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Diagnostico de los productores familiares en la Amazonia Peruana

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... Also, forest governance suffers from chronic underfunding and insufficient means to effectively enforce regulations for the protection and sustainable management of forests. It is plagued by overlapping rights, tenure conflicts, and land trafficking, as well as poor alignment of land policies with zoning plans and land-suitability maps (Robiglio et al., 2015). ...
... In contrast, farmers with economic problems may overexploit and degrade resources to guarantee the families' livelihood basis, which in turn reinforces their poverty status (Brundtland, 1987;López-Carr & Burgdorfer, 2013;Tremblay et al., 2015). On the other hand, it is the capitalized farmers who apply and expand degrading land-uses such as cattle and intensively managed commodity crops (Caviglia-Harris, 2004;Kaimowitz & Angelsen, 1998;Pacheco, 2009;Robiglio et al. 2015;Vosti et al., 2003;Wunder, 2001). The quality of the natural basis, in turn, indicated by fertile soils, modest slope, and access to water, positively affects the economic opportunities of farm families. ...
... Amazon because of its flexibility and profitability (Pacheco, 2009), and the possibility to control large tract of land with the little family workforce available (Robiglio et al. 2015). But, cattle raising massively contributes to deforestation (Kissinger et al., 2012;Vosti et al., 2003) and soil degradation (Caviglia-Harris, 2004;Dixon et al., 2001). ...
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Agroforestry Concessions, foreseen by the new Peruvian Forest Law, anticipate integrating thousands of small-scale farmers encroached on public forest land into the formal economy, to strengthen local livelihoods, stimulate land restoration, and halt deforestation. But, there are contrasting opinions regarding the potential of agroforestry and land tenure security to create economically and environmentally robust livelihoods. To better understand the relevance of this potential, this study analyses the economic and environmental robustness of 118 informally settled small-scale cocoa farmers in three districts in the Peruvian Amazon. The study shows that the vast majority of these farmers faced serious obstacles to overcome. Less than 20 % of the households have managed to establish economically robust livelihoods on a robust natural production basis. Farm size, specialization in cocoa, and participation in associations positively influenced the economic performance of the households but had little effect on the quality of natural resource management and on the capacity to conserve forests. To harness the potential of cocoa farming requires long-term support well adapted to local specificities. The legal recognition of sustainable land-use practices on public forest land is a meaningful step. To effectively address deforestation, however, requires broader integrated approaches that go far beyond the promotion of sustainable land-uses.
... infrastructure and agroindustry). For example, a Peruvian law (D.L. 20653, 1975) was dictated to legalize native communities and to provide incentives (e.g. economic aid and loans) to promote agricultural practices [97,98]. The law was intended to provide land ownership and promote economic participation among Indigenous populations. ...
... Despite this, the law has resulted in the fragmentation and reduction of ancestral Indigenous territory, consequently limiting Indigenous public access to land and to wild food system activities [42,99,100]. More recently, surrounding areas of Shawi settlements, in the San Martin region for example, were impacted by the promotion of bio-combustibles production [98] and the development of a road for transportation [101], with the Shawi expressing their concern about future land tenure conflict, immigration, deforestation, and reduced game availability [43]. ...
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Background: Climate change is affecting food systems globally, with implications for food security, nutrition, and the health of human populations. There are limited data characterizing the current and future consequences of climate change on local food security for populations already experiencing poor nutritional indicators. Indigenous Amazonian populations have a high reported prevalence of nutritional deficiencies. This paper characterizes the food system of the Shawi of the Peruvian Amazon, climatic and non-climatic drivers of their food security vulnerability to climate change, and identifies potential maladaptation trajectories. Methods and findings: Semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 24), three photovoice workshops (n = 17 individuals), transect walks (n = 2), a food calendar exercise, and two community dissemination meetings (n = 30 individuals), were conducted within two Shawi communities in Balsapuerto District in the Peruvian Loreto region between June and September of 2014. The Shawi food system was based on three main food sub-systems (forest, farming and externally-sourced). Shawi reported collective, gendered, and emotional notions related to their food system activities. Climatic and non-climatic drivers of food security vulnerability among Shawi participants acted at proximal and distal levels, and mutually reinforced key maladaptation trajectories, including: 1) a growing population and natural resource degradation coupled with limited opportunities to increase incomes, and 2) a desire for education and deforestation reinforced by governmental social and food interventions. Conclusion: A series of maladaptive trajectories have the potential to increase social and nutritional inequities for the Shawi. Transformational food security adaptation should include consideration of Indigenous perceptions and priorities, and should be part of Peruvian food and socioeconomic development policies.
... According to the last National Agricultural Census (INEI, 2012b), in San Martin the total available agricultural area is 1.3 million hectares, from which almost 400,000 are cultivated, while the remainder is in rest, fallow or has not been sown. 41% of the overall cultivated area in San Martin is coffee with 94,000 hectares, which represents 22% of the total area of coffee cultivation in the country (Robiglio et al., 2015). Between 1995 and 2010 coffee production increased by 75%. ...
This thesis is concerned with the reconfiguration of the state-indigeneity relationship through the implementation of a state-led payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme in the Peruvian Amazon. As a case study, I examine the implementation of the National Programme for the Conservation of Forests (NPCF) within seven indigenous communities in Peru. This initiative provides conditional economic incentives to the communities for the conservation of Amazonian forests. My primary research is ethnographic, focused on the ordinary exchanges that take place on a daily basis between state bureaucrats and indigenous peoples. Despite the conservation aims, the NPCF also generates social and political impacts within communities. The new administrative responsibilities of indigenous authorities strengthen their sense of agency to access new state resources and funds. Likewise, state bureaucrats, in their efforts to make state-led PES scheme goals legible for their indigenous audience, adapt and ignore formal policy content, operating as brokers to demonstrate the accountability of the economic incentives, even if that means diverting attention away from conservation issues. Economic incentives are framed by indigenous peoples as rewards and favours, producing contrasting forms of articulation with the state. Communities create an alternative interpretation of forest conservation as an asset that attracts development opportunities from external sources, including the state. Moreover, the main effect of state-led PES schemes is the bureaucratisation of the communities as a form of mediation with the state; that is to say, indigenous communities recognise that bureaucracy is, for them, a technique of citizenship and development. Indeed, for indigenous communities, bureaucratic skills allow them to become legible public policy users, able to exercise their citizenship at the margins. The common thread in this dissertation is the quotidian relevance of everyday bureaucratic procedures for accountability in a state-led PES scheme. Although NPCF administrative duties imply a heavy burden for indigenous communal leaders, they have embraced them to reconfigure their relationship with the state.
... Multiple rivers dissect the area, which is characterized by nutrient poor alluvial soils. The majority of Madre de Dios' rural population are smallholders within diversified production and land use systems consisting of farming, logging, Brazil nut harvesting, other NTFP collection, small-scale mining and livestock farming (Robiglio et al., 2015). Planting of Brazil nut trees in degraded areas, active and abandoned agricultural fields and in primary forest by smallholders has recently been actively promoted by government and non-governmental programs to improve local livelihoods and to restore degraded areas (IIAP, 2018). ...
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To maximize trees restoration potential, it is crucial to know where and how. In this study led by Rens Brouwer, we explored the planting performance and productivity of a socio-environmentally highly valuable species from the Amazon, the Brazil nut tree, and compared its planting success across management practices, degraded areas, agroforestry systems, forest gaps and secondary forests
... Multiple rivers dissect the area, which is characterized by nutrient poor alluvial soils. The majority of Madre de Dios' rural population are smallholders within diversified production and land use systems consisting of farming, logging, Brazil nut harvesting, other NTFP collection, small-scale mining and livestock farming (Robiglio et al., 2015). Planting of Brazil nut trees in degraded areas, active and abandoned agricultural fields and in primary forest by smallholders has recently been actively promoted by government and non-governmental programs to improve local livelihoods and to restore degraded areas (IIAP, 2018). ...
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1. Forest landscape restoration (FLR) has gained momentum globally and guidance is needed to identify those species, sites and planting methods that increase restoration success. Incorporating native Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) species in FLR approaches provides an opportunity to simultaneously deliver ecological and economic benefits. The Brazil nut tree is one of the most valuable Amazonian NTFP species and could fulfil a cornerstone role in Amazon FLR. However, the factors defining establishment success within Brazil nut restoration activities remain unknown. 2. Here, we evaluate the effect of management practices, restoration site (pastures, agroforestry, secondary forest and canopy gaps in old growth forest) and environmental conditions on the establishment success (tree growth, survival and fruit production) of Brazil nut restoration projects implemented by smallholders in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a field study at 25 restoration sites of 1-38 years in age, where we conducted measurements on 481 trees and interviewed 21 smallholders. We used mixed effect models to identify drivers of performance. 3. Twenty years after planting, diameter growth in secondary forests was 38%, 34%, and 24% higher than in canopy gaps, pastures, and agroforestry sites, respectively. Survival rate was similar for trees planted in pastures and secondary forests, but 15-20% higher there than trees planted in agroforestry sites, and 7-12% higher than in canopy gaps. Fruit production was 262% higher for reproductive trees in secondary forest sites compared to pastures, but production probability did not differ between restoration sites. These results show that secondary forests are the most suitable sites for planting Brazil nut trees. 4. In addition to restoration site effects, we also found significant effects of management practices. Survival rate increased with application of fire for clearing and weeding and economic investments and decreased with potentially inefficient herbivore protection. Fruit production was lower for trees planted further away from smallholders' homes. These results show that smallholders' management has a substantial effect on establishment success. 5. Our findings suggest a significant importance of post-planting maintenance of trees to increase success of FLR projects. Further, our study shows that evaluation of past restoration activities can guide future forest restoration in tropical landscapes.
... Farmers in Madre de Dios are mostly smallholder colonists [28] who manage a wide range of farm systems, ranging from highly diverse agroforests and home gardens to extensive pastures and monocultures. Many of them benefited from rural colonization policies in the 80ies, that provided them with large plots of land (up to 400 hectares) to allow for slash-and-burn cultivation [29]. ...
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Agroforestry systems with a range of native and often neglected and underutilized tree species (NUS) are increasingly recognized for their potential role in restoration, simultaneously providing ecological and livelihood benefits. Successful adoption of these systems requires knowledge about beneficial species, system-level potential profitability, and barriers faced by farmers. Such information is essential but lacking for most NUS. We analyzed the economic potential of NUS in diverse smallholder-managed agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. Through semi-structured surveys with local stakeholders (n = 40), we identified 10 native Amazonian NUS fruit with ecological, nutritious and commercial benefits. We then simulated the potential revenue per species and system-level profit of an agroforestry system designed with the 10 NUS. Our projections suggest that a diverse NUS-based agroforestry system can outcompete most alternative land-uses in the region on a per hectare profit basis. This shows that including NUS in restoration efforts could provide economic benefits for smallholders. To realize this potential, we recommend adapted interventions, e.g., increased farmer access to planting material, technical support for production and capacity building with a focus on high-potential NUS.
... En general, el mantenimiento o la conversión del bosque es vinculado a los retornos económicos asociados a diferentes usos de los recursos forestales y de la tierra. En contextos en los cuales intervienen los productores familiares esto depende de sus estrategias de especialización, que a su vez están relacionadas con los recursos naturales, humanos, sociales, físicos y económicos a los cuales estos productores puedan acceder (Robiglio et al. 2015). ...
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Technical Report
Technical, financial and regulatory constraints mean that agroforestry and tree based systems (TBS) are not visible in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (INGEI) despite the fact that in many countries they have expressed a political will to promote them as a climate change adaptation and mitigation measure. Their mitigation potential thus remains unknown and unrecognized, limiting their intrusion into the planning of the agricultural, livestock and forestry productive sectors. Colombia is part of the countries that propose NAMAs with agroforestry systems (SAF) and TBS, proposing a Forest NAMA (under development) focused on sustainable forest landscapes. In addition, it incorporates indirectly (in emissions/removals from forest lands) and still partially the TBS and SAF in its INGEI. Direct reporting (national MRV) is challenged by: i) the lack of a clear definition of PAS and TBS, ii) access to quality information and iii) the definition of clear reporting responsibilities to avoid overlaps and double counting with agricultural sector measures and activities. It contributes to the construction and definition of NAMA's MRV structure and to its articulation with the other initiatives in the AFOLU sector by proposing a classification and conceptual elements to make SAF and TBS visible in the national MRV.
The Ucayali region, in the Peruvian Amazon, is characterized by forests that host a mega diversity of species. These forests have been affected by land use changes that were in some cases supported by public policies, such as in the 1960s, that encouraged the inhabitants of the Sierra (highlands) and Costa (coastal) regions of Peru with incentives to populate the Amazon. The majority of settlers in Ucayali were initially from the Sierras and had livestock rearing backgrounds. They became established along the road that connects the Ucayali region with the city of Tingo María in the Huánuco region. Most of them established their pastures by felling nearly all the trees, though fragments of different sizes of primary and secondary forest of different regeneration ages were conserved and used for various subsistence activities. Many farmers value the trees and use live fences as limits of their properties or their paddocks. Over the years, and due to the boom in agro-industrial crops, most farmers reduced their grazing fields to plant oil, palm, and cocoa. The objective of this chapter is to describe these islands of biodiversity and the dominant species in the agricultural landscapes of this region. We describe the characteristics of the Peruvian Amazon with an emphasis on the Ucayali region, its predominant land uses, and the deforestation and degradation therein; the characteristics of the biodiversity islands and their uses; the dominant flora species and their conservation value and adaptation ranges; biological connectivity; and conservation strategies for designing public policies. Effective design of land use or conservation programs in accordance with current needs will only succeed with knowledge and dissemination of the current state of our Amazon.KeywordsConservation and developmentDeforestationFloraRainforestUcayali region
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Family Farming in Latin America. The Rise, Advances, and Limits of Targeted Policies This article analyzes policies related to family agriculture in Latin America. Based on case studies in eleven countries, it compares the origins of these policies and the factors of their emergence, their similarities and differences, and their main results and prospects. This comparison shows that there is a general model of targeted policies in support of family agriculture, with some variations due to the regional dissemination of the model by international agencies and social movements. These targeted policies contribute to the public recognition of family agriculture and provide concrete results in terms of poverty reduction.
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Recent high-level policy papers call for scaling-up agroforestry to sustainably increase agricultural production and maintain environmental services. Evidence suggests that this will not be achieved by wide scale promotion of a few iconic agroforestry practices. Instead, three key issues need to be addressed. First, fine-scale variation in social, economic and ecological context and how this creates a need for local adaptation. Second, the importance of developing appropriate service delivery mechanisms, markets, and institutional contexts, as well as technologies. Third, appropriate research design, within the scaling process, that enables co-learning amongst research, development and private sector actors. This requires a new paradigm that builds on previous integrated systems approaches, but goes further, by embedding research centrally within development praxis.
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Forests in Flux Forests worldwide are in a state of flux, with accelerating losses in some regions and gains in others. Hansen et al. (p. 850 ) examined global Landsat data at a 30-meter spatial resolution to characterize forest extent, loss, and gain from 2000 to 2012. Globally, 2.3 million square kilometers of forest were lost during the 12-year study period and 0.8 million square kilometers of new forest were gained. The tropics exhibited both the greatest losses and the greatest gains (through regrowth and plantation), with losses outstripping gains.
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Family patterns of agricultural production in question. Understanding their diversity and functioning The transformation of family-based agricultural structures questions the academic and policy environments across the history of agricultural representations in the past century. The ways of seeing and representing the different forms of agriculture relate to this transformation. Family farming has acquired an international legitimacy, but it is now questioned by the changes occurring in agriculture in the developed as well as in the developing and emerging countries. The Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL) framework allows a global comprehension of the agricultural entity as a constituent of an activity system that has become multi-sectoral and multisituational, relating to market and non-market regulations. The relative significance and the nature of the mobilized types of capital allow us to schematically present three types of family agriculture organization in Brazil, France and Mali. Finally, a more generic characterization outlined by our conceptual model is proposed, raising new methodological issues.
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