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Development and Implementation of Higher Order Thinking Skills Instruments in Physics Education

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Abstract—The purpose of research is to develop a test that can be used to assess Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) on high school students. Development of test adopted the ADDIE’s model and the results of the development an essay test is called a Higher-Order Thinking Skills (KBTT) instrument on Static Fluid material. The results of the pilot test the KBTT limited to 59 students showed that (i) the average index of difficulty is 0.65 with medium category, (ii) the average index of discrimination is 0.36 with enough categories, (iii) the average value of reliability is 0.91 with the category of very high, and (v) the validity of an average of 0.70 with a high category. While the results of the implementation of the KBTT on 54 students showed that the indicator of the KBTT have high contribution (0.65) to the total score of the KBTT and also has a high correlation (0.83) to the Understanding of Concepts (PK). This indicates that the instrument of the KBTT have a good ability to measure the cognitive domains of C1 through C6. The implication of this result is expected to teachers and lecturers in order to be able to use higher order thinking skills instruments to measure the achievement of physics learning
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Development and Implementation of Higher Order
Thinking Skills Instruments in
Physics Education
A.Halim1* and Yusrizal2
1,2 Department of Physics Education, Teacher Training and Education Faculty,
Syiah Kuala University, Aceh, Indonesia.
*e-mail: bdlhalim@yahoo.com
AbstractThe purpose of research is to develop a test that can be used to assess Higher
Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) on high school students. Development of test adopted the
ADDIE’s model and the results of the development an essay test is called a Higher-Order
Thinking Skills (KBTT) instrument on Static Fluid material. The results of the pilot test the
KBTT limited to 59 students showed that (i) the average index of difficulty is 0.65 with
medium category, (ii) the average index of discrimination is 0.36 with enough categories, (iii)
the average value of reliability is 0.91 with the category of very high, and (v) the validity of an
average of 0.70 with a high category. While the results of the implementation of the KBTT on
54 students showed that the indicator of the KBTT have high contribution (0.65) to the total
score of the KBTT and also has a high correlation (0.83) to the Understanding of Concepts
(PK). This indicates that the instrument of the KBTT have a good ability to measure the
cognitive domains of C1 through C6. The implication of this result is expected to teachers
and lecturers in order to be able to use higher order thinking skills instruments to measure
the achievement of physics learning
Keywords: physics, learning, assesment, skills, higher, instrument, thinking.
I. INTRODUCTION
Efforts to improve the quality of education in this country remains a major
priorities, because the quality of education the people of Indonesia compared with other
countries is still very low. Anis Baswedan, minister of education and culture, said the
condition of education in Indonesia is at a critical stage, this corresponds to the results of a
survey conducted by PISA (Programme for International Study Assessment), where the
quality of their education at position 64 of the 65 countries surveyed. Whereas, human
resources if based on the Human Development Index (HDI), UNDP survey results show
the people of Indonesia is 108 out of 187 countries surveyed, while Malaysia 62 and
Thailand on 86 [1]. This fact shows that the quality of the nation can be increased through
improvement of Human Resources (HR). The formal education from elementary school to
the PT is the agency to produce human resources that have the ability to think low level or
Lower Order Thinking (LOT) and high-level thinking skills or Higher Order Thinking (HOT).
Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has been defined in different forms. King said that
the Higher order thinking skills include the ability to think creatively, metacognitive,
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reflective, logical, and critical [2]. Higher order thinking is based on the version level
thinking skills such as distinguishing, application and analysis simple and cognitive
strategies associated with knowledge ago. Foster as a director of ACER, said that the
Higher order thinking skills including literacy, critical, critical numeracy (ability in
mathematics), and cross-cultural competence [3]. Whereas Wheeler & Haertel, concluded
that the higher order thinking skills are grouped into two different contexts [4]. The first
context, the thought process needed to solve problems and make decisions on every issue
in everyday life. The second context, the mental processes required for success in
teaching, including activities to compare, evaluate, reason (justification), and make
inferences. Brookhart distinguish the definitions of Higher order thinking in three categories,
(1) defines a Higher order thinking from the point of view of the term displacement
(transfer), (2) defines it from the perspective of critical thinking, and (3) define it in the
context of problem solving [5]. According to Costa higher order thinking skills can be
divided into four types, namely critical thinking, creative thinking, problem solving, and
make a decision [6]. Based on the above definition can be said to be some higher order
thinking skills is an activity involves thinking and mental processes at the highest level,
including processes, analysis, comparing, inferential, evaluation, and creativity in order to
solve problems in everyday life.
Many forms of tests have been used to measure higher order thinking skills. Form of
higher order thinking skills tests as a form of learning products including; multiple choice,
essay exams, and a portfolio that is often used for this. Among the three forms that have a
higher validity and reliability as well as have a significant impact on learning is a portfolio
assessment. Besides, higher order thinking skills can also be viewed as a learning process.
The measurement is focused on the procedural implementation capabilities at the time of
learning activities using observation sheet and questionnaire [7]. Test essay or answer
descriptions have been developed to measure critical thinking (part of a high level of skill)
with the validity of an average of 0.60 (medium), reliability 0:55 (medium), index of different
power averaging at 0.35 (enough), and the level of difficulty of average -rata 0:45 (medium)
[8]. Observation sheet also used to measure critical thinking skills at the time a student
learning activities with guided inquiry method [9].
Based on the views of experts and relevant research results above, will be developed
through this research essay test instrument to measure higher order thinking skills. Having
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tested the validity and reliability by experts, pilot test carried out on 59 students of class XI
Madrasah Aliyah (MA) in the static fluid material.
II. METHOD OF RESEARCH
This study used a technique for Research and Development (R & D) by taking the
ADDIE model of [10]. ADDIE Model has five phases, namely Analysis, Design,
Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, the fifth phase is shown in Figure 1 below.
In the context of this study, ADDIE model application includes;
Analysis stage is an activity to obtain field information that does not fit the purposes of the
application of PBL to increase the high level of skill with the target reached.
Information obtained through the analysis phase that targets school teachers
in this study have not been using tests to measure higher order thinking
skills. Whereas 2013 curriculum requires teachers to use learning model that
can increase higher order thinking skills and how to measure it.
Figure 1. ADDIE’s model
(soucer: Dick & Carey, 2014).
Design stage is planning activities to develop measurement instruments higher order
thinking skills in a static fluid materials at schools targeted research. The
instrument was developed tailored to the needs of teachers in targeted
schools.
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Develop stage is the stage of development of higher order thinking skills instrument in a
static fluid material. Stages of development include;
Redefine higher order thinking skills in real and operational.
Identify indicators of higher order thinking skills
The validity of the expert to the indicator obtained
Prepare gudeline of multiple-choice test on the static fluid material.
Writing test items (MCQs).
The validity of the experts of the items were written
The test instrument on 59 students of class XI Madrasah Aliyah (MA) in the static
fluid material.
The result of the development of measurement instruments formed Higher-Order
Thinking Skills (PKBTT).
Implementation stage is the stage of the use of instruments PKBTT conducted by
researchers at 26 class XI experimental group and 27 students of class XI
control group at Madrasah Aliyah Rukoh for static fluid material. In the
experimental group applied learning models Problem Solving (PS). Design
implementation of the instruments shown in the following tabel.1.
TABLE 1. Design implementation of the instruments PKBTT
Group Pre-test Treatment Method Pos-test
Experiment O1 PS O2
Control O1 Conventional O2
Evaluation stage is the stage of assessing the effectiveness or usefulness level essay
test instrument to measure higher order thinking skills in students Madrasah
Aliyah Rukoh Banda Aceh. The first evaluation techniques, comparison of
measurement results before treatment and after treatment learning model.
Second, calculate the correlation between the test results of PBKTT and test
results of Concepts Understanding (PK) in the Static Fluid.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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The results of pilot tests show that (i) the index of difficulty average of 0.65 with
medium category, (ii) index of discrimination average of 0.36 with enough categories, (iii)
the reliability value average 0.91 with a very high category, and (v) the validity of an
average of 0.67 with a high category. These values are compared with the results of
research Guspitasari not much different, with the validity of an average of 0.60 (medium),
reliability 0:55 (medium), index of different power averaging at 0.35 (enough), and the level
of difficulty of the average 0:45 (medium) [7].
Based on Bloom's taxonomy revised edition, which included cognitive indicators of
higher order thinking is analytical (C4), evaluation (C5), and creative (C6) [11]. The results
of the pilot test showed that the indicator KBTT test "analysis" took the biggest increase in
sample experimental group (0.85), and indicator "creative" an increase in the lowest
(0.82). These analyzes showed that the indicator has the best contribution to support the
overall ability KBTT instrument. This difference is due to the material content and the
methods used more students are actively involved in the implementation of learning. This
is in accordance with the opinion of Eko, who says that the learning model Problem
Solving (PS) to enhance understanding of concepts and higher order thinking skills (KBTT)
[12]. Besides, Guspitasari and Sodjatmoko also said that the process of learning that
involves students actively fosters thinking skills on students [7,13].
These indicators have varying contribution to the instrument of KBTT, as shown in
Figure 2 below. Among the three indicators of KBTT instruments, the highest contribution
is the analysis (0.72), then kreartif (0.59), and the final evaluation (0.49). This indicates
that the instrument KBTT developed in this study is more predominant activity “analysis”
conducted by the person taking the test, compared with the evaluation or creative activity.
Figure 2. Correlation between the score of KBTT and its indicators
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While the implementation of the instruments PK TT conducted on 26 students of class
XI-IA3 as an experimental group and 27 students of class XI-IA2 as the control group.
Figure 3. Correlation between PK with the indicators of KBTT
The implementation results show that the instrument can measure PKBTT relationship
(correlation) between the higher order thinking skills (KBTT) with understanding of
concepts (PK) Fluid Static in middle category (0.33). More detailed understanding of
concepts (PK) also has a strong correlation with each indicator KBTT as shown in Figure 3
above. Low ability PKBTT instrument to reveal the relationship between KBTT with PK
caused by the all content or the content of each test is a bit different
IV CONCLUSION
The study had two main goals, namely the development of measurement instruments
Higher-Order Thinking Skills (PKBTT) and the level of reliability (effectiveness) PKBTT
instrument in measuring the higher order thinking skill improvement. The results showed
that the indicator KBTT for "analysis" took the biggest improvement, and indicator KBTT
for "creative" an increase in the lowest. The implementation results show that PKBTT
instrument can measure the link between higher order thinking skills (KBTT) with a
mastery of concepts (PK) Fluid Static by students in the category.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
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Further thanks go to everyone who has supported the implementation of this study.
Especially to our students (Sabaruddin) who helped carry out the research properly and
sincerely, and also to the manager and administrator of the Master of Science Education
which had contributed to the successful implementation of this idea.
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