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Using Facebook to Find Missing Persons: A Crowd-Sourcing Perspective


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This paper explores the ways in which Facebook is used in the quest for finding missing persons in South Africa. Graphs are used to indicate differentiated roles of the Facebook communities: some communities act mainly as originators of the messages whereas others act more as distributors or end points of the messages. Crowd-sourcing is used as a conceptual tool to further our understanding of the way messages are shared among different Facebook communities. The four pillars of crowdsourcing as proposed by Hosseini et al., are used to analyse the network of communities as a crowd-source system. It is argued that Facebook can be effective as crowdsourcing system despite the fact that there is no guarantee that missing persons reported there will be found, since it most likely provides much needed emotional support to friends and relatives of the missing person.
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
Using Facebook to find missing persons: a crowd-sourcing
MJ Hattingh
Department of Informatics
University of Pretoria, South Africa
+2712 420 5322
MC Matthee
Department of Informatics
University of Pretoria, South Africa
+2712 420 3365
The study reported on in this paper explores the ways in which social media
and more specific Facebook is used in the quest for finding missing persons in
South Africa. Graphs are used to show how several Facebook communities in-
teract in search of missing persons. The graphs indicate differentiated roles of
the communities: some communities act mainly as originators of the messages
whereas others act more as distributors or end points of the messages. Crowd-
sourcing is used as a conceptual tool to further our understanding of the way
messages are shared. The four pillars of crowdsourcing as proposed by Hos-
seini et al, are used to analyse the network of communities as a crowd-source
system. It is argued that Facebook can be effective as crowdsourcing system
despite the fact that there is no guarantee that missing persons reported there
will be found, since it most likely provides much needed emotional support to
friends and relatives of the missing person. We also propose that authorities
use social media in a more focused and coordinated way, or combine it with
existing crowdsourcing tools, to harness the full “power of the crowd” in the
search for missing persons.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing, social media, Facebook, missing people, emotional
1 Introduction
“A child goes missing in South Africa every five hours” [1]. This alarming fact
is not just restricted to children and also not to just South Africa, but is a
world-wide problem. Scoop [2] reported in 2013 that 4,432,880 people have
disappeared in the past 20 years worldwide. The ubiquity of technology gives
people/ organisations additional tools to assist in the search for missing peo-
ple. Centralized databases (registers) can be constructed and information
can be shared with ease [3]. Previously, this type of information was usually
controlled and distributed through formalized organisations such as the law
enforcement services. However, with the rise in the uptake of social media,
ordinary citizens can now contribute to the search of missing persons
through Web 2.0 technologies. In South Africa, the social media platform
adoption has changed significantly. The 2014 World Wide Worx and
Fuseware report [4] has indicated that Facebook is the biggest social media
platform in South Africa. The report indicated that there are 9.4 million ac-
tive Facebook users in South Africa in 2014 compared to 6.8 million users in
2013. People use these social media platforms to create social networks.
However, these social networks can now be used as a problem solving tool,
where a problem is being “outsourced” to the “crowd”, this is known as
crowdsourcing [5]. Taking the problem solving abilities of networks of people
in consideration this study is attempting to answer the following question:
How do people use social media platforms, such as Facebook, to aid the
search of missing persons? This problem is approached from a crowd-
sourcing perspective. Crowds usually originates as an undefined network of
people that contribute to a particular task [5]. We answer the research ques-
tion by firstly mapping the interaction of Facebook groups/pages dedicated
to finding missing persons in South Africa and secondly using crowdsourcing
as analytical lens, to understand how Facebook communities interact in the
quest for finding missing persons.
The paper will first provide in section two some background on missing per-
sons which is followed by a brief discussion on the use of social media as a
crowdsourcing tool in section three. After this, in section four, data is pre-
sented on a snapshot taken from a particular network of Facebook groups.
The snapshot is analysed in section 5 using the four pillars of crowdsourcing.
This is followed by the discussion and conclusion of the findings in sections
six and seven respectively.
2 Missing persons and social media
According to the “Missing persons: A handbook for parliamentarians” [3], a
missing person is defined as an “individuals of whom their families have no
news and/or who, on the basis of reliable information, have been reported
missing…” With the advent of technology, one would intuitively assume that
the search for missing persons will be made easier. However, that is not al-
ways the case. Missing Children SA representative says that “Every year we
see our success rate decrease. It’s not necessarily because we’re finding less
people, it’s just because more people are hearing about the service that
“Missing Children SA” provides” [6].
Missing persons is a societal problem that extends beyond finding the miss-
ing person. Support to the families of the missing person is also important.
According to Wayland [7] the police and non-police search agencies are the
primary support mechanisms for the family members as the “the initial focus
is on the physical location and return of the missing person and the emo-
tional needs of the family are often set aside while these practical issues are
dealt with. Social media can extend support to families of missing person by
rendering emotional support. Johnson et al [8] state that when people are
embedded in a caring network, such as a Facebook community dedicated to
the search of finding missing people, they are able to obtain social resources,
such as instrumental and emotional support, to cope with daily stress or un-
certainty. This is extended by Wang and Nayir [9] that stated informal and
formal social networks, such as Facebook communities, offer access to re-
sources, to social and emotional support and to practical help for coping with
personal, economic and social problems.
3 Crowdsourcing
Hosseini et al [10] identify four parts (or pillars) of crowdsourcing that de-
scribes the entire operation: (1) The crowd: describing the diversity of the
people who take part in the crowdsourcing activity, whether they are known
to the crowdsource or each other, whether they are enough to fulfil the task
without being overloaded, how they were involved to take part and whether
they are willing and able to take part, (2) The Crowdsourcer: the person or
organisation that needs the help of the crowd to solve a problem The crowd-
sourcer might rely on intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, extending the call to
participate to the general public in an ethical way. (3) The Crowd-sourced
task: This recognises the traditional way the task would have been complet-
ed if crowdsourcing did not occur as well as the complexity, solvability, abil-
ity to automate, the role of the crowd and the type of contribution made by
the crowd. (4) The Crowdsourcing Platform: This refers to the interaction
between the crowd and the platform such as social media, the interaction
between the crowdsourcer and the platform, the functionalities provided by
the platform.
There are a number of existing crowdsourcing tools that use social media to
reach the crowd. One such an example is Ushahidi, an open source crises
map platform, which was used for disaster relief during the earthquake in
Haiti [11]. Rahwan et al [12] explain how they used social media to
crowdsource rapid information gathering in order to find five wanted per-
sons during a manhunt challenge. Their biggest challenge was to mobilize
participants to share messages. Gao [11:12] found that during disaster relief,
social media as crowdsourcing mechanism provides “aggregate situational
awareness, important and new communications pathways, and some oppor-
tunities for assistance on an individual level.”
4 Method
On the 7th of March 2016, the lead researcher typed in “Missing people” in
Facebook search engine. The first public South African Facebook group dedi-
cated to locating missing people, was identified as “Missing People in Centu-
rion” (MPC). The lead researcher then considered every post of the MPC Fa-
cebook group between 7 March 2016 and 1 October 2015, giving her approx-
imately 6 months posts to analyse. Table 1 below illustrates the data cap-
tured during the first search iteration.
Table 1. Data captured from first Facebook community
For every Facebook community with its accompanying posts, she captured
the following information in an MS Excel spreadsheet, (as illustrated by Table
1 above, which represents the data captured for the first Facebook commu-
nity reviewed): (1) The group the post originated from (column B). An acro-
MPC Missing people in Centurion 689 members
Groups Posted
Hi5Kids Hi5 Kids recovery MC FC FC
NP-BVEN Ne wsPaper - Bedfordviewede nvalenews MC
SAPS South African Police Servi ces FCD
NP-RK NewsPaper - Rekord MA MA MA MA
NP-KM NewsPaper -Kormorant MC
NP-MM NewsP aper - Maroelamedia MC
PLC People who live i n centurion FA FA FA
KCF Krugersdorp Community forum MA
GPFW GPF Wilgehof MC
NP-MS New sPaper - Mobserver MC
CCC Centurion concerned citize ns FA FA MC
nym was assigned to each group in column A. (2) Each post that was distrib-
uted by each of the groups (column C). Distinction was made between posts
depending on whether it was an adult or child that was missing or found or
deceased. The following codes were used: a missing child (MC), a missing
adult (MA), child found (FC), found adult (FA). In a few instances the post
reported that a child was found deceased (FCD) or an adult was found de-
ceased (FAD). All duplicate posts from the same group were ignored. Finally,
the lead researcher then repeated the above steps for the six dedicated
“missing people” or community support Facebook groups that were listed in
the first group (Table 1, column B), excluding newspapers and private pages,
until saturation was reached (no new communities emerged).
5 Data Analysis
Table 2 below illustrates the data that was obtained from the Facebook re-
view. Seven Facebook communities dedicated to finding missing people or
community support communities were found, linked directly or indirectly to
the first Facebook group. In total, 392 posts were reviewed within the given
6 month timeframe. These Facebook communities were connected to a total
of 38 other communities (45 communities in total). Table 2 above summaris-
es all the communities reviewed where the size of the community is indicat-
ed by both the number of members/likes of the community, and the types
and number of posts distributed by each of these communities.
Table 2. Summary of Facebook Communities identified
689 mem-
7468 mem-
The connectivity between the different Facebook communities is illustrated
by Figures 1 and 2 which represents the connections (and thereby the reach)
of the Facebook crowd. In Figure 1 each Facebook community is represented
by a node whereas each line represents a one-directional information flow
between two Facebook communities. The arrow points to the community
that shares the posts of the connected Facebook community. For example,
the Pink Ladies is dedicated to finding missing persons and can therefore be
seen as the originator of the posts. Indeed, Figure 1 shows that the Pink La-
dies (PL) has the most references (shared posts) by other communities, fol-
lowed by the Missing Children SA (MCSA) group who is also dedicated to
finding missing persons. The third most-shared posts originate from private
people (PVT) reporting missing people. This is indicated by the sizes of the
Fig. 1. Originators of posts
Figure 2 illustrates a different kind of information flow. The lines of the graph
and size of the nodes now refers to the number of posts shared by that spe-
cific community of other communities. It further shows in Figure 2 that even
though PL’s posts were shared the most among different communities, PL
did not share any posts associated with other communities (within the re-
search period). Similarly, the posts of MCSA were widely shared, but MCSA
did not share any other communities’ posts on their page. Both these com-
munities’ nodes are therefore very small. However, the first Facebook group
reviewed by the researchers, MPC, shares a lot of posts of other communi-
ties as indicated by the size of the node. The second and third biggest sharer
of posts of other communities are PLC and BCPF. MPC is a community dedi-
cated to finding missing people whereas the PLC and BCPF are community
support groups.
Fig. 2. Distributors of posts
The maps provided in Figures 1 and 2 show the ‘enlarging of the search par-
ty’ across diverse geographic areas and thousands of people. It also shows
differentiated roles of the communities: some communities act mainly as
originators of the messages whereas others act more as distributors or end
points of the messages. The following sections will analyse the above Face-
book communities according to the four pillars of crowdsourcing as defined
by [10].
5.1 Pillar One: The Crowd
In this paper the crowd refers to the Facebook community members sharing
the posts of various Facebook communities (illustrated in Figure 2). Their
features are as follows: Diversity: The diversity needed in this crowd is from a
geographical perspective. This was indeed reached since the initial group
reviewed by the researchers is situated in Gauteng, South Africa, but posts as
far as Kraaifontein in the Western Cape Province some 1000km from Gaut-
eng, were identified. Unknownness: Due to the nature of Facebook, the
crowd will inevitably know about one another as anyone can have at least
limited access to anyone’s profile. However, the aim of this exercise is not
anonymity but is in support of the crowdsourcer’s task. In the majority of
instances the missing person post/update was made by the specific Face-
book community, as illustrated in Figure 1 above, only 10% of all the posts
under consideration (26 of 393 posts) were private posts. Largeness: The
largeness of the networked Facebook communities, is what makes the Face-
book platform so successful in finding missing people. Table 2 above illus-
trates, that between the communities under consideration, there is a crowd
of 163 813 Facebook users that would be able to assist in the quest to find
missing people. Undefined-ness: The vast amount of Facebook users is an
illustration of the undefined-ness of the Facebook social network. All of the
groups, bar the private posts, were public groups which allowed anyone ac-
cess to their postings. Suitability: The Facebook communities referenced in
this study all voluntarily participated in solving the “missing people” problem
by posting the “missing people” information, or share the posted infor-
mation. The number of communities referenced by particular communities is
an illustration of their ability to collaborate with other communities and indi-
viduals. The Facebook communities’ motivations are all intrinsic as no incen-
tive, bar the possibility of locating the missing person is provided.
5.2 Pillar Two: The Crowdsourcer
In this paper the crowdsourcer refers to the Facebook communities and
community members (in terms of private posts) who provide the posts of
missing persons (illustrated in Figure 1). A missing person post usually in-
cludes personal details with a photo as well as contact details of the authori-
ties and a contact number of the missing persons community representative.
The features of the crowdsourcer in this context are as follows: Incentive
provision: There was no need for the crowdsourcers (the different communi-
ties listed in Table 2 or the private posts) to provide any incentives for “the
crowd” to participate in posting or sharing missing people information. Open
Call: As all the groups were public groups, it was open for any member of
the public to participate in the posting or sharing of missing people. Ethicality
provision: At any stage can a member of “the crowd” choose not to partici-
pate, or even “opt-out” of the Facebook group by unfollowing the page or
removing themselves from the group. Furthermore, the crowdsourcer is eth-
ically bound to provide feedback to “the crowd”. From Table 2 it is seen that
updates were made where available. Privacy provision: Due to the nature of
Facebook it is near impossible for “the crowd” not to be aware of one anoth-
er. However, it is possible for the crowd to private message the crowd-
sourcer, which the crowdsource is not allowed to disclose to others.
5.3 Pillar Three: The Crowdsourced Task
In this paper the crowdsourced task refers to the activity of locating missing
people. There features are as follows: Traditional operation: The missing
people’s communities work in conjunction with the authorities to locate the
missing persons. In most cases, if the missing person’s notice is released
through a missing person’s community (such as MCSA or PL) a police docket
number is included (if available)). This allows for the traditional operations to
continue parallel with the community’s crowdsourcing initiative. Modularity:
Although a number of posts can be posted daily regarding missing people, it
is done one by one. Therefore, “the crowd” can choose the post which they
would like to share. Complexity: Task of sharing a Facebook post is quite
straightforward and the community was quick to assist if someone had trou-
ble sharing a post. Solvability: Unfortunately, the act of sharing a post does
not necessarily result in solving the missing person problem. However, a sec-
ondary activity of the ability to support the crowdsourcer emotionally (espe-
cially if it is a private post) can be seen as solving the emotional isolation
problem. An example of this is a message posted on MPC (Missing Persons in
Centurion): “Morning all, my brother has been missing for 2 weeks now. I
ask that we all pray for his safe return where ever he might be, also if anyone
knows or have seen him please contact me at this number” on which MPC
replied: “Hi, why don’t we all just reshare this and ask our contacts to share
so the word spreads more and more”. Automation Characteristics: The na-
ture of Facebook allows for a measure of automation. Once a Facebook user
“follows” a group he/she will automatically receive the post from the group
(the crowdsourcer), however, the act of further sharing it is not automated.
Furthermore, this is an inexpensive method of automation. User-driven: The
particular problem that is attempted to be solved through “the crowd” is
creating awareness and finding missing people. This is problem solving activi-
ty but also an example of an innovative way of using technology. Contribu-
tion Type: The Facebook communities allow for both an individual and col-
laborative contribution. Collectively the various communities are working
together to find missing people. However, on an individual level, a communi-
ty member renders support to the crowdsourcer (in the event of an individu-
al/private post).
5.4 Pillar Four: The Crowdsourcing Platform
In this paper the crowdsourcing platform refers to Facebook. Its features are
as follows: Crowd-related Interactions: Facebook as the chosen crowdsourc-
ing platform in this instance provides clear mechanisms for enrolment and
authentication (as far as user profiles are legitimate). In certain instances,
especially when it’s a private post, the community members were asked to
share the missing person’s details, however, in formal missing persons
posts, the communities spontaneously shared posts without being “tasked”
to do it. Crowdsourcer-related Interactions: The crowdsourcer in this study
took two forms: dedicated missing people group administrators who gener-
ate and co-ordinate posts regarding missing people as illustrated in Figure 1
above and secondly, individuals sharing private posts (usually about some-
one close to them) being missing. In both these instances, Facebook has clear
rules in place regarding privileges of users and administrators. Task-related
Facilities: The communities provided no restriction on the sharing of posts
regarding missing people. Furthermore, the crowdsourcers (not in the case
of private posts) usually work closely with the authorities in order to ensure
the authentication of the “task”. Platform-related Facilities: The online plat-
form provided by Facebook is governed by the Facebook terms and condi-
tions. Furthermore, the nature of Facebook allows the crowd to easily inter-
act with the crowdsourcer.
6 Discussion
The discussion above illustrates the value of the concept “crowdsourcing” in
reaching an understanding of the way in which Facebook is used to find miss-
ing persons. Certain members and Facebook communities in the network act
as the “crowd” (Figure 2) whereas others act as the crowdsourcers (Figure 1)
who have a specific task finding missing people. The crowdsourcing plat-
form is Facebook. Using crowdsourcing as analytical lens also shows the
shortfall of using Facebook in the quest to find missing persons. Gao et al
[11] believe that social media as crowdsourcing tool lacks inherent coordina-
tion capabilities when used for disaster relief. Although the phenomenon of
missing persons cannot be considered a disaster, there are similarities in the
processes needed to react to the disaster and to find missing persons: there
is a need to not only share but also coordinate information among different
groups and organisations. We have found evidence of close cooperation be-
tween the missing persons groups and the police in some of the posts. This
means that Facebook is used not only as a way of mobilising crowds (sharing
messages) in this context. We therefore believe that if authorities use social
media in a more focused and coordinated way, or combine it with existing
crowdsourcing tools, the “power of the crowd” can truly be realised in the
search for missing persons. Despite the fact that “the crowd” might not liter-
ally result in the locating of a missing person (only two posts made reference
to the locating of a missing person through the actions of the “the crowd”),
the crowd seems to be effective in other ways. It renders emotional support
to the crowdsourcer. Technological advances, such as the Internet, have cre-
ated new opportunities for social interaction and support among community
members [13]. The Internet supplements the traditional operations of locat-
ing a missing person through the processes of authorities and at the same
time extend emotional support to the crowdsourcers individually and collab-
7 Conclusion
This research paper aims to understand how Facebook is used in the quest of
locating missing persons. Crowdsourcing is used as analytical lens and ex-
plains the interaction between communities indicated in the graphs as those
of the crowdsourcer (Figure 1) and those of the crowd (Figure 2). It further
illustrates the “powerful propagation capability[11] of Facebook as crowd-
sourcing platform. It also points towards the necessity of a more coordinated
effort in order to realise the benefit of Facebook as crowdsourcing platform.
This might imply an expansion of the traditional search processes by authori-
ties to officially include social media. In addition, it is argued that this net-
work of communities act not only as a massive search party but also as a
source of emotional support. This study can be seen as exploratory in the
sense that it included data from a short time period. More research is need-
ed to apply current research on crowd-sourcing to such systems to under-
stand and improve its effectiveness.
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... For those that remain missing longer, it is important that their cases garner exposure to increase the likelihood of recovery. This need for exposure has caused an influx of missing persons cases to be reported on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and TikTok (Hattingh & Matthee, 2016;Jeanis & Powers, 2016;. ...
... Considering that there are approximately 90,000 active missing persons cases in the USA at any given time (NCIC, 2020), traditional media outlets cannot and will not cover all missing persons cases (Gilchrist, 2010). To alleviate the disparity in missing persons exposure, social media outlets have become a dominant means to relay information (Hattingh & Matthee, 2016). Social media has utility in solving these cases: if authorities were to use social media in a focused and coordinated way that used the "power of the crowd," more effective results could be seen in the search of missing persons (Hattingh & Matthee, 2016). ...
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Crime is a reality that effects everyone in the world. Even developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Canada and Germany are not exempted from crime occurrences. Although these indicators are substantially less than developing countries such as South Africa, the existence of crime is a worldwide phenomenon. In this paper we explore the extent to which social media, in particular Facebook are used in the fight against crime. The study adopts a social technical approach in its investigation, considering the symbiotic relationship between communities (the organisation), Facebook and the utilisation of Facebook to complete tasks (technical subsystem), team members and structure to report crime in virtual communities (social subsystem) and current governance structures (environmental system). Based on a study of 297 crime fighting Facebook communities in South Africa, we found a positive correlation between the number of Facebook crime fighting communities per region and the crime rates for a particular region. Furthermore, we noticed that the regions with the most crime communities also had the most Internet connectivity per household. Both findings are indicative of a functional symbiotic relationship between the technical subsystem and the social subsystem. However, it highlights the fact that these structures are initiated by communities therefore lacking strong intervention from the environmental system, in this instance governmental bodies. We propose that governmental agencies formally recognise social media platforms as social crime fighting tool. Secondly, we suggest that governmental entities should focus on infrastructure related challenges as part of their attempt to combat crime.
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Each year in Australia, 35,000 people are reported missing to police1. That’s one person every 15 minutes. For every missing person’s case reported, at least 12 people are affected whether it is emotionally, psychologically, physically or financially. That means that a significantly large number of people will endure the trauma associated with the unresolved loss of a loved one. For some, the impact on their lives is momentary; for others it’s a lifetime. This framework provides clinical and lived experience reflections on the role of counselling families of missing people.
Conference Paper
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Crowdsourcing is an emerging business model where tasks are accomplished by the general public; the crowd. Crowdsourcing has been used in a variety of disciplines, including information systems development, marketing and operationalization. It has been shown to be a successful model in recommendation systems, multimedia design and evaluation, database design, and search engine evaluation. Despite the increasing academic and industrial interest in crowdsourcing, there is still a high degree of diversity in the interpretation and the application of the concept. This paper analyses the literature and deduces a taxonomy of crowdsourcing. The taxonomy is meant to represent the different configurations of crowdsourcing in its main four pillars: the crowdsourcer, the crowd, the crowdsourced task and the crowdsourcing platform. Our outcome will help researchers and developers as a reference model to concretely and precisely state their particular interpretation and configuration of crowdsourcing.
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Using social media and only the targets' mug shots, a team competing in the US State Department-sponsored Tag Challenge located three of five targeted people in five cities in the US and Europe in less than 12 hours.
This expaloratory study examines the relationship between personality characteristics (extraversion, core self evaluations), social tie characteristics (number, breadth, depth), and three types of expatriate adjustment (general, interaction, and work). Data was collected at two points in time from 75 expatriate employees from one organization on international assignments around the world. Results indicate that core self-evaluations, but not extraversion, are positively related to the number of ties formed with other expatriates and host country nationals. Social ties with other expatriates were found to provide greater social support, but similar access to information, than those with host country nationals (HCNs). In general, depth and breadth of relationships with other expatriates predicted general and work adjustment; whereas, breadth and total number of relationships with HCNs predicted all three types of adjustment. Overall, these results provide initial support for the importance of social ties in facilitating expatriate adjustment.
Social support is a construct with multiple dimensions that can be approached at multiple levels. Findings from a variety of disciplines and recognition of its bidirectional nature can help map the construct. Bidirectionality is a process that requires attention to moderators, such as, gender, cultural change, and personal development, together with the relationship between the receiver and the provider of support. Both close personal ties and weaker ones that often are part of community involve­ ment need to be taken into account in order to map the con­ struct comprehensively. KEY WORDS: social support· close relationships· community support· support providers Since Darwin, the contribution of social embeddedness to survival has been widely recognized. Today many disciplines see the value of a better under­ standing of why and in what ways people are important to people and the mechanisms involved in social relationships. Two articles published in 1976 put the spotlight on the help and support social ties provide. Cassell (1976) and Cobb (1976), building upon clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological evidence, directed attention to individuals whose social ties are limited and/ or noxious. Both noted that these people appeared to get sick more often than those with more rewarding interpersonal relationships and speculated that social deficiencies contribute to stress, that in turn, gets in the way of health maintenance. They described interpersonal provisions that offer the individual love, interest, liking, caring, and a willingness to help should it be needed. Both noted that these provisions had the power to influence an individual's self-concept, attitudes, and behavior.
Social media sites have proven useful in disaster relief for information propagation and communication. Crowdsourcing applications based on social media applications such as Twitter and Ushahidi provide a powerful capability for collecting information from disaster scenes and visualizing data for relief decision making. This article briefly describes the advantages and disadvantages of crowdsourcing applications applied to disaster relief coordination. It also discusses several challenges that need to be addressed to make crowdsourcing a useful tool that can effectively facilitate the relief progress in coordination, accuracy, and security.
Social interaction has been demonstrated to be a main predictor of expatriate adjustment. However, the impact of social interaction on expatriate adjustment may vary for those in different cultures. Contextual factors, such as geographic proximity and cultural differences between the home country and the host country, may have a significant impact on the expatriate adjustment process. The current paper singles out the above contextual factors by comparing European expatriates in China and in Turkey. European expatriates in China (n = 61) and Turkey (n = 69) were surveyed to explore the different patterns of social interactions (personal network and support), and the impact of these on the psychological well-being of the two groups. The empirical evidence gathered by the current study will delineate these differences and similarities and their impacts on the expatriates' psychological well-being in these two host countries.
Remember outsourcing? Sending jobs to India and China is so 2003. The new pool of cheap labor: everyday people using their spare cycles to create content, solve problems, even do corporate R
The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired. Issue 14
  • J Howe
Supporting those who are left behind
  • S Wayland
Wayland, S. 2009. Supporting those who are left behind. %20are%20left%20behind.pdf