BookPDF Available

¿Hacia una Ciudad Vasca/Euskal Hiria? Aproximación desde la Innovación Social (PhD Dissertation)

Authors:

Abstract

1. This is the PhD dissertation (2008-2011) of Igor Calzada receiving on 11th February 2011 'CUM LAUDE' calification at the University of Mondragon (Spain). 2. The related fieldwork research was conducted from the University of Nevada, Reno (Centre for Basque Studies) in the USA and Ireland from 2008 to 2009 as a result of the Doctoral/Postgraduate Award received from the Spanish Prince and Caja Madrid Foundation. 3. In his dissertation, he aimed to compare the Basque Country (Spain), Portland (Oregon) and Dublin (Ireland) in order to establish an analytical framework for a city-region. 4. He applied action research qualitative methods and he observe social innovation processes in the three cases. 5. He carried out interviews and fieldwork research in the West of the USA (Portland, San Francisco, Seattle, Phoenix, Idaho,...) and Europe (Dublin, Helsinki, Copenhagen, Malmö, Reykjavik,...), primarily. 6. As the first milestone of his postdoctoral period, he directed a Congress in 2012 in collaboration with the Basque Government's Territorial Development Ministry. 7. Thereafter, he was awarded with a Postdoctoral Fellowship by Ikerbasque, Basque Science Foundation, for three years (2012-2014) and the RSA Early Career Grant (2014-2015), to compiled a eight-cases benchmarking gathered and disseminated in www.cityregions.org. 8. He published a summary of this project in the Regional Studies Regional Science journal in open access as follows: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908 (4,826 views, 12 Citations, and 60 Altmetric) 9. He is preparing a monograph for Routledge, Regions and Cities Series. To cite this monograph: Calzada, I. (2011), ¿Hacia una Ciudad Vasca? Aproximación desde la Innovación Social. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco. ISBN: 978-84-457-3180-2. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.20682.36801.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Consequently, this "there and here effect" delves into the partial interpretation that continental Basques often make about reproducing their practices in the Basque diaspora. This interpretation assumes one official version of the Basque identity being replicated elsewhere, without considering that internationalization of the Basque identity enables multiple e-identities of Basqueness and is based on the idea of commuting or travelling through a physical space [5]. Yet, this article embraces the concept of e-diaspora(s) as the key to understanding these e-societies' transitions in a postpandemic world. ...
... Against this historical and social backdrop, this article is framed by two main developmental transitions suggested by Calzada in 2011 [5]. These transitions may have been exacerbated over the last two decades in the Basque diaspora in the western US, particularly focused on the aforementioned states that this article compares. ...
... e-Diaspora neither erases nor removes historical and contextual social attributes of specific Basque communities. Instead, it embraces a real-time orchestration of a diverse set of Basque e-identities that can co-exist and learn from each other [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Basque settlement increased in the western states of the US decades ago, particularly in California, Idaho, and Nevada. Alongside this migration phenomenon, Basque Studies programs have been emerging at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), Boise State University (BSU), and California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB), particularly in the humanities, including history, anthropology, linguistics, and literature. The impact of the pandemic in Basque e-Diasporic communities in California, Idaho, and Nevada, and, consequently, the deep digitalization process being undertaken at the abovementioned universities, has resulted in an increasing demand for an articulated strategy in community engagement through action research. To respond to this timely challenge, the article suggests a need for a transition towards a Social Science transdisciplinary roadmap to support Basque e-diasporic communities. Basque Studies programs have the potential to act as a transformational policy driver through their virtual connections with the Basque Country and key homeland institutions. This article explores this necessary transition through action research by acknowledging the potential for the three abovementioned US states and the Basque Country to set up a transformational e-Diaspora.
... This paper defines the techno-political Basque city-region simply as 'Euskal Hiria', the fuzzy, locally used term to systematize the complex fragmentation of a city-regional assemblage. Despite the diverse set of analogies used to describe Euskal Hiria, as extensively stated in previous research by the author (Calzada, 2011(Calzada, , 2015a, this paper analyzes the highly metropolitanized (Figure 3), complex, fragmented and extensive political geography of Euskal Hiria (Figure 2). Furthermore, given the conflictual social relations that emerged from the traumatic context and side effects of political violence during this historic episode, territorial narratives and political rhetoric have been extremely influenced by emotionally charged and socio-politically combative landscapes. ...
... Over the last years, a remarkable aspect has been overcoming sterile competition and instead working towards reinforcing the complementarity among Bilbao, San Sebasti?n and Vitoria-Gasteiz, including Pamplona-Iru?ea and Bayonne, drawing on the territorial cohesion that provides strength. Different interpretations -from a more institutional competitiveness-driven orientation (Vegara & De las Rivas, 2009) to the more dystopic, pessimistic and critical perspectives (Calvo, 2015;Larrea, 2012) -demonstrate the lack of a common city-regional frame that would allow a deeper analysis of the socially innovative processes, with direct implications for the techno-political realm by its actors (Calzada, 2011). Before addressing three different standpoints as this paper's contribution to the debate, two main trends based on three drivers of transition are needed to frame the conceptual assemblage of algorithmic nations (Table 1): ...
Article
Full-text available
There are changing dynamics among political regionalization processes and the rescaling of nation-states in Europe. However, updated and timely research remains scant, ambiguous and unable to meet the challenges of data-driven societies and uneven borders. Nations’ physical boundaries matter as much as political borders in their pervasive and growing algorithmic, stateless, liquid and metropolitan citizenship patterns. This paper explores these new ‘connectographies’ from a regional science perspective, introducing the term ‘algorithmic nations’ as a city-regional and techno-political conceptual assemblage. A case study is presented of the small stateless city-regionalized European nation of the Basque Country through its analytical and transitional lens, locally known as ‘Euskal Hiria’ (Basque city-region in the Basque language). This paper questions whether the Basque Country could evolve by (1) modifying its governmental logics and (2) merging its three separate devolved administrations (3) while enabling their direct interactions with citizens (4) through blockchain technologies as the small state of Estonia is implementing and employing cutting-edge algorithmic governance frameworks. In doing so, this paper suggests how four drivers - metropolitanization, devolution, the right to decide and blockchain - may be respectively invigorating four dynamics - geoeconomics, geopolitics, geodemocratics and geotechnologics - in this transition towards the algorithmic nations. Ultimately, this paper concludes with an algorithmic nations research and policy agenda decalogue of how these geotechnological changes might determine the future position of small stateless city-regionalized nations in the European Union.
... Artikulu honetan, autore anitzen ekarpen eguneratuak bilduta (Angelidou;Psaltoglou 2017;Bartels 2020;Bund et al. 2015;Engelbrecht 2018;European Commission 2010;Mihci 2019;Moulaert et al. 2007;Pel et al. 2019;Poppen;decker 2018;Preskill;Beer 2012;Sabato et al. 2017;Schubert 2018;Terstriep et al. 2020) bi zati osagarrik definituko dute GB: (2017). Autore asko izan dira berau perspektiba ezberdinetatik jorratu dutenak (Grimm et al. 2013;MacCallum 2019;Moulaert et al. 2017;Mulgan 2006;Nicholls et al. 2015;Van de Broeck et al. 2019) eta baita ere Euskal herriko testuinguru konkretuari aplikatutako analisi makro, meso, eta mikroak (Calzada 2011;2016a;Casado da Rocha;Calzada 2015;Echevarría 2008;heales et al. 2017;Martínez Moreno 2018;unceta et al. 2016). Laburbilduz, Joan Subirats-ek GB egokia definitzeko 10 osagai zehazten ditu: (i) pizgarriduna, (ii) estrategikoa, (iii) integrala/transbertsala/intersekzionala, (iv) eraginkorra, (v) partehartzailea (ahalduntzeko gai dena), (vi) fundamentuzkoa (kosmetikatik harago), (vii) trans-ferigarri/errepikagarria, (viii) plurala (aktore anitz kontuan dituena), (ix) eskalagarrria, eta azkenik (x) ahultasunari aurre egiteko gai dena. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: This article draws on the thorny topic of the Social Innovation (SI). Particularly, it revolves around the role of those social movements promoting the Basque language not only in relation to their organisational models but also to their holistic strategy to tackle inevitably digital, urban, and political challenges surfaced by the disruptions stemming from the post-COVID society. Beyond the prescriptive, normative, or dogmatic standpoints, by contrast, this article actually aims to reflect upon and spark a fruitful debate on the current momentum by applying an amalgamation of SI concepts to the reality of the Basque Country. It employs ‘Action Research’ methodology to gather information and carry out fieldwork research as follows: (i) The invitation made by Euskaltzaleen Topagunea (as the main body for coordinating civic groups) to deliver a conference in the Symposium called Topaldia 2020 was the point of departure of this article. (ii) Consequently, Soziolinguistikako Klusterra (as the main body of research for the Basque language social development) through its scientific journal Bat, disseminates within this article the main findings of this ‘Action Research’ process. Thus, the article is structured in five sections: (i) first, it develops the SI concept and applies through its lenses a re-interpretation of the current momentum for the Basque language in the techno-political parameters (social entrepreneurship, activism, and co-operativism); (ii) second, in the backdrop of the post-COVID society, this article argues that, more than ever before, ‘liquid’ social movements are required to lead niche experiments; (iii) third, as a result of the digital, urban, and political transformations, the basque language, euskara, should be articulated as a ‘commons’, beyond the binary terms of the public and private; (iv) fourth, this article adopts as a case study the social experimentation project entitled ‘Euskaraldia’ taking place once every two years, in which people related to the Basque language, Euskara—though the profiling of two interdependent roles, active speakers as ‘ahobizi’, and early-adopters, practitioners, and listeners as ‘belarriprest’—in all seven provicinces and the Diaspore of the Basque Country, are encouraged to speak more intensively Euskara over an 11-day period (www.euskaraldia.eus) by overcoming motivational, contextual, and psycho-sociological boundaries and threats imposed by the diglosic lock-in effect. This section, therefore, slightly outline a prototype from the Digital SI perspective called ‘Euskaraldia, as a Digital Panopticon’; ultimately (v), this article concludes with a decalogue and five questions by further encouraging active reflection and social experimentation among stakeholders. Keywords: Social Innovation; Liquid Social Movements; Commons; Euskaraldia; Digital Panopticon; Technopolitics; Data; Urban Transformations; Digital Transformations; Political Transformations; Post-COVID Society; Social Entrepreneurship; Activism; Co-operativism To cite this article/Artikulua erreferentziatzeko erabili honako zita: Calzada, I. (2020), Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa // The Role of Social Movements in the Social Innovation (SI): Euskaraldia as a Digital Panopticon. BAT Aldizkaria 115(2): 85-114. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35980.05763/5. CC BY-NC 4.0
... Our aims involve both theoretical and practical dimensions, so we prefer to use the term "connection" to describe our research intervention, involving applied ethics (Casado 2008) and critical social innovation studies (Calzada 2011b). We think both might benefit from collaboration. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a framework informed by two disciplines, Social Innovation and Applied Ethics, to be used in an on-going analysis of territorial democratic systems. The time frame chosen for the case studies is the period before and after the 2008 global crisis. In Iceland the crisis had an economic and political aspect affecting the self-understanding of the territory as a whole. In the Basque Country it also deals with the current peace process to settle down political violence and its causes. In both cases there are deep underlying value issues, but this paper introduces the results obtained in Iceland. While its democratic system has proven to be able to contest the causes of the crisis, there is no definitive evidence that the re-examination process that was opened on 6th October 2008 is resolved yet.
... Rural coastal regions show an outstanding context to promote sustainable development goals while blending the rural and the urban in a new mix (Andersen et al., 2016). Particularly, the Basque city-region (Calzada, 2011) presents a mountainous landscape that merges the rural and the urban in a new innovative and sustainable outcome: RUrban. Saxena (2016) has studied the way rural tourism could be promoted from the marketing perspective. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the geopolitical world context, which is characterised by increasing boundaries to human mobility in an uneven realm full of walls and borders, the current pattern of tourism has not been diminished. In fact, translocal mobility, reflecting a wide range of motivations, emotions, tools, destinations and strategies, provides new opportunities to analyse, experiment and propose new smart policies that facilitate the transition to unexplored tourism models. Particularly remarkable are the experiences in many places regarding the role of tourists as visitors and locals as residents in experimental interventions for empowering local communities in remote coastal regions. This is the case of the coastal village of Zumaia (Basque Country) in Spain, which is establishing a new participatory local strategy for tourism after two remarkable events with clear tourism-related consequences for the community: first, the success in attacting and gaining 50% of visitors to the high-valued geological area of the Basque Coast Global Geopark , particularly also known as the flysch, and second, the filming of scenes from Season 7 of the blockbuster TV series Game of Thrones in the surroundings of the village. This paper thus will depict the specific current touristic, social, economic and political context of Zumaia to better understand the project that has recently kicked off: ‘Experimenting with Smart Tourism Labs’. This project, based on ethnographic and strategic techniques derived from action research, aims to set up a participatory itinerary while implementing a prospective view by considering a wide range of stakeholders . The multi-stakeholder scheme will follow the Penta-Helix framework by encompassing local authorities, the private sector, academia and research centres, civil society and social entrepreneurs and activists. Ultimately, the inner perception and outside projection of the touristic assets shared by residents and visitors contribute as much as activities and the infrastructure in the village do toward establishing a credible translocal tourism strategy. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that Zumaia be developed as a ‘smart destination’ without input from the different stakeholders. As such, ‘smart’ technological solutions that take advantage of the so-called Open Data or Big Data, in the era of ‘dataism’, have not always been focused on necessities and usability. In order to shed some light on this debate, this paper will present some preliminary methodological guidelines to undertake the aforementioned action research project in the village of Zumaia. By blending hospitality management, experience economy, ‘knowmads’ and millennials and by connecting talent and sustainable tourism, among other trends, this paper explores the opportunities for Zumaia in the Basque Coast Geopark by setting up a ‘Smart Tourism Lab’. More broadly, the ‘Smart Tourism Lab’ will consider the village itself as an open platform merging technological ownership, local economy, culturally-rooted tradition, inclusive identity, international openness, political bridging (social capital), and social innovation for setting up an innovative touristic prospective strategy.
... Our aims involve both theoretical and practical dimensions, so we prefer to use the term "connection" to describe our research intervention, involving applied ethics (Casado 2008) and critical social innovation studies (Calzada 2011b). We think both might benefit from collaboration. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a framework informed by two disciplines, Social Innovation and Applied Ethics, to be used in an on-going analysis of territorial democratic systems. The time frame chosen for the case studies is the period before and after the 2008 global crisis. In Iceland the crisis had an economic and political aspect affecting the self-understanding of the territory as a whole. In the Basque Country it also deals with the current peace process to settle down political violence and its causes. In both cases there are deep underlying value issues, but this paper introduces the results obtained in Iceland. While its democratic system has proven to be able to contest the causes of the crisis, there is no definitive evidence that the re-examination process that was opened on 6th October 2008 is resolved yet.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This the technical report regarding the Tourism Plan of the Local Municipal of Zumaia, in the Basque Country (Spain). To cite this report as follows: Calzada, I. & Arranz, A. (2017), Zumaia Tourism Plan: ZumaiaLab Tourism LivingLab, Zumaia: Translokal – Academic Entrepreneurship for Policy Making y University of Oxford. ISBN: 978-84-946385-3-4
Data
Full-text available
After analysing different academic and policymaking contributions gathered in the Political Innovation Summer School in the Basque Country, the author presents a strategic diagnosis of and vision for stakeholders (public institutions, private firms, academia, civil society, and entrepreneurs). This diagnosis and vision can be used to build politically “smart” and diverse discourses to better understand political positions relative to one another. Thus, Basque Political Innovation can be summarised as the ‘no veto’ paradigm, in which any political project that arises from the political spectrum of the Basque territories  the Basque Autonomy, the Navarra Statutory Autonomy, the French Pays Basque, and the Diaspore  can be democratically promoted and supported by collective decision-making processes; it can also guarantee the individual ‘right to decide’ one’s own political status. In pursuit of this topic, the author foresees ten potential strategic trends for Basque Country politics. These trends will help stakeholders in the Basque Country to ensure permanent and realistic benchmarking analyses with other European Union city-regions that are currently deploying paradiplomatic, translocal, independence- or devolution-driven, and multilevel governance projects, initiatives and practices.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The population in the rural landscape in the Basque Country's Atlantic valleys remains disag-gregated (not dispersed, in the strictest sense), following the productive patterns of traditional agricultural and livestock undertakings. The production units that have moulded the Basque landscape have remained family-owned and self-sufficient since the middle ages, despite important structural changes, in a humid, mid-mountain setting. Since the 16th century, the building used for agricultural purposes are compact, with living quarters for humans and animals, and areas for storing and processing farm products all under one roof. The houses (called caseríos, or hamlets, when they were grouped into isolated neighbourhoods) sought to optimize the surrounding resources, such as the available sunlight, work areas (e.g. larrain or threshing floors) and farmlands. Therefore, the system goes beyond the idea of a building to encompass the Basque word baserri (which probably comes from baso – forest – and herri, in the sense of earth). The proliferation of baserri, with their houses, threshing floors, vegetable gardens, orchards and forests, formed a highly characteristic anthropoid landscape that, with few variations, stretched from the Adour to the Zadorra and Arga Rivers, and from the EncartacionesOrientales region to the headwaters of the river Erro, an area 200 Km long and barely 80 Km wide. The protection of the baserri as a system for organising rural landscapes in the context of the urban sprawl processes: the " SLaM " model versus the Utopia of " smart cities " ABSTRACT: The baserri is a vernacular efficient agricultural productive system that has shaped the Basque landscape. As industry was undergoing mass expansion, many baserris were abandoned. After the industrial crisis, the value of these bucolic farms increased, but not as agricultural undertakings and forestall exploitations. This landscape has begun to be perceived as a continuous metropolis that needs a different model of consumption and performance. The neoliberal concept of " smart cities " gives priority to immediate economic profitability and technology, which are only applied to the fastest-growing neighbourhoods in metropolitan areas with the highest financial capability, dispossessing them of their identity. In contrast, we regard 'smart landscapes of memory' (SLaM) as heritage districts of a high cultural level and generators of a feeling of identity and belonging. They are subject to coordinated management and urban planning in order to achieve the sustainable development of the territory and, above all, of its inhabitant.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.