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Turkey's Policy on Employment of Syrian Refugees and its Impact on the Turkish Labour Market

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Abstract

After the start of the Syrian Crisis in 2011, Turkish authorities coined the term ‘guest’ for Syrian refugees. However, in a short span of time, it became apparent that this ‘visit’ of Syrians and refugee influx would not end anytime soon. This situation brings the employment problem into the question, considering that Turkey hosts nearly 3 million Syrian refugees. Even though Syrians already take part in the workforce, they are largely employed illegally and often paid very low wages. In a major shift of policy, Turkey has started to offer Syrian refugees work permits. Through the latest regulation, registered Syrian refugees who have been in Turkey for at least six months are allowed to apply for work permits in the province where they first registered. This study aims to examine the current impact of Syrian refugees on the Turkish labour market at the regional level, and to predict possible changes in the wages of the local population and local unemployment levels after the Turkish government grants Syrians the right to work.
MIGRATION SERIES BY TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON
TURKISH MIGRATION 2016
SELECTED PAPERS
MIGRATION SERIES BY TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON
TURKISH
MIGRATION
2016
selected
Compiled by
Deniz Eroğlu
Jeffrey H. Cohen
Ibrahim Sirkeci
Deniz Eroğlu – Jeffrey H.
Cohen - Ibrahım Sirkeci
TURKISH MIGRATION 2016
SELECTED
PAPERS
Compiled by Deniz Eroğlu, Jeffrey H.
Cohen and Ibrahim Sirkeci
These papers are a corrective to the limits of the poles and to
any other models that seek to dehumanize migrants and cast
refugees as the victims of processes they cannot control. Our
interests range across the social sciences and the humanities
and engage with experiences and theories that contextualize
mobility and look beyond the limits of the news cycle to answer
fundamental questions about mobility and Turkish migration. The
voices represented define some of the very best work taking
place around the world and exploring the outcomes of mobility.
164
Eroğlu, D. Cohen, J.H., Sirkeci, I.
(eds.) (2016). Turkish Migration 2016
Selected Papers. London: TPL.
Chapter 21. Turkey’s Policy on Employment of
Syrian Refugees and its Impact on the Turkish
Labour Market
Cihan Kızıl
1
Introduction
The war in Syria is one of the worst humanitarian crisis of our time, with
millions of people forced into refugee status in neighbouring countries. In addition,
at least 470,000 Syrians have died in this conflict and Syria has lost 29.8 per cent
of its HDI value in 2015 compared to 2010 (SCPR, 2016, p.17). As the immediate
neighbour, Turkey has responded to this humanitarian crisis, declaring a temporary
protection regime for Syrian asylum-seekers and setting up 26 camps where
267,000 people are currently staying. The country already struggles to cope with
nearly 3 million Syrian refugees, and this number may rise further following the
agreement to stop Syrian refugees from flooding into the EU.
At first, the Turkish government predicted that Syrian President Bashar Assad
would be toppled in a short time and hoped “guests” (a word chosen over refugees)
would be able to return home. However, the Syrian crisis enters its six year and
Turkey finds itself in a very difficult situation. Accommodating and aiding the large
number of Syrian refugees is a great burden for Turkey’s public finance. Besides,
Turkey has to manage the massive economic, social, demographic and security
challenges worsening with each passing day. Even though granting work permits
for Syrians hasn’t been treated as a priority for a long time, Turkey finally realises
that Syrians are staying and need job opportunities to survive.
The temporary protection the Turkish government has granted does not
automatically provide Syrians the right to work. On the contrary, work permit
applications of those under temporary protection have been rejected until recently
(Erdoğan & Ünver, 2015, p. 41-42). Initially, Syrians entering the country with valid
passports were able to apply for residence permits and then for the right to work.
However, most Syrian refugees possess no passport, and the ones with valid
passports cannot renew them once they expire. Since the application process was
long and cumbersome, Syrians, no matter what their qualifications, were mostly
employed illegally and often paid very low wages (Dinçer et al., 2013, p. 25-26).
In a major shift of policy, Turkey has started to offer Syrian refugees work
permits. This will most likely have an affect on the Turkish labour market,
considering that there are millions of Syrians ready to work. This paper aims to
examine the current impact of Syrian refugees on the Turkish labour market at the
regional level, and to predict possible changes in wages of the local population and
local unemployment levels after the policy goes into effect.
1
Cihan KIZIL is a PhD. Candidate at Faculty of Economics of Istanbul University, Main Campus,
34452 Beyazıt/Fatih, Istanbul. E-mail: kizilc@istanbul.edu.tr.
165
Turkey’s New Regulation Granting Work Permits
The Turkish government announced “Regulation on Work Permits of Foreigners
under Temporary Protection” in January 2016. On the eve of this regulation, Deputy
Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmuş said that 7,351 Syrians had been granted work
permits since the onset of the Syrian crisis, a dramatic statement showing how
Syrians were excluded from the formal labour market (Çetingüleç, 2016).
Moreover, most of these work permits were acquired by Syrians having adequate
capital to start their own business. According to the statistics of the TOBB
2
and of
the Ministry of Economy, 1,599 companies with Syrian partners were established
in 2015, and the total number of companies with Syrian capital was 3,680 at the end
of the year 2015.
Through the regulation, registered Syrian refugees who have been in Turkey for
at least six months are allowed to apply for work permits in the province where they
first registered. Work permit applications will be made available online by the
employer through the e-government portal. In addition, independent work permit
applications can be made by the foreigners under temporary protection by
themselves. Syrians with work permits cannot be paid under minimum wage;
however, the number of Syrians working in a given enterprise will be limited to
10% of the employed Turkish citizens. Those under temporary protection who will
be employed in the seasonal jobs in agriculture and stockbreeding sectors are
exempted from the work permit.
Without question, Syrians living in the country were in need of this regulation.
However, the regulation on the employment of Syrian refugees might go in effect
too late. In most European countries, a Syrian refugee receiving a protection status
and temporary residence permit under the 1951 Geneva Convention is able to apply
for permanent residence permit (Konle-Seidl & Bolits, 2016, p. 21). For refugees,
the Convention provides a first step to obtain a work permit. Additionally, many
universities in the EU, the USA, Canada, and Australia offer special scholarships
for Syrian refugees to recruit bright Syrian minds. Due to opportunities provided
for qualified refugees, many Syrians already left Turkey and made it to Europe and
other countries mentioned above. Turkey had similar chances in its history;
however, it has failed to take advantage of the influx of highly qualified labour force
especially during World War I & II. The contribution of a small number of scholars
employed in Istanbul University during World War II shows the opportunities
Turkey has missed in the past.
Syrian Refugees and Their Impact on the Turkish Labour Market
Investigating the impact of Syrian refugees on the Turkish labour market is not
an easy task since Syrians are mostly employed illegally. Moreover, available data
for formal and informal employment do not represent the current situation. Yet there
are some attempts to measure the effects of the refugee influx empirically.
Akgündüz, van den Berg, and Hassink (2015) perform the dierence-in-dierences
exercise to find the impact of the refugee influx on inflation and employment rates.
Their findings suggest that while housing prices increased, employment rates of
2
The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey.
Turkish Migration 2016 Selected Papers
166
natives in various skill groups are largely unaffected. Ceritoğlu et al. (2015) perform
the same method to compare the outcomes of the natives in the regions that receive
refugees to those that don’t receive them, before and after the Syrian crisis. They
find notable employment losses among informal workers as a consequence of
refugee inflows, while the impact of Syrian refugees on wage outcomes were
insignificant. According to their results, females, younger workers, and less-
educated workers were affected the worst by the refugee influx. Del Carpio and
Wagner (2015) find similar results, but also an increase in formal employment
only for Turkish men without completed high school education, though.
All of the studies mentioned above examine the pre-2014 period in Turkey.
However, the current Syrian population in Turkey is 5 times more, and all provinces
receive Syrian refugees with increasing rates. While Turkey hosts 3 million Syrians,
it is hard to claim that there is no effect of Syrians on the Turkish labour market.
Even though the current situation is different, the results of these studies indicate
some important points.
Table 1 shows the 26 NUTS level-2 regions of Turkey and highlights the six
regions having refugee camps. Currently, 267,000 refugees are staying in these
camps, and additional hundreds of thousands of Syrians prefer staying in the same
regions where camps are located. However, Kızıl (2016) draws on regional data to
show that Syrian refugees in other twenty regions start to realise that they will be
staying long term in Turkey. Therefore, Syrians under temporary protection seek
job opportunities and move to relatively developed regions for livelihood purposes
once they realise that they will not return home soon.
In this study, we draw on migration statistics provided by the Ministry of Interior
Directorate General of Migration Management (DGMM). Additionally, the
numbers of people employed in the regions, regional unemployment rates and
population numbers are taken from the Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkstat). We
assume that the total number of people employed refers the employment capacity
of the given region. These statistics are summarized in Table 2.
Unfortunately, we do not have regional Syrian population data for 2014 to
compare with 2015; however, the total number of Syrian refugees in 2014 was
1,519,286 according to the statistics the DGMM provided. In a year, approximately
one million Syrians were registered, and possibly, most of these new refugees
registered in the border regions. As seen in Table 2, three of the regions where
refugee camps are located (TR63, TRC1, and TRC2) hosted more than four hundred
thousand refugees each in 2015. The total Syrian population in six regions was 70%
of all Syrians registered in Turkey. With regard to this striking ratio, severe effects
should be observed in these regions.
TRC3, TRC2, and TR63, three regions with refugee camps, have the highest
unemployment rates, according to 2015 statistics. Moreover, unemployment rates
increased (0.8%, 0.1%, and 1.0% respectively) in these regions between 2014 and
2015. However, these regions were among the least developed regions in Turkey,
even before the refugee influxes started (Kızıl, 2015). Therefore, it cannot be
asserted that Syrian refugees are the sole responsible factor in this situation. This is
an important point that researchers should not miss. However, there is another
region, TRC1, which gives precious information about the effect of Syrian refugees.
167
According to the results of Kızıl (2015), TRC1 is one of the regions showing
significant jumps in the development rankings. Besides, unemployment levels in
this region were always below the Turkey average in the recent years. Another
important point to note is that TRC1 has the highest Syrian-Turkish population ratio.
In the light of these facts, the increase in unemployment level of TRC1 from 8.0%
to 9.9% becomes meaningful and gives a clue on the effect of Syrian refugees.
Table 1: NUTS level-2 regions and provinces they cover.
REGION CODE PROVINCES
TR10 İstanbul
TR21 Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli
TR22 Balıkesir, Çanakkale
TR31 İzmir
TR32 Aydın, Denizli, Muğla
TR33 Manisa, Afyon, Kütahya, Uşak
TR41 Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik
TR42 Kocaeli, Sakarya, Düzce, Bolu, Yalova
TR51 Ankara
TR52 Konya, Karaman
TR61 Antalya, Isparta, Burdur
TR62 Adana, Mersin
TR63 Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, Osmaniye
TR71 Kırıkkale, Aksaray, Niğde, Nevşehir, Kırşehir
TR72 Kayseri, Sivas, Yozgat
TR81 Zonguldak, Karabük, Bartın
TR82 Kastamonu, Çankırı, Sinop
TR83 Samsun, Tokat, Çorum, Amasya
TR90 Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Rize, Artvin, Gümüşhane
TRA1 Erzurum, Erzincan, Bayburt
TRA2 Ağrı, Kars, Iğdır, Ardahan
TRB1 Malatya, Elazığ, Bingöl, Tunceli
TRB2 Van, Muş, Bitlis, Hakkâri
TRC1 Gaziantep, Adıyaman, Kilis
TRC2 Şanlıurfa, Diyarbakır
TRC3 Mardin, Batman, Şırnak, Siirt
Source: Turkstat.
In order to assess the relationship of refugees' location choice with economic
capacity, Pearson’s r and Spearman’s rank correlation analyses have been
performed. The results of these correlation tests are summarized in Table 3. When
we consider all NUTS level-2 regions of Turkey, Pearson’s r correlation coefficient
indicates a weak relation (0.329), Spearman’s rho coefficient indicates a moderate
relation (0.521). However, once we take out of the six regions with camps, the
relation becomes very strong according to the both correlation methods. This result
Turkish Migration 2016 Selected Papers
168
is quite important as it shows that finding a job is the primary motivation to migrate
from the border regions to the other ones.
Table 2: NUTS level-2 regions and provinces they cover
Source: Turkstat, DGMM, and author calculations.
Table 3: Correlation coefficients.
Pearson's r
Spearman's rho
N
Employment Capacity
0.329**
0.521**
26
0.955**
0.835**
20
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Source: Author calculations.
Employment
Capacity (1000)
Unemployment
Rate (%)
Syrian
Population
Refugee / Native
Population (%)
2014
2015
2014
2015
2015
2015
TR10
5,053
5,259
11.9
12.9
349,934
2.39
TR21
640
669
7.6
7.3
12,722
0.75
TR22
581
581
5.6
5.3
4,381
0,26
TR31
1,475
1,452
13.9
15.0
81,643
1.96
TR32
1,077
1,098
7.2
6.9
18,173
0.61
TR33
1,108
1,129
3.9
4.1
8,386
0.28
TR41
1,313
1,335
6.2
7.8
83,097
2.14
TR42
1,253
1,288
10.0
10.1
23,040
0.64
TR51
1,762
1,813
11.5
11.2
50,101
0.95
TR52
752
785
5.6
6.5
47,568
2.00
TR61
1,090
1,078
8.3
9.6
8,465
0.29
TR62
1,217
1,271
10.7
9.8
258,940
6.59
TR63
765
754
15.4
16.4
473,034
15.05
TR71
476
494
7.7
9.9
7,387
0.49
TR72
728
748
9.6
9.7
42,261
1.78
TR81
374
359
6.0
7.0
447
0.04
TR82
266
265
6.5
6.8
706
0.09
TR83
913
929
6.2
6.5
3,958
0.15
TR90
911
944
6.2
4.8
2,157
0.08
TRA1
329
341
7.4
5.9
516
0.05
TRA2
369
374
3.4
3.9
1,016
0.09
TRB1
518
532
7.5
8.0
21,156
1.24
TRB2
538
557
13.5
9.5
3,349
0.16
TRC1
673
694
8.0
9.9
472,444
17.73
TRC2
717
771
17.4
17.5
401,685
11.33
TRC3
360
371
24.0
24.8
126,983
5.84
Turkey
25,258
25,891
10.1
10.5
2,503,549
3.18
169
As it can be expected, Istanbul (TR10), the region having the most employment
capacity, received the highest number of Syrian refugees except for the six regions
close to the border. Even though unemployment rate increased one point and this
increase is above the Turkey average, we need more data to support the claim that
Syrian refugees affect the labour market in TR10 significantly. Besides, there is no
sufficient evidence from other regions since the shifts in unemployment rates are
not highly correlated with refugee-native population rates. Unemployment rates
summarized in table 2 show mixed results.
There are few studies on the effect of Syrian refugees, and they cover only the
pre-2014 period due to lack of data. We have some remarkable statistics from the
last years, but they are not sufficient to perform econometric methods. Yet, we
obtain some valuable information from the previous studies and the analysis above.
First, Syrian refugee influx mostly affects informal employment, and disadvantaged
groups (such as females and less-educated workers) are affected the most. Second,
finding a job is the priority for refugees, and they move to relatively developed
regions for livelihood purposes. Third, Syrians might really affect the formal
employment level of the regions where the Syrian population highly concentrates.
These findings are important to predict the effect of new regulation on the Turkish
labour market.
Conclusion
Turkey put into force the regulation granting work permits to those under
temporary protection five years after the outbreak of the Syrian crisis. As the
country had missed the previous chances to take advantage of the influx of highly
qualified labour force, it probably missed this chance as well. Highly qualified
workforce has fled mostly to the Europe in these five years.
Turkey hosts millions of Syrian refugees, and they need proper jobs for a
dignified life. Previous studies and statistics related to the years before the
regulation show that Syrians seek job opportunities, but they are mostly employed
illegally. Syrians are considered as a cheap labour force by small firms in Turkey,
and it is unlikely that new regulation urges these employers to employ Syrians
legally. Syrians, especially with the lack of Turkish language, will be continue to
be exploited. However, there are a lot of medium- and large-sized companies
searching for qualified workers in Turkey. Now these companies are able to hire
Syrian workers through the regulation since they tend to employ workers legally.
Currently, Syrians may be unaware of the regulation, but especially qualified
workers will seek better and legal jobs sooner or later. The increase of supply in the
informal labour market has prominently affected informal employment of natives.
Moreover, the number of Syrians in Turkey has increased tremendously in the last
years, and it has already started to affect formal employment of natives in some
regions.
Following the regulation, the labour supply in the formal labour market
gradually increases; as a consequence, a decrease in wages and an increase in
unemployment levels of natives can be expected. However, these effects might be
smaller than expected because the regulation brings a 10% quota for the Syrian
workforce. We expect that informal employment of Syrians will continue, and
Turkish Migration 2016 Selected Papers
170
especially low-skilled Turkish workers might lose their jobs or be forced to accept
low wages. There will be another competition in the labour market for more
qualified Turkish workers as well. However, high-skilled natives might face a
weaker competition since highly qualified Syrian workforce has already left the
country.
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Refugees may struggle to overcome not only psychological impacts of pre-resettlement events but also additional living challenges in post-resettlement contexts. This study aims to understand how context-specific factors influence the psychosocial wellbeing of Syrian refugees through comparing difficulties and resources in two locations. A total of 185 Syrians (Buffalo N = 82, Istanbul N = 103) completed various measures. The Istanbul sample was more educated and employed, had been in Turkey for a longer time, had less monthly income, and experience more discrimination than the sample in Buffalo. Post-migration living difficulties and the satisfaction with quality of life made unique contributions to mental health in both samples. Identifying key contextual factors in the place refugees live contributed to a multifaceted understanding of their experiences and how those experiences impact their mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. Studying post-resettlement contexts can facilitate the development of interventions, programs, and policies that address the needs of refugees. Future studies with Syrian refugees may take into consideration cultural elements identified through this study in order to develop culturally congruent practices and research. Future research should identify the challenges of sub-groups (e.g., single or widowed individuals) within Syrian refugees to achieve social justice for every member of this population.
... The majority of Syrians refugees are found in the southern cities of Turkey, such as Gaziantep, Kilis and Antakya, and other major cities such as Istanbul and Mersin as well. In January 2016, The Turkish government issued a decree allowing work permits for Syrians (Esen & Binatlı, 2017), and after this decree, as Kızıl (2016) mentioned the companies or employers have been able to recruit Syrian workers through the regulation because they tend to hire workers legally. ...
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Suggested citation: Alhamoud, A. (2018). The moderating effect of job satisfaction between Turkish work environment and Syrian workers' intention to leave. Journal of Politics, Economy and Management, 1(2), 41-53. Abstract: This research investigates the case of Syrian workers in Turkish work environment and was conducted in private and public workplaces. This research discussed the moderating role of job satisfaction between the Turkish work environment and the Syrian workers' intention to leave. Data based on (104) respondents were analyzed to investigate the relationships between some research variables. The questionnaires were conducted in many Turkish cities such as (Istanbul, Antakya, and Gaziantep) where many Syrians people are present. To analyze the data, various statistical tools were used, such as Correlation Matrix, Mean, Standard Deviation, Factor Analysis and Cronbach's Alpha Coefficients (a). To test the hypotheses, regression analysis and moderator analysis were conducted. The main results of the research are: the relationship between work environment and intention to leave is significant and positive (β=.263; p<.01); and the relationship between work environment and job satisfaction is significant and positive (β=.856; p<.01); as such, the relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave is significant and positive (β=.245; p<.05); and lastly, the effect of interaction between work environment and job satisfaction is significant in predicting intention to leave (R²-change=.1736; p<.05).
... The refugees' integration process in Turkey is challenged by a number of issues. Although a very small number of refugees have work permits (Kizil, 2016), they are usually considered as low-paid workers and are employed in dead-end, "3-D" (dirty, difficult and dangerous) jobs (Jaji, 2009). Most refugees also do not have a proper legal status which would permit them to be legally employed based on their qualifications and education level (Kim & Jang, 2007;Dincer, Karayilan, & Cifci, 2017). ...
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In recent years, the refugee crisis has emerged as a major global challenge with social, economic, and political implications. Figures indicate that there are currently over 22 million refugees around the world. While refugees are usually regarded as a burden for their host countries, their entrepreneurial ventures might offer significant contributions to local economies. Although refugee entrepreneurship has become significantly evident in several economies, theoretical and empirical research tackling this issue is still scant. This study aims to explore the characteristics of and challenges faced by refugee tourism and hospitality entrepreneurs in Istanbul, Turkey. Drawing on qualitative data collected through 20 semi-structured interviews with refugee tourism and hospitality entrepreneurs, the findings suggest that refugee entrepreneurs were challenged by four key issues; legislative and administrative, financial, socio-cultural and market-related obstacles. The study also offers insights into characteristics of refugee tourism and hospitality entrepreneurs and their integration into their host communities.
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This three-paper dissertation aims to explore how contextual factors (e.g., social and cultural norms, policies, and economic conditions) in two locations, Buffalo, NY and Istanbul, Turkey, influence the mental health, resilience, and gender roles of Syrian refugees. The study is a convergent parallel mixed-methods design in which data analysis consists of merging quantitative (QUAN) and qualitative (QUAL) data and comparing the results from both data sets and locations. The QUAN data drew upon a sample of adult Syrian refugees in Buffalo, NY (N=82) and Istanbul, Turkey (N=103). The QUAL data consists of four group interviews (N=25). As a theoretical framework, this dissertation uses a triangulation approach, where resilience, empowerment, and forced migration concepts are thoroughly integrated into all three papers. The first paper identifies living difficulties and resources in each location and examines their associations with the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrian refugees. The second paper explores Syrian refugees’ sources of resilience from a socio-cultural perspective and their conceptualizations of mental health. Finally, the third paper seeks to understand changes in gender roles and dynamics among Syrian refugees after their displacement through the application of the theories of resilience, empowerment, and forced migration. Overall, findings suggest that the local and structural circumstances, socio-cultural factors, and everyday experiences of Syrian refugees must be recognized to develop culturally congruent and gendersensitive interventions for Syrian refugees in post-resettlement contexts. Additionally, there is an immediate need to find solutions for the legal status issues of Syrian refugees in Turkey and to change the discriminative rhetoric against refugees at the policy level in the United States, in order to provide a supportive and psychologically safe environment for this population.
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Civil conflict in Syria, started in March 2011, led to a massive wave of forced immigration from Northern Syria to the Southeastern regions of Turkey, which later had serious economic/political repercussions on the MENA region and most of Europe. This paper exploits this natural experiment to estimate the impact of Syrian refugees on the labor market outcomes of natives in Turkey. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that immigration has considerably affected the employment outcomes of natives, while its impact on wage outcomes has been negligible. We document notable employment losses among informal workers as a consequence of refugee inflows. Formal employment increased slightly potentially due to increased social services in the region. The majority of those who lost their informal jobs have either left the labor force or remained unemployed. Formal employment and unemployment rates have increased, while labor force participation, informal employment, and job finding rates have declined among natives. Disadvantaged groups, i.e., women, younger workers, and less-educated workers, have been affected the worst. The prevalence of informal employment in the Turkish labor markets has amplified the negative impact of Syrian refugee inflows on natives’ labor market outcomes. Overall, the impact of Syrian refugee inflows on the Turkish labor markets has been limited, which suggests that the potential costs on the European and other affected labor markets might also be limited.
Turkey and Syrian Refugees: The Limits of Hospitality Received from http://www.brookings-syria-turkey- refugees/turkey-and-syrian-refugees_the-limits-of-hospitality-(2014)
  • O B Dinçer
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Dinçer, O. B., Federici, V., Ferris, E., Karaca, S., Kirişci, K., & Çarmıklı E. Ö. (2013). Turkey and Syrian Refugees: The Limits of Hospitality. November, 2013. Received from http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2013/11/18-syria-turkey- refugees/turkey-and-syrian-refugees_the-limits-of-hospitality-(2014).pdf available on: 19.04.2016.
Labour market integration of refugees: Strategies and good practices. Study for the EMPL Committee
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Konle-Seidl, R., & Bolits, G. (2016). Labour market integration of refugees: Strategies and good practices. Study for the EMPL Committee. Brussels. Received from http://www.europarl. europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/578956/IPOL_STU(2016)578956_EN.pdf available on 12.05.2016.
Syria: Confronting Fragmentation! Impact of Syrian Crisis Received from http://scprsyria .org/publications/policy-reports/confronting-fragmentation available on
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Syrian Center for Policy Research (SCPR). (2016). Syria: Confronting Fragmentation! Impact of Syrian Crisis. Quarterly Report, 2015. February, 2016. Received from http://scprsyria.org/publications/policy-reports/confronting-fragmentation available on: 20.04.2016.
A Question from a Regional Development Perspective: Are Syrian Refugees still our "Guests" or are They Staying?
  • C Kızıl
Kızıl, C. (2016). A Question from a Regional Development Perspective: Are Syrian Refugees still our "Guests" or are They Staying? 7th International Conference of Political Economy (ICOPEC), Istanbul.
Türkiye'de Bölgeler Arasındaki Gelişmişlik Farklılıklarının Azaltılmasına Yönelik Kalkınma Politikalarının Sonuçlarının Analizi
  • C Kızıl
Kızıl, C. (2015). Türkiye'de Bölgeler Arasındaki Gelişmişlik Farklılıklarının Azaltılmasına Yönelik Kalkınma Politikalarının Sonuçlarının Analizi. The 4th Anadolu International Conference in Economics (Econ-Anadolu), Eskisehir (in Turkish).
The impact of Syrians refugees on the Turkish labor market. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No: 7402
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Del Carpio, X. V., & Wagner, M. C. (2015). The impact of Syrians refugees on the Turkish labor market. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No: 7402. August, 2015.
Turkey grants Syrians right to work, but is it too little, too late? Al Monitor
  • M Çetingüleç
Çetingüleç, M. (2016). Turkey grants Syrians right to work, but is it too little, too late? Al Monitor. Received from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/en/originals/2016/01/turkey-syrian-refugeesgranted-right-to-work.html available on: 20.04.2016.