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A review on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two Hibiscus species with spectacular flower colour change: H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis

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Among the Hibiscus species, H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis display spectacular flower colour change. In this short review, the current knowledge on their phytochemistry and pharmacology is updated, and their botany and uses described. With phytosterols, triterpenes, triterpenoids, coumarins, amides, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins as chemical constituents, H. tiliaceus has pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, tyrosinase inhibitory, cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-tumour and anthelmintic activities. Chemical constituents of H. mutabilis include flavonoids, flavonol glycosides and anthocyanins with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antiviral, anticancer, filaricidal, anti-allergy and anti-diabetic activities. Both H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic activities in common. A quick literature search showed that at least five other species of Hibiscus share these pharmacological properties. Included in the search were extracts or compounds responsible and their mechanisms of action. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2016; 8(7); 1200-1208
ISSN: 0975-4873
Review Article
*Author for Correspondence: erchan@yahoo.com
A Review on the Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of two Hibiscus
Species with Spectacular Flower Colour Change: H. tiliaceus and H.
mutabilis
Eric W.C. Chan1*, S.K. Wong2, H.T. Chan3
1Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
2School of Science, Monash University Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
3Secretariat, International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, c/o Faculty of Agriculture,
University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0129 Japan.
Available Online: 12th July, 2016
ABSTRACT
Among the Hibiscus species, H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis display spectacular flower colour change. In this short review,
the current knowledge on their phytochemistry and pharmacology is updated, and their botany and uses described. With
phytosterols, triterpenes, triterpenoids, coumarins, amides, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins as chemical constituents, H.
tiliaceus has pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, tyrosinase inhibitory, cytotoxic,
immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-tumour and anthelmintic activities.
Chemical constituents of H. mutabilis include flavonoids, flavonol glycosides and anthocyanins with pharmacological
properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antiviral, anticancer, filaricidal,
anti-allergy and anti-diabetic activities. Both H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-
diabetic activities in common. A quick literature search showed that at least five other species of Hibiscus share these
pharmacological properties. Included in the search were extracts or compounds responsible and their mechanisms of
action.
Keywords: Hibiscus tiliaceus; sea hibiscus; Hibiscus mutabilis; confederate rose; anti-inflammatory; analgesic.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) comprises some 275
species in the tropics and sub-tropics of which 43 species
are found in the Malesian region1. Documented in the
Flora of China, 12 Hibiscus species are endemic and four
are introduced in China2. Leaves of Hibiscus are simple,
lobed, alternately or spirally arranged and have paired
stipules3. Flowers are radially symmetrical with cup-
shaped calyx, five petals joined at the base, style bearing
many stamens, and stigma with five hairy lobes. Flowers
of most Hibiscus species have a remarkable colour
pattern with the inner base of petals forming a deep-
coloured heart4. Another feature of Hibiscus is flower
colour change which can be spectacular in some species.
Hibiscus is widely cultivated as ornamental, food, and
medicinal plants1. Leaves of some species are consumed
as vegetable, and stem fibres are also used for pulp and
paper. The mucilage is used as emollient and demulcent
for abscesses, ulcers, cutaneous infections, swellings,
boils and mumps. In South, Southeast and East Asia, the
mucilage is believed to have a cooling effect, and is used
for healing burns and scalds. The mucilage is also used
as medication for treating cough, bronchitis, dysuria and
menorrhagia. Midwives apply the mucilage to facilitate
delivery of newborn. Hibiscus species have been reported
to possess a wide range of pharmacological properties
such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antihypertensive, anti-
inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-cancer, anti-tumour,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic,
anticonvulsant, antihelminthic, anti-spermatogenic and
antimutagenic activities5,6. In this short review, the major
chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of
H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis, two Hibiscus species with
spectacular flower colour change, are updated with some
description of their botany and uses. Both species have
been documented in a book on edible medicinal and non-
medicinal plants7. A review of the pharmacology and
secondary metabolites of ten Hibiscus species has
included H. tiliaceus amongst them8, and an overview on
the phytochemistry and pharmacology of H. mutabilis has
been documented9. Nevertheless, this review is still
deemed appropriate and relevant, particularly the
discussion on other Hibiscus species sharing similar
pharmacological properties as H. tiliaceus and H.
mutabilis, and their possible modes of action. There is a
concurrent documentation in IJPPR where we reviewed
the phytochemistry and pharmacology of H. taiwanensis
and H. schizopetalus, two lesser-known Hibiscus species.
HIBISCUS TILIACEUS
Eric et al. / A Review on the
IJPPR, Volume 8, Issue 7: July 2016 Page 1201
Botany and uses
Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (sea hibiscus) is a coastal plant of
the tropics and sub-tropics10. Associated with mangroves,
the species is a fast-growing tree that can grow up to 20
m tall. Leaves are heart-shaped. Flowers are bell-shaped
with maroon-coloured heart and stigma. They are yellow
in the morning, turning orange-red in the evening, and
mauve the next morning (Figure 1). In Chinese folk
medicine, the root of H. tiliaceus has been used as an
antifebrile and emetic, and the leaf and bark have been
used for the treatment of cough and bronchitis11. Flowers
of H. tiliaceus are used to treat ear infections12, and in
birth control in countries of Asia and Africa13. In Indo-
China, leaves are used as a laxative1. In the Philippines,
the bark has been used for treating dysentery, and in
Papua New Guinea, a decoction of leaves is taken for
sore throat, pneumonia, cough, tuberculosis and
diarrhoea.
Phytochemistry
Phenolics of p-coumaric acid, fumaric acid, kaempferol,
kaempferol-3-O-D-galactoside, quercetin and quercetin-
3-O-D-galactoside have been reported in fruits of H.
tiliaceus14. In flowers of H. tiliaceus, cyanidin-3-
glucoside is the major anthocyanin4. Other compounds
identified in the flowers were saturated hydrocarbons of
15−34 carbons, methyl ester of fatty acids, α-tocopherol
and phytosterols15. Recently, one anthocyanin (cyanidin
3-O-sambubioside) and four flavonols have been isolated
from the flowers16. From the stem and bark, a new
friedelane-type triterpene (27-oic-3-oxo-28-friedelanoic
acid) and eight known triterpenoids have been isolated17.
All the compounds were reported from H. tiliaceus for
the first time. Out of eight triterpenoids isolated from
leaves of H. tiliaceus, three with the rare nigrum skeleton
were new18. Phytochemical analysis of H. tiliaceus led to
the isolation of 10 compounds (ergosta-4,6,8, friedelin,
germanicol, glutinol, lupeol, pachysandiol, β-sitosterol,
stigmast-4,22-dien-3-one, stigmast-4-en-3-one,
stigmasterol and 22-tetraen-3-one) from the stem and
bark19, and 14 compounds (azelaic acid, cleomiscosin C,
daucosterol, friedelin, fumaric acid, hibiscolactone,
kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol,
succinic acid, syriacusin A and vanillin) from the leaf and
stem20. A new coumarin (hibiscusin) and a new amide
(hibiscusamide) together with 11 known compounds
(vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-
hydroxybenzaldehyde, scopoletin, N-trans-
feruloyltyramine, N-cis-feruloyltyramine, β-sitosterol,
stigmasterol, β-sitostenone and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-
one) have been isolated from the stem wood of H.
tiliaceus21. A continuing phytochemical study on the leaf
and branch extracts of H. tiliaceus yielded two new
tetracyclic triterpenoids (tiliacol A and tiliacol B)
together with one known analog of tiliacol A22.
Quantified using HPLC-DAD, the ethanol leaf extract of
H. tiliaceus growing in Bangladesh yielded phenolic
compounds of catechin, rutin, quercetin, and ellagic acid
with contents of 99, 79, 69 and 59 mg/100 g,
respectively23.
Pharmacology
Antioxidant properties
Out of leaves and flowers of six Hibiscus species
screened for total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical
scavenging (FRS), extracts of H. tiliaceus ranked first
with outstanding values24,25. TPC and FRS of H. tiliaceus
leaves were 2.4 and 2.7 times those of H. mutabilis,
which ranked second. Flowers were 4.9 and 5.6 times
higher. Out of leaves of nine coastal plant species
screened for antoxidant properties, TPC and FRS values
of H. tiliaceus were the highest with young leaves having
slightly higher values than mature leaves26. A similar
trend was also observed for total flavonoid content and
ferric reducing power. A comparison between the
antioxidant properties of coastal and inland populations
of H. tiliaceus did not show any distinct variation for both
leaves and flowers27. With greater UV radiation in coastal
areas, there was no evidence that coastal populations have
stronger antioxidant properties. Flower extracts of H.
tiliaceus have antioxidant effect protecting several strains
of yeast cells against cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide
(H2O2) and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (TBHP),14 and
showed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects against
oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 and TBHP in
V79 cells28. The same group of researchers also reported
that the flower methanol extract of H. tiliaceus had
antidepressant-like influence on male Swiss albino mice
without sedative side effect29.
Antibacterial activity
The antibacterial activity of the methanol leaf extract of
H. tiliaceus has been reported with minimum inhibitory
doses of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/disc against Gram-positive
bacteria of Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and
Staphylococcus aureus, respectively25. No inhibition was
observed for Gram-negative bacteria of Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella choleraesuis.
The ethanol extract of dried H. tiliaceus leaves showed
activity against S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella
paratyphi with diameters of inhibition zones of 9.0 mm
and 1215 mm at doses of 250 and 500 μg/disc,
respectively30.
Anti-tyrosinase activity
Leaf extracts of H. tiliaceus showed strong anti-
tyrosinase activity. Out of 39 seashore plant species, and
36 edible and medicinal plant species found in Okinawa,
Japan, leaves of H. tiliaceus had the highest tyrosinase
inhibition31,32. Of four species of Hibiscus tested, leaves
of H. tiliaceus had the strongest anti-tyrosinase activity
(42%) followed leaves by H. mutabilis (25%)25. The
value of H. tiliaceus was comparable to leaves of guava
(41%) used as positive control.
Cytotoxic activity
Hibiscusamide, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and N-cis-
feruloyltyramine isolated from the stem wood of H.
tiliaceus had cytotoxic activity against P-388 and/or
HT-29 cells with IC50 values < 4 g/ml21. Hibiscusamide
was the most cytotoxic with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.8
g/ml, respectively. Of the three tetracyclic triterpenoids
isolated from the leaf and branch extracts of H. tiliaceus,
the analog of tiliacol A showed potent cytotoxicity
Eric et al. / A Review on the
IJPPR, Volume 8, Issue 7: July 2016 Page 1202
against P388 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 11.2 and
11.5 mmol/L, respectively22.
Immunomodulatory effects
Wistar rats administered orally with methanol leaf extract
of H. tiliaceus at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day for 28
days showed a significant increase in the production of
circulating antibody titer in response to sheep red blood
cells, a significant increase in primary and secondary
hemagglutination antibody titer, and enhanced production
of red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin33.
Evidently, oral administration of the extract has an
immuno-modulatory effects in the Wistar rats.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects
Successive methanol, petroleum ether, and chloroform
leaf extracts of H. tiliaceus were tested for anti-
inflammatory and analgesic effects in mice at oral doses
of 250 and 500 mg/kg34. Results showed significant anti-
inflammatory activity against carragennan-induced paw
oedema after 2 and 3 h, and significantly inhibited acetic
acid-induced abdominal writhing after 1 h. Ranking of
effectiveness of extracts was methanol > chloroform >
petroleum ether. The methanol wood extract of H.
tiliaceus at 200 and 400 mg/kg was reported to have anti-
inflammatory and analgesic effects in mice35.
Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects
In another study, the methanol flower extract of H.
tiliaceus was evaluated for anti-diabetic and
hypolipidemic effects using streptozotocin-induced
diabetic Wistar rats orally administered with the extract at
doses for 250 and 500 mg/kg for 21 days36. The extract
showed significant anti-diabetic activity with
improvement in body weight, reduction in serum
cholesterol and triglycerides, and improvement in high
density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level.
Anti-tumour activity
The anti-tumour activity of the aqueous root extract of H.
tiliaceus has been reported37. Swiss albino mice bearing
Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma (DAL) were inoculated with
the extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for nine days,
mean survival time and peritoneal cell counts were
Figure 1: Freshly open flower of Hibiscus tiliaceus is yellow in the morning (left) and mauve the next morning (right).
Figure 2: Flower of Hibiscus mutabilis is white (left) in the morning and pink (right) in the afternoon.
Eric et al. / A Review on the
IJPPR, Volume 8, Issue 7: July 2016 Page 1203
enhanced, and tumour cell growth was found to be
inhibited. The results indicated that the extract treated
groups were able to reverse their haematological
parameters altered by DAL cells within 14 days. In the
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) database, H.
tiliaceus has been recorded as an anti-tumour agent,
which has been validated by western medicine in the
Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry (CMC) database38.
Anthelmintic activity
The anthelmintic activity of leaf and wood extracts of H.
tiliaceus has been reported39. Tested against Pheretima
posthuma based on time of paralysis and time of death
using 10−40 mg/ml of extracts, good activity was shown
by the ethyl acetate leaf extract (2846 and 45−74 min)
and petroleum ether wood extract (29−45 and 47−78
min), respectively.
HIBISCUS MUTABILIS
Botany and uses
Hibiscus mutabilis L. (confederate rose) is an inland
woody shrub (1.54.0 m tall) that is native to China and
widely cultivated in Southeast Asia1. Leaves are broadly
ovate with mostly five triangular lobes. Although H.
mutabilis produces large and beautiful flowers, its
constraint as ornamental plants is the frequent and
unsightly infestation of whiteflies.
Flower colour change in H. mutabilis is most spectacular.
Flowers are white in the morning, pink in the afternoon,
and red in the evening (Figure 2). Temperature may be an
important factor affecting the rate of colour change as
white flowers kept in the refrigerator remain white until
they are taken out to warm, whereupon they slowly turn
pink3. Leaves and flowers are emollient and cooling, and
are used to treat swellings and skin infections1. Midwives
use mucilage from flowers and leaves to facilitate
delivery during labour.
Phytochemistry
Phytochemical analyses of H. mutabilis are focused on
the flowers, which are white in the morning, pink during
noon and red in the evening. Analysis of petals showed
the presence of flavonol glycosides40. Anthocyanins,
absent in the morning, were found during noon and in the
evening. They were cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside and
cyanidin 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside. Studies have shown
that the total anthocyanin content in the evening was 3-
fold greater than that at noon. Flavonols of noon and
evening flowers were identical to those of morning
flowers. Since there was no reduction in flavonol content,
it was suggested that the anthocyanins were synthesized
independently. The main pigments of white and red
flowers of H. mutabilis were due to quercetin 3-
sambubioside and cyanidin 3-sambubioside,
respectively4. These compounds were previously
identified as quercetin 3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin 3,5-
diglucoside. As the glycoside compounds were identical,
there is a possibility that anthocyanins are formed through
direct conversion of flavonol glycosides. A related study
reported that colour change of H. mutabilis flowers from
white to red is due to the accumulation of cyanidin-3-
sambubioside41. At the intial and rapid phase of pigment
accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)
activity in the intact petals increases rapidly to seven
Table 1: Hibiscus species with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-diabetic properties.
Hibiscus species
Plant part
Extract/compound
Activity
H. tiliaceus
Leaf
Wood
Flower
Successive
Methanol
Methanol
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic
H. mutabilis
Leaf
Bark
Leaf
Ethanol
Successive
Methanol
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Anti-diabetic
H. cannabinus
Leaf
Leaf
Successive
Methanol
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Anti-diabetic
H. rosa-sinensis
Leaf
Leaf, flower
Leaf
Flower
Flower
Flower
Methanol
Ethanol
Aqueous, ethanol
Ethanol
Aqueous
Ethanol
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic
Anti-diabetic
H. sabdariffa
Leaf
Seed
Calyx
Calyx
Calyx
Methanol
Petroleum ether
D, DS
Ethanol
Methanol
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Anti-inflammatory
Hypolipidemic
Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic
H. schizopetalus
Leaf
Leaf, flower
Leaf, flower
Successive
Methanol
Methanol
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic
H. taiwanensis
Stem
Stem
Stem
Aqueous
Acetone
SA
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Hypoglycaemic
Hypoglycaemic
D = Delphinidin, DS = Delphinidin 3-sambubioside, SA = syringaldehyde
Eric et al. / A Review on the
IJPPR, Volume 8, Issue 7: July 2016 Page 1204
times its initial level and then decreases when the flower
senesces. In excised petals, the PAL inhibitor (L-α-
aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid) suppresses pigment
formation. Findings showed that the rapid accumulation
of cyanidin in the petals was due to de novo synthesis via
the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways, and ruled
out the synthesis from precursors such as
hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates or colourless
flavonoids. In addition to cyanidin 3-xylosylglucoside
and cyanidin 3-glucoside, the red flowers of H. mutabilis
contained quercetin 3-sambubioside, isoquercitrin,
hyperin, guaijaverin and kaempferol glycosides42.
Bioassay-directed fractionation of the methanol extract of
petals of H. mutabilis led to the isolation of mutabiloside,
a new flavonol triglycoside, together with four known
flavonols, which included quercetin and hyperoside43.
From the ethanol stem extract of H. mutabilis, a new
flavanone glycoside has been isolated44. Recently,
steppogenin, genistein, salicylic acid, rutin,
potengriffioside A, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and
emodin were identified from the ethanol leaf extract of H.
mutabilis45. The first two compounds are new to the
species.
Pharmacology
Antioxidant properties
Out of the six Hibiscus species screened for antioxidant
properties of total phenolic content and free radical
scavenging values of H. mutabilis leaves and flowers
ranked second and fourth, respectively24. Their values
were 2.4, 2.7, 4.9 and 5.7 times lower than leaves and
flowers of H. tiliaceus. Under laboratory conditions,
flower colour change of H. mutabilis was slower than that
of flowers under outdoor conditions. Red flowers had
higher values than pink and white flowers. Based on total
anthocynanin content, red flowers were 2.7 times that of
pink flowers and 7.7 times that of white flowers. Overall
ranking of the antioxidant properties of H. mutabilis
flowers was red > pink > white.
Antibacterial activity
The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of H. mutabilis
have been reported to possess antibacterial activity46. At
8.0 mg/disc, the extracts inhibited Bacillus subtilis,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella
typhi, E. coli and S. aureus with zones of inhibition
ranging from 10−15 mm.
Anti-inflammatory effects
Recently, the anti-inflammatory effects of leaves of H.
mutabilis have been reported47. Results showed that the
ethanol leaf extract had no apparent effect on the viability
of RAW264.7 cells but TNF-α, IL-6 and NO release in
LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells and in the serum of
experimental arthritic rat were significantly inhibited.
Analgesic activity
The analgesic activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate,
and methanol bark extract of H. mutabilis was evaluated
in mice using the hot plate method and acetic acid-
induced writhing test48. All extracts showed analgesic
activity at 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively. In the hot plate
method, the petroleum ether extract showed the highest
increase in reaction time. The methanol extract showed
more inhibitory effect on writhing induced by acetic acid
as compared to other extracts.
Hepatoprotective effect
The hepatoprotective effect of ethanol leaf, stem, and
flower extracts of H. mutabilis against CCl4-induced
hepatic injury in rats has been reported49. Administration
of CCl4 significantly increased the release of alanine
transaminases, aspartate transaminases and alkaline
phosphatase. Results showed that 200 mg/kg of the
extracts administered to the rats for seven days
significantly modulated these enzymes in blood serum to
normal values. Research by the same group of scientists
showed that the ethanol leaf and flower extracts of H.
mutabilis possessed antimitotic activity50. Roots of Allium
cepa incubated with the extracts for three days were
shorter in root length and fewer in number. The
antimitotic activity of the extracts was comparable with
paracetamol as the standard drug used.
Antiviral and anticancer activities
A hexameric lectin isolated from H. mutabilis seeds
showed potent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
with IC50 value of 0.2 µM51. The anti-proliferative
activity of the lectin towards HepG2 (40% inhibition) and
MCF-7 (50% inhibition) human cancer cells was however
weak at 100 µM.
Filaricidal activity
Recently, the methanol leaf extract of H. mutabilis and
the isolated ferulic acid were reported to display
significant filaricidal activity against microfilaria and
adult worms of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite52.
Extreme cellular disturbance characterized by chromatin
condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and
nucleosomal DNA laddering was observed in ferulic
acid-treated adult worms.
Anti-allergy effects
Among the flavonol derivatives isolated from the
methanol extract of flower petals of H. mutabilis,
mutabiloside showed significant allergy-preventive
effects using an in vivo assay that monitors the decrease
in blood flow at the tail vein of mice subjected to egg
white lysozyme sensitization43.
Anti-diabetic properties
Ferulic acid and caffeic acid identified from the ethyl
acetate fraction of the methanol leaf extract of H.
mutabilis using RP-HPLC-DAD were found to inhibit α-
glucosidase, suggesting they possess anti-diabetic
properties53. Ferulic acid purified from the methanol leaf
extract of H. mutabilis has been reported to inhibit lipid
induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells54. In
high fat diet diabetic rats, ferulic acid (0.6 mg/kg) was
orally administered at alternative days for 15 days,
reduced blood glucose level and enhanced lipid uptake
activity of adipocytes isolated from adipose tissue. As
skeletal muscle and adipose tissues are known to be
important insulin target sites the study concluded that
ferulic acid showed promise as a good therapeutic choice
for treatment of type-2 diabetes.
DISCUSSION
Eric et al. / A Review on the
IJPPR, Volume 8, Issue 7: July 2016 Page 1205
Although Hibiscus species are endowed with diverse
chemical compounds that have different pharmacological
properties, both H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis have anti-
inflammatory, analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in
common (Table 1). A quick literature search revealed that
at least five other Hibiscus species (H. cannabinus, H.
rosa-sinensis, H. sabdariffa, H. schizopetalus and H.
taiwanensis) share similar pharmacological activities.
Only a few studies were conducted on the modes of
action of extracts or compounds responsible.
Polyphenols extracted from H. sabdariffa has the ability
to prevent inflammation by impairing cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) induction, and by down-regulating Jun N-
terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein
kinase76. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse
macrophages, the aqueous stem extract of H. taiwanensis
inhibited nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor and
prostaglandin E2 production71. The extract blocked
protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase
(iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and elevated
heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In the animal test, the extract
decreased paw oedema and increased antioxidant
enzymes activities in the paw tissue. The extract
decreased iNOS and COX-2, and increased HO-1
expressions in the oedema paw. Recently, the
antiinflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of
delphinidin 3-sambubioside (DS) and delphinidin (D)
extracted from calyces of H. sabdariffa have been
investigated65. The cell model, DS and D reduced the
levels of inflammatory mediators induced by LPS, and
downregulated NF-kB pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2
signaling. In the animal model, DS and D reduced the
production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α and ameliorated
mouse paw oedema induced by LPS. Syringaldehyde
(SA) isolated from stems of H. taiwanensis has the ability
to lower hyperglycemia75. The compound significantly
decreased post-prandial plasma glucose in rats, while
plasma insulin was not modified. Administration of SA
for 3 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted
in marked reduction of PEPCK expression in the liver
and increased expression of GLUT 4 in the skeletal
muscle, suggesting that SA can increase glucose uptake
and lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. Many herbs
used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have also
shown to inhibit inflammation, pain and swelling in
different organs of the human body77,78, and to prevent
and treat diabetes with clinical trials79. It would be
interesting to compare the mechanisms of action of
Hibiscus species with those of TCM herbs.
CONCLUSION
Both H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis have anti-
inflammatory, analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in
common. A quick literature search showed that at least
five other Hibiscus species (H. cannabinus, H. rosa-
sinensis, H. sabdariffa, H. schizopetalus and H.
taiwanensis) share similar pharmacological properties. Of
the two species reviewed, H. tiliaceus is the most studied
with publications by scientists from at least six countries.
Publications on H. mutabilis came from at least four
countries with several recent papers on its
pharmacological properties. The current isolation of new
and known compounds from Hibiscus species has been
mostly associated with their medicinal values. There is
hardly any work done relating phytochemistry to their
biological and ecological functions. It is time that the
biologists and ecologists work with the natural product
chemists and pharmacologists on these ornamental, food
and medicinal plants.
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... 9,11 Previous phytochemical analyses have shown that H. mutabilis is endowed with a range of phenolic molecules, mostly flavonols and their glycosides in addition to anthocyanins and phenolic acids. 10,12,13 A number of long chain fatty acids, carotenoids, and sterols have also been reported. 10,13,14 Different extracts and some metabolites from various parts of H. mutabilis have been shown to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-proliferative, hepatoprotective, free radical scavenging, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities, along with noteworthy filaricidal, antibacterial, and antiviral actions. ...
... 10,13,14 Different extracts and some metabolites from various parts of H. mutabilis have been shown to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-proliferative, hepatoprotective, free radical scavenging, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities, along with noteworthy filaricidal, antibacterial, and antiviral actions. 10,12,13,15 Likewise, H. schizopetalus (Coral or Fringed Hibiscus) is another species indigenous to the tropical East Africa. 9 It is used traditionally for cough and cold, and as eye medicine. ...
Article
Metabolomics is a fast growing technology that has effectively contributed to many plant‐related sciences and drug discovery. Objective To use the non‐targeted metabolomics approach to investigate the chemical profiles of three Malvaceae plants, namely Hibiscus mutabilis L. (Changing rose), H. schizopetalus (Dyer) Hook.f. (Coral Hibiscus), and Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. (Sleeping Hibiscus), along with evaluating their antioxidant and anti‐infective potential. Methodology Metabolic profiling was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled with high‐resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC–HR–ESI–MS) for dereplication purposes. The chemical composition of the studied plants was further compared by principal component analysis (PCA). The antioxidant and anti‐infective properties of their different extracts were correlated to their phytochemical profiles by orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS‐DA). Results A variety of structurally different metabolites, mostly phenolics, were characterized. Comparing the distribution pattern of these tentatively identified metabolites among the studied plant species/fractions revealed the chemical uniqueness of the dichloromethane fraction of M. arboreus. Some extracts and fractions of these plants demonstrated noteworthy antioxidant and antitrypanosomal potential; the latter was partly attributed to their anti‐protease activities. The active principles of these plants were pinpointed before any laborious isolation steps, to avoid the redundant isolation of previously known compounds. Conclusion This study highlighted the use of the established procedure in exploring the metabolomes of these species, which could be helpful for chemotaxonomic and authentication purposes, and might expand the basis for their future phytochemical analysis. Coupling the observed biological potential with LC–MS data has also accelerated the tracing of their bioactive principles.
... 9,11 Previous phytochemical analyses have shown that H. mutabilis is endowed with a range of phenolic molecules, mostly flavonols and their glycosides in addition to anthocyanins and phenolic acids. 10,12,13 A number of long chain fatty acids, carotenoids, and sterols have also been reported. 10,13,14 Different extracts and some metabolites from various parts of H. mutabilis have been shown to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-proliferative, hepatoprotective, free radical scavenging, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities, along with noteworthy filaricidal, antibacterial, and antiviral actions. ...
... 10,13,14 Different extracts and some metabolites from various parts of H. mutabilis have been shown to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-proliferative, hepatoprotective, free radical scavenging, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities, along with noteworthy filaricidal, antibacterial, and antiviral actions. 10,12,13,15 Likewise, H. schizopetalus (Coral or Fringed Hibiscus) is another species indigenous to the tropical East Africa. 9 It is used traditionally for cough and cold, and as eye medicine. ...
... Chemical constituent is a specific compound that contain in each sample. In this case, we will study about the chemical constituents that contain in the H. tiliaceus leaves, also distinguish which chemical constituents in it that may act as anti -bacterial and antioxidant agents [1]. Antioxidants are always related with the anticancer effects. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water crude sample fractions of H. tiliaceus leaves. Various type of samples play an important role to determining which compound that will give the positive results in antioxidant test (inhibiting free radical scavenging activity) which they probably have potency for preventing the cancer disease. Furthermore, those types of samples were also tested to the antibacterial test as their possibilities to be created as new antibiotics in the future. This research also focused on what compound groups that actually present in H. tiliaceus leaves by using the phytochemistry test. Antioxidant potency of H. tiliaceus leaves extracts for the radical scavenging activity for quantitative assay was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The antibacterial potency was measured by the Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) by applied the sample chemical crude in the plate. The result showed that all chemical crude of H. tiliaceus leaves has high antioxidant property as methanol crude (MC) 308.416%; hexane crude (HC) 232.837%; dichloromethane crude (DC) 150.837%; ethyl acetate crude (EC) 73.623% and water crude (WC) 71.777% with respected to the readings of 100% from quercetin (Q) as a positive control. From antibacterial result, entire samples had shown the positive results towards both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The ranges of the inhibition zone were both at 7-10 mm and 10-15 mm. The phytochemistry test determine that the samples actually contained a lot of compounds which were proteins, carbohydrates, phenols/tannins, flavonoid, terpenoids, glycosides and also steroid. It is clearly indicated that H. tiliaceus leaves have potential to be used against the antioxidant and also as new antibacterial agents
... Hibiscus is a member of Malvaceae family and is cultivated globally as an ornamental and medicinal plant [2]. It is typically distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. ...
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Hibiscus schizopetalus (Dyer) Hook.f. (Malvaceae) is an ornamental plant. The aim was to investigate its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In vitro antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities of the 70% ethanolic extract (Et-E) of the aerial parts of the plant were determined. The Dichloromethane Fraction (DCM-F) and the n-Butanol Fraction (Bu-F) were assessed using Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The DCM-F showed higher antiviral activities against Coxsackie B4 (CoxB4) viruses (IC50 = 64.13 µg/mL) and adenoviruses (IC50 = 54.88 µg/mL) than acyclovir (IC50 = 72.79 µg/mL for CoxB4 viruses; IC50 = 91.92 µg/mL for adenoviruses). The DCM-F showed higher anti-helicobacter pylori activity (MIC = 3.9 µg/mL) than clarithromycin (MIC = 1.95 µg/mL). The DCM-F inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type I (IC50 = 29.85 µg/mL) and HSV Type II (IC50 = 74.17 µg/mL). The Bu-F showed higher anti-mycobacterial activity (MIC = 7.81 µg/mL) than isoniazid (MIC = 0.24 µg/mL) and higher antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(MIC = 7.81 µg/mL) than vancomycin (MIC = 3.9 µg/mL). Antioxidant assays included total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), and iron reducing power. The Bu-F showed the highest antioxidant activity. Chemical profiles were analyzed using HPLC-HR–ESI–MS to identify the metabolites responsible for these biological activities. We identified more than 60 metabolites that belong to anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolics, terpenes, sterols, and fatty acids. In conclusion, Hibiscusschizopetalus is endowed with metabolites that could be used against viruses and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. They can also be potent antioxidants.
... In the traditional system of medicines, its different plant parts viz., leaves, flowers, seeds, stems are used as emollient, in pectoral and pulmonary complaints, stimulant and leaves applied to swelling (Barve et al., 2010). The plants are also reported to have antibacterial, antioxidant properties, hepato protective, filaricidal, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic activities (Chan et al., 2016). Apart from these, this spectacular plant is also unique in the plant kingdom as flowers change its colour as white in the morning, pink in the afternoon, and red in the evening. ...
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The present study reports, the first record of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara deWillink as a serious pest of Hibiscus mutabilis Linn. from the Terai region of West Bengal, India. Studies were conducted during the summer at Pundibari, Coochbehar and observed that about 80-90 per cent plants and 49.49 per cent leaves were infested by this sap sucker. Critical observation revealed that mealybugs as cotton-like masses were seen to accumulate on the above ground portion mainly on tender leaves, twigs and apical buds of plants. Both the nymphs and adults suck the sap and devitalize them. Infested plants also bear a significantly lower number of flowers as well as deformed flowers. The detailed studies on morphology, biology, host range etc. have been discussed in the paper. A lepidopteran predator, the apefly, Spalgius epeus westwood was also observed to be associated with the mealy bug colonies and were found to predate on it. The first, second, third and fourth instar predator larvae devoured 64.8±3.95, 176.2±12.2, 354±18.3 and 504.3±20.6 mealybug eggs/day, respectively, and could be a potential augmentative biocontrol agent of this polyphagous mealybug.
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Dysentery is frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality and is found in young children and mainly affects those in developing nations. Rural people across the world trust on herbal remedies and homeopathic medicines for their primary health care on account of their easy accessibility, efficacy and exceptionally cost ampleness in relation to modern drugs. The purpose of the present study was to compile knowledge of traditional healers and indigenous people in Chittagong hill tracts, Bangladesh, including Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachari for the treatment of dysentery. The ethnomedicinal data was gathered from January 2019 to January 2020 through open and focused group discussions and individual meetings utilizing semi-structured questionnaire. An aggregate of 75 people were interviewed, including traditional health practitioners. Frequency and percentage were utilized to sum up the data. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was determined and inclination positioning activities were led to appraise the significance of the revealed medicinal plants. An aggregate of 90 medicinal plants from 52 families and 79 genera were recorded during the survey. Leaves were discovered to be the most largely used plant part (35%) followed by root (19%) and herbs (40%) were the essential wellspring of medicinal plants, followed by trees (20%). The major mode of preparation is juice (68%) follo wed by pa ste (11 %) a nd cook ed form (7 %). Centella asiatica scored the highest RFC value (0.773). The survey addresses the preliminary information of certain medicinal plants having anti-dysenteric property. However, further phytochemical investigation, validation and clinical trial sought to be conducted, with need given to those that scored the most elevated RFC values prior to utilizing these plants as an option in contrast to modern medicine.
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