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Landfill stability - Risks and challenges

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... Age has a significant impact on the shear strength parameters of MSW; however, other factors such as composition, climate of the area, moisture content, landfill process procedures, permeability and daily cover can also significantly affect MSW degradation [15]. ...
... Hossain [19] stated that degradation leads to an increase in the fiber content, and this leads to a decrease in the shear strength. Kolsch and Ziehmann [15] also noted that degraded MSW is weaker than fresh waste, although this trend has not been observed in all laboratory data. Machado et al. [20] indicated that shear strength increased with aging. ...
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The current study presents the physical and mechanical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) with different ages of new and old Tabriz landfill. Although there are several theoretical and laboratory methods to investigate the shear strength parameters of MSW, field methods provide more accurate results due to the minimum MSW disturbance and changes so in this study the shear strength parameters of MSW Tabriz Landfill were evaluated using the "Large Scale in-Situ Direct Shear Device" with the cross sectional dimensions 122x122 cm . In spite of difficulties related to conducting tests such as potential exposure to various contaminations and the lack of specific equipment in the beginning, it provided more realistic results of the geotechnical behavior of municipal solid waste compared to other methods. Moreover, the in-situ unit weight, physical analysis, moisture and organic content at different ages were evaluated in order to better understanding of the mechanical response with increasing the age of MSW. The results showed the cohesion and friction angle of 5 and 16 years old MSW are estimated as 1.17, 2.215 kPa and 31.51, 21.51 degrees, respectively; According to the results the shear strength of 5 and 16 years old MSW is mainly controlled by the friction angle which seems due to the MSW composition as a function of the consumption pattern. The physical analysis of fresh MSW from 2005 to 2017 showed an increase in the fiber content including plastics and textiles. Moreover, studies on MSW mechanical responses over the time revealed a decrease in the shear strength because of the raise in the fiber and plastic content.
... A esto se une el recuerdo de dramáticos episodios provocados por acumulación no controlada de agua, protagonista del biorrelleno, hasta saturar los residuos: deslizamientos de grandes masas de residuo, como en Doña Juana (Bogotá, Colombia) (Hendron et al. 1999) o en Payatas (Manila, Filipinas) (Kölsch y Ziehmann, 2004) que dieron lugar a desastres ambientales y pérdidas de vidas, y que hoy se quieren evitar a toda costa. ...
... Se deben considerar además las condiciones climatológicas, de manera que en lugares con alta precipitación es crucial contar con sistemas suficientes para evacuación de escorrentías y drenaje. Los mayores desastres ocurridos en vertederos de RM han estado vinculados a la acumulación incontrolada de líquido en el interior y a pendientes pronunciadas, de manera que se imparten esfuerzos en la masa y se reduce su capacidad resistente hasta causar el deslizamiento y derrumbe del relleno (Colomer et al. 2009, Colomer-Mendoza et al. 2013, Kölsch y Ziehmann 2004. ...
Article
Concepts like ‘bioreactor landfill’ or ‘sustainable landfill’ have been resonating in specialized technical and scientific meetings for a long time. However, there are still many myths surrounding this technique which, in some places, mainly the United States, has been practiced for over twenty years. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on bioreactor landfills. It begins with a review of the history of this technique, proposed in the 70s for the first time. The objective of bioreactor practices is to accelerate the degradation of municipal waste (MW) to avoid environmental liabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of these particular landfills are discussed. Having identified the MW moisture content as the principal parameter to control, different types of bioreactors have been developed, according to the aeration modes: anaerobic, semiaerobic, aerobic and hybrid bioreactors. As a guide for new projects arising and required in Iberoamerica, general guidelines for design and operation of new anaerobic and semiaerobic installations are gathered, including the leachate reinfiltration and liquid and gas collection systems, the main operational implications, and the monitoring needs. Four practical cases are described as examples: a full scale experience which has become an international reference, a model of semiaerobic landfill suited to middle-income and developing countries, and two cases representing the progress of these methods in Iberoamerica. Finally, the prospects of advance for this practice through research and with regard to its extension in this region of the world are presented.
... Fig. 9. Payatas landfill slope failure in 2000. (Kolsch and Ziehmann, 2004) The slope failure occurred on July 10, 2000. About 1.2 million m 3 of MSW slid and caused more than 250 fatalities. ...
... About 1.2 million m 3 of MSW slid and caused more than 250 fatalities. Waste and debris had covered an area of 30,000 m 2 in front of the toe of the slope (Kolsch and Ziehmann 2004). The landfill did not have a liner system. ...
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This paper investigates the shear strength of municipal solid waste (MSW) using back analyses of failed waste slopes. Shear strength of MSW is a function of many factors such as waste type, composition, compaction, daily cover, moisture conditions, age, decomposition, overburden pressure, etc. These factors together with non-standardized sampling methods, insufficient sample size to be representative of in-situ conditions, and limited shear displacement or axial strain imposed during the shear tests affect the test results and have created considerable scatter in reported test results. This scatter led the authors to pursue the back-analysis of failed waste slopes as a better means for estimating the shear strength of MSW. The back-analysis of failed waste slopes in the Gnojna Grora landfill in Poland, Istanbul Landfill in Turkey, Hiriya Landfill in Israel, and Payatas Landfill in Philippines are presented in this paper. Each of the landfill slope failures is reviewed and the results of the back-analyses presented. Finally, comparison of the recommended shear strength envelope of MSW and those by various researchers for the design of landfill slopes is presented.
... Untuk mencegah timbulnya bencana longsor sampah, Kolsch dan Ziehmann (2004) menyarankan beberapa hal sebagai berikut: ...
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Avalanche or sliding can occur in landfill site.This disaster received great attention when it occured in Leuwigajah landfill site which death toll hundreds of lifes. Landfill slide disaster was caused by several factors such as increasing levels of waste water contain due to rain water; lack of bonds strength between the waste particles because there is no compacting process; height and slope; soften of landfills base because of water infiltration and vibration caused by trucks and bulldozers activities. To prevent the landfill slide disaster compacting waste needs to be done regularly in order to increase density and reduce water percolation; permeability should also be kept homogeneous by maintaining drainage systems; and control pressure by looking at changes in the composition and conditions of the waste. Landfill stability test is necessary to detect the landfill slide danger.
... kayma mukav ın belirlenme kontrolsüz sı, yeterli sık ama yapılma elen bu olay dir. Atık dep ması gereken yitirip göçmey Şev duraylıl ar en elver rdir [15]. Atık mlarda oluştuğ kapsamında T k özellikleri Manisa do birim hacim a ...
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In parallel with the developing world population, the amount of urban solid waste increases day by day. Uncontrolled storage of solid wastes with poorly defined engineering properties can result in a risk of life safety and serious economic loss. In this study, natural water content, organic matter content, specific gravity and pH values of the synthetic waste (with pre-determined compositions) and natural waste samples were investigated in laboratory conditions. Shear strength parameters of the synthetic and natural municipal solid waste (MSW) samples were determined by using a large scale direct shear test system. The slope stability analyses were conducted for present slopes at static and dynamic conditions and the factor of safety values were obtained. The obtained Turkey MSW composition engineering parameters can be used in the design of safe and economical MSW storage areas in Turkey.
... The current landfilling situation in Asia constitutes various problems related to geographical and climatic differences, along with the waste composition and iniproper waste management. The significant environmental impacts of landfill create detrimental effects to air, water, and soil environment (Kolsch and Ziehmann, 2004). The generation tendency of MSW in Asian countries is also increasing with time (ARRPET, 2004). ...
Article
This research was carried out to determine the effect of landfill design and operation parameters on organic leaching from municipal solid waste landfill operating in the tropics. Several factors were considered including waste composition, compaction density, rainfall intensity, leachate re-circulation and accumulation of leachate in the waste cell. The study was conducted using laboratory scale lysimeters. Commingled solid wastes from Nonthaburi province were used, whereas tropical condition was simulated by varying rainwater addition to the lysimeters. In order to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, the precipitation rate was varied at 35, 50, 75 and 100% of maximum rainfall intensity. During the operation, leachate was collected and determined for their chemical characteristics, i.e. pH, BOD, COD, SS, NH3, TKN and TDS. In order to implement bioreactor landfill operating condition, those lysimeters were operated with leachate re-circulation on weekly basis. The other lysimeters were operated with internal storage (saturated) condition in attempt to avoid environmental damage from discharging leachate off the landfill site. The experimental results revealed that the organic pollutant load increased with increasing rainfall intensity and substantial increase in waste compaction density from 220 to 450 kg/m3 in open dumping of fresh waste. With leachate re-circulating operation, pollutant leaching from the lysimeter was found lower than conventional landfill operation as organic concentration in leachate was partially stabilized during the recirculation. The total organic pollutant load in submerged lysimeter was considerably higher than conventional operation, but it could be retained in the waste cell and not being discharged off the site.
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Gelisen dunya nufusuna paralel olarak kentsel kati atik miktari her gecen gun artmaktadir. Muhendislik ozellikleri iyi tanimlanmamis kati atiklar ile yapilan kontrolsuz depolamalar sonucu olusan gocmeler can guvenligini tehlikeye atmakta ve buyuk ekonomik kayiplara neden olmaktadir. Bu calismada laboratuvar kosullarinda belirli kompozisyonlarda sentetik olarak uretilmis ve dogal atik depolama sahasindan alinmis taze ve yillanmis kentsel kati atik (KKA) numunelerinin dogal su icerigi, organik madde miktari, ozgul agirlik ve pH degerleri belirlenmistir. Dogal ve sentetik KKA numunelerinin kayma mukavemeti parametreleri buyuk olcekli direk kesme cihaziyla belirlenmistir. Elde edilen muhendislik parametreleri kullanilarak mevcut ve tasarlanmis KKA sevlerinin duraylilik analizleri yapilarak statik ve dinamik kosullar altinda guvenlik sayilari belirlenmistir. Calismadan elde edilen Turkiye KKA kompozisyonuna ait muhendislik parametreleri ve duraylilik analizleri sonuclari kullanilarak, Turkiye’de daha guvenli ve ekonomik KKA depolama sahalarinin tasarimi yapilabilir.
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This paper presents findings from an investigation of the large-scale construction solid waste (CSW) landslide that occurred at a landfill at Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, on December 20, 2015, and which killed 77 people and destroyed 33 houses. The landslide involved 2.73×106 m3 of CSW and affected an area about 1100 m in length and 630 m in maximum width, making it the largest landfill landslide in the world. The investigation of this disaster used a combination of unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance and multistage remote-sensing images to reveal the increasing volume of waste in the landfill and the shifting shape of the landfill slope for nearly two years before the landslide took place, beginning with the creation of the CSW landfill in March, 2014, that resulted in the uncertain conditions of the landfill's boundaries and the unstable state of the hydrologic performance. As a result, applying conventional stability analysis methods used for natural landslides to this case would be difficult. In order to analyze this disaster, we took a multistage modeling technique to analyze the varied characteristics of the landfill slope's structure at various stages of CSW dumping and used the non-steady flow theory to explain the groundwater seepage problem. The investigation showed that the landfill could be divided into two units based on the moisture in the land: a front uint, consisted of the landfill slope, which had low water content; and a rear unit, consisted of fresh waste, which had a high water content. This structure caused two effects—surface-water infiltration and consolidation seepage that triggered the landslide in the landfill. Surface-water infiltration induced a gradual increase in pore water pressure head, or piezometric head, in the front slope because the infiltrating position rose as the volume of waste placement increased. Consolidation seepage led to higher excess pore water pressures as the loading of waste increased. We also investigated the post-failure soil dynamics parameters of the landslide deposit using cone penetration, triaxial, and ring-shear tests in order to simulate the characteristics of a flowing slide with a long run-out due to the liquefaction effect. Finally, we conclude the paper with lessons from the tens of catastrophic landslides of municipal solid waste around the world and discuss how to better manage the geotechnical risks of urbanization.
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Background: On 21 February 2005 the Leuwigajah dumpsite, Bandung (Java, Indonesia) was affected by a large slide after heavy rainfalls. Second deadliest waste slide in history, it buried 71 houses and killed 143 people. Amongst the contemporary disastrous events of this type, only a few have been documented. We explored failure preconditions, triggering mechanisms and local context that conducted to this disaster. We carried on four field investigations on the site. A series of aerial photographs were acquired and completed by topographical measures on the ground. The morphology of the slide and its trajectory were reconstructed. To constrain the movement condition, we studied the internal structure of the source area and realized surveys among stakeholders of the dumpsite and citizen. Results: 2.7 ? 10 6 m 3 of waste materials spread 1000 m from the source in a rice field with an average thickness of 10 m. The material displays a preferential fabric parallel to the previous topography. Numerous internal slip surfaces, underlined by plastic bags explain the low friction coefficient. The presence of methane within the waste dump was responsible for explosions prior to sliding and for the fire that affects whole sliding mass. Conclusions: Resulting of a combination of heavy rainfall and consecutive explosions due to biogas sudden release, this disaster was predictable in reason of i) a front slope of the dump of about 100% before the failure; ii) a poor dumpsite management; iii) the extreme vulnerability of the marginalized scavengers living at risk at the foot of the instable dump.
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Study of the mechanical behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is accompanied by many complications. Great interest in considering the most parameters involved in this behavior caused the achievement of useful properties of Municipal Solid Waste in recent years. These parameters are waste composition, leachate recirculation, unit weight, moisture, weather condition and aging. However, in the literature, researchers take into account all these parameters but the effect of age is not clearly obtained and its influence is not systematically measured. Impact of this factor on the mechanical behavior of the solid waste is quite complex. Some researchers have made conclusion that, when the waste's age increases, the strength would be diminished, but there are also some indications that the strength of the solid waste is increased by the growth of age (Machado et al. 2008). In this paper, Large Scale direct Shear tests are applied on samples obtained from Iranian MSW landfills. The results show that mechanical behavior of MSW is significantly relative to the changes of composition with time (aging). As the composition becomes more monotonous the strength increases.
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Landfills are very large and complex engineering structures, which have to be functionally stable as long as they represent a potential danger to the environment. This can be caused by gaseous or fluid emissions as well as by mechanical failure. A landfill must therefore be supervised for long periods after the waste disposal phase. However, it is still unclear what parameters have to be determined within what periods of time, and how to interpret the measured values. A research project is being conducted at the Technical University of Braunschweig to determine this. This paper presents the landfill monitoring concept, and new measurement instruments for the determination of leachate discharge and the horizontal deformation of shafts in landfills. Results of measurements and an overview will also be given.
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The traditional landfilling system does not promote sustainable waste management due to uncontrolled emissions which potentially degrade the state of the environment. In this regard, pre- treatment of solid waste prior to landfill significantly enhance waste stabilization and provides various advantages. In this view, the mechanical biological pre-treatment of waste in combination with landfill is a useful technology that improves landfill behavior, characteristics, and operation. Thus, a sustainable landfilling system which conserves and preserves the environment with resource recovery is indispensable and will be the prevailing system in the near future.
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Resumen Un vertedero es una instalación de eliminación que se destina al depósito de residuos en superficie o bajo tierra (legislación española: Ley 10/98, de Residuos). La buena gestión y diseño del mismo se conoce desde hace tiempo, pero no ha sido de obligado cumplimiento hasta la entrada en vigor del Real Decreto 1481/2001, por el que se regula la eliminación de residuos mediante depósito en vertedero (como aplicación al régimen jurídico español de la Directiva 1999/31/CE de la Unión Europea). En dicha norma se indican las instalaciones mínimas que debe llevar todo vertedero, en función de los residuos que admita, para minimizar su impacto al aire, suelo y aguas. A pesar de todo ello es posible que, tanto a lo largo de su vida útil como en la fase de postclausura, pueda producirse algún fallo: rotura de la impermeabilización del vaso, escapes incontrolados de biogás o desprendimientos en la masa de residuos. Las consecuencias civiles y ambientales de estos fallos podrían ser graves por lo que el riesgo no puede despreciarse. Por otro lado, la Directiva 2004/35/CE, sobre responsabilidad medioambiental en relación con la prevención y reparación de daños medioambientales, tiene por objeto establecer un marco de responsabilidad medioambiental, basado en el principio de "quien contamina paga", para la prevención y la reparación de los daños. El responsable del daño es la persona física o jurídica titular de la actividad que lo ha provocado. Las entidades aseguradoras fijarán las primas a los vertederos en función del riesgo potencial que presenten, de manera que cuanto más seguro sea un vertedero, menores serán los pagos que exigirán las entidades sobre responsabilidad medioambiental. En el presente trabajo se realiza una identificación de los principales peligros geotécnicos generados por los vertederos de residuos sólidos como primer paso en el proceso de evaluación del riesgo ambiental. Esta identificación de peligros geotécnicos consiste en un exhaustivo análisis de los accidentes más importantes ocurridos en vertederos de todo el mundo como consecuencia de fallos geotécnicos de estabilidad de la masa de residuos. La información ha sido obtenida a partir de artículos en revistas técnicas especializadas, artículos en periódicos informativos, análisis propios de los autores y casos vividos por expertos en el tema que participaron directa o indirectamente en los procesos de corrección.
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A bioreactor landfill is operated to enhance refuse decomposition, gas production, and waste stabilization. Some of the potential advantages of bioreactor include rapid stabilization of waste, increased landfill gas generation, gain in landfill space, enhanced leachate treatment, and reduced post closure maintenance period. Due to the accelerated decomposition and settlement of solid waste, bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity as an alternative to the conventional Subtitle D landfills. However, the addition of leachate to accelerate the decomposition changes the physical and engineering characteristic of waste and therefore affects the geotechnical characteristics of waste mass. The changes in the physical and mechanical characteristics of solid waste with time and decomposition are expected to affect the shear strength of waste mass. The objective of this paper is to analyze the stability of solid waste slopes within the bioreactor landfills, as a function of time and decomposition. The finite element program PLAXIS is used for numerical modeling of bioreactor landfills. Stability analysis of bioreactor landfills was also performed using limit equilibrium program STABL. Finally the results from finite element program PLAXIS and limit equilibrium program STABL are compared. GSTABL predicted a factor of safety of more than 1 in all the cases analyzed, whereas PLAXIS predicted a factor of safety of less than 1 at advanced stages for a slope of 2:1. However, the interface failures between solid waste and landfill liners have not been considered in this paper.
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