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Skeletal Evidence of Craft Production from the Ch'iji Jawira Site in Tiwanaku, Bolivia

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... There is a long tradition in anthropology of using enthesis size and/or surface rugosity on bones as a proxy for living muscle use, and as a means to infer activity patterns in humans. In archaeology, the analysis of enthesis morphology in long bones has been used to reconstruct a variety of activities from cultural behavior (Molnar, 2006;Weiss, 2007;Havelkova et al. 2011;Villotte & Kn€ usel, 2014;Santana-Cabrera et al. 2015;Becker, 2016), technology use (Marzke et al. 2007;Drapeau, 2008;Milella et al. 2014;Karakostis et al. 2017), social stratification (Henderson & Cardoso, 2013;Palmer et al. 2014;Schrader, 2015) and sexual dimorphism (Wilczak, 1998a,b), to subsistence strategies (Hawkey & Merbs, 1995) and locomotor behavior (Niinim€ aki & Salmi, 2014;Weiss, 2014;Acosta et al. 2017). This literature is based on the premise that bone responds dynamically to load requirements through modeling and remodeling according to the principle of bone functional adaptation, resulting in site-specific bone hypertrophy at the muscle attachment site (Hoyte & Enlow, 1966;Hawkey & Merbs, 1995). ...
... This is significant because literature on behavioral reconstruction from entheses often seeks to discriminate between specific behaviors (e.g. sexual division of labor; Villotte et al. 2010;Havelkov a et al. 2011;Villotte & Kn€ usel, 2014;Santana-Cabrera et al. 2015;Becker, 2016). In this case, the climbing group was anticipated to exhibit the most morphological differences in EF insertion structure due to importance of the biceps brachii to the kinematics of murine climbing (Lee & Farrar, 2003; see also Moore et al. 1999;Diogo & Abdala, 2010). ...
... Their methodology focused on the categorization or indexing of rugosity, and forms the basis for all subsequent rugosity-based behavioral reconstructions (e.g. Molnar, 2006;Villotte et al. 2010;Havelkov a et al. 2011;Henderson & Cardoso, 2013;Palmer et al. 2014;Villotte & Kn€ usel, 2014;Santana-Cabrera et al. 2015;Schrader, 2015;Becker, 2016). ...
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Extrinsic fibers (EFs) are a type of penetrating collagenous fiber, closely related to the periodontal ligament, which help anchor soft tissue into bone. These fibers are associated with muscle attachment sites (entheses). Their size and grouping patterns are thought to be indicative of the loading history of the muscle. EFs are of particular significance in anthropology as potential tools for the reconstruction of behavior from skeletal remains and, specifically, entheses. In this study, we used a mouse model to experimentally test how activity level alters the morphology of EF insertion sites on the bone surface of a fibrocartilaginous enthesis, the biceps brachii insertion. Further, we adapted surface metrological techniques from studies of dental wear to perform automated, quantitative and non‐destructive analysis of bone surface histology. Our results show that experimentally increased activity had no significant effect on the quantity or density of EF insertions at the enthesis, nor on the size of those insertions. Although EF presence does indicate muscle attachment, activity did not have an observable effect on EF morphology. This study adapts surface metrological techniques to the automated, quantitative and non‐destructive analysis of bone surface histology. Although extrinsic fiber (EF) presence does indicate muscle attachment, activity does not have an observable effect on EF morphology.
... Such a scenario would agree with previous assessments of the habitual technology-producing activities of females from 32 ethnographic foraging societies that rely heavily on hunting for subsistence (Kelly, 2007;Murdock, 1981;Murdock & Provost, 1973;Waguespack, 2005). In these societies, women performed tasks such as house building, production of pottery, basketry, rope, and woven articles, butchery, and hide-scraping (i.e., cutting, scraping, peeling, stretching, and softening hides), many of which involve a high degree of intense manual precision (Waguespack, 2005; see also relevant case study by Becker, 2016). In all ethnographic cases where 50% or more of the diet was composed of meat, women did 100% of the hide working (Waguespack, 2005). ...
... Based on the literature, such habitual tasks could have involved lithic tool knapping, food processing (e.g., cutting, defleshing, and disarticulating animal carcasses), or hide processing for garment making (Marzke, 2013;Key & Lycett, 2018; also see Karakostis, Hotz, Tourloukis, & Harvati, 2018). Similar associations between bone attrition and precise crafting labor have also been made for more recent female individuals from other high-altitude archaeological sites (e.g., Becker, 2016). For instance, a recent study of a middle-aged female from the Bolivian highlands (Tiwanaku culture,~1,000 cal BP) ...
... reported a very similar distribution of osteoarthritis in the skeleton (Becker, 2016). The hand remains from that burial presented osteoarthritis particularly at the thumb and index finger joints, while the enthesis of opponens pollicis on the pollical metacarpal was pronounced. ...
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Objectives Cuncaicha, a rockshelter site in the southern Peruvian Andes, has yielded archaeological evidence for human occupation at high elevation (4,480 masl) during the Terminal Pleistocene (12,500–11,200 cal BP), Early Holocene (9,500–9,000 cal BP), and later periods. One of the excavated human burials (Feature 15‐06), corresponding to a middle‐aged female dated to ~8,500 cal BP, exhibits skeletal osteoarthritic lesions previously proposed to reflect habitual loading and specialized crafting labor. Three small tools found in association with this burial are hypothesized to be associated with precise manual dexterity. Materials and methods Here, we tested this functional hypothesis through the application of a novel multivariate methodology for the three‐dimensional analysis of muscle attachment surfaces (entheses). This original approach has been recently validated on both lifelong‐documented anthropological samples as well as experimental studies in nonhuman laboratory samples. Additionally, we analyzed the three‐dimensional entheseal shape and resulting moment arms for muscle opponens pollicis. Results Results show that Cuncaicha individual 15‐06 shows a distinctive entheseal pattern associated with habitual precision grasping via thumb‐index finger coordination, which is shared exclusively with documented long‐term precision workers from recent historical collections. The separate geometric morphometric analysis revealed that the individual's opponens pollicis enthesis presents a highly projecting morphology, which was found to strongly correlate with long joint moment arms (a fundamental component of force‐producing capacity), closely resembling the form of Paleolithic hunter‐gatherers from diverse geo‐chronological contexts of Eurasia and North Africa. Discussion Overall, our findings provide the first biocultural evidence to confirm that the lifestyle of some of the earliest Andean inhabitants relied on habitual and forceful precision grasping tasks.
... To begin exploring taskscape from a bio archae ol ogi cal perspective, this article focuses on the actual people laboring within the Tiwanaku state who embodied physical changes accompanying varied task-and subsistence-based lifeways (Becker 2013(Becker , 2016(Becker , 2017Becker and Goldstein 2017). Skeletal damage associated with osteoarthritis (OA), which can indicate repeated movements when noted on joint surfaces (Becker and Goldstein 2017;Cheverko and Bartelink 2017;Domett et al. 2017;Hunter and Felson 2006;Rogers and Waldron 1995;Weiss and Jurmain 2007), provides evidence of recurring tasks in this taskscape. ...
... Occupations such as a tejedor/a (weaver) or llamero/a (llama herder and caravanner) may have defined prehistoric Tiwanaku peoples by their communities of daily livelihoods (Becker 2013(Becker , 2017Janusek 1999Janusek , 2005aJanusek , 2005bJanusek , 2008. For example, prior research supports the idea that tasks were organized by embedded, guild-like independent laborers within Tiwanaku City's barrios (e.g., ceramics production neighborhood), instead of people working at the behest of a noble or elite class (Becker 2016(Becker , 2017Janusek 1999Janusek , 2005a. Consequently, it may be possible to find gendered or occupation-based taskscape areas from the distribution of OA across adults in the burial sample. ...
... Methodologically, there is currently not one way to evaluate OA to achieve contextualized population-level results in studies of human skeletal remains. Instead, bioarchaeologists have focused on a variety of ways to evaluate these physical changes on the skeleton (see Anderson & Loeser, 2010;Baker & Pearson, 2006;Becker, 2016;Becker & Goldstein, 2017;Chammas, 2014;Cheverko & Bartelink, 2017;Domett et al., 2017;Klaus, Larsen, & Tam, 2009;Molnar, Ahlstrom, & Leden, 2011;Palmer et al., 2016;Rando & Waldron, 2012;Schrader, 2012;Valderrabano, Horisberger, Russell, Dougall, & Hintermann, 2008;Watkins, 2012;Weiss & Jurmain, 2007 and others). Predominant in these approaches are questions concerning how to evaluate the multiple OA data points collected, and how to analyze these data effectively in ways that can be interpreted usefully. ...
... The study sample population is from the prehistoric Tiwanaku state (AD 500-1,100) and split into two groups, the heartland core of the state in the Lake Titicaca region of Bolivia and the Tiwanaku colony in the Moquegua Valley of Peru, to perform these model-based population comparisons (Figure 1). While culturally and genetically linked, the two areas represent a difference in approximately 2,300 m.a.s.l., which have shown contrasts in traditional daily tasks, such as highaltitude farming using raised fields versus lower-elevation riverine farming (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2016(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019Becker & Goldstein, 2017;Berryman, 2011;Goldstein, 2005Goldstein, , 2012Janusek, 2004Janusek, , 2008Knudson, 2008;Knudson & Blom, 2011;Knudson, Goldstein, Dahlstedt, Somerville, & Schoeninger, 2014;Knudson, Price, Buikstra, & Blom, 2004;Somerville et al., 2015). Thus, evaluating OA evidence from these two genetically similar sample populations from disparate climates and elevations can provide a good case study of the GEE statistical approach. ...
... Si existen las mujeres se las menciona muy esporádicamente, o se intuye su presencia en los ámbitos domésticos, familiares, en las relaciones de parentesco, en contextos funerarios a partir de instrumentos y artefactos relacionados con actividades consideradas como domésticas: el tejer vinculado a instrumentos de hilar y tejer, el equipo de procesamiento de alimentos y los juegos de vasijas, asociado a la cocina (Albarracín-Jordán 2007;Bermann 1994;Janusek 1994). Salen de esta norma contados trabajos como la excavación de una tumba de élite en Putuni, o el estudio de las representaciones de mujeres en Tiwanaku en general y en las ofrendas de Pariti, así como la relación de las mujeres con la producción cerámica y el tejido (Becker 2016;Choque 2009;Couture y Sampeck 2003;Rivera Casanovas 1994;Villanueva y Korpisaari 2013). ...
... Por ejemplo, las figurillas de animales usadas en los rituales de fertilidad del ganado, tan comunes en Ch'iji Jawira o, las torteras para hilar que requieren de un conocimiento de esta actividad para calcular el grosor del orificio central de acuerdo a la calidad del hilo a producirse (fino, mediano, grueso) y también el peso requerido para lograr una buena rotación del huso para el hilado y torcelado (Rivera Casanovas 2014a). Estudios recientes sobre huellas de especialización artesanal en restos humanos hallados en Ch'iji Jawira (Becker 2016) revelan huellas de trabajos repetitivos, en una posición sedente, como el amasado de arcilla o el tejido, en los huesos de las manos, pies, en la columna y en la cadera, además de las huellas de fuerte musculatura en los brazos, en una mujer adulta. La presencia de una figurilla femenina desnuda en una ofrenda relacionada con la producción cerámica en Ch'iji Jawira constituiría un símbolo de la identidad femenina dentro del trabajo alfarero (Choque 2009: 71). ...
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Muchas voces críticas han venido demostrando que la presencia de las mujeres en el pasado ha sido invisibilizada, minimizada, y segregada. Estas miradas parten de modelos y estereotipos actuales que son extrapolados mecánicamente hacia las sociedades del pasado. En ellas, las mujeres aparecen cumpliendo ciertos roles "femeninos". Si asumimos que el pasado no existe más y que la arqueología trabaja con restos de un pasado real que se nos ha ido irremediablemente, toda construcción actual del pretérito está inevitablemente teñida por los marcos teóricos, metodológicos, imaginarios, posicionamientos epistemológicos y de poder de l@s arqueólog@s, en los que no hay que desdeñar su propia escritura. Toda reconstrucción del pasado es política y tiene que ver con el poder. En Bolivia el debate sobre la mujer, el género y/o el feminismo dentro de la práctica arqueológica ha estado prácticamente ausente tal vez con contadas excepciones. Este silencio disciplinario es aún más destacable cuando vemos que en la arqueología boliviana, marcada por un acentuado androcentrismo, la presencia de la mujer arqueóloga es importante por lo menos desde la década de 1940, incrementándose notablemente hasta la actualidad. En este contexto este libro pretende romper este silencio disciplinar visibilizando el trabajo de mujeres pioneras que aportaron al desarrollo de la arqueología en Bolivia y presentando varios estudios de caso sobre las mujeres desde la arqueología y la antropología.
... To begin exploring taskscape from a bio archae ol ogi cal perspective, this article focuses on the actual people laboring within the Tiwanaku state who embodied physical changes accompanying varied task-and subsistence-based lifeways (Becker 2013(Becker , 2016(Becker , 2017Becker and Goldstein 2017). Skeletal damage associated with osteoarthritis (OA), which can indicate repeated movements when noted on joint surfaces (Becker and Goldstein 2017;Cheverko and Bartelink 2017;Domett et al. 2017;Hunter and Felson 2006;Rogers and Waldron 1995;Weiss and Jurmain 2007), provides evidence of recurring tasks in this taskscape. ...
... Occupations such as a tejedor/a (weaver) or llamero/a (llama herder and caravanner) may have defined prehistoric Tiwanaku peoples by their communities of daily livelihoods (Becker 2013(Becker , 2017Janusek 1999Janusek , 2005aJanusek , 2005bJanusek , 2008. For example, prior research supports the idea that tasks were organized by embedded, guild-like independent laborers within Tiwanaku City's barrios (e.g., ceramics production neighborhood), instead of people working at the behest of a noble or elite class (Becker 2016(Becker , 2017Janusek 1999Janusek , 2005a. Consequently, it may be possible to find gendered or occupation-based taskscape areas from the distribution of OA across adults in the burial sample. ...
Preprint
Within the prehistoric Tiwanaku state (AD 500-1100) of Bolivia and Peru, labor was divided by elevation, environment, and local identity across its colonies and heartland, and especially within Tiwanaku City's multiethnic neighborhoods. Constructed spaces of human activity and the individuals who embody the labors within these spaces can be described as agents who perform tasks within a taskscape (Ingold 1993; 2000). While this taskscape approach has been used in archaeological research, it has not been widely applied to describe the skeletal remains of the actual people who performed these vocations and labors. Evaluating taskscapes from a multiscalar bioarchaeological perspective, this article discusses physical changes from osteoarthritis embodied in the wrists, hands, ankles, feet, and spines of Tiwanaku people associated with varied task and subsistence-based lifeways. While it is not possible to link specific activities with each individual, locating occupational or gendered spaces is conceivable. Many osteoarthritis variances found in this study can be explained as tasks performed differently between these various groupings. In addition, a lack of significant task and taskscape differences within heartland populations may also suggest evidence of reciprocal and heterarchical labor when a wider context is applied. By using the bodies and bones of ancient laborers, this article goes beyond archaeological understandings of taskscape, making members of the Tiwanaku state active agents in understanding prehistoric labor.
... In particular, the skeleton of Feature 15-06 demonstrates massive damages to the wrists, the left knee, and both ankles, exhibiting grinding facets, eburnation, and osteophytes. We suspect a special kind of habitual loading, such as the curing of pelts or weaving, to be responsible for this kind of abrasive pattern (Becker 2016), but further analyses will be necessary to test this hypothesis. ...
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The settlement of the Peruvian high Andes proved to be extremely challenging for Pleistocene hunter-gatherers due to geographical isolation and the harsh environmental conditions of the region. In this chapter, we present a report of the human skeletal material recovered from the Cuncaicha rockshelter, a Peruvian high-altitude site. The excavation in 2015 yielded skeletal remains of five human individuals. Our report provides demographic information of these, including age-at-death, sex, and body stature, as well as osteological indicators of pathological conditions and their etiology. The skeletal remains of two adult females and three adult males were identified, with isolated human bones confirming the presence of one additional subadult individual. The analysis of the funeral contexts revealed similarities to other contemporary sites in the Andes. // El poblamiento de los Andes peruanos fue extremadamente arduo para los cazadores-recolectores del Pleistoceno debido al aislamiento geográfico y a las arduas condiciones ambientales que dominan dicha región. En este capítulo se presenta un análisis de los restos óseos humanos recuperados en el abrigo de Cuncaicha, un sitio peruano de extrema altitud. Durante la excavación llevada a cabo en el 2015 se encontraron los restos óseos de cinco individuos humanos. Nuestro reporte contiene información de dichos restos humanos, incluyendo datos demográficos como la edad de deceso, sexo, estatura, e indicaciones osteológicas de patología y su posible etiología. Los restos de dos adultos femeninos y tres adultos masculinos fueron identificados, así como los huesos aislados que confirmaron la presencia de otro individuo subadulto. El análisis de los contextos funerarios reveló similitudes con otros sitios contemporáneos de la región andina.
... In southern Peru and highland Bolivia, Becker and colleagues (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2016(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019a(Becker, , 2019bBecker and Goldstein, 2017;Blom et al., 2016) have studied the state-level Tiwanaku culture (AD 500-1100) using entheseal changes and OA. This research used a large sample (approximately 2500 individuals) with good skeletal preservation from the high-altitude core (Fig. 3, area D) and near-perfect bone preservation from colony sites near Moquegua, Peru in the Atacama Desert (Fig. 3, area E) (Becker, 2013). ...
Article
Akin to approaches encouraged by Verano (1997) in the Andes, and Ortner (2011, 2012) for general paleopathological studies, this article focuses on accurate descriptions and definitions of osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. By evaluating these conditions as part of biological responses to abnormal skeletal changes and biomechanical stress, the pathogenesis of each condition is discussed. Further, this article emphasizes a "small data" approach to evaluating these conditions in ancient culturally and biologically related human populations, where the study samples must have good skeletal preservation, where estimates of age and sex need to be included as major factors, and where abnormalities need to be described and evaluated. This article also discusses global clinical and osteological research on ways scholars are currently trying to establish industry-wide methods to evaluate osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. Recent studies have focused on rigorous evaluation of methodological techniques, recording protocols, and inter-and intra-observer error problems. Additionally, scholars have focused on physical intensity of movement using biomechanics, evaluated burials of known occupation, and used complex statistical methods to help interpret skeletal changes associated with these conditions. This article also narrows to focus on these conditions within "small data" areas throughout the Andes. Finally, this research concludes with describing future directions to understand skeletal changes, such as more multidisciplinary studies between osteologists and pathologists, working with living people to collect CT, x-rays, or computer-aided motion capture, and a stronger focus on how these conditions correlate with intense biomechanical changes in younger individuals.
... Entheseal response has been widely used to discern a multitude of activities from archaeological populations, including cultural behavior (Becker, 2016;Havelková et al., 2011;Milella, 2014;Molnar, 2010;Santana-Cabrera et al., 2015;Villotte & Knüsel, 2014;Weiss, 2007), technology use (Drapeau, 2008;Karakostis et al., 2017;Marzke et al., 2007;Milella et al., 2014), social stratification (Henderson & Cardoso, 2013;Palmer et al., 2014;Schrader, 2015), and subsistence strategies (Hawkey & Merbs, 1995;Marzke & Shrewsbury, 2006). ...
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Objective Behavioral reconstruction from muscle attachment sites (entheses) is a common practice in anthropology. However, experimental evidence provides mixed support for the assumed association between enthesis size and shape with changes in habitual activity. In this study, a laboratory mouse model was used to experimentally test whether activity level and type alters muscle architecture and the underlying bone cross-sectional geometry of entheses in order to assess the underlying assumption that behavioral changes lead to quantifiable differences in both muscle and enthesis morphology. Materials and Methods Female wild-type mice were separated into one control group and two experimentally increased activity groups (running, climbing) over an 11-week study period. At the start of the experiment, half of the mice were 4 weeks and half were 7 weeks of age. The postmortem deltoideus and biceps brachii muscles were measured for potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area) and potential muscle excursion (fiber length). Bone cross-sectional geometry variables were measured from microCT scans of the humerus and radius at the enthesis and non-enthesis regions of interest across activity groups. Results Activity level and type altered potential force production and potential muscle excursion of both muscles in the younger cohort. We observed differences in cortical bone geometry in both the humerus enthesis and radius non-enthesis region driven exclusively among the younger wheel-running mice. Discussion These results indicate that in addition to muscle architectural changes, bone structural properties at the enthesis do show an adaptive response to increased activity, such as running but only during earlier development. However, further research is required in order to apply these findings to the reconstruction of living behavior from anthropological specimens.
... Si existen las mujeres se las menciona muy esporádicamente, o se intuye su presencia en los ámbitos domésticos, familiares, en las relaciones de parentesco, en contextos funerarios a partir de instrumentos y artefactos relacionados con actividades consideradas como domésticas: el tejer vinculado a instrumentos de hilar y tejer, el equipo de procesamiento de alimentos y los juegos de vasijas, asociado a la cocina (Albarracín-Jordán 2007;Bermann 1994;Janusek 1994). Salen de esta norma contados trabajos como la excavación de una tumba de élite en Putuni, o el estudio de las representaciones de mujeres en Tiwanaku en general y en las ofrendas de Pariti, así como la relación de las mujeres con la producción cerámica y el tejido (Becker 2016;Choque 2009;Couture y Sampeck 2003;Rivera Casanovas 1994;Villanueva y Korpisaari 2013). ...
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Los estudios sobre el Horizonte Medio (500-1000 d.C.) en los Andes han explorado de manera limitada aspectos de género y su relación con la estructuración de poder en sociedades que emergieron y se consolidaron como Estados en este período. Las transformaciones en las estructuras sociales de sociedades relativamente igualitarias a sociedades más estratificadas debieron implicar cambios en la vida diaria y en las estructuras familiares y sociales que afectaron los roles de género y por ende las relaciones de poder que hombres y mujeres ejercitaron dentro de Tiwanaku y su esfera de influencia. Este trabajo explora estos temas considerando no solamente los datos arqueológicos, especialmente las representaciones iconográficas sobre hombres y mujeres durante el Horizonte Medio, sino también trabajos etnohistóricos y antropológicos sobre género que permiten articular una visión general sobre el contexto de producción y reproducción de las relaciones de poder dentro de una estructura estatal.
... Tiwanaku was an influential state that colonized several areas of the Andes, with its social and ritual capital (also called Tiwanaku) in the southern lake basin. Labor organization under Tiwanaku was likely heterarchical, with different groups performing different tasks for the state and their livelihoods (Becker 2016(Becker , 2017Janusek 2008). At the core site of Tiwanaku, ethnic neighborhoods devoted to different craft or economic production have been identified, based on the presence of different artifact types (Janusek 2008). ...
Article
Between 800 BC and AD 200, people in the Titicaca Basin of Peru and Bolivia began practicing agriculture, living in sedentary settlements, and engaging in public ritual. The resulting social complexity was likely associated with shifts in power relationships and social hierarchy, as has been noted in other areas of the world. In fact, in the northern lake basin these changes are clearly associated with an increase in violent conflict and competition. However, the archaeological evidence for hierarchy from the southern Titicaca Basin is inconclusive. This article presents analyses of burials from the southern Titicaca Basin to investigate the creation of social hierarchy during this time. These burials came from seven distinct burial locations, suggesting that hierarchy or ritual exclusion was occurring. Indicators of childhood malnutrition, skeletal responses to inflammation, and traumatic lesions were recorded as potential markers of status differentiation. Results showed that no indicators varied significantly between burial groups, with the exception of age and cribra orbitalia. I interpret these results as representative of a lack of social hierarchy, at least as reflected on the skeleton. Instead, groups may have acted cooperatively in order to facilitate these larger socioeconomic changes.
... Also associated with this area were eight human burials, corporeal evidence of a community of potting practice. Becker's (2016) analysis found that Ch'iji Jawira peoples had significantly high modeled rates of osteoarthritis in the elbow and wrist joints, patterns that were unique to this area of the site. One particular burial, a 30-39year old female, dated to the Late Formative and included a Late Formative Qeya ceramic in the burial (Becker 2016: 406-407). ...
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In this paper, we develop a genealogy of practice approach for the historical analysis and comparison of Andean ceramic firing. This effort was set in motion by the similarity of two sets of ash mounds observed in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Bolivia, one modern and one from the Late Intermediate Period (A.D. 1100–1450). We eschew an ethnoarchaeological perspective in favor of considering their position within a longer genealogy of potting practice. We argue that a genealogical perspective foregrounds ephemeral evidence that is often ignored in dominant narratives, highlights the emergent nature of practices, and draws attention to subject formation across generations. We examine the extant data for pottery firing in the region, drawing out the genealogy of practices involved in firing facilities and subject formation from the Formative Period (1500 B.C. –A.D. 450) through the present. We then return to the ash mounds, juxtaposing the practices and archaeological traces to consider their historical emergences. These two approaches allow us to begin to map out the particularities of Lake Titicaca Basin production locales and to pose new questions of the social relations associated with ceramic firing contexts.
... In this study, 25 total surfaces in six synovial joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) and one synovial and fibrous joint (sacroiliac) were scored for OA (Table 1). Using these data, we evaluated if there were any significant variations between the two stylistic groups, as these may translate into evidence of subsistence strategy-based repetitive motion differences (Becker, 2016;Becker, 2017;Bridges, 1991;Bridges, 1992;Bridges, 1995;Cheverko & Bartelink, 2017;Cope, Berryman, Martin, & Potts, 2005;Domett, Evans, Chang, Tayles, & Newton, 2017;Jurmain, 1999;Walker-Bone & Palmer, 2002;Weiss & Jurmain, 2007). ...
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The Tiwanaku (AD 500-1100) colonized ecologically diverse, lower elevation areas to produce goods not easily grown in the high altitude heartland (3800 m a.s.l.). One colony near present day Moquegua, Peru (900-1500 m a.s.l.) was comprised of multiple Tiwanaku settlements. Colonists farmed products like maize and coca, and transported goods via llama caravan between the colony and heartland. Two subsistence groups emerged in terms of settlement, those of “Chen Chen-style” affiliation associated with an agrarian lifestyle, and those of “Omo-style” representing more of a pastoralist lifeway. Considering Tiwanaku people likely began light chores around 5 years of age (e.g., babysitting siblings), with heavier labor beginning at approximately 8 years, we questioned if these social and occupational differences translated into skeletal changes associated with osteoarthritis (i.e., porosity, lipping, osteophyte formation, and/or eburnation). Individuals from five sites, two which represent the Omo-style (M16 and M70) and three which are in the Chen Chen-style (M1, M10, and M43) were evaluated for osteoarthritis while controlling for age-at-death and sex using 25 total joint surfaces in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle and sacroiliac. Overall, our comparisons show no combined significant differences between the Omo-style and Chen Chen-style groups. Instead, distinctions in osteoarthritis evidence by age-at-death and sex emerged, reflecting the likelihood of specific age or sex-related tasks. Arthropathy evidence among children in elbow and ankle joints also supported the cultural legacy in the Andes that work begins at a relatively young age and would show up in patterns of adult osteoarthritis.
... A similar avascular necrosis (or the death of bone tissue) had been documented in the elbows of Japanese baseball players but was absent in Western athletes. 12 Since his study, subsequent bioarchaeologists have studied human remains to make inferences about acrobatics (Oates et al. 2008), bronze casting (Zhang et al. 2017), clay shoveling (Knüsel et al. 1996, deep-sea fishing (Standen et al. 1997), farming (Bridges 1989;Chapman 1997;Molleson 1989;Sládek et al. 2007), food preparation (Miller et al. 2018); hide production (Merbs 1983;Steen 2005;Steen and Lane 1998), horseback riding (Anđelinović et al. 2015;Khudaverdyan et al. 2016), hunting and gathering (Bridges 1989;Churchill and Morris 1998;Eshed et al. 2004;Kennedy 1983), kayaking (Hawkey and Merbs 1995;Merbs 1983;Molnar 2006;Steen and Lane 1998), pottery making (Becker 2016), river canoeing 11 I acknowledge but leave it for other researchers to explore in greater detail transgenerational plasticity, or heritable epigenetic changes Mulligan 2016). 12 The condition is also known as Panner's disease, named for the orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Dane Panner who first described it. ...
Chapter
“I am a woman’s rights,” began Sojourner Truth before a packed audience at the Ohio Woman’s Rights Convention (Painter 1996: 125–6, 281–2). Her speech that May day in 1851 recounted her lived experience as a woman. It also conveyed how Truth’s gender was inextricable from her identity as an emancipated black slave and evangelical Christian. Her words were quite personal though reflected a collective experience of suffering and resilience, which resonated among the suffragists and abolitionists of antebellum America. Enslavement, poverty, and extreme manual labor also left distinct and observable marks on Truth’s body. “I have as much muscle as any man, and can do as much work as any man,” she related, “I have plowed and reaped and husked and chopped and mowed, and can any man do more than that?” (Painter 1996:125). As her heroism became less the stuff of history and more the stuff of legend, Truth’s words morphed into the powerful and political rallying cry “ain’t I a woman.” Yet, the reference to a monolithic idea of womanhood belied the diversity of women’s realities.
... A similar avascular necrosis (or the death of bone tissue) had been documented in the elbows of Japanese baseball players but was absent in Western athletes. 12 Since his study, subsequent bioarchaeologists have studied human remains to make inferences about acrobatics (Oates et al. 2008), bronze casting (Zhang et al. 2017), clay shoveling (Knüsel et al. 1996, deep-sea fishing (Standen et al. 1997), farming (Bridges 1989;Chapman 1997;Molleson 1989;Sládek et al. 2007), food preparation (Miller et al. 2018); hide production (Merbs 1983;Steen 2005;Steen and Lane 1998), horseback riding (Anđelinović et al. 2015;Khudaverdyan et al. 2016), hunting and gathering (Bridges 1989;Churchill and Morris 1998;Eshed et al. 2004;Kennedy 1983), kayaking (Hawkey and Merbs 1995;Merbs 1983;Molnar 2006;Steen and Lane 1998), pottery making (Becker 2016), river canoeing 11 I acknowledge but leave it for other researchers to explore in greater detail transgenerational plasticity, or heritable epigenetic changes Mulligan 2016). 12 The condition is also known as Panner's disease, named for the orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Dane Panner who first described it. ...
Chapter
The history of anthropology has made a tradition of studying the body. Among those early scholars who gifted us with fundamental ideas was Marcel Mauss. In the 1920s, Mauss’s students at the University of Paris acted as sounding board for his thoughts on body techniques. He formalized his lecture notes for a 1934 presidential address to the Société de Psychologie. His abbreviated statements about habitus inspired Pierre Bourdieu’s compelling treatment of the concept. Bourdieu went on to develop hexis, or embodied habitus. That practices and beliefs, structures and dispositions, leave imprints on bodies is an ingress for bioarchaeology. Here, citing modern and ancient examples and with an awareness of the potential pitfalls, I sketch out the beginnings of a bioarchaeology of body habits.
... A similar avascular necrosis (or the death of bone tissue) had been documented in the elbows of Japanese baseball players but was absent in Western athletes. 12 Since his study, subsequent bioarchaeologists have studied human remains to make inferences about acrobatics (Oates et al. 2008), bronze casting (Zhang et al. 2017), clay shoveling (Knüsel et al. 1996, deep-sea fishing (Standen et al. 1997), farming (Bridges 1989;Chapman 1997;Molleson 1989;Sládek et al. 2007), food preparation (Miller et al. 2018); hide production (Merbs 1983;Steen 2005;Steen and Lane 1998), horseback riding (Anđelinović et al. 2015;Khudaverdyan et al. 2016), hunting and gathering (Bridges 1989;Churchill and Morris 1998;Eshed et al. 2004;Kennedy 1983), kayaking (Hawkey and Merbs 1995;Merbs 1983;Molnar 2006;Steen and Lane 1998), pottery making (Becker 2016), river canoeing 11 I acknowledge but leave it for other researchers to explore in greater detail transgenerational plasticity, or heritable epigenetic changes Mulligan 2016). 12 The condition is also known as Panner's disease, named for the orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Dane Panner who first described it. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, I bring necropolitics to the fore. As developed by postcolonial theorist Achille Mbebme, necropolitics grows out of Michel Foucault’s earlier statements about biopower (and biopolitics). Georges Canguilhem’s philosophizing about the normal and pathological served as a prelude to those conversations. Subsequent scholars’ readings of biopower examine it in relation to the Holocaust specifically and genocide more generally. Yet, so many prior treatments, while crucial for intellectual development, rely on discourse analysis. To fully gauge the significance of genocide, biopower, and necropolitics—to wrap one’s brain around the enormity of numbers, the spatial extent of destruction, the effects of interpersonal and structure violences—discursive analysis requires grounding with material evidence. Researchers of contextualized human remains have a unique contribution to make. Here I review mortuary and bioarchaeological studies of genocide in the twentieth century. I also discuss how forensic anthropologists have materialized necropolitical processes. Their excavations of mass graves and identification of the corpses therein, while not without issues, do extend Mbembe’s ideas about dead bodies in important ways. Less clear is how biopower and necropolitics apply to ancient and historic case studies. While bioarchaeological studies attest to structural and interpersonal violences in the past, the phenomena that Foucault and Mbembe concern themselves with signal modernity and not antiquity. For my part, I discuss bioarchaeological and biohistorical studies of enslavement and violent settler colonialism in the nineteenth century. I also tie these examples to the subfield’s origins, tracking complicity from inception into contemporary classrooms.
Article
Studies of prehispaic Andean textile production, which featured prominently in domestic and state economies, have drawn on typology and context analyses of spindle whorl assemblages, supplemented by ethnohistorical descriptions of cloth, to reconstruct craft specialization, gender dynamics, and tribute systems. The excellent preservation of cloth in the southern Andes, offers a unique opportunity to compare the inferences gained from spindle whorl analyses with the attributes of surviving textile assemblages, specifically the quality of yarn and finished cloth. Here, we present a study of spindle whorls and cloth associated with the Middle Horizon (A.D. 500–1100) state of Tiwanaku in the south-central Andes. In the first part of this study, we propose a regional typology for Tiwanaku spindle whorls, introducing new evidence from Tiwanaku provincial sites in Moquegua, Peru. The subsequent comparison of spindle whorl types with yarns and cloth qualities from mortuary and domestic textiles found in Moquegua reveals spinning and weaving to be mechanically, cognitively, and contextually distinct processes that are nevertheless part of an integrated process. We conclude that Tiwanaku textile production was at once embedded in multigenerational and gendered communities, and probably more informal than in other prehispanic Andean states.
Thesis
Les changements enthésiques correspondent à des atteintes des zones d’insertion des tendons et ligaments sur l’os (ou enthèses). Si ces altérations sont fréquemment employées comme marqueurs osseux d’activité en anthropologie biologique, ces dernières font l’objet d’un intérêt récent pour explorer les interactions entre l’Homme et les équidés. Intégrer ces marqueurs aux recherches archéozoologiques contribuerait à l’apport de nouvelles connaissances sur ce sujet notamment au travers des activités auxquelles étaient dédiés ces animaux. Ce travail propose une nouvelle méthode de cotation s’intéressant à 23 enthèses du squelette appendiculaire des équidés. Cette dernière est employée sur un corpus de 61 spécimens modernes documentés. Leur étude permet de mettre en évidence qu’il est possible de distinguer (1) les individus employés dans le cadre d’activités humaines de ceux qui en sont exempts ainsi que (2) les différentes fonctions pour lesquelles certains d’entre eux étaient employés (monte, traction). Il est démontré que la pratique d’une activité n’est pas la seule étiologie à intervenir dans le développement de changements enthésiques. En effet, des paramètres tels que l’âge au décès, les proportions corporelles ou les conditions de vie sont à considérer. Cette démarche est ensuite appliquée sur les 21 chevaux découverts au cours des fouilles du quartier Saint-Brice de Tournai (Belgique), en périphérie de l’emplacement supposé de la tombe du roi Childéric 1er décédé en 481-482. Associée à une étude paléopathologique approfondie, les analyses des modifications enthésiques contribuent à dresser l’ostéobiographie de ces équidés et obtenir des indices quant à leurs conditions de vie. Les anomalies osseuses et dentaires relevées laissent penser que ces animaux étaient en bonne santé au moment de leur décès. Les changements enthésiques fournissent un argument supplémentaire en faveur de l’hypothèse selon laquelle ces chevaux étaient utilisés comme montures. Nos recherches démontrent ainsi le potentiel de l’emploi de ces atteintes lors de l’étude des restes osseux d’équidés mis au jour en contexte archéologique.
Chapter
How can activity reconstruction address day-to-day life in the past? What are its strengths? What are its drawbacks? One of the ways in which everyday action can be examined in the past is through the osteological examination of activity. There are several methods, including muscle attachment site and osteoarthritis analyses, which have the potential to speak to broad levels of physical activity. In this chapter, I discuss the osteological characteristics, etiology, previous bioarchaeological research, and ongoing bioarchaeological debates for both osteoarthritis and entheseal changes. Throughout the chapter I discuss how these data can illuminate everyday activities of the ancient past. It is important to note that these methods are not without drawbacks—several contributing factors, most notably of which is age, as well as an unclear progression of the conditions limit bioarchaeological interpretations of activity in the past. However, using statistical controls and robust samples sizes, bioarchaeologists can begin to overcome some of these obstacles. I also provide a case study of entheseal changes and osteoarthritis from the ancient Kerma culture (Nubia, 2500–1500 BCE). Here I compare entheseal changes and osteoarthritis for individuals of differing socioeconomic groups and conclude that this social category had a meaningful impact on the everyday lives of these individuals and these experiences were embodied by the people of Kerma.
Article
Urbanization is one of the most important settlement shifts in human history and has been the focus of research within bioarchaeology for decades. However, there have been limited attempts to synthesize the results of these studies in order to gain a broader perspective on whether or how urbanization affects the biology, demography, and behavior of humans, and how these potential effects are embodied in the human skeleton. This paper outlines how bioarchaeology is well‐suited to examine urbanization in the past, and we provide an overview and examples of three main ways in which urbanization is studied in bioarchaeological research: comparison of (often contemporaneous) urban and rural sites, synchronic studies of the variation that exists within and between urban sites, and investigations of changes that occur within urban sites over time. Studies of urbanization, both within bioarchaeology and in other fields of study, face a number of limitations, including a lack of a consensus regarding what urban and urbanization mean, the assumed dichotomous nature of urban versus rural settlements, the supposition that urbanization is universally bad for people, and the assumption (at least in practice) of homogeneity within urban and rural populations. Bioarchaeologists can address these limitations by utilizing a wide array of data and methods, and the studies described here collectively demonstrate the complex, nuanced, and highly variable effects of urbanization.
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Understanding how work was managed and who participated in state-level societies can help elucidate daily activities as well as community development within an emerging complex society. Tiwanaku, with multiethnic neighborhoods in the Titicaca Basin, Bolivia and colonies near present-day Moquegua, Peru, provides a comparison of labor between groups. Specific skeletal evidence of activity (i.e., musculoskeletal stress markers and osteoarthritis) was evaluated to infer how habitual activity varied within this state. Labor rates show that laborers did not work at the behest of elites and results suggest instead, that people worked as reciprocal laborers in a guild-like system.
Chapter
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Archaeological investigations carried out by the Proyecto Wila Jawira in the urban center of Tiwanaku have identified specific locales of economic specialization. Extensive excavations in Ch'ji Jawira have produced substantial data concerning ceramic production in the tiwanaku core area. This evidence enhaces our understanding of the relationship between specialized craft production and the state's political economy.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how work was managed and who participated in state-level societies can help elucidate daily activities as well as community development within an emerging complex society. Tiwanaku, with multiethnic neighborhoods in the Titicaca Basin, Bolivia and colonies near present-day Moquegua, Peru, provides a comparison of labor between groups. Specific skeletal evidence of activity (i.e., musculoskeletal stress markers and osteoarthritis) was evaluated to infer how habitual activity varied within this state. Labor rates show that laborers did not work at the behest of elites and results suggest instead, that people worked as reciprocal laborers in a guild-like system.
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With more than 240 color photographs, this book illustrates the work of potters and traditional ceramic production with examples from Peru, Argentina, Mexico, Turkey, Thailand and Vietnam. Based on the author fieldwork and personal experience, it introduces the reader to a wide range of techniques and manufacture settings, as well as to some aspects of the distribution of the products and their use, in markets, homes and street kitchens. A final note offers a look at the ceramic paste as seen under a microscope. This window into an incredibly interesting microcosmos reveals aspects of the potters’ work and environment that help archaeologists better understand ancient technologies and the people behind them. Available in PDF at https://deepeducationpress.org/traditional-potters.html or as paperback on Amazon or other retailers.
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One of the most common problems in pottery manufacturing process is musculoskeletal disorders on workers. This disorder was caused by uncomfortable posture where the workers sit on the floor with one leg was folded and another was twisted for long duration. Back, waist, buttock, and right knee frequently experience the disorders. The objective of this research is to investigate the muscle contraction at such body part of workers in manufacturing process of pottery. Electromyography is used to investigate the muscle contraction based on the median frequency signal. Focus measurements is conducted on four muscles types. They are lower interscapular muscle on the right and left side, dorsal lumbar muscle, and lateral hamstring muscle. Statistical analysis is conducted to test differences of muscle contraction between female and male. The result of this research showed that the muscle which reached the highest contraction is dorsal lumbar muscle with the average of median frequency is 51,84 Hz. Then followed by lower interscapular muscle on the left side with the average of median frequency is 31,30 hz, lower interscapular muscle on the right side average of median frequency is 31,24 Hz, and lateral hamstring muscle average of median frequency is 21,77 Hz. Based on the statistic analysis result, there were no differences between male and female on left and right lower interscapular muscle and dorsal lumbar muscle but there were differences on lateral hamstring muscle with the significance level is 5%. Besides that, there were differences for all combination muscle types with the level of significance is 5%.
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The Maya. The Romans. The great dynasties of ancient China. It is generally believed that these once mighty empires eventually crumbled and disappeared. A recent trend in archaeology, however, focusing on what happened during and after the decline of once powerful societies has found social resilience and transformation instead of collapse. In Beyond Collapse: Archaeological Perspectives on Resilience, Revitalization, and Transformation in Complex Societies, editor Ronald K. Faulseit gathers scholars with diverse theoretical perspectives to present innovative approaches to understanding the decline and reorganization of complex societies. Essays in the book are arranged into five sections. The first section addresses previous research on the subject of collapse and reorganization as well as recent and historic theoretical trends. In the second section, contributors look at collapse and resilience through the concepts of collective action, eventful archaeology, and resilience theory. The third section introduces critical analyses of the effectiveness of resilience theory as a heuristic tool for modeling the phenomena of collapse and resilience. In the fourth section, contributors examine long-term adaptive strategies employed by prehistoric societies to cope with stresses. Essays in the fifth section make connections to contemporary research on post-decline societies in a variety of time periods and geographic locations. Contributors consider collapse and reorganization not as unrelated phenomena but as integral components in the evolution of complex societies. Using archaeological data to interpret how ancient civilizations responded to various stresses—including environmental change, warfare, and the fragmentation of political institutions—contributors discuss not only what leads societies to collapse but also why some societies are resilient and others are not, as well as how societies reorganize after collapse. The implications of the fate of these societies for modern nations cannot be underestimated. Putting in context issues we face today, such as climate change, lack of social diversity, and the failure of modern states, Beyond Collapse is an essential volume for readers interested in human-environment interaction and in the collapse—and subsequent reorganization—of human societies.
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Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common and disabling problem among carpet weavers and is linked to physical and psychosocial factors of work. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSP, its psychosocial risk factors, and association of pain in each pair of anatomical sites among carpet weavers. A cross-sectional study was performed among 546 hand-woven carpet weavers in rural small-scale workshops of Iran. Data were collected by using parts of a standardized CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) questionnaire focused on MSP in 10 body sites, including the low-back, neck, both right and left shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands, individual, physical and psychosocial risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed applying logistic regression models. Prevalence of MSP in at least one body site was 51.7% over the past month. The most common sites were low back and right shoulder pain 27.4% and 20.1%, respectively. A significant difference was found between the mean number of painful anatomical sites and the level of education, age, physical loading at work, time pressure, lack of support, and job dissatisfaction. In pairwise comparisons, strongest association was found between pain in each bilateral anatomical site (odds ratio = 11.6-35.3; p < 0.001). In home-based workshops of carpet weaving, psychosocial factors and physical loading were associated with MSP. This finding is consistent with studies conducted among other jobs. Considering the preventive programs, the same amount of attention should be paid to psychosocial risk factors and physical loading. Also, further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of psychological factors.
Thesis
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This dissertation focused on understanding labor during the development of Tiwanaku AD 500-1100, one of the earliest Andean states. Prior archaeological research Kolata 1991, 1993a, b; Stanish 1994, 2003 argued that Tiwanaku labor was centralized under a corvée mit'a system. Labor was controlled and distributed by elites living within the city of Tiwanaku under a hierarchical political organization Kolata 2003a. Other research e.g. Albarracín-Jordán 2003; Erickson 2006 argued that local and decentralized control of labor, with workforce cooperation and collaboration under a heterarchical political system, was an important factor to the state's emergence, formation, and expansion. The author interpreted bioarchaeological research on Tiwanaku skeletal remains in order to answer questions about the Tiwanaku workforce, possible agriculture or craft-based activities performed, workload levels, gendered division of labor, as well as the political structure of the state.
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Background: Handloom is one of the oldest industries in India, particularly in West Bengal, where a considerable number of rural people are engaged in weaving. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low back pain among the handloom weavers in India. Methods: A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire along with a body part discomfort scale were administered to handloom weavers (n = 175). Working posture of the participants was assessed using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). Results: Sixty eight per cent of the participants reported suffering from low back pain, making it the most prevalent disorder in our sample. Analysis of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire data revealed that among those with low back pain (n = 119), 2% had severe disabilities, 46% had moderate disabilities, and 52% had minimal disabilities. Statistical analyses revealed a positive significant association between the intensity of pain in the lower back and an increased number of years of work experience (P<0·05). Conclusions: The study underlines the need for further research regarding the postural strain of weavers and also suggests the implementation of ergonomic design into weaver workstations to minimize the adverse effect of their current working postures. Improving upon the weaver’s work-posture could improve their quality of life.
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Political integration and expansion in archaeological states and empires uniquely affected incorporated peoples, who often created and manipulated social, political, and religious identities in response to interactions with larger and more powerful polities. Between AD 500 and 1000, the Tiwanaku polity exerted influence throughout the South Central Andes. This chapter utilizes multiple lines of evidence, including isotope and biodistance analyses, cranial modification, mortuary artifacts, and burial treatments to examine the relationships between the hinterland sites of Chen Chen and San Pedro de Atacama and Tiwanaku. While individuals buried at Chen Chen included immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland, in San Pedro de Atacama local inhabitants consciously manipulated their social identities as they articulated with the distant Tiwanaku polity. This unique example of identity formation and manipulation in the archaeological record demonstrates the potential of multiple lines of bioarchaeological evidence to elucidate the complex relationships between material culture, geographic origin, and identity.
Thesis
The research goal of this thesis is to understand ceramic production at Tiwanaku urban center in the Bolivian Altiplano. Data recovered from excavations at Ch'iji Jawira, a potters neighborhood located in the east periphery of the city, allowed to explore the process of ceramic production, the vessels range and variation, as well as the organization and identity of potters, their relationship with the State, and the possible ways ceramics were distributed for broad consumption.
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Biomechanics theory provides new ways to reconstruct behavior in past populations. Application of biomechanical beam models to long bone diaphyses has proven to be a particularly productive way to analyze skeletal structural variation, in part due to recent methodological advancements that have made data collection easier, and also because functional interpretations of properties are relatively straightforward. This approach has yielded new information on long‐term evolutionary trends in mobility and manipulative behavior, the effects of subsistence strategy and terrain on skeletal robusticity, and sexual dimorphism in behavior. Patterns of skeletal modeling and remodeling during growth and aging can also be elucidated by taking a more mechanical approach.
Book
Now including numerous full colour figures, this updated and revised edition of Larsen's classic text provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals of bioarchaeology. Reflecting the enormous advances made in the field over the past twenty years, the author examines how this discipline has matured and evolved in fundamental ways. Jargon free and richly illustrated, the text is accompanied by copious case studies and references to underscore the central role that human remains play in the interpretation of life events and conditions of past and modern cultures. From the origins and spread of infectious disease to the consequences of decisions made by humans with regard to the kinds of foods produced, and their nutritional, health and behavioral outcomes. With local, regional, and global perspectives, this up-to-date text provides a solid foundation for all those working in the field.
Article
Skeletal remains are a vital source of evidence for archaeologists. Their interpretation has tended to take two divergent forms: the scientific and the humanistic. In this innovative study, Joanna Sofaer Derevenski argues that these approaches are unnecessarily polarized and that one should not be pursued without the other. Exploring key themes such as sex, gender, life cycle and diet, she argues that the body is both biological object and cultural site and is not easily detached from the objects, practices and landscapes that surround it.
Article
The Tiwanaku state was the political and cultural center of ancient Andean civilization for almost 700 years. Identity and Power is the result of ten years of research that has revealed significant new data. Janusek explores the origins, development, and collapse of this ancient state through the lenses of social identities--gender, ethnicity, occupation, for example--and power relations. He combines recent developments in social theory with the archaeological record to create a fascinating and theoretically informed exploration of the history of this important civilization.
Article
Drawing on Merleau-Ponty and Bourdieu, this article explores corporeal ways to modify the somewhat anxiety-filled bodily habit(us) of many young women. The article is based on accounts of body experience written by Finnish women's studies students. In the article, I demonstrate how experiences of overcoming the mind/body dichotomy and connecting the body with the surrounding world disrupted the young women's habitual experience of an alienated body. I argue that a corporeal agency that arises within physical actions and situations can modify a troublesome habit(us) and enable a young woman to transform her habitual self-body-world relation. Moreover, I discuss how physical activity can facilitate empowering body experiences.
Book
The warp-faced weaves of the Andes are the most complex in the world, with up to eight warp levels. While exisiting studies of Andean textiles use a technical language derived from other textile traditions, this book takes as its starting point the technical terms in the Aymara and Quechua languages used by Andean weavers themselves. The result is a completely new way of understanding one of the great textile traditions of the world, which simplifies the terminology used. The book will be of interest to ethnographers and archaeologists of the Andes, museum curators, and those interested in textiles in general.
Article
For many years, it has been known that archaic hominids had more robust long bones than do living populations, a fact that has been linked to their more physically strenuous lives. But many questions remain. How much stronger, for example, were Neanderthals than living humans? And what does this difference in strength tell us about the behavior of our ancestors? Recent research has shown that some of our earlier assumptions about robusticity and behavior in earlier humans are either simplistic or untrue. For example, it is now clear that although earlier humans were, on the average, stronger than living peoples, this is not invariably the case. Some modern human groups have even stronger humeri than those of Neanderthals. The fact that changes in robusticity do not always neatly coincide with subsistence or technological change suggests that interpretations derived in large measure from stone-tool technology and other artifactual evidence may be misleading. This new information on physical strength in earlier humans necessitates a reassessment of traditional ideas about earlier human behavior.
Article
Trauma, infection and deficiency diseases have a gratifying precision as causes of pathological change. Conditions described as "degenerative " are much less understood but are none the less important because among them is osteoarthritis which has the distinction of being one of the commonest, most widespread and most antique of all diseases (119:59).
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[English] This study reports on changing settlement patterns in the lower Tiwanaku Valley during the Formative (1500 B. C.-A. D. 100), Classic (A. D. 400-800), and Postclassic (A. D. 800-1100) periods. Based on the association of agricultural features with these site distributions, as well as the consideration of ethnohistoric and ethnographic information, it is argued that fundamental principles of the political and economic organization of the Aymara ayllus and markas can be inferred from the archaeological evidence. It also is suggested that Tiwanaku articulated local elites through mechanisms of reciprocity and common ideological denominators rather than through direct intervention and control of local sociopolitical hierarchies. // [Spanish] El presente estudio enfoca cambios en los patrones de asentamiento que acontecieron en el Valle Bajo de Tiwanaku durante los períodos Formativo (1500 a. C.-100 d. C.), Clásico (400-800 d. C), y Postclásico (800-1100 d. C.). Con base en la relación que guardan estos sitios con distintos paisajes agrícolas (e. g., camellones, terrazas, y qochas) y la consideración de datos etnohistóricos y etnográficos, se desarolla un modelo de "jerarquías inclusivas" para explicar la naturaleza segmentaria de la organización social Tiwanaku. Se arguye que principios similares a los que presentan la organización política y económica de los ayllus y las markas aymaras pueden ser inferidos a través de la evidencia arqueológica. Las evidencias apuntan hacia la articulación de élites locales mediante mecanismos de reciprocidad y denominadores comunes ideológicos y no así hacia una intervención directa de las jerarquías sociopolíticas locales. Los ejemplos etnohistóricos y etnográficos del ayllu y de la marka son utilizados como parámetros de interpretación de los principios de organización que caracterizaron a Tiwanaku, no así como estructuras fijas que puedan ser directamente proyectadas hacia la sociedad prehispánica.
Article
Craft consumption in Early Nasca (ca. A.D. 1-450) society is explored by evaluating the use of polychrome pottery within the context of a residential village. Data are presented from the Early Nasca village, Marcaya, where excavations utilizing a household archaeology approach revealed that most polychromes were consumed by households with high and low status alike, while certain vessel shapes were reserved for high-status households. These findings challenge the common assumption that highly valued crafts were monopolized by elites in middle-range societies, and show instead that there is a potential demand for crafts by both elites and commoners. It is argued that polychrome pottery was broadly used in Nasca because it was integral to ritual consumption that first took place in feasting ceremonies at the regional center Cahuachi, while certain vessel types were restricted to high-status households that acted as intermediaries between Cahuachi and the village.
Article
Patterns in household consumption reflect changing strategies of control, finance, and legitimation used by the Inka empire after their conquest of the northern Wanka of Central Peru. Changes in consumption reflect differential access to goods. In pre-Inka Wanka II, the evidence of social stratification was relatively marked; in Wanka III-under Inka domination-this difference continued but narrowed significantly. The symbolic referents of prestige wares that distinguished elites from commoners changed from local styles to those conforming to Inka stylistic canons. We also recognize changing participation in activities associated with economic control and legitimation. In Wanka II, elite households yielded evidence of greater involvement in storage and feasting. In Wanka III, the overall quantities of items associated with these activities fell and the difference between elites and commoners was diminished as the state co-opted local elite prerogatives of status and power.
Article
Analyses of entheseal changes (EC) in identified skeletal samples employ a common research strategy based on the comparison between occupations grouped on the basis of shared biomechanical and/or social characteristics. Results from this approach are often ambiguous, with some studies that point to differences in EC between occupational samples and others failing to provide evidence of behavioral effects on EC. Here we investigate patterns of EC among documented occupations by means of a multivariate analysis of robusticity scores in nine postcranial entheses from a large (N = 372) contemporary skeletal sample including specimens from one Italian and two Portuguese identified collections. Data on entheseal robusticity, analyzed by pooled sides as well by separated sides and levels of asymmetry, are converted in binary scores and then analyzed through nonlinear principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results of these analyses are then used for the classification of occupations. Differences between occupational classes are tested by MANOVA and pairwise Hotelling's test. Results evidence three classes which separate occupations related to farming, physically demanding but generalized occupation, and physically undemanding occupations, with the more consistent differences between the first and the last classes. Our results are consistent with differences in biomechanical behavior between the occupations included in each class, and point to the physical and social specificity of farming activities. On the other hand, our study exemplifies the usefulness of alternative analytical protocols for the investigation of EC, and the value of research designs devoid of a priori assumptions for the test of biocultural hypotheses.
Article
This book takes a new and provocative approach to ancient state expansion, looking at the role and dynamics of colonization in pre-Columbian Andean states. Paul Goldstein argues that the influential Tiwanaku culture in the Bolivian highlands, which existed in the 7th through 11th centuries A.D., was at its core a civilization of peoples of distinctive ethnic and political affiliations who shared some common identities. He maintains that Tiwanaku expansion came about because of a complex web of economic and cultural exchanges that linked regions into a pluralistic confederation, a demographic process he calls "ethnicity in motion." Goldstein takes issue with earlier notions of ancient state expansion that argue for a coercive centralized political body under charismatic warlords and powerful ruling elites. He asserts that "globalist" interpretations of expansive states, whether they focus on imperial conquest or hegemonic "world systems," all share a similarly limited centrist perspective. In contrast, his reassessment of state structure emphasizes identity, process, and dynamics from the bottom up. Noting that the Tiwanaku civilization was far more pluralistic than is commonly believed, he contends that early states in the Andes, and perhaps throughout the ancient world, were segmentary in nature and that they remained so even as they grew into larger empires. After introducing the role of diasporas in early state growth, Goldstein synthesizes recent research on the Tiwanaku civilization of highland Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. He presents the results of his own extensive archaeological field research in Azapa, Chile, and Moquegua, Peru, showing how settlement, household, mortuary, and monumental archaeology bear on the colonization of lowland agricultural valleys.
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This article focuses on Neolithic skeletons associated with the first monumental cemeteries of Western Europe and specifically those of the Cerny culture (Paris Basin, France). While this cultural context is an agrarian one, numerous arrowheads derived from complete hunting equipment are present in numerous graves. The goal of this work is to evaluate the morphological and pathological differences among the individuals according to the presence of arrowheads in their graves. It is postulated that those buried with such artifacts practiced archery, unlike their counterparts. Only adult males were selected for study to limit the effect of non-mechanical factors such as age- and sex-related modifications. The corpus consists of 36 males reliably identified among the 101 Cerny adults currently available. Thirteen men are associated with arrowheads. Variations in morphology and robusticity are evaluated on the basis of the external geometric properties of the appendicular skeleton. Entheseal changes to fibrocartilaginous attachment sites of upper and lower limbs are also examined. Both nonpathological skeletal adaptations and pathological indicators are consistent and reveal significant differences between the two groups compared. Functional adaptation is observed in the forearm bones and the clavicle in response to mechanical loads, and enthesopathies suggest repeated forceful use of upper limb muscles. These osteological changes specifically reflect the higher intensity upper limb activity of the men buried with arrowheads and correspond with the medical data on known archers, suggesting that this specific forceful task is linked to the practice of archery. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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In the present study, hypotheses regarding the effect of Spanish contact on some habitual activities among the indigenous population of Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico, are tested using analyses of upper body musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM). Historical records demonstrate that the Spanish desired maize, animal hides, woven cotton mantas, and labour from the Puebloan Indians of this area. Therefore, it is hypothesized that a comparison of MSM data from pre- and post-Spanish contact groups at Pecos would display evidence of intensification of activities related to the procurement of these goods. The MSM data from this research do support the contention that Spanish contact had an effect on habitual activities performed by both sexes; however, the number of muscles demonstrating a statistically significant difference over time is limited. Yet trends in the mean MSM expression as well as rank order of these muscles and others uphold the hypothesized increase in maize production and processing as well as an increase in burden bearing. No evidence is found to support an increase in weaving activity. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Proponents of many comparative models of craft specialization explain variability in the organization of production according to the nature of elite interest and economic demand. To this end, many propose a basic dichotomy between independent and attached specialization, whereby valued goods are produced for elites in controlled, nondomestic workshops. I examine new evidence for craft production in the prehispanic Andean polity of Tiwanaku (A. D. 500-1150). I outline expectations for these two forms of specialization and, based on ethnohistorical research in the Tiwanaku region, propose a third form, termed embedded specialization. I appraise primary evidence for the production of ceramic vessels at the site of Tiwanaku and the production of musical instruments at the nearby regional site of Lukurmata. Weighing expectations against evidence, I argue that in Tiwanaku centers many goods were produced by kin-based groups residing in large residential compounds. Skilled production served the overarching political economy and the demands of nonspecialists, but it was neither strictly independent of nor directly attached to elite interests. Craft was rooted in segmentary principles of sociopolitical order, and so was local but not wholly autonomous. On a comparative scale, I suggest that embedded production characterized some states emphasizing corporate strategies of political integration.