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Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Ammi majus and Ammi visnaga. a review

Authors:

Abstract

Ammispecies belong to the family Umbellifereae,contained bioactive compounds (mainly coumarins andflavonoids) of important biological activities.Ammi majusfruit containedamorphous glucoside 1%, tannin0.45%, oleoresin4.76%,acrid oil 3.2%, fixed oil 12.92%, proteins 13.83%andcellulose 22.4%.However , themajor constituents ofAmmi majusare the furanocoumarins, which included xanthotoxin (methoxsalen,8-methoxypsoralen , ammoidin , up to 1.15%), imperatorin (ammidin,up to 0.75%) and bergapten (heraclin,majudin, 5-methoxypsoralen , up to 1.88%) , marmesin 0.25% , isoimperatorin 0.01%, heraclenin 0.07% andisopimpinellin 0.01%.Ammi visnagacontained γ-pyrones (furanochromone up to 4%), the principal compoundsbeing khellin (0.3–1.2%),visnagin (0.05–0.30%), khellinol, ammiol, khellol andkhellinin.Ammi visnagaalsocontained fixed oils (up to 18%) and coumarins (0.2–0.5%), the main onebeing thepyranocoumarin visnadin(0.3%).Theprevious pharmacologicalstudies showed thatAmmi majuswasused effectively in the treatment ofpsoriasis,vitiligoand tineaversicolor.Itsfurocoumarins have bactericidal,fungicidal, insecticidal, larvicidal,moluscicidal, nematicidal, ovicidal, viricidal and herbicidalactivities.Ammi visnagawas also usedeffectivelyforthe treatment ofvitiligo.Itexerted awide range of antibacterialactivity and inducedsmooth muscle relaxanteffects especially vascularsmoothmuscle.The present review will highlight the chemical constituents and thepharmacological and therapeutic effects ofAmmi majusandAmmivisnaga (1) (PDF) Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Ammi majus and Ammi visnaga. a review. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306157342_Chemical_constituents_and_pharmacological_activities_of_Ammi_majus_and_Ammi_visnaga_a_review [accessed Jan 21 2019].
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_________________________________
Author for Correspondence:
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi,
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine,
Thi qar University, Nasiriyah, P O Box 42, Iraq.
E-mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Review Article
ISSN
Print
2231 3648
Online
2231 3656
Available Online at: www.ijpir.com
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF
AMMI MAJUS AND AMMI VISNAGA. A REVIEW
*Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
College of Medicine, Thi qar University, Nasiriyah, P O Box 42, Iraq.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Ammi species belong to the family Umbellifereae, contained bioactive compounds (mainly coumarins and
flavonoids) of important biological activities. Ammi majus fruit contained amorphous glucoside 1%, tannin
0.45%, oleoresin 4.76%, acrid oil 3.2%, fixed oil 12.92%, proteins 13.83% and cellulose 22.4%. However , the
major constituents of Ammi majus are the furanocoumarins, which included xanthotoxin (methoxsalen,
8-methoxypsoralen , ammoidin , up to 1.15%), imperatorin (ammidin, up to 0.75%) and bergapten (heraclin,
majudin, 5-methoxypsoralen , up to 1.88%) , marmesin 0.25% , isoimperatorin 0.01%, heraclenin 0.07% and
isopimpinellin 0.01%. Ammi visnaga contained γ-pyrones (furanochromone up to 4%), the principal compounds
being khellin (0.31.2%), visnagin (0.050.30%), khellinol, ammiol, khellol and khellinin. Ammi visnaga also
contained fixed oils (up to 18%) and coumarins (0.20.5%), the main one being the pyranocoumarin visnadin
(0.3%). The previous pharmacological studies showed that Ammi majus was used effectively in the treatment of
psoriasis, vitiligo and tinea versicolor. Its furocoumarins have bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, larvicidal,
moluscicidal, nematicidal, ovicidal, viricidal and herbicidal activities. Ammi visnaga was also used effectively
for the treatment of vitiligo. It exerted a wide range of antibacterial activity and induced smooth muscle relaxant
effects especially vascular smooth muscle. The present review will highlight the chemical constituents and the
pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Ammi majus and Ammi visnaga.
Keywords: Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, Furanocoumarins, Flavonoids, Vitiligo, Psoriasis.
___________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Plants are a valuable source of a wide range of
secondary metabolites, which are used as
pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, fragrances,
colors, biopesticides and food additives. Medicinal
plants are the Nature’s gift to human beings to help
them pursue a disease-free healthy life. Plants have
been used as drugs by humans since thousands of
years ago. As a result of accumulated experience
from the past generations, today, all the world’s
cultures have an extensive knowledge of herbal
medicine. Ammi species , belong to the family
Umbellifereae , contained bioactive compounds
(mainly coumarins and flavonoids) of important
biological activities. Ammi majus is indigenous to
Egypt and it grows in the Nile Valley, especially in
Behira and Fayoom. It is also found in the basin of
the Mediterranean Sea, West Africa, in some
regions of Iran and the mountains of Kohaz. Ammi
visnaga is distributed in North Africa, Europe,
Eastern Mediterranean region, South western Asia,
International Journal of
Pharmacy and Industrial
Research
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North America, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, and
Atlantic Islands . In Iraq, Ammi majus usually found
in fields and gardens and by the side of channels,
often as weed of cultivation. It is collected from
Kut, Baghdad, Hawija and many other areas, while
Ammi visnaga is distributed in Erbil, Mousl,
Baghdad, Sulaimania and Kirkuk in north of Iraq1-3.
The dried ripe fruits of Ammi majus were used
traditionally for the treatment of skin disorders,
psoriasis and vitiligo. It was used as an
emmenagogue to regulate menstruation, as a
diuretic, and for treatment of leprosy, kidney stones,
and urinary tract infections4-9. While, Ammi visnaga
was used traditionally in the treatment of mild
anginal symptoms, as supportive treatment for mild
obstruction of the respiratory tract in asthma,
bronchial asthma or spastic bronchitis, and
postoperative treatment of conditions associated
with the presence of urinary calculi. It was also
used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cramps, as
diuretic, for painful menstruation and as an
emmenagogue to regulate menstruation10. The aim
of this study is to highlight the chemical
constituents and the pharmacological and
therapeutic effects of Ammi majus and Ammi
visnaga
I-Ammi majus
Synonym:Apium ammi
Common names :English : Bishop’s weed, Greater
Ammi; Arabic: Khella shaitani , Khella bariah
Traditional use: The fruits were used for the
treatment of skin disorders, psoriasis and vitiligo. It
was also used as an emmenagogue to regulate
menstruation, as a diuretic, and for treatment of
leprosy, kidney stones, and urinary tract infections4-
9.
Physicochemical properties11: moisture content :
(loss on drying at 105oC) - 5.25% w/w , total ash
content of powdered drug - 7.00% w/w , water
soluble ash - 5.35% w/w , and acid insoluble ash -
0.86 % w/w . Extractive value in different solvents
%: Acetone - 6.00 w/w, absolute alcohol - 3.50
w/w, chloroform - 1.75 w/w, methanol - 7.85 w/w,
petroleum ether (60-80) - 1.20 w/w, and water -
17.35 w/w.
Chemical constituents
Ammi majus fruits contained amorphous glucoside
1%, tannin 0.45%, oleoresin 4.76%, acrid oil 3.2%,
fixed oil 12.92%, proteins 13.83% and cellulose
22.4%3. The major constituents of Ammi majus are
the furanocoumarins, which included xanthotoxins
(methoxsalen, 8-methoxypsoralen , ammoidin , up
to 1.15%), imperatorin (ammidin, up to 0.75%) and
bergaptens (heraclin, majudin, 5-methoxypsoralen ,
up to 1.88%) , marmesin 0.25% , isoimperatorin
,0.01%, heraclenin 0.07% and isopimpinellin
0.01%12-21. Selim and Ouf isolated two coumarins
from the aerial parts of the Egyptian Ammi majus
L. , 6- hydroxy-7-methoxy-4 methyl coumarin and
6-hydroxy-7-methoxy coumarin9. The presence of
nonfurocoumarin, umbelliprenin, glycosides of
quercetin, luteolin were reported in Ammi majus
fruits20-21.
Abdul Jalil et al identified two flavonoids from
Ammi majus fruit , quercetin and kaempferol .
They found that the amount of kaempferol (0.045
%) was higher than quercetin(0.036 %).22 The
essential oil extracted from fruits contained high
boiling hydrocarbons 1.34%, dipiperitone 10% ,
unsaturated cyclic terpeniole 15% and a mixture of
furocoumarins 60%.23
Hussain et al investigated the fatty acids
constituents of Ammi majus oil . A total of 18
different components were identified and
quantified. Methyl ester of linoleic acid was found
in high concentration 9.00%, followed by methyl
ester of oleic acid 5.60%, palmitic acid 3.98% and
linolenic acids 1.42% . The concentration of the rest
identified fatty acids (hexanoic acid, carylic acid
capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid,
pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, margaric acid,
stearic acid, elaidic acid, arachidic acid, behenic
acid, tricosnoic acid, tetracosanoic acid ) were less
than 1%.24
Pharmacological effects
Effects on psoriasis , vitiligo and tinea versicolor
Numerous studies have assessed the efficacy of
Fructus Ammi majus andxanthotoxin for the
treatment of vitiligo, psoriasis, and
hypopigmentation tinea versicolor. 6-8, 25-35
Experimentation with Ammi majus extracts was
started in Egypt by El Mofti.8, 25 This followed by
the work of Sidi and Bourgeois who used Ammi
majus Linn, in six patients with vitiligo, five men
and one woman. Their ages were from 30 to 50
years. Ammi majus Linn was used (a) by oral
administration, (b) by local topical application at
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the affected sites followed by sun or ultraviolet
lamp exposure, or, (c) by a combination of (a) and
(b). Three of patients were subjected to the
combined treatment, two only to topical treatment
and one to treatment by mouth for 5 months, and
then to the combined treatment. The repigmentation
appeared in all patients as pigmented minute
macules with hair follicles in their center. These
macules were distributed over the leukodermic
plaques and increased progressively in size until
they joined, forming larger islands. This was
particularly distinct in the lesions on the trunk and
on the extremities. On the face the repigmentation
developed more rapidly and appeared to be
progressing more from the periphery towards the
center.30
Many clinical trials were carried out to investigate
the efficacy of Ammi majus in vitiligo , Patient
with leukodermis took oral Ammi majus powderd
fruits with exposing the affected patches to direct
sunlight for 1 hour developed symptoms of itching,
redness, oedema, vesiculation and oozing in the
leukodermic patches. Within few days , the
affected skin gradually started to display deep
brown pigmentation.5
In two small group of patients (eight patients each )
with leukoderma treated with oral(0.05 g of Ammi
majus three time daily ) or liniment 1 g/100 ml,
applied to the skin, with daily exposure of
leukodermic areas to the sun for 0.5 hour or to UV
light for 2 minutes, gradually increasing to 10
minutes , the leukodermic skin areas were inflamed
and vesiculated, and the leukodermic areas began
to show normal pigmentation.7
However Ammi majus and its furanocoumarins
constituents showed good results in many other
clinical studies , 70% of the patients treated with an
oral dose of 0.6 mg/kg bw of xanthotoxin 2 hours
before exposure to sunlight three times per week
with calcipotriol ointment in a randomized double-
blind study, showed significant improvement.31
Xanthotoxin with exposure to either UV-A or UV-B
radiation for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in
100 patients appeared effective in reducing the
number of plaques.32 Oral administration of 0.6
mg/kg bw of xanthotoxin with two UV-A radiation
dosage regimens was used for treatment of patients
with moderatesevere chronic plaque psoriasis.
42% of patients were clear 1 year after treatment
and the treatment regimens were well tolerated.33
Many other similar results were obtained in
assessment of Ammi majus and its furanocoumarins
in the treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo and tinea
versicolor by many authors. 7, 28, 34-35
Other pharmacological effects
Furocoumarins have bactericidal, fungicidal,
insecticidal, larvicidal, moluscicidal, nematicidal,
ovicidal, viricidal and herbicidal activities.3, 36 Ammi
majus coumarins were evaluated for antiviral
effects against two mammalian viruses, HSV-1 and
VSV. The antiviral activity was determined by
means of the end titration technique that depends on
the ability of plant extract dilutions to inhibit the
produced cytopathogenic effect.Ammi majus
coumarins exerted antiviral activity against
vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in a concentration-
dependent manner at complete non-toxic
concentration range 10-100 μg/ml.Ammi majus
coumarins found to have no reliable antiviral
activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV).9A
dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of a hot aqueous
extract and 15.0 mg/kg bw of petroleum ether
extract of the Ammi majus fruits daily for six days
reduced the Schistosoma mansoni worm burden in
mice by 49.372.3%.18 Mustafa and Al-Khazraji
investigated the effects of the extracts Ammi majus
against larval stage of Culex pipiens molestus
Forskal. Ammi majus L. caused high mortality to
the larvae after 7 days of treatment.37 Acetone and
95% ethanol extract of Ammi majus inhibited the
growth of the Neurospora crassa fungi in vitro.38
Ammi majus coumarins were evaluated for anti-
inflammatory activity by the carrageenan induced
rat paw edema method. They possessed anti-
inflammatory effects at a dose of 0.01 mg/100 g. 9
Contraindications and adverse effects
A. majus L. is contraindicated in diseases associated
with photosensitivity, cataract, invasive squamous-
cell cancer, known sensitivity to xanthotoxin
(psoralens), and in children under the age of 12
years. The fruits are also contraindicated in
pregnancy, nursing, tuberculosis, liver and kidney
diseases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
infections and other autoimmune diseases. 9,39-40
Patients, after the first exposures, developed bullous
reactions of more or less severe but in constant
degree similar to burns, nervousness and insomnia,
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nausea and gastric burning.30 However , itching,
edema, hypotension, vertigo, depression, painful
blistering, burning and peeling of the skin, pruritus,
freckling, hypopigmentation, rash, cheilitis and
erythema were also recorded with xanthotoxin
therapy.39 Phototoxic dermatitis and allergic
rhinitis and contact urticaria due to exposure to the
fruits were recorded.41-42 There are also reports of
toxicosis by photosensitizing furocoumarins
contained in Ammi majus seeds in many animal
species. In a herd of pigs suffered simultaneous
intoxications by ergot alkaloids from Claviceps
purpurea sclerotia and furocoumarins from Ammi
majus seeds. Nervous signs were first observed 5-7
days after the initiation of feeding. These signs were
followed by cutaneous irritation. Snout ulcers,
eyelid edema, and conjunctivitis were recorded in
several piglets. Ten days after the start of feeding, 8
abortions were observed. Many of the sows that
were nursing piglets developed udder edema and
teat cracking. Dermal lesions were observed in most
of the animals with unpigmented areas in the skin.
Examination of impurities in the suspected wheat
indicated the presence of 2.2% of A. majus seeds
and 0.14% of C.purpurea sclerotia. The quantitative
analysis indicated the presence of 3.2 g xanthotoxin
and 0.65 g bergaptene/100 g Ammi majus seeds and
0.73 g ergot alkaloids (expressed as ergonovine) per
100g, of C. purpurea.18, 42-44
Dosage
Fructus Ammi majus was used as 0.020.04 g daily
orally in divided doses, xanthotoxin 0.250.7 mg/kg
bw. 4,6,8, 28-29
II-Ammi visnaga
Synonyms : Daucus visnaga L., Selinum visnaga
E.H.L. Krause, Sium visnaga Stokes, Visnaga
daucoides Gaertn 45-47
Common names : English: Pick-tooth, Tooth pick,
Bishop’s weed , Arabic: Khella , Khella baladi
Traditional uses : The fruits of Ammi visnaga were
uses in the treatment of mild anginal symptoms. As
supportive treatment of mild obstruction of the
respiratory tract in asthma, bronchial asthma or
spastic bronchitis, and postoperative treatment of
conditions associated with the presence of urinary
calculi. Treatment of gastrointestinal cramps and
painful menstruation . Internally as an
emmenagogue to regulate menstruation, as a
diuretic, and for treatment of vertigo, diabetes and
kidney stones.10
Physico-chemical constants10, 46: loss in weight on
drying at 1050C: 4.60% , total ash: 9.4% , acid
insoluble ash: 0.6% , and water soluble ash: 2.9% .
Extractive value in different solvents (%):
petroleum ether: 3.40, chloroform (60-800C): 6.10 ,
absolute ethanol: 11.10 and ethanolic water
extract: 19.50.
Chemical constituents
Ammi visnaga contained γ-pyrones
(furanochromone up to 4%), the principal
compounds being khellin (0.31.2%) , visnagin
(0.050.30%), khellinol, ammiol, khellol and
khellinin . Ammi visnaga also contained fixed oils
(up to 18%) and coumarins (0.20.5%), the main
one being the pyranocoumarin visnadin (0.3%).46-50
The hydrodistillation of Ammi visnaga yielded 1.3
% of yellowish oil. Twenty one components were
identified representing 97.3% of the essential oil.
These compound included 2,2- dimethylbutanoic
acid (30.1%), isobutyl isobutyrate (14.0 %),
croweacin (12.2%), linalool (12.1%), bornyl acetate
(7.3%), thymol (6.0%), α-thujene (1.5%), 3-
methylpentenol(2.5%), β-myrcene (0.1%) ,
methylbutyl 2 -methylbutaoate (
1.2%), α-isophorone
(3.8%), 2-nonyne (1.2%) , hexenyl isobutanoate
(1.6%) , endo-fenchyl acetate (0.2%) , geranyl
acetate (1.2%) , lavandulyl acetate (1.2%),
citronellyl propionate (0.6%) neryl isobutanoate
(0.1%), lavandulyl 2- methylbutanoate (0.1%), and
αdamascone(0.1%) , Z,E)-farnesal (trace).51
Eleven flavonols have been isolated from the aerial
parts of Ammi visnaga L. from which four
aglycones, four monoglycosides, two diglycosides
and one triglycoside. The flavonoid aglycones were
distributed into one hydroxylated (quercetin) and
three methoxylated (rhamnetin, isorhamnetin and
rhamnazin). The monoglycosides included three 3-
O-glucosides respectively linked to rhamnetin ,
isorhamnetin and rhamnazin and one 7-O-
glucoside of isorhamnetin . The two diglycosides
were 3-O-rutin of quercetin and isorhamnetin
while the single trioside was quercetin 7,3,3’-O-
triglucoside.49 ,52-54
Pharmacokinetic studies
The plasma concentration of visnagin after oral
dose reached the maximum level of 3270.72 ng/mL
at 0.33 h and decreased to below limit of
quantitation (1.0 ng/mL) after 12 h. For intravenous
administration, the maximum concentration of
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visnagin was 1635.76 ng/mL at 0 h. Visnagin at a
dose of 10 mg/kg (in 2% ethanol and 10% PEG
200) was completely absorbed (oral bioavailability,
F=100.71%). The half-lives of 0.79 and 0.61 was
recorded in oral and intravenous administration
respectively . The volume of distribution (Vd) of
visnagin was 0.86 L, which is suggestive of the
distribution into extracellular fluids in the body.55
Pharmacological effects
Antimicrobial effects
The antimicrobial effects of the ethanolic and
aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga were tested
against eight pathogenic microorganisms
Staphylococcus aureus,Leuconostic mesontroide,
Enterococcus faecalis,Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Candida tropicans and C. albicans.The most active
extract against Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol
extract with a minimal inhibitory concentration
(MIC) value of (5mg/ml) against Enterococcus
faecalis. In addition, the same extract exerted
antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative
bacteria Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae
with an MIC value of 12.5mg/ml. In yeast a high
concentration of extract was needed to cause
inhibition.56
The essential oil of Ammi visnaga was tested
against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922,
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC
43300, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, and Morganella morganii. The
essential oil exhibited the best antibacterial activity
against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922,Escherichia
coli, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 , the
diameter of the inhibitory zones were 29 , 25, 25 ,
25 mm respectively51. Ethanol extract of Ammi
visnaga fruits (at a dilution of 1:40) inhibited the
growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
H37RVTMC 10257. An aqueous extract of the
fruits, 210 mg/ml inhibited growth and aflatoxin
production of Aspergillus flavus , the effects were
dose-dependent58. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic
extract of seed and stem of Ammi visnaga showed
a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus
mutans,Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus
sanguis oral pathogens59.
Cardiovascular effects
Ammi visnaga induced relaxation of smooth muscle,
including that of the ureter and coronary arteries, in
a variety of animal species60.Durate et al found
that visnadine caused nonspecific inhibition of
vascular smooth muscle. It was selectively inhibited
the contractile response in the rat isolated aortic
ring and portal vein segment. On the other hand,
intravenous administration of visnagin decreased
blood pressure with no significant changes on the
heart rate61-63. A chloroform, and methanol extract
(1mg/ml) of the fruits inhibited the potassium
chloride induced contractions of the rabbit guinea-
pig aorta in vitro64-66.Visnadin, 60.0 μg/ml or
120.0 μg/ml, increased coronary blood flow in
isolated guinea-pig hearts by 46% and 57%
respectively66.Samidin and khellol glucoside
induced positive inotropic effects on heart67.
In coronary vasospasm and myocardial ischaemia
induced in dogs by daily intramuscular injections of
vasopressin , visnadin, dihydrosamidin, khellin and
samidin effectively normalized the
electrocardiogram when given in a dose of 4.7
mg/kg bw per day intramuscularly for 7 days67.
Immediately after the rapid intravenous
administration of 20-30 mg of khellin to the dogs ,
the blood pressure drops to about 50 mm Hg., the
heart beats considerably slower, and the respiration
is momentarily arrested. The entire effect lasts for
only a short time, within a minute or two68.
According to the results obtained by different
researchers, khella seems to improve blood supply
to smooth muscles and makes myocardial
metabolism more efficient. It dilated the coronary
vessels, and increased the capacity of the heart
without increasing the heart rate or affecting blood
pressure69.
A clinical trial of khellin in 38 cases of angina
pectoris and in 8 cases of coronary thrombosis was
performed . Continuous treatment, by the oral or
intramuscular routes or by both , gave favourable
results in 35 out of 38 cases of angina pectoris.
Continuously administration of khellin for several
weeks to eight patients after coronary thrombosis
appeared favourable67.
A clinical study was carried out on 20 non-obese,
normolipaemic male subjects to determine the
effects of orally administered 50 mg khellin four
times daily for 4 weeks on the plasma lipids.
Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride remained
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unchanged, but high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol
concentration was significantly elevated during the
treatment and till one week after cessation of
treatment70. In a comparison with glyceryl trinitrate,
khellin (3 ml. containing 150 mg. of khellin ,
alcoholic extract standardized to contain 50 mg/ml)
was used in twelve patients for prevention of
angina of effort and the electrocardiographic
changes that may accompany it . Khellin was less
potent but longer acting than glyceryl trinitrate , and
it did not cause any unpleasant side effects71.
Treatment of vitiligo
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60
people indicated that the combination of oral khellin
(which is the main constituent of Ammi visnaga)
and natural sun exposure caused repigmentation in
76.6% of the treatment group, in comparison, no
improvement was seen in the control group
receiving sunlight plus placebo72. A subsequent
placebo-controlled study of 36 patients of vitiligo ,
showed that a topical khellin gel plus UVA caused
repigmentation in 86.1% of the treated cases, as
opposed to 66.6% in the placebo group73.
Smooth muscle relaxant effects
Durate et al found that visnadine caused
nonspecific inhibition of vascular smooth muscle. It
was selectively inhibited the contractile response in
the rat isolated aortic ring and portal vein
segment61-63. Aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga
seeds induced relaxant effect on contractibility of
small intestine of rabbit74.Ammi visnaga induced
relaxation of smooth muscle, including that of the
ureter and coronary arteries, in a variety of animal
species60.Khella’s antispasmodic properties are also
useful to treat asthma attacks. During the 1950′s,
research into khella’s usefulness as an asthma
treatment led to the creation of many asthma
medications containing khellin and visnagin69.
Prevention of urolithiasis
Ammi visnaga was investigated for the preventive
effect of kidney stone formation. In cell culture
experiments, it was found that Ammi visnaga and its
compounds (khellin and visnagin) protected cell
damage from calcium oxalyate crystals. In
addition, Ammi visnaga and its compounds
prevented calcium oxalyate crystals formation in
stone forming rats by increasing the urinary pH and
citrate concentration along with a decrease of
urinary oxalate. The calcium oxalyate crystals
deposition in the rat kidneys was significantly
decreased in the group of rats receiving Ammi
visnaga and its compounds55.
Antioxidant effects
The antioxidant activity of the butanolic extract of
Ammi visnaga was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-
picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method . The butanolic
extract of Ammi visnaga was markedly quenched
the DDPPH radical by 78.7 % at a concentration of
200 ug/ml75.
Contraindications and adverse effects
To minimize photosensitivity, the exposure to sun
or other sources of ultraviolet light should be
avoided during treatment with Ammi visnaga and
its components. Long term use or overdose of the
drug can lead to queasiness , dizziness , loss of
appetite , headache , sleep disorders and with very
high dosage ( corresponding to over 100 mg khellin
) , it caused reversible elevation in the levels of
liver enzymes76-77. Ethanolic extract of Ammi
visnaga was free from mutagenic effect, it also
inhibit the mutagenic effects of ethyl
methanesulfonate , 2-amino-anthracene , and
benzopyrene in S. typhimurium78.
Dosage
Average daily dose: Fructus Ammi Visnaga 0.05
0.15 g. 1 , 46
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... Visnadin, 60.0 μg/ml or 120.0 μg/ml, increased coronary blood flow in isolated guinea-pig hearts by 46% and 57% respectively (19)(20) . ...
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Ammi species belong to the family Umbellifereae that provide a host of bioactive compounds (mainly coumarins and flavonoids) of important biological activities, like prevention and treatment of heart and vascular disease and some types of cancer. Literature survey revealed that there was no study concerning Ammi flavonoids in Iraq. Ammi majus and Ammi visnaga, which are wildly grown in Iraq, were chosen for this study. This study concerned with extraction, identification, isolation, and purification of some biologically important flavonols quercetin and kaempferol from the fruits of Ammi majus and Ammi visnaga. Extraction of these flavonols was carried out using 85% methanol and 90% ethanol. Identification of these flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was done using thin Layer chromatography (TLC) where different solvent systems had been tried. Ultra violet (UV) Light and iodine vapor where used for detection. This identification was further augmented by using high performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) and then these flavonols were isolated and purified. The most suitable extraction, isolation and purification procedures of flavonols were fully described in this study. The identification of isolated flavonols (quercetin & kaempferol) was carried out using melting point (M.P.), Thin Layer chromatography (TLC), and infrared spectroscopy (IR).This study confirms the presence of quercetin and kaempferol in Ammi majus & an Ammi visnaga fruit, the percentage of quercetin was higher in Ammi visnaga than Ammi majus, while the percentage of kaempferol was higher in Ammi majus than Ammi visnaga. Key words : Ammi majus , Ammi visnaga , quercetin , kaempferol .
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