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The numbers of postmillennium international tourists to Japan have increased exponentially, and behavioral differences compared to domestic visitors pose challenges for management. Despite this practical need, few studies have focused on expenditure comparison of existing and emerging visitor segments. This analysis of Mount Fuji's 2008 summer season investigates consumer behavior of inbound tourists, expatriates, and domestic segments via an intercept survey of 927 descending climbers. Findings show that domestic climbers, who preferred package tour or car access, had the highest total expenditure (¥17,190), followed by expats (¥13,500), predominantly young males that made fewer mountain hut stays. Inbound climbers spent the least (¥9,818), tending to use public transport to access Fuji as one destination on a broader vacation itinerary. Following Fuji's UNESCO World Heritage listing and the subsequent introduction of a ¥1,000 (US$10) donation for climbers in 2013, this article provides retrospective, microlevel insights into consumer behavior among Fuji's diversifying segments.
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Thomas E. Jones
Graduate School of Governance Studies, Meiji University
Tokyo, Japan
Yang Yang
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University
Philadelphia, U.S.A.
Kiyotatsu Yamamoto
Environmental Sciences for Sustainability, Iwate University
Morioka, Japan
Jones, T. E.; Yang, Y.; and Yamamoto, K. (2016). Inbound, expat, and domestic
climbers: A segment-based expenditure analysis of Mount Fuji's summer
season. Tourism Review International, 20(2/3): 155-163.
Numbers of post-millennium international tourists to Japan have increased exponentially, but differences in their
behaviour compared to domestic visitors pose challenges for management. Despite this practical need, few studies
are yet to focus on cross- cultural comparison of existing and emerging visitor segments. This segment-based
expenditure analysis of Mount Fuji’s 2008 summer season investigates consumer behaviour of inbound tourists,
expatriates and domestic climbers via an intercept survey of 927 descending climbers. Findings show that domestic
climbers, who preferred package tour or car access, had the highest total expenditure (¥17,190), followed by expats
13,500), predominantly young males that made fewer mountain hut stays. Inbound climbers spent the least
9,818), tending to use public transport to access Fuji as one destination on a broader vacation itinerary. Following
Fuji’s UNESCO World Heritage listing and the subsequent introduction of a ¥1000 donation for climbers in 2013,
this paper provides retrospective, micro-level insights into consumer behaviour amongst Fuji’s diversifying
KEYWORDS: market segmentation; expenditure; inbound; Mount Fuji; mountain climbers; consumer
The numbers of international tourists to Japan have increased rapidly, from 3.8 million (2003) to 8.3 million (2008)
and 19.7 million in 2015 (JNTO, 2016). Along with the diversification of international tourism, inbound itineraries
have diverged away from urban hubs to include diverse destinations such as national parks and heritage sites.
However, visitor behaviour of emerging segments often differs significantly from that of existing visitors, posing
challenges for management (Li et al, 2007). Tracking the expenditure of international visitors and comparing it with
domestic benchmarks is thus fundamental to effective management, but examples remain scarce (Mok & Iverson,
2000). Despite significant differences between Caucasian and Asian visitors (Lee, 2000), very few investigations
have sought to investigate the domestic-international tourist spectrum using primary data. Segmentation is one
method commonly used to divide up a market into homogeneous subsets of consumers based on motivation,
activities and expenditure, but it is often constrained by a reliance on aggregated data based on total arrivals, tourist
receipts or overnight stays. Few studies drill down into the micro-level socio-demographic and economic factors that
affect individual expenditure behaviour (Fredman, 2008; Wang & Davidson, 2010). Yet such an understanding of
consumer behaviour is fundamental to the tailoring of policies to match demographic profile, climbing behaviour and
transport modes.
Micro-level comparison of consumer behaviour is particularly indispensable at iconic destinations such as
Mount Fuji that are the front line for diversification. Japan’s tallest peak at 3776m, Fuji has long been revered as a
sacred site and its ancient pilgrim climbing heritage was a core component of its inscription as a UNESCO World
Heritage Site (WHS) in 2013. Despite a recent policy encouraging payment of a flat $US10 donation, climber
expenditure has not been monitored. To address this gap in the practitioner and academic research, our research
draws on primary data collected from descending climbers via an intercept survey conducted in 2008. An a priori
segmentation was determined based on empirical evidence showing significantly different behaviour in domestic and
international climbers. Inbound tourists to Japan also displayed different traits from expatriates, so ‘inbound, ‘expat’
and ‘domestic’ climber segments were purposively sampled. This segment-based approach sheds light on diversity in
consumer behaviour among domestic and international climbers at Fuji, providing pointers for management
strategies such as the new donation system.
Fig. 1. Number of climbers ascending Mount Fuji 2005-15
Market segmentation is a technique that involves dividing a heterogeneous market into homogenous subsets of
consumers to design and implement strategies targeting their needs and desires. Specific channels are used to target
segments constructed along behavioural and geographic boundaries, or by occasion or benefits. Initially investigated
as a means of maximising efficient use of marketing and promotional budgets (Kotler & McDougall, 1983), the
concept crossed over to park management via planning techniques such as the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum
(Manning, 1985) and social marketing (Takahashi, 2009). Segments have also been analysed according to different
activities such as camping or skiing (Mok & Iverson, 2000), or by different motivational and behavioural profiles
(Oh et al, 1995; Perera et al, 2012). The extensive applications to international tourism (Chang & Chiang, 2006; Yan
et al, 2007; Liu, 2014) underscore the relevance of a segment-based approach to this research given Fuji’s recent
visitor diversification and the reported increase in international climbers. Of the a priori and a posteriori types of
segmentation noted by Mazanec (1994), most prior research has followed the latter, seeking to retrofit segments
based on expenditure (Spotts & Mahoney, 1991; Kim et al, 2006). The segments employed in this paper were instead
determined in an a priori fashion using empirical studies which found significantly different behaviour between
domestic and foreign climbers (Jones et al, 2013b; Jones et al, 2016). Furthermore, international tourists making
short term visits to Japan displayed different traits from expatriates living and working in Japan for a longer period of
time. Hence three segments were purposively sampled; ‘inbound tourists’ (defined as foreign visitors staying for up
to 90 days
); foreign residents staying in Japan for over 90 days, registered with authorities as ‘resident aliens;’ and
‘domestic climbers’ of Japanese citizenship. The segments were abbreviated to ‘inbound,’ ‘expat’ and ‘domestic’
Fig. 2. Birds-eye view of Fuji’s four trails
The site selected for this research is among the world’s pre-eminent tourism destinations with colossal annual footfall
over 100 million visits to the national park; 30 million to Fuji’s northern face in Yamanashi, and 3 million to the
Fuji-Yoshida trailhead at the 5th station
. The number of climbers which exceeded 300,000
in 2008 appears
comparatively few until the brevity of the season is noted
. Climbers cluster on weekends and public holidays and
time their ascent to see sunrise from the peak, resulting in over 90% of summit attempts occurring between 02:00am
and 07:59am (Jones et al, 2013a). The cumulative impact of these variables results in intense spatial and temporal
congestion at peak times. Recent seasons have seen a diverse mix of first time, female, and foreigners. International
climber numbers are not recorded, but interviews with park managers and tourism operators suggest a rapid recent
rise in line with the five-fold national increase in inbound visitors to Japan from four in 2003 to twenty million in
The research instrument employed was a questionnaire randomly distributed to descending climbers on the
Yoshida route in the summer of 2008. Yoshida is the busiest of the four main Fuji trails with a 56% market share in
2008 (Fig.2.). An estimated 172,369 climbers ascended using the Yoshida trail during the 62 day season (from July 1
to August 31). The total 927 valid questionnaires collected thus represents a sample of 8.3% of the total climber
population during this period. Recall bias that can affect expenditure surveys was minimized by using
self-administered questionnaires filled in on the spot. After a pilot test, the main survey was conducted from 09:00 to
13:00 hours on four days in the peak climbing month of August, including both weekdays and weekends.
Questionnaires were provided in English and Japanese with a combination of open and closed questions designed in
line with the four research questions to capture the climbers’ demographic profile; climbing behaviour; means of
transport; and expenditure over the course of the Fuji climb respectively. The response rate was raised by use of an
incentive; a bottle of locally-sourced mineral water was passed to respondents upon completion. The location of the
survey site at Izumigataki junction near the end of the descent (Fig.2) also enabled climbers to stop for a rest under a
canopy providing shade and shelter from the elements. The results were coded and entered into SPSS (v. 21.0)
software before cross tab analysis was employed as the basis for the cross-cultural comparison of the three market
segments. Finally, distribution among the three segments viz-a-viz demographic profile, climbing behaviour and
transport modes was tested using chi-square, with the F-test added in the case of expenditure median scores.
Table 1. Results of demographic profile, climbing behaviour and transport by segment
All three segments consisted chiefly of young, male climbers (Table 1). Expats had the biggest gender imbalance,
with almost two-thirds male, and the youngest median (28 years) with 75% aged 30 years or less. Conversely,
domestic climbers showed the closest gender parity (46% female), and the oldest profile (46% aged over 30). The
significance of the age difference was confirmed by F-test analysis of the climbers mean age of domestic (Table 4).
Domestic climbers tended to tackle Fuji in pairs (41%), while expats climbed in groups of 3 to 5 (42%) and 75% of
inbounds climbed in groups of up to 5 persons. The most frequent overall category of climbing companion was
‘friends’ (59%), and no significant differences were observed among the three segments results. The highest rate of
repeat Fuji climbers was domestic (29%), who were still significantly more likely to employ a guide (33%) and stay
in a mountain hut (71%). Among international climbers, expats (20%) were more likely than inbounds (14%) to use a
guide, and their repeater rate was higher (11%). Inbounds were more likely to pay to ‘stay’ in a hut (31%), while
expats tended to merely take a ‘rest’ (35%).
Almost half of the international climbers did not use the huts at all.
Domestic climbers had the highest frequency of package tour (43%) and car (30%) users, and the lowest taking
public transport (34%).
Conversely, inbounds were the most likely to use public transport (76%) and the least likely
to use a package tour (15%) or car (7%). The expat segment was positioned between the two extremes; their usage of
cars (12%), and package tours (20%) was less than domestic climbers but public transport (66%) was greater.
Table 2. Median expenditure and age by segment
Finally, the total expenditures were examined (Table 2).
Overall, the total expenditure of domestic climbers
17,190) was the highest, followed by expats (¥13,500) and inbounds (¥9,818). Domestic climbers had the highest
expenditure in all categories except food and drink. Expats outspent inbounds except in mountain huts, where the
inbounds were more likely to stay as described above. Transport and accommodation categories had the greatest
intra-segment expenditure spread, with the tendency for domestic climbers to use a package tour or car resulting in
significantly greater transport costs (¥9,605) than for their international counterparts, particularly inbounds whose
equivalent expenditure was around half that of domestic climbers. The higher rate of mountain hut stays was also an
important factor in total expenditure, but transport was the largest single cost category for domestic and expat
climbers, accounting for an average 39% of total trip expenditure. However, for inbounds, the mountain hut was the
biggest outlay (38%). Domestic climbers spent proportionally more (15%) on souvenirs, and less (9%) on food or
drink than internationals, partly because the cost of two meals are already included within the price of a hut stay.
Thus expats, who were least likely to stay in a hut, consequently spent the most on food and drink (¥2,201). In the
souvenirs category, domestic climbers (median ¥3,558) outscored expats (¥2,773) and inbound segments (¥2,277).
Purchasing patterns also differed among domestic climbers, mementoes
were the most common purchase (34%),
outscoring internationals (12%), who preferred to buy a climbing staff
(43%, compared to 20% of Japanese).
This expenditure study of Mount Fuji’s 2008 summer season investigated three climber segments, the
“characteristics of [which] must be distinguishable” in order to provide tailored management services (Mok &
Iverson, 2000). These results did show significant variation in climber segment expenditure along with demographic
profiles and behaviour, confirming the results of past studies (Floyd 1998; Li et al, 2007). In terms of demographics,
inbounds and expat profiles were younger and more frequently male. Among expats, this reflects the propensity for
groups of international students and interns to tackle Fuji while living and working in Japan for a period of 1-3 years.
Among domestic climbers, cultural taboos
combined with the perceived physical risks have dissuaded more female
and mature climbers in the past, but these results confirm such gender and age gaps to be narrowing (Yamamoto et al,
2012). Next, in terms of their climbing behaviour, inbounds had the most first-time climbers, and domestic the most
repeaters. Although only 28%, the repeat rate of domestic climbers should be viewed in the context of a mountain
that is often depicted as a ‘one-off’ experience, as in the Japanese proverb ‘only a fool never climbs Fuji, but only a
fool climbs more than once.’ This also helps to explain why the prior climbing experience at Fuji variable was not
found to be significant even after a non-response bias was controlled for using a series of Heckman two-step models.
Conversely the mountain hut stay showed positive statistical significance in all the models, confirming
that climbers who stayed in a hut tend to spend more overall. As compared to their international counterparts, the
significantly higher tendency for domestic climbers to stay in a hut, use a guide and join a package tour were key
contributory factors to the overall difference in expenditures. Some degree of linkage between use rates of guides,
mountain huts and package tours was expected, since many of the guides are employed directly by the huts or
receive commissions from tour agencies (Yamamoto et al, 2012). Domestic behaviour may also have been influenced
by the 2008 rise in climber numbers and WHS media attention which has heightened competition for accommodation,
creating a captive market whereby joining a tour became a de facto requirement in order to book a berth in a hut.
Also, the domestic climbers’ older profile seems likely to have influenced their likelihood of employing a guide and
staying in a mountain hut as investments in safety and comfort, echoing prior findings (among Japanese outbound
travellers) that expenditure increases with age (Jang et al, 2001). Lastly, domestic climbers also have historical
precedent in the form of pre-20th century Fuji- pilgrims who stayed in mountain huts en route to the summit. In
fact, pilgrims traditionally paid for a range of services including bōiri [accomodation], yamayakusen [entrance],
enzasen [rest stops], and misogiryō [spiritual purification] (Iwashina, 1983). Pilgrims were also accompanied by
local sendatsu [guides], while their travel itineraries were organized by oshi [priests] who functioned much like
modern-day tour operators (Kikuchi, 2001). The legacy of such customs could have helped convince the current crop
of domestic climbers to pay for their Fuji summit attempt and encourage them to join a package tour.
More research is needed to ascertain whether differences observed are linked to willingness to pay, or
more fundamental variation in underlying foreign and domestic values (Lee, 2000). Certain dimensions of consumer
behaviour have logistical explanations; for example, inbounds’ tendency to use public transport reflects a lower rate
of car ownership, but also their widespread use of multi-stop passes, notably the Japan Rail (JR) Pass,
which can
only be purchased by tourists. For these young inbound travellers, Fuji is an iconic destination, but it remains a
single stop-off on a wider circuit across Japan. Having travelled long-distances to visit Japan on holiday, summer
inbounds from Western countries seek to check Mount Fuji off a list on their ‘once-in-a-lifetime’ trip around Japan.
62% of international respondents came from countries in Europe, Oceania or North America, and the most frequent
citizenship was U.S.A. (n=72), so this segment seeks to minimize climbing expenses in order to conserve money for
the rest of the itinerary. Conversely expats, the second most profligate segment (total spending: ¥13,500) have more
time available to prepare for their Fuji climb and a greater time period within which to choose a date with hut
availability. However the low-median age of expats points to a high proportion of students and interns that were less
likely to pay to stay at huts, and ineligible for the JR Pass. The Heckman models further show that expats who
climbed together with friends spent less overall, confirming the trend toward economizing shown by such groups.
This paper has highlighted significant differences in the profiles and consumer behaviour of existing and emerging
market segments, which could incite confusion or conflict as social boundaries are breached (Baas et al, 1993).
Although Li et al (2007, citing Floyd, 1998) were right to be wary of putting too much stock in labels such as
nationality as meaningful markers of cultural difference, segment findings have applied implications for strategies
related to regional development (Diaz-Perez et al, 2005) and revenue generation (Legohérel & Wong, 2006). This
section explores implications for managers viz-a-viz market diversification and cost recovery.
First, Fuji findings offer insights into the changing dynamics of a diversifying market. With almost twenty
million international arrivals in 2015, Japan’s national drive to attract more inbounds in the run up to the 2020 Tokyo
Olympics is becoming a key source of foreign exchange for regional economies. In 2009, the proportion of
international climbers on the Yoshida trail was estimated to be less than 6% of the total (Jones et al, 2013b), but
findings from JTBF (2015) suggest a subsequent increase to 20% (weekends) and 30% (weekdays). Such results hint
at the scale of the challenge faced by managers at Fuji as it becomes increasingly imperative to ‘internationalize’
destinations to meet the needs of emerging segments. Whereas previous studies have tended to target the ‘heavy
spenders’ (Spotts & Mahoney, 1991; Legohérel & Wong 2006), this paper thus finds justification for parallel
consideration of lower spending international segments that could be a bellwether for future growth of this emerging
segment. However, domestic climbers still have the highest total expenditure - both per capita and in absolute terms.
Apart from package tours, huts and guides, domestic climbers (median ¥3,558) also outspent expats (¥2,773) and
inbound segments 2,277) in souvenirs. The latter category also exemplifies the difference in consumer tastes, with
Japanese climbers preferring to buy mementoes while foreigners opted for a climbing staff. In sum, while domestic
demand remains strong, there is less incentive for the private sector to reach out to younger inbound segments with
lower expenditure, ensuring that efforts to internationalize may remain the de facto responsibility of management.
One recent cost recovery initiative from management will now be examined. In response to an ICOMOS
report regarding certain negative impacts associated with mountain tourism, the bordering prefectures of Yamanashi
and Shizuoka piloted a new conservation donation system in the 2013 season. Climbers were encouraged to donate
¥1000 (approx. $US10) each to support a range of environmental and cultural conservation initiatives, initially on a
ten day, trial basis. The voluntary ‘fee’ was collected via the set-up of voluntary pay-stations on all four trails and the
scheme was extended across the 2014-5 seasons. The donations represent a renewed determination on the part of
management to implement a cost-recovery mechanism in lieu of the growing numbers of climbers that by-pass a
mountain hut stay en route to the summit. Yet a use fee (albeit voluntary) also raises issues related to paying for
outdoor recreation ranging from ‘double-taxation’ to legitimacy and price fairness (Chung, Kyle, Petrick & Absher,
2011; Martin, 1999). Proponents of parks as ‘public amenities’ argue against the introduction of user fees which risk
excluding certain visitor segments, particularly economically disadvantaged individuals or groups (Chung et al,
2011). This could be relevant to the case of low-spending international segments at Fuji, and there would be an irony
if the new donation linked to Fuji’s inscription as a WHS were to conversely deter international climbers. To date
evidence of such avoidance tactics is inconclusive, although significantly lower rates of payment and willingness to
pay have been found among international climber segments (Jones et al, 2016). Given the lack of investigation into
climber expenditure prior to introduction of the new donation system it risks being misunderstood as knee-jerk
reactionism to the UNESCO listing. There is thus a need for follow-up studies to this retroactive research into
climbers’ consumer behaviour are needed to clearly benchmark economic benefits that outweigh negative impacts
and help plan for unfolding changes in the managerial environment, including the new donation system. Research on
climber expenditure and consumer behaviour is also vital for strategic planning of facilities and amenities (Mok &
Iverson, 2000). As in prior studies that recognized ethnicity as a “major factor influencing recreation site use and
behaviour” (Baas et al, 1993), this paper has identified significant differences in climber profiles and behaviour. The
diversification process occurring at Fuji and other destinations across Japan requires research-based management
intervention tailored to meet the needs of emerging segments.
Firstly, the Yoshida route was selected as having the largest market share, but the sample could be extended to
include all four trails. Next, the accuracy of self-stated expenditure surveys has been questioned, although the
non-response bias was controlled for via a series of Heckman two-step models. Finally, the use of a bi-lingual
questionnaire survey available in English and Japanese could have resulted in the underestimation of
non-English speaking foreign climbers. For example, although the number of climbers from countries such as
Taiwan, P.R. China and South Korea have increased rapidly in recent years, they may have been underreported
due to English proficiency. Specific directions for future research are threefold. First, more detailed
intra-segment analysis is needed, such as a comparison of East Asian climbers with Western ones. Next, there is
a need to reassess different segments’ formation of distinct climbing itineraries vis-vis decision-tree
procedures and the ‘novelty-seeking’ debate (Legohérel & Wong, 2006; Chang & Chiang, 2006). Finally,
updated studies are needed to compare pre and post-WHS inscription climber expenditure in diverse segments.
This study employs micro-level, in situ monitoring of domestic, expat and inbound Fuji climber expenditure during
the 2008 season. Findings revealed homogenous trends, such as a market dominated by young, male climbers.
However, the segment-based approach was validated by significant differences that also emerged, with domestic
climbers more likely to stay in a mountain hut (71%), use a package tour (43%) and employ a guide (33%). Overall,
the Japanese climbers aggregate expenditure (¥17,190) was highest, followed by expats (¥13,500) and inbounds
9,818). The influences of demographic and other drivers are discussed along with segment-specific factors such as
the JR Pass that encourage inbounds to use public transport (76%). Since expenditure studies provide a benchmark
for the direct use values and some externalities of heritage sites, this paper has implications for cross-cultural
research into diversifying visitor use, as well as applied ramifications for marketers and managers seeking to
understand consumer behaviour at Fuji in light of the $10 conservation donation system introduced in 2013.
Thanks go to questionnaire respondents, Dr. Aramaki and all at the Mount Fuji Research Institute, and to Dr. Hayashi
of Utsunomiya University. This paper was the recipient of JSPS fund 26760023. An earlier version was presented at
the 5th Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Marketing & Management Conference June 2015 in Beppu, Japan.
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Short-term stays are defined as a visit of “up to 90 days for tourism, business, visiting friends or relatives, etc. that does not include
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Figures in parenthesis represent the percentage of climbers using each trail according to infrared trail counters (MOE-J, 2008).
Elevation at the Fuji-Yoshida trailhead (the only 5th station in Yamanashi Prefecture) is approximately 2300m above sea level.
According to infrared trail counters located on the 8th step at an altitude of around 3000m (MOE-J, 2008).
The official summer climbing season is during July and August, and was extended in 2014 to the middle of September.
Prices vary by hut and day of the week, but a typical ‘stay’ (costing ¥8000, with two meals) exceeds a ‘rest’ (¥5000 (without meals).
Multiple answers permitted. Also, a seasonal ‘park and ride’ scheme prevented private cars from reaching the 5th station on 9-18
August 2008, which coincided with the survey. Car drivers sampled on those days parked at the base and transferred via shuttle bus.
Calculated from self-stated individual totals after anomalous outliers had been identified using box plot charts and removed.
Including dinner and a take-away breakfast Bento box. For an example see:-
Including religious items such as amulets and charms and souvenirs such as key chains, towels, flags and bandanas.
A pilgrim’s wooden climbing stick. Stamped for an additional fee at various check-points during the ascent to the summit.
In pre-modern times, women were prevented from climbing beyond the 2nd station on religious grounds (Iwashina, 1983).
Based on an interview conducted with mountain hut owner on 9/6/2014.
A rail pass sold by the Japan Railways Group exclusively for overseas tourists with the entry status of ‘temporary visitor.’ It was
originally designed to promote and facilitate international tourism and is valid on most forms of transport provided by the JR Group.
Market segments
Chi square
Cramer's V
<30 years
30 to 49 years
>50 years
First Fuji
First time
With guide
Without guide
Didn't use
*** significant to 0.1%; ** significant to 1%; * significant to 5%; † significant to 10%
Sample size
Market segments
Mountain hut
*** significant to 0.1%; ** significant to 1%; * significant to 5%
Model 1
Model 2
Model 3
Model 4
Model 5
Model 6
Response Equation (first-step)
Expenditure Equation (second-step)
prior Fuji
travel companion (family as reference group)
transportation (car as reference group)
Wald test
of rho
... This a priori segmentation is based on the premise that international tourists on short-term visits are known to display different traits from expatriates living and working abroad over longer periods (Bruner, Kessy, Jesse, James, & Jorge, 2015). Empirical evidence also shows different behavior in domestic and international visitors (Dutt, Harvey, & Shaw, 2018;Jones, Yang, & Yamamoto, 2016;Michael, Armstrong, Badran, & King, 2011;Valek, 2017). ...
... Dutt et al., 2018;Valek, 2017). Jones et al. (2016), for example, found that in a tourism context, expatriates display different expenditure patterns than domestic residents, a point that is worth exploring further. ...
Community Based Tourism sites implemented by third party donors are commonly observed to fail succeed in connecting with the local tourism chain long-term without the ongoing support of its donors. This paper discusses the viability of this classical top-down CBT model to promote sustainable tourism development in Cambodia in consideration of the Sustainable Development Goals. It is mainly argued that top-down implemented CBT sites’ focus on international markets ought to be challenged because these sites often fail to adapt to the cultural context and are rushed into reaching their carrying capacity. Based on this notion this paper contributes to the discussion by examining the willingness to pay of different target markets (locals, expatriates and international tourists) and presents to arguments in support of a shift of a focus on the local and expatriate market are twofold. Firstly, expatriates display significantly higher willingness to pay than international tourists and secondly, it allows CBT sites to build an understanding of their potential customers’ needs thereby supporting a more organic and sustainable growth. Keywords: Cambodia; Community Based Tourism; Expats; SDG’s
... This a priori segmentation is based on the premise that international tourists on short-term visits are known to display different traits from expatriates living and working abroad over longer periods (Bruner, Kessy, Jesse, James, & Jorge, 2015). Empirical evidence also shows different behavior in domestic and international visitors (Dutt, Harvey, & Shaw, 2018;Jones, Yang, & Yamamoto, 2016;Michael, Armstrong, Badran, & King, 2011;Valek, 2017). ...
... Dutt et al., 2018;Valek, 2017). Jones et al. (2016), for example, found that in a tourism context, expatriates display different expenditure patterns than domestic residents, a point that is worth exploring further. ...
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UNESCO’s World Heritage Site (WHS) list aims to mobilize resources for conservation. After inscription in 2013, a new pilot system was introduced at Mount Fuji encouraging climbers to donate ¥1000 towards improved environmental conservation. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in the summer 2013 season. Fuji climber segments were investigated to compare their socio-economic characteristics, level of awareness and willingness to pay (WTP) the new donation. Results of an a priori segment analysis revealed broad differences between Japanese and international climbers, with 71% of the latter unaware about the new fee prior to climbing Fuji, compared to only 8% of Japanese. At ¥1000, WTP among Japanese (88%) was much higher than among international (50%) climbers, but of the latter, those with prior awareness (72%) showed significantly greater WTP than those without (43%). These findings suggest that priming climbers to increase levels of prior awareness is vital for compliance. As the new trial donation was duly extended for the 2014-15 seasons on a 24 hour basis, these findings have applied implications for improving management through a better understanding of visitor segments, along with more targeted multilingual messaging to raise awareness and WTP among international climbers.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of ethnicity as a construct in leisure research. In particular, we are interested in the degree to which presumed ethnic groups exhibit internal cultural homogeneity. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF) near metropolitan Los Angeles were surveyed. Using purposive sampling at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample of 444 Anglos, 312 Hispanics, and 319 Asians (overall n = 1,174). We examined whether the three nominal ethnic groups, Anglos, Hispanics, and Asians, were homogene-ous in terms of cultural values as measured by Hofstede's (1980) instrument. We assume that if distinctive ethnic subcultures exist then they should be iden-tifiable by specific measures of languages, religion, family structure, cultural values, and the like. We used cultural consensus analyses to test the homoge-neity of the three ethnic groups. The results of cultural consensus analyses showed that none of the three ethnic groups and none of the subgroups we examined within the three ethnic groups were homogeneous in terms of the cultural values. Discussion of the findings and research implicadons are sug-gested.
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To market effectively a particular destination, it is necessary to understand both push and pull motivations and the relationship between these two motivations for overseas travel. The relationships between these two motivations for overseas pleasure travel has been studied for an Australian sample of 1030 respondents by utilizing canonical correlation analysis. Canonical analysis generated four meaningful canonical variates. Respondents, then, were assigned to canonical variates in order to form market segments. The paper concludes with appropriate marketing implications as suggested by the study findings.
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This paper aims at testing the effectiveness of using an image-based approach to segment the cultural tourism market. Identifying 14 image attributes of cultural attractions, Taiwan's inbound tourists were then surveyed to rate the importance of these attributes. Applying a factor–cluster segmentation approach, four discrete image segments were identified, including arts and museum, heritage, living culture, and resulted in a sample of 954 respondents. The research findings reveal several theoretical and empirical implications, including the propositions of cultural distance, omnivorous/univorous, experiential and informational familiarity of destination and the two-dimensional model of cultural tourist typology.
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The tourism industry plays a key role in regional and destination development. As negative environmental and socio-cultural impacts of mass tourism become more common, the appeal of alternative forms of tourism, especially ecotourism, continues to increase. With rising demand, ecotourism operators are facing the task of meeting expectations of diverse consumers of ecotourism products. Accordingly, the need to define and distinguish ecotourists from other types of tourists has become important. The importance of using a behavioral approach to distinguish ecotourists from other types of tourists is emphasized by tourism scholars. This study developed distinct motivational and behavioral profiles of visitors to forest-based ecotourism sites in Sri Lanka. Results identified four different types of tourists based on their behavioral and motivational characteristics: ecotourists, picnickers, egoistic tourists, and adventure tourists. Broad implications of visitor profiling are also discussed. This approach can help ecotourism operators to better tailor marketing strategies and increase visitor satisfaction.
The Canary Islands have an indisputable comparative and competitive edge within the European Union as regards their tourism products. The present study takes a segmented market approach to study the Canary Islands tourism market, featuring a range of tourism products, each of which satisfies to a greater or lesser extent the needs of one segment of demand. It has two objectives: firstly, to ascertain which segments of demand are currently acquired at destination and secondly, to identify within these segments the niches associated with the highest expenditure. This will enable us to draw up guideliness for a regional policy on product innovation that focuses on these niches and thus generates higher levels of local development. r
Despite the unabated pace of globalisation and the incessant flow of tourists to multiple tourist destinations, there is little attention paid by tourist operators and hospitality managers to the segmentation of holiday makers based on their distinctive spending habits for revenue maximization. Segmenting holiday makers according to their levels of expenditure is an important factor in developing comprehensive marketing strategies since travellers who decide to spend a vacation in the same area and in the same period might spend their money in very different ways. This paper uses the CHAID technique to examine direct as well as daily tourist expenditures of holiday makers in Hong Kong to define market segments (particularly, the big spenders). The results obtained confirm that CHAID is a relatively flexible technique to use and can be employed as a precursor to a more parametric approach.