Over the last 37 years, particular interest has been directed towards exploring the characteristics of the optical environment for sensing, giving rise to what would now be one of the largest applications of well-known optical fibers, typically employed to transmit data at high rates. Sensing temperature, pressure, liquid level, deformation, and other physical parameters utilizing optical fibers has become a growing branch of research and a business competing with well-established electrical sensors in the industry. Optical fiber sensors have all the inherent characteristics of a fiber optic cable, such as electromagnetic immunity, small size and weight, multiplexing, and so on. These exclusive features have made fiber sensors so versatile as to become a transformative technology by enabling several industrial processes to be carried out with higher reliability. Nowadays, there are several optical sensors, including fiber Bragg grating, interferometric, polarimetric, polymer fiber, distributed, and several others. Specifically, Raman-based distributed temperature sensor (RDTS) is a class of fiber optic sensors broadly employed in temperature measurement of large structures such as oil and gas wells, tunnels, and pipelines. Since 1985, many techniques have been proposed to break through the barriers of exploring Raman scattering as a distributed temperature measurement method. Range, spatial and temperature resolutions have been the most investigated parameters. In this perspective, this paper presents a comprehensive review focused on the progress of the RDTS technology over the past 37 years (1985–2022), covering an analysis of over 500 journal papers. First, a brief introduction to fiber optic sensor technology is presented as a theoretical basis, discussing the emergence of distributed sensors. Subsequently, Raman scattering in optical fibers is introduced, as well as how this nonlinear effect can be used to build temperature sensors. Next, RDTS technology is detailed, followed by a discussion of its applications and evolution over nearly four decades of development. Lastly, future perspectives are addressed in this review for the advancements in distributed temperature sensor technologies.