that ensure comfortable livelihoods of the elderly
person. Special attention is paid to the role of the socio-
gerontological competence of managers of the sanato-
rium and resort sphere in the creation of socio-cultural
gerontology centre environment to ensure a happy old
age customers, as well as the traditions of the Kuban
Cossacks in relation to older people. A separate section
of the article is devoted to the development of the Insti-
tute of foster families for older people in the Krasnodar
region. Significant place in the article devoted to the
analysis of various areas of professional activity of spe-
cialists of social service agencies within the community
to enhance the revitalization of the manifestation of old-
er people in different types of cultural and educational
activities. The article reveals the essence and content of
the concept of "socio-gerontological competence of the
specialist institution of social service of the popula-
tion". The authors examine the nature and structural
components of the socio-cultural environment gerontol-
ogy centre (pension) sanatorium profile, which is a spe-
cial kind of communicative space of the Board, deter-
mining its existence and prospects of development as a
specialized Agency for the elderly.
Keywords: gerontology, social work with older people,
socio-gerontological competence, gerontological special-
ists centers
В статье авторы рассматривают антропологические,
психофизиологические, социально-психологические,
медицинские предпосылки счастливой старости; анали-
зируют данные целого ряда отечественных и зарубеж-
ных экспериментальных работ по выявлению факто-
ров, условий, обеспечивающих комфортную жизнедея-
тельность пожилого человека. Особое внимание в ста-
тье уделено раскрытию роли социально-
геронтологической компетентности менеджеров сана-
торно-курортной сферы в создании социокультурной
среды геронтологического центра для обеспечения
счастливой старости клиентов, а также традициям ку-
банского казачества по отношению к пожилым людям.
Отдельный раздел статьи посвящен проблеме развития
института приемной семьи для пожилых людей в Крас-
нодарском крае. Значительное место в материалах ста-
тьи отведено анализу различных направлений профес-
сиональной деятельности специалистов учреждений
социального обслуживания населения в сфере активи-
зации самопроявления пожилых людей в различных
видах культурно-развивающего досуга. В статье рас-
крывается сущность и содержание понятия «социально-
геронтологическая компетентность специалиста учре-
ждения социального обслуживания населения». Авторы
статьи рассматривают сущность и структурные компо-
ненты социокультурной среды геронтологического цен-
тра (пансиона) санаторного профиля, которая является
особым своеобразным коммуникативным простран-
ством пансиона, определяющим его существование и
перспективы развития как специализированного учре-
ждения для пожилых людей.
Ключевые слова: геронтология, социальная работа с
пожилыми людьми, социально-геронтологическая ком-
петентность, специалисты геронтологических центров
Acknowledgment: This article was prepared within the framework of the state task The Minis-
try of education and science of the Russian Federation No. 2014/601; project code 3106
Благодарность: Статья подготовлена в рамках государственного задания Мини-
стерства образования и науки РФ №2014/601; код проекта 3106
Thinking about concepts
Our contemporary, physician and psychotherapist Thierry Janssenbelieves that modern society
rests on the principles of hedonism and materialism, and so people often confuse the concept "happi-
ness" with pleasure and comprehensive comfort. In the twenty-first century there is increasingly com-
mon phenomenon known as "hedonic adaptation "when people get used to the fact what they have
and no longer have fun and joy of life.
Cоциологические и психологические науки Sociological and Psychological Science
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In modern domestic and foreign scientific gerontological literature expression "happy old age" is
less common than in fiction or philosophical. This notion is largely undefined and evoke the ambiva-
lence. Many people find it difficult to imagine that old age can be a happy period of life, especially if
you compare it to the earlier age periods. However, according to a number of domestic and foreign
researchers [1; 2; 7; 10; 12; 13; etc.] and the authors of the chapter as well, surveys of old (and even
senile) people say that the concept of "happy old age" is not abstract. On the contrary, it is filled with a
certain individual significant for each individual content and includes, in particular, those new positive
experiences that were unfamiliar to past life experiences.
According to some gerontologists [12; 13; 21; 24; etc.] the desire in old age for "little happiness"
(F. Jaber, 1971) is as vivid as during the entire previous life. And many older people believe that the
achievement of "happy state" is quite real.
In surveys conducted by the authors ofgerontological centerscustomers (cities Moscow, Kras-
nodar, Gelendzhik, Anapa, sweeping 268 people), 38% of respondents reported that for the first time
they experienced satisfaction of themselves and others only at the age of 60, 26 % felt the greatest
satisfaction of conditions of their existence, its completeness and meaningfulness at the age of late
60. In our opinion, perhaps the explanation of the results due to the fact that each person has sev-
eral social roles, and quite quiet life in the 60 80s of the twentieth century allowed to change them
smoothly. Since the end of the twentieth century to the present time the rhythm of human life is so ac-
celerated that on the way home he did not have time to "transform" from the chief/worker into wife/
husband, father /mother, etc. In modern life, there is a constant "mixing" of social roles (for example, in
the midst of anappointmentthe person you love may call, and at the time of a date your boss or em-
ployee of a bank). As a result, the person is in the "fragmentation" of his social existence, the number
of social ties (including online contacts) are increasing to such an extent that for the modern manfull
commitment of a particular social role becomes impossible. A persondoes not have time (or cannot or
does not want, or all together) to fully "invest" their own "I" into any of hundreds relationships. On the
one hand, the modern man is forced to constantly be "connected " to be "in good shape" and on the
other psychologists and psychiatrists say about persistent epidemic of " burn-out", depletion of the
inner world of the individual and loss sense in "the race of life".At the same retirement age an elderly
person, finally, gets the opportunity to qualitatively, with total personal dedication "to invest " in his fa-
vorite social role (a grandparent, a writer of memoirs or a mentor for young artists etc.).
Itis appropriate to show the opinion of one of the founders of positive psychology Martin Selig-
man, who identified three conditions that allow approaching to the "true happiness":
1) earn to savor the pleasure (slow down the pace of their work, resist impulses to escape vain
tasks, which we always have a lot);
2) take some time to fully taste the joy of achieving the desired, to feel satisfaction from the
choices made;
3) should stop wanting more all the time, make your life easier and deal primarily with what is
important to you in this period of life [20].
Noteworthy Johannes Kemper opinion to the concepts that describe the processes of "happy
and unhappy" aging. Scientist in his book "Is it easy to grow old? " writes: "In today's scientific debate
about the peculiarities of working with older people target the psychological impact worded as "adap-
tive behavior variability elderly person", "social competence", "successful aging" and "effective device".
I had great difficulty with these concepts. Though it is clear that they have great value for the science<
... >. My gut tells me that these concepts have nofeelings aura(italics by the authors of this chapter)
which I associate with my view of the elderly people. If we consider life in old age as the most possible
amount of freedom and responsibility then such a thing as the art of aging (italicsby the authors of this
chapter) gets great significance " [11, p. 79]. In her opinion, the decisive prerequisite for a happy old
age is a state of equilibrium between the views and needs (motivation) of an elderly person as well as
the harmony between the needs and experience in reality. Care of children may, for example, be ex-
perienced as good, if independence was the aim of educating children. Summarizing her scientific
thinking about the old age, Kepmper concludes: there is not simply aging each person has his own
personal way of aging [11, p. 86].
The concept "happiness" has many meanings, largely conditional in any of the age periods. Un-
like same happy experiences in age from similar conditions in young and middle age is that they usu-
ally are not projected for the future and present experiences completely exhausted.
In old age, happiness may be paradoxically from the perspective of the average citizen. For ex-
ample, an elderly person with good for his age physical health, mild temperament common age-
related changes, save the active lifestyle and high social status, having a spouse and children, materi-
al wealth can feel (or consider) himself in something flawed, unhappy and fully does not accept his
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aging. Conversely, in poor physical health, modest material prosperity, relative solitude elderly person
can be in harmony with his aging, able to see the positive side of his senile being, experiencing the
joyful experience of daily activities.
Thus, about a happy old age (albeit rather arbitrary) we can speak only when an elderly person
has individual subjective satisfaction with his new social role in this life.
In our country gerontology most fully the concept of "happy old age" is disclosed in N.F.
Shakhmatova works [25]. According to scientists, it is a special case of mental life in elderly (old) age
when a man's attitude to his senile is tolerant, his life around, today's state of health, physical ailments
are perceived tolerably, as they are. Such an attitude toward oneself and others for an elderly person
is a new installation of values in life. By this time, usually defined and new interests previously not
characteristic of the manappear. Among them, stand out appeal to nature sometimes for the first time
appears love to animals. Part of happy elderly discovers that old age has beneficial effect on their abil-
ity to creatively process the experience and knowledge of this contributes to a feeling of satisfaction.
In her studies M. Еrmolaeva noted that people in later life rarely characterize his life as happy,
even with all the signs of its objective well-being [9]. Absorption by the process of life, the ability to en-
joy every moment this is indeed an important aspect of the emotional life of the elderly, but the stability
of these experiences are not always stable: sooner or later, an elderly man appreciates "this wonderful
life" as indifferent to him, pushed him to the "most side of life".
Thus, the self-awareness of a happy old age is directly related to the emotional experience of
life satisfaction. And this psychological phenomenon of older people is complex and poorly under-
stood. Analysis of the scientific literature and the authors own research allow to designate the following
factors determining satisfaction with life in old age:
- factors that are associated with the assessment of the elderly their life sense and value for
others;
- factors that are associated with the presence of some purpose in life, which can be realized
only in the elderly, as well as awareness of the favorable time perspective that links the past, present
and future of an elderly man (this group of factors includes episodic (systematic) achievement of both
large and small successes in certain activities related to the gradual achievement of the desired goal
of life in old age , there is a positive reflection of the significance of his life in the eyes of others);
- factors related to the evaluation of internal and external conditions of life of an old man (this
group of factors include, among others, tolerance of an elderly man to his experiences, which consist
of his deteriorating health concerns, appearance, lack of material resources, the availability of good
interlocutor in the face of the doctor, nurse or grandchild etc.).
Anthropological and socio-psychological conditions of happy old age
In the last decade the studies which purpose is to search for an answer to the question: what
exactly defines mental well-being in old age, so that a man could perceive aging as a new (relatively
happy) period of his life have increased substantially .
According to the American psychologist and genetics David Lykken (life years 1928 2006), the
ability to be happy is an intrinsic property of the individual, which is determined by genetics but not
external factors. To prove this point, he spent ten years studying the life of 2,000 pairs of identical
twins, born in Minnesota from 1936 to 1955. In 1996, Lykken published his findings, concluding that
the life satisfaction of 50% is determined genetically. According to the scientist, namely genes affect
such personality traits (important for the perception of old age) as cheerfulness, complaisance, stress,
depression, etc. Lykken found that material income, marriage, religion and education by only 8% de-
fine what how many people satisfied with life. "Having different experiences, but identical genes, old
age people psychologically feel the same way the researcher wrote. Conversely, the state of mind
of people with a similar fate, but with different genes is very different" [8]. It should be noted that the
latest psychogeneticsdiscoveries show that there are genes responsible for altruism and compassion,
and even for religiousness. And wecannot exaggerate the role of genesdictatorship. Each person has
a choice of how to live and how to grow old.
There is another theory about socio-psychological and anthropological presuppositions ofhappy
old age, according to which happiness in old age depends on a person's lifestyle and his free choice.
Supporting this theory, Professor Bruce Headey from Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and
Social Research (Australia), for the past 25 years was studying the inhabitants of different countries
(Germany, England, Australia). He tried to find the relationship between happiness and education,
employment, marital status, religion, etc. First three thousand people a year were interviewed, and by
the end of investigations, the number rose to 60 thousand. The results of the study in October 2010
appeared in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Cоциологические и психологические науки Sociological and Psychological Science
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The main results of research of Bruce Headey and his collaborator Ruud Muffels, Professor of
Economics and Sociology:
one of the most important factors influencing the happiness is the presence or absence of
neurotic states with a partner; according to researchers, even temporary past relationship with unbal-
anced person can ruin the rest of life. Conversely, calm and friendly companion guarantees us a hap-
py old age;
of particular importance for long-term happiness in old age have altruism and family values .
Respondents cited as their moral priorities philanthropy and empathy, as well as those who are easily
sacrificed their interests for the sake of loved ones, elderly feel happy. "But among egoists satisfied
retirees turned two-thirds less," said Headey;
believers (especially in old age) tend to be happier than atheists;
such factor as body weight for long-term happiness of men and women affected differently.
The first are upset when their weight is insufficient, and the second put off excess fat; and on the state
of mind of the stronger sex overweight has almost no influence.
Bruce Headey is not the first scientist who was involved in a long-term study of mental well-
being in adulthood. The longest such project was launched in 1938 and is still ongoing. It is attended
by about 300 Harvard alumni who now well over 80. Today this research is managed by George Vail-
lant, professor at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. Conclusions of his research are
presented in the book «Aging Well» (2003) and Bruce Headey largely coincide. Among the factors of a
happy old age Vaillant notes:
sense of humor is a powerful psychological defense;
avoiding alcohol and smoking when you are not more than 4550. "Of those 80 -year-old re-
spondents who refused smoking and alcohol abuse until they were 45 years old, 64% identified them-
selvesto be healthy and happy, which is a very bright indicator".
In 2012, British experts Southampton and Edinburgh University, and University College London,
under the auspices of the National Health Service as part of its complex programs used interrogators
engaged in a long-term research in a given area. The study took place in three phases over forty (40)
years! Published results of the program have shown that elderly people are more happy and satisfied
with their lives, if they in their younger years wereemotionally stableand characterized aspeople with
extraverted type of behavior that is more sociable, responsive, have a keen interest in the environment
[4, p. 1].
At the first stage it was attended by 4583 people born in 1946. Age of participants at baseline
was 16 years old. The second study was repeated 10 years later. The participants were 26 years old.
The final stage of a four-year study conducted already in the elderly (ageof the participants in the ex-
periment was 60 64). 2529 people are already interviewed. Analysis of data from all stages of the
experiment showed that people with high levels of extraversion quite satisfied with their life in old age
and live quite happily. The opposing group of people suffering from neuroticism, has poor health in old
age, with low levels of well-being. The conclusion (which, in our opinion, requires a scientific debate)
saysthat the subsequent life of the persondepends on the mental states in youth.
Typing elderly people proposed by MD, Professor Yuri Iosifovich Polishchuk [19, p. 1] deserves
attention:
"Happy old age" is characterized by tranquility, wise enlightenment worldview, contemplation
and self-control, which occurs not only in the accumulation of life experience, but also weaken the in-
fluence of affect, emotions on mental life. This condition occurs in a sufficiently large group surveyed
aged 73 to 92 years in 8% of cases. All these people in the past were harmonious personalities and
after retirement for a long time engaged in creative work;
"Unhappy old age" is caused by increased levels of personal anxiety, worry about their physi-
cal health , but also about the health and well-being of loved ones. For such people, characterized by
a tendency to frequent doubts about the slight, self-doubt, his future, the loss of the former and the
lack of new meaning in life, thinking of approaching death. This condition is observed in 71% of older
people. In the past, they were peculiar features alarming suspiciousness, of sensitivity, which en-
hanced the aging;
"Psychotic" old age is accompanied by organic mental disorders, psychopathic, psycho-
organic disorders up to the phenomena of dementia. These old people make 21%. The author em-
phasizes that these people could not identify any significant prevalence of certain traits.
Old age should not be taken as a period of regression and decline, as evidenced by the results
of the study of cognitive abilities of people in the age group 60 93 years. Revealed that older people
can not only preserve existing capacity, but also to develop a number of new ones. Education at this
age is based on the rich texture of experience, adequate knowledge of their strengths and weakness-
es in the process of cognitive detail. Analysis of the literature on the psychology of old age and aging
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analysis of biographies and autobiographies of creative people who have lived to old age, showed that
old age as a psychological age may not occur in a person's life . Condition lasting or growing maturity
is creativity in all its forms, including the creation of his own life, his every day.
The role of social gerontology competence of managers
sanatorium sphere in the creation of social and cultural environment of
gerontology center to ensure a happy old age of its
customers (by example of Krasnodar Territory )
In modern conditions of bringing infrastructures resorts, spa profile institutions of Krasnodar Ter-
ritory to international standards there is an objective need to take into account the socio-gerontological
approach.
In the Krasnodar region in the period from 2009 to 2013 was successfully implemented regional
target program "The older generation", which was approved by decision of the Head of Administration
(Governor) of Krasnodar Region on June 3, 2009 473. Its implementation was aimed at creating
conditions for "a happy old age" for senior citizens of Kuban. The aims and objectives of this program
were: assist in raising the level and quality of life of elderly people in the Krasnodar Territory;
providing a wide range of social services that contribute the normal life and decent way of life
in old age, including the development of care services for senior citizens, a network of relevant institu-
tions, foster family institution for the elderly, increased use of mobile teams, provision of transport ser-
vices; modernization in accordance with international standards of material and technical base of
social services for senior citizens and people with disabilities;
the formation of a positive attitude towards aging and older people as active and respected
members of society;
assist in the development of the creative potential of older people, including those living in ru-
ral areas and most distant from the major cultural centers of settlements;
the formation of an active life position, involvement in the cultural life of the region, the devel-
opment of veteran sports movement, the use of the elderly sports, health, recreational facilities;
active involvement of senior citizens in physical culture and sports, holding of sports events;
development of social tourism for senior citizens.
For the vast majority of the Krasnodar regiontraditions of the Kuban Cossacks in relation to old-
er people are extremely important and significant. To respect older this is one of the main traditions of
the Cossacks. Paying tribute to the living years, transferred odds Cossack share advancing infirmity
and inability to stand up for themselves, the Cossacks have always remembered the words of the
Scriptures: " In the face of a gray-haired, get up, respect the elder person and his fear of God " [25, p.
2]. The custom of respecting and honoring the eldest younger obliged younger to care, restraint and a
willingness to help and some etiquette demanded compliance (with the appearance of an old man all
had to get up Cossacks in the form of a hand in a headdress and without form remove hat and
bow). In the presence of the elderly were not allowed to sit, smoke, talk (to engage in a conversation
without his permission), and even more so obscenely expressed. It was considered unseemly to over-
take the old man (the eldest), ask permission required to pass. Upon entering the first anywhere
passed older. Considered indecent younger engage in conversation in the presence of a senior. Junior
must exercise patience and restraint in all cases, not rebuke. Words were senior to junior compulsory.
When common (joint) activities and decision-making is sought necessarily older. When conflict situa-
tions, disputes, dissensions word the old man (the elder) was crucial and needed immediate its execu-
tion. Generally Kuban Cossacks and especially respect for elders is an internal need, even in the Ku-
ban in circulation rarely heard "grandfather", "old" and so on, and gently says, "dad", "father". Respect
for the older inculcated and instilled in Cossack family from an early age.
Only in 2013 in the framework of the regional target program "The older generation" of Krasno-
dar Territory were performed the following activities:
continued development of foster family institution for the elderly. Currently, in the Krasnodar
region within the adoptive family more than 100 elderly peopleare served;
on the basis of marginal social service agencies organized 54 computer labs, which have
been trained on the program "Personal Computer" for more than 2 thousand of elderly people. In order
to provide communication links for senior citizens living in rural areas, 41 establishment of social ser-
vices for older citizens purchased laptops;
Cоциологические и психологические науки Sociological and Psychological Science
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in the marginal social service agencies action exists 50 "Schools care senior citizens (espe-
cially immobile patients)" for their family members and volunteers. Only for 2013 sessions attended by
more than 7.2 thousand people;
in volunteering to implement monthly patronage 22660 veterans in need of various assistance
systematically attended by about 12,000 students and seniors;
only for 2013 in development activities of social tourism for senior citizens took part more than
2 thousands of elderly people from all municipalities of Krasnodar Region , conducted 143 tours . Es-
pecially popular in the elderly enjoyed trips to the ethnographic complex "Ataman Cossack village"
holy places and objects of pilgrimage Krasnodar region, as well as cultural and historical monuments;
Department of Labor and Employment of the Krasnodar Territory successfully implement
workfor employment of senior citizens who want to continue their career. Under the "older generation"
in 2013 to the employment services of the Krasnodar Territoryover 5,000 people of retirement age ad-
dressed, 2583 people, including 1691 women are employed;
Ministry of Physical Culture and Sports of the Krasnodar Territory held 8 regional competition
among veterans of Physical Culture and Sports of the Kuban, which were attended by more than 300
of older people;
a network of state and non-state (private) gerontology centers, boarding houses for elderly
and elderly was developed.
To solve the problem of improving the level of service, to meet the needs of different groups of
customers from among those "third age" of gerontological social institutions need a strong profile, pro-
fessionally trained service management, with its socio-gerontological competence. Modern geronto-
logical management can be defined as the science of effective governance institutions gerontological
focus, which includes: a) the doctrine of the regulatory principles of the organization of the enterprise
gerontological specificity (the legal part); b) the doctrine of the development strategy of the enterprise
(the ideological part); c) the doctrine of personnel selection (sociological part); c) the doctrinehow to
optimize personnel, able to take into account the specifics of the system "manager elderly man"
(pedagogical and psychological parts) .
The socio-gerontological competence manager institutions for the elderly is system specialist
personal formation, reflecting the unity of possession of the basic competencies needed for successful
professional work with older people to meet their needs of variant in improving and strengthening the
health, cultural activities and other needs. It includes all of the following competences:
information and gerontological is the ability to identify and obtain information about the needs
of a particular elderly person, as well as to provide him all the necessary information;
communicative gerontological is the ability to work productively and conflict-free to build rela-
tionships, to negotiate with the various categories of older people, the ability to convince them in the
interests of the expedient resolution of their problems and needs, the possession of social perception
skills in personal business communication with older people; the ability to prevent and resolve con-
flict situations that arise in the communication process;
Analytical and predictive is skill to develop socially-oriented projects that meet both the needs
of the individual customer and gerontology group but sanatorium and spa servicesbased on infor-
mation;
advisory is the ability to build and provide advisory activities in working with various groups of
gerontological issues variational meet their interests within the framework of existing law;
animation and gerontological is the ability to develop various animation programs and tours
taking into account psychology, age, disability of "third age" people; possession of various types of
animation, recreational technologies; technologies excursion activities, the organization of social and
cultural programs;
monitoring is the ability to monitor the quality of provided gerontological sanatorium complex,
the ability to determine the index of satisfaction of elderly customers with the quality of service.
Wellbeing of older people stay under state or pay gerontology center (guesthouse) is largely de-
termined by its socio-cultural environment. Creating such an environment and providing its improve-
ment can be achieved if:
specially created conditions for a full, diverse manifestations of life and social relations, self
activity of elderly clients with regard to their personal interests, spiritual needs;
living in the guest house retains existing family ties older people, their relationships with
friends and neighbors, provides opportunities for transmission of their knowledge, professionalism ,
culture and traditions to the younger generation;
provides daily protection of the interests and rights, living in the guesthouse elderly clients.
Socio-cultural environment gerontology center (guesthouse) is a special kind of communicative
space guesthouse determining its existence and development prospects as a specialized agency for
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the elderly. It is the official foundation (what appears in the brochures of a guesthouse) and informal
(what is passed from one person to another through those who lived in it and through their relatives,
friends and acquaintances) advertising (image).
The main structural components of the socio-cultural environment of gerontology center (guest-
house) sanatorium profile are:
cultureof management process of life of older people and providing the most appropriate to
their needs;
providing facilities of daily life (living comfort, etc.);
culture of life of all subjects of pension (staff, clients, social partners, etc.);
culture of necessary for the elderly health care and nutrition;
cultureof ensure effective interaction of older people , which can be varied, it is useful to
themselves and others to spend effectively the last years of their life;
developedand appropriate conditions for the fulfillment of each resident in his familiar sur-
roundings;
culture and fullness of life and meet the spiritual needs of the elderly;
protection of the interests and rights of the elderly, as well as maintenance and administrative
staff pension;
rationality of technical equipment necessary to ensure the required level of customer service.
The problem of adaptation of an old man to life in gerontology center sanatorium is a complex of
multi level process that is solved with the use of special psychological intervention programs (in partic-
ular, dance movement therapy, body-oriented therapy, game therapy). Complex rehabilitation and ad-
aptation activities carried out in the center, includes the work of physicians, psychologists, specialist in
adaptive physical education specialist in social work, occupational therapy instructor, organizers of
cultural and leisure activities, experts on the implementation of animation and recreational programs,
and accompanist other professionals.
Used in gerontological center sanatorium dance movement therapy helps to release muscle
tension elderly, lifting clamps and the formation of psycho-physiological state of relaxation techniques.
Body-oriented contributes to the development of his own body, creating a positive body image, devel-
opment of communication skills. Game therapy is acquisition and development of feelings of group
experience in building communication skills in geriatric group. The complex of these programs helps
correction of psychological problems and the formation of an elderly man motivation concerns about
their own health.
Instructor in occupational therapy center offers customers various kinds of leisure and applied
activities: testoplastika, macrame, embroidery, knitting, soap-making, beading, origami, scrapbooking,
decoupage on fabric, quilling, izon, kanzashi.
A special place in old age takes psychological assistance that the institution aims to address
one of the important problems in this age group adaptation is not only a change of outdated behav-
iors, but also the improvement and development of methods of effective and harmonious interaction
with the outside world, as well as increase personal potential and to promote the process of self-
actualization.
Thus, all the activities of specialists of gerontology center aims to build skills to preserve and
strengthen the psycho-physiological health of an elderly patient.
Analysis of the results of experimental work
In the period from 2010 to 2014, the authors and students under the guidance of the authors
were conducted narrative interviews with 126 mentally healthy elderly (age 65 to 88 years, 80 women
and 46 men) living in geriatric centers (boarding houses), boarding homes, and being in the home.
Conducted a content analysis of materials derived from the narrative interviews allowed to identify a
group of elderly people (13 men and 12 women) who positively assessed their being senile and were
pleased with the conditions (both external and internal) course of their old age. Some of them (8 men
and 10 women) discovered (in the period from 65 to 70 years) the fact that old age is a beneficial ef-
fect on their ability to creatively (new angle) to rethink the experience, to share with them their inter-
locutors, and to some extent promotes sensitivity satisfaction is advanced in years.
A common feature for all 25 people who were satisfied with their old age, is a clear orientation
on these older people for now. Their senile state they accept without any reservations and with no
plans to change for the better. For them (11 living at home, and 14 in geriatric centers) is typical of
almost daily mental work, which leads to the development of new for them calm (largely contempla-
tive), to a certain extent self-sufficient life position. Life around, today's state of health, physical ail-
ments, perceived life bearable, such as they are. Note that in the works of many gerontologists [10;
Cоциологические и психологические науки Sociological and Psychological Science
- 74 -
12; 13; 21; etc.] such a tolerant, relaxed attitude to himself older ( the elderly), to their surroundings for
an elderly person is a new installation of values in life .
All elderly people of this group showed a tendency to listen carefully to their companion, as well
as the tendency to conformism (elderly formally agrees with the speaker, but it itself is not their point of
view or behavior resulting from it, do not change). To some extent, these traits indicate their selection
of adequate forces method of adapting to the environment. Meanwhile, it should be noted that this
form of conformist contacts more common in older women than men.
Another important characteristic feature of the elderly referred us to the people perceive their re-
tirement as a happy time, a desire to be involved in situations in which it is possible to demonstrate
their abilities and skills (for example, to assist in negotiations between the warring relatives, neighbors,
be members of the feasible for their ability to play with his grandchildren, to take part in the work of
public organizations in the health of sports programs, etc.).
Summary
Happy old age can be regarded as the greatest personal satisfaction of an elderly person with
conditions of his existence, his completeness (adequate psychophysical capabilities) and meaningful-
ness. For "happy old age" it is important that the nature of an activity, employment is chosen by the
individual according to his personal interests and aspirations. It is useless to try to artificially or forcibly
bind an elderly person with any physical activity, even if it would be feasible and necessary thing for
him. Striving for an elderly person feasible activity and employment interesting thing this is what
makes life in old age "real life".
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Information about the author
Spulber Diana PhD in Methodology of Research
in Psychology, Scientific Advisor at Unesco Chair
University of Genoa, lecturer at Link Campus
University Rome and University of Genoa
Genoa, Italy
diana.spulber@unige.it
Grebennikova Veronika M., Doctor of Peda-
gogical Sciences, Professor, Dean of the Fac-
ulty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Communi-
cativity, Head of the Department of Pedagogy
and Psychology of the Kuban State University,
Krasnodar, Russia
vmgrebennikova@mail.ru
Nikitina Natalya I., Doctor of Pedagogical Scienc-
es, Professor, Professor of the Department of
social and family pedagogy of the Russian State
Social University, Moscow, Russia
NN0803@mail.ru
Received: 01.10.2015
For article citation: Spulber D., Grebennikova
V. M., Nikitina N. I., Socio-psychological aspects
"happy old age" and opportunities of social
services in its provision.[ Social'no-
psihologicheskie aspekty «schastlivoj starosti» i
vozmozhnosti social'nyh sluzhb v ee
obespechenii]. Krasnodar. Istoricheskaya i
sotsial’no-obrazovatelnaya mys’l = Historical and
Social Educational Ideas. 2015. Том 7. 7 vol-
1. С . 67-75
DOI: 10.17748/2075-9908-2015-7-7/1-67-75
Информация об авторе
Spulber Diana, кандидат Методология иссле-
дований в психологии, научный советник, ка-
федра ЮНЕСКО Университета Генуи, препо-
даватель Link Campus University Риме и Уни-
верситет Генуи, Генуя, ИТАЛИЯ
diana.spulber@unige.it
Гребенникова Вероника Михайловна, доктор
педагогических наук, доцент, декан факуль-
тета педагогики, психологии и коммуникати-
вистики, заведующий кафедрой педагогики и
психологии Федерального государственного
бюджетного общеобразовательного учре-
ждения высшего профессионального образо-
вания «Кубанский государственный универ-
ситет», Краснодар, Россия
vmgrebennikova@mail.ru
Никитина Наталья Ивановна, доктор педаго-
гических наук, профессор, профессор кафед-
ры социальной и семейной педагогики Феде-
рального государственного бюджетного об-
щеобразовательного учреждения высшего
профессионального образования «Россий-
ский государственный социальный универси-
тет», Москва, Россия
NN0803@mail.ru
Получена: 01.10.2015
Для цитирования статьи: Spulber D., Гре-
бенникова В. М., Никитина Н. И., Социально-
психологические аспекты «счастливой старо-
сти» и возможности социальных служб в ее
обеспечении. Краснодар: Историческая и со-
циально-образовательная мысль. 2015. Том
7. 7. Часть 1. С. 67-75
DOI: 10.17748/2075-9908-2015-7-7/1-67-75
... Those are in "happy old age", who in the past were harmonious personalities and after retirement for a long time engaged in creative work. The term "happy" in "happy old age" has been used in the logic of serenity, wise enlightenment worldview, contemplation and self-control, which reflects not only in the accumulation of life experience, but also weaken the influence of emotions in psychological life [13]. For "happy old age", the nature of activity is chosen in the personal interests and aspirations. ...
... 3) Should stop wanting more all the time, make your life easier and deal primarily with what is important to you in this period of life" [13] (Figure 1). ...
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The peculiarity of level, structural and stylistic characteristics of intelligence in old age. Psychology of maturity and aging
  • V Demchenko
Demchenko V. The peculiarity of level, structural and stylistic characteristics of intelligence in old age. Psychology of maturity and aging. 1998. № 3. P. 5-13.
  • I V Davydovskiy
  • M Gerontology
Davydovskiy I.V. Gerontology. M.: Medical, 1966.
Study identifying elderly . Psychology maturity and aging
  • O V Krasnov
Krasnov O.V. Study identifying elderly. Psychology maturity and aging. 1997. № 3. P. 68-84.
Path to prosperity. A new understanding of happiness and prosperity. Moscow: OOO "Mann, Ivanov and Ferber
  • M Seligman
Seligman M. Path to prosperity. A new understanding of happiness and prosperity. Moscow: OOO "Mann, Ivanov and Ferber", 2013.
Available at: expert.ru/expert
  • Altruism Gen
Altruism gen. Available at: expert.ru/expert/2013/29/gen-altruizma
Late period of human life: types of aging and the possibility of progressive aging personality
  • L I Antsyferova
Antsyferova L.I. Late period of human life: types of aging and the possibility of progressive aging personality. Psychological Journal. 1996. T. 17. № 6. P. 60-71.
Personality change in the elderly living in nursing homes
  • V V Boltenko
Boltenko V.V. Personality change in the elderly living in nursing homes. Moscow: Moscow State University, 1980.
Aging personality. Social and Clinical Psychiatry
  • Y I Polishchuk
Polishchuk Y.I. Aging personality. Social and Clinical Psychiatry. 1994. V.4. P. 108-115.
Formation of social gerontology competence of managers sanatorium sphere in high school
  • E V Leninа
Leninа E.V. Formation of social gerontology competence of managers sanatorium sphere in high school. M.: RSSU, 2010.