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Ecological Perspectives Surrounding the Design of Self-Determination-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning as a Formative Intervention for Students With Disabilities in Inclusive Settings

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Abstract

This transdisciplinary chapter focuses on ecological perspectives surrounding the design of self-determination- enhanced Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The chapter presents a PBL conceptual framework that can be leveraged in implementation of the skills needed for the 21st-century, specifically self-determination for students with disabilities in inclusive settings. The framework is built upon an extensive research synthesis of the principles behind PBL instructional design with an emphasis on special education. The research synthesis revealed the relationships between self-determination learning and PBL. A collaborative learning model-SHARE: Structure, Hypothesis, Analysis, Research, and Evaluation-was subsequently designed as a positive intervention in implementing PBL. In brief, technology and teacher education constitute the essence of quality self-determination-enhanced PBL practices. Educators, educational policymakers, and researchers involved in inclusive education practices will find this chapter of particular interest as 21st-century learning skills are becoming increasingly vital in today's society.

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[present an] installment in an ongoing exploration of how educational experiences can help students get clever ideas when they are faced with problems / defines key terms, summarizes the history of research on problem-solving transfer . . . and offers a view of future research on problem-solving transfer historical review: 4 views of transfer [formal discipline: general transfer of general skill, associationism: specific transfer of specific behaviors, Gestalt psychology: specific transfer of general skills, cognitive science: metacognitive control of general and specific skills] / current research: teachable aspects of problem solving [improving the mind, teaching basic skills, teaching for understanding, teaching by analogy, teaching thinking skills] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Chapter
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For almost a century, educational theory and practice have been influenced by the view of behavioural psychologists that learning is synonymous with behaviour change. In this book, the authors argue for the practical importance of an alternate view, that learning is synonymous with a change in the meaning of experience. They develop their theory of the conceptual nature of knowledge and describe classroom-tested strategies for helping students to construct new and more powerful meanings and to integrate thinking, feeling, and acting. In their research, they have found consistently that standard educational practices that do not lead learners to grasp the meaning of tasks usually fail to give them confidence in their abilities. It is necessary to understand why and how new information is related to what one already knows. All those concerned with the improvement of education will find something of interest in Learning How to Learn.
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Article
Despite speech-language pathology (SLP) education undergoing many innovative changes over the years, there has been little research about learning or outcomes in SLP programs. Critical thinking in clinical decision-making, however, has been identified as a critical skill in SLP. Several recent studies have shown that concept mapping can be used to assess, and perhaps enhance, critical thinking. Problem-based learning (PBL) is reported to be one way to encourage critical thinking and life-long learning. Here we review the literature in PBL, concept mapping, and critical thinking, focusing on the education of SLP students. The review illustrates the close and complex interactions amongst problem-based learning, critical thinking and concept mapping. The aim of the review is to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of PBL, and to increase understanding regarding why the employment of PBL in SLP programs may facilitate critically-thinking graduate clinicians. The evidence indicates that PBL allows more meaningful learning that promotes better integration between theory and clinical practice.
Article
There is increased emphasis on self -determination as an important outcome for youth with disabilities if they are to achieve positive adult outcomes after they leave school. However, the causal link between self-determination and positive adult outcomes has remained untested. The Arc conducted a follow-up study of students with mental retardation or learning disabilities for whom data regarding self-determination had been collected prior to their high school exit. Data regarding adult outcomes for these students nearly 1 year after graduation were collected. The resulting analysis determined that self-determined students were more likely to have achieved more positive adult outcomes, including being employed at a higher rate and earning more per hr than peers who were not self-determined. A framework for promoting self-determination as an educational outcome is presented.
Article
This article describes the field-test results of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction, a model of teaching designed to enable teachers to teach students to set goals, take action on those goals, and adjust their goals and plans as needed. Nineteen students, most of whom had intellectual disabilities, participated in the field test. Seventeen of the 19 students made dramatic changes from baseline to intervention conditions, at levels that exceeded teachers' expectations. Additionally, social validation data obtained from both the students and the participating teachers supported the utility of the model. The implications of the field test are discussed.
Article
Although skill in problem solving is critical to success in school and the community, as well as to promoting student self-determination, problem solving remains a neglected curriculum area for students with developmental disabilities. Using the self-determined learning model, 4 students with mental retardation or developmental disabilities were taught problem-solving skills to achieve self-set goals. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used, and the instruction was provided in general education content classes. Target behaviors included increasing appropriate touching, increasing contributions to class discussion, and increasing direction following. Data revealed immediate and dramatic changes for all participants, with performance levels maintained at 100%. Anecdotal social validation data supported the findings. The implications of these findings in respect to promoting self-determination and inclusive practice are discussed.
Article
Several potential advantages for students' learning are claimed for problem-based learning (PBL). Students in PBL curricula may be more highly motivated; they may be better problem solvers and self-directed learners; they may be better able to learn and recall information; and they may be better able to integrate basic science knowledge into the solutions of clinical problems. Although some of these claims find theoretical support from the literature on the psychology of learning, to date there has been no review of the experimental evidence supporting the possible differences in students' learning that can be attributed to PBL. In this review article, the authors examine each claim critically in light of that evidence. They conclude that (1) there is no evidence that PBL curricula result in any improvement in general, content-free problem-solving skills; (2) learning in a PBL format may initially reduce levels of learning but may foster, over periods up to several years, increased retention of knowledge; (3) some preliminary evidence suggests that PBL curricula may enhance both transfer of concepts to new problems and integration of basic science concepts into clinical problems; (4) PBL enhances intrinsic interest in the subject matter; and (5) PBL appears to enhance self-directed learning skills, and this enhancement may be maintained.
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The increasingly popular term 'problem-based learning' does not refer to a specific educational method. It can have many different meanings depending on the design of the educational method employed and the skills of the teacher. The many variables possible can produce wide variations in quality and in the educational objectives that can be achieved. A taxonomy is proposed to facilitate an awareness of these differences and to help teachers choose a problem-based learning method most appropriate for their students.
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The purpose of this article is to describe a study that implemented concept maps as a methodology to teach and evaluate critical thinking. Students in six senior clinical groups were taught to use concept maps. Students created three concept maps over the course of the semester. Data analysis demonstrated a group mean score of 40.38 on the first concept map and 135.55 on the final concept map, for a difference of 98.16. The paired t value comparing the first concept map to the final concept map was -5.69. The data indicated a statistically significant difference between the first and final maps. This difference is indicative of the students' increase in conceptual and critical thinking.
Article
In problem-based learning (PBL), problems represent the starting point of students' learning activities. Therefore, the quality of these problems should be high, in that they should be of an adequate level of complexity and structuredness. Previous research has proposed several guidelines for constructing problems, but some of them are rather vague and are not based on empirical evidence. The present study aimed to validate a short questionnaire that can be used to assess the degree of complexity and structuredness of PBL problems. This paper outlines Jonassen's theory, on which the questionnaire is based, and its relationship and applicability to PBL problems. The questionnaire was validated by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The results showed that students were able to distinguish PBL problems that were too simple and those that were too well-structured, but found it difficult to distinguish problems that were too complex or too ill-structured. The questionnaire may be used to measure the levels of complexity and structuredness of a problem as perceived by students and can provide teachers with feedback about the quality of problems.
Leadership and Personnel Management: Concepts
  • Gada Kadoda
Gada Kadoda (2016). Leadership and Personnel Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 1068-1089).