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Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job design

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... Work pressure hypothesis : Karasek, (1979) see his discernment on work pressure and dependent on assessment saw the work interest and occupation control as a need to either diminish or build work pressure among bookkeepers. In any case, a powerful hypothesis in exploration about work constantly pressure, the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model distinguishes two basic parts of the work inside the work setting: position requests and occupation control (Karasek, 1979). ...
... Work pressure hypothesis : Karasek, (1979) see his discernment on work pressure and dependent on assessment saw the work interest and occupation control as a need to either diminish or build work pressure among bookkeepers. In any case, a powerful hypothesis in exploration about work constantly pressure, the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model distinguishes two basic parts of the work inside the work setting: position requests and occupation control (Karasek, 1979). To Karasek (1979), work requests allude to the measure of work executed by a worker (outstanding task at hand). ...
... In any case, a powerful hypothesis in exploration about work constantly pressure, the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model distinguishes two basic parts of the work inside the work setting: position requests and occupation control (Karasek, 1979). To Karasek (1979), work requests allude to the measure of work executed by a worker (outstanding task at hand). The work control estimation also called the decision extent of the JDC implies a laborer's ability and capacity to have control on their work demands. ...
... Doordat medewerkers zich betrokken voelen, zich eigenaar voelen van hun werk, zullen ze het beste uit zichzelf halen en nadenken hoe producten en werkprocessen te verbeteren. Daarbij moeten de betrokken medewerkers ook voldoende bevoegdheden (regelmogelijkheden) hebben, anders willen wel verbeteringen doorvoeren, maar kunnen ze dat niet en dat leidt juist tot stress (zie ook Karasek, 1979en Karasek & Theorell, 1990. Sociale innovatie heeft dus (mede) tot doel dat medewerkers zichzelf eigenaar voelen van hun werk. ...
... Medewerkers worden geconfronteerd met nieuwe situaties, waarin bestaande tactieken en routines ontoereikend zijn en individuen dus nieuwe strategieën en vaardigheden moeten ontwikkelen (Davies & Easterby-Smith, 1984;McCall et al., 1988). Men zal nieuwe competenties moeten ontwikkelen om effectief te functioneren (McCall et.al, 1988;McCauley et.al., 1994); › autonomie in het werk, de mate van vrijheid en zelfstandigheid die een medewerker heeft, staat zowel bij informeel leren/lerende organisaties als bij sociale innovatie en intrapreneurship centraal (Karasek & Theorell, 1990;Karasek, 1979;Van Amelsfoort & Van Hootegem, 2017;Dhondt, 2017;Borham & Morgan, 2004;Habermehl et al., 2017;Cerasoli et al., 2014). Hiervoor is het delegeren van bevoegdheden uit de hiërarchische lijn noodzakelijk. ...
... Minimale regels en voorschriften vanuit het management over hoe het werk moet worden uitgevoerd geeft de werknemers zelfstandigheid en zorgt voor flexibiliteit (Kuipers et al., 2010). Autonomie biedt medewerkers tevens de ruimte om te experimenteren, nieuwe werkwijzen te ontwikkelen en te leren (Karasek & Theorell, 1990;Karasek, 1979;Van Amelsfoort & Van Hootegem, 2017). Ook bij informeel leren is het van belang te kunnen experimenteren om zo nieuwe kennis te generen (Van Woerkom, 2004;Simons, 1999;Garvin et al., 2008). ...
Research
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Organisaties moeten overleven en bloeien in een omgeving die steeds sneller lijkt te verander- en. Die dynamiek in de omgeving wordt voor een belangrijk deel veroorzaakt door de snelheid van technologische ontwikkelingen. Met deze rapportage willen we concreet handen en voeten geven aan leven lang ontwikkelen (en dan met name informeel leren) en tegelijkertijd bijdragen aan het creëren van innovatieve organisaties waarbij alle medewerkers betrokken zijn bij vernieuwing en verbetering.
... Cadre Théorique : Le modèle du J/D/R du stress Le modèle du J/D/R (Bakker et al., 2003(Bakker et al., , 2005(Bakker et al., , 2007(Bakker et al., , 2013 s'inscrit dans une logique interactionniste du stress. Il trouve ses ancrages tant dans le modèle de Karasek (1979) que dans la théorie de Conservation des Ressources (COR) de Hobfoll (1989de Hobfoll ( , 2001. Selon le modèle de Karasek (1979), un niveau élevé de contrôle permet de réduire les effets négatifs des demandes du travail sur le bien-être. ...
... Il trouve ses ancrages tant dans le modèle de Karasek (1979) que dans la théorie de Conservation des Ressources (COR) de Hobfoll (1989de Hobfoll ( , 2001. Selon le modèle de Karasek (1979), un niveau élevé de contrôle permet de réduire les effets négatifs des demandes du travail sur le bien-être. Il suppose qu'un niveau élevé de demandes associé à un niveau faible de contrôle conduisent à un niveau élevé de stress. ...
... L'autonomie constitue une ressource qui, selon son degré, permet d'impacter la charge de travail. Assimilée à une caractéristique du travail actif (Karasek, 1979), l'autonomie est un « facilitateur » du travail. Pour notre échantillon l'autonomie se présente selon trois dimensions : la souplesse au niveau de la formalisation du travail; la flexibilité du lieu et du temps de travail et la possibilité d'expression de la créativité du cadre dans la réalisation de son travail. ...
Article
Les recherches sur le stress permettent d’identifier des métiers fortement exposés tel que le métier de cadre. Cependant, peu d’études permettent d’identifier les différences intra-profession entre les contextes négatifs et ceux positifs. Nous retenons le cadre du « Job/Demand/Resource » pour identifier des configurations des niveaux de stress qui résultent de l’articulation entre la charge de travail et les ressources organisationnelles. Les configurations identifiées résultent d’une étude qualitative par entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès de 20 cadres. Nos résultats permettent d’affiner la lecture binaire du modèle J/D/R en identifiant quatre configurations qui composent un continuum de situations plus ou moins stressantes.
... According to the job demand-control-support theory, work-related stress occurs when employees are exposed to work demands, pressures, and challenges that overcome their abilities, knowledge, and coping resources (Karasek, 1979;Karasek & Theorell, 1990). The unbalance generated by high psychological work demands, low autonomy for decision making (known as job control or decision latitude) and low support from supervisors and colleagues characterizes a high job strain that contributes to work-related stress development (Karasek, 1979;Karasek & Theorell, 1990;Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). ...
... According to the job demand-control-support theory, work-related stress occurs when employees are exposed to work demands, pressures, and challenges that overcome their abilities, knowledge, and coping resources (Karasek, 1979;Karasek & Theorell, 1990). The unbalance generated by high psychological work demands, low autonomy for decision making (known as job control or decision latitude) and low support from supervisors and colleagues characterizes a high job strain that contributes to work-related stress development (Karasek, 1979;Karasek & Theorell, 1990;Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). A passive job, defined as low demands with low control, is also associated with job strain due the combination of boredom, inability to control the work process, and the under exploration of one's potential. ...
... A passive job, defined as low demands with low control, is also associated with job strain due the combination of boredom, inability to control the work process, and the under exploration of one's potential. Conversely, low strain (low demands and high job control) and active job (high demands and job control) represent a positive and balanced relationship in the work place (Karasek, 1979). ...
Article
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Assessing risk factors exposure, such as stress in the workplace during adulthood, may contribute to detecting early signs of cognitive impairment in order to implement effective actions to improve brain health and consequently to decrease cognitive disorders later in life. In this cross‐sectional study, we aimed to investigate whether work‐related stress is associated with low cognitive performance in middle‐aged adults from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil), and whether social support mediates this relationship. Work‐related stress was evaluated in 9,969 workers using the Demand‐Control‐Support Questionnaire (DCSQ). Cognitive function was assessed using the verbal fluency, trail‐making version B, and delayed recall word tests (DRWT). Work‐related stress was associated with lower performance on the delayed recall, verbal fluency, and executive function tests in middle‐aged adults. Social support may mediate the association between work demands and cognitive performance. These findings support that work‐related stress is associated with cognitive performance during adulthood.
... Work pressure hypothesis : Karasek, (1979) see his discernment on work pressure and dependent on assessment saw the work interest and occupation control as a need to either diminish or build work pressure among bookkeepers. In any case, a powerful hypothesis in exploration about work constantly pressure, the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model distinguishes two basic parts of the work inside the work setting: position requests and occupation control (Karasek, 1979). ...
... Work pressure hypothesis : Karasek, (1979) see his discernment on work pressure and dependent on assessment saw the work interest and occupation control as a need to either diminish or build work pressure among bookkeepers. In any case, a powerful hypothesis in exploration about work constantly pressure, the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model distinguishes two basic parts of the work inside the work setting: position requests and occupation control (Karasek, 1979). To Karasek (1979), work requests allude to the measure of work executed by a worker (outstanding task at hand). ...
... In any case, a powerful hypothesis in exploration about work constantly pressure, the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model distinguishes two basic parts of the work inside the work setting: position requests and occupation control (Karasek, 1979). To Karasek (1979), work requests allude to the measure of work executed by a worker (outstanding task at hand). The work control estimation also called the decision extent of the JDC implies a laborer's ability and capacity to have control on their work demands. ...
Article
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The issues regarding the quality of work life and job stress is a global phenomenon which cuts across diverse changing and work environment. The success of any organization depends largely on the strategies adopted to improve the quality of work life of employees especially that of the librarians. The overall focus of the paper is to analyze the nature of work life and employment stress among librarians in public tertiary institutions. It is meant to determine the effect of job stress on the effectiveness of librarian’s performance in public tertiary institutions. It examines the causes of job stress among librarians in public tertiary institutions. It evaluated theories related to various components of quality work life and job stress. The research design used for the study was descriptive form of research and the study tested the hypotheses with relevant statistical instruments. The results showed that most librarians experienced high job stress resulting in unsatisfactory quality work life. It revealed the effects and impact of stress on librarians and their over-all performance. Job stress on librarians results in ill-health and loss of man hour which further manifests in low productivity. It is therefore necessary to ensure that stress is reduced to the barest minimum in the library workplace. Creating a healthy working environment is paramount in this regard. The provision of adequate facilities is also important since it helps librarians to perform optimally. Both the male and female library staff need to strike a balance between their job and family. Those who have children must as a matter of fact ensure that they employ adult house help to manage their home activities and take good care of their children while at work. It is indeed difficult to manage the work and home fronts without putting adequate plans in place. The population was obtained from various public tertiary institutions in Ogun state. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics where measures of central tendencies and dispersion include frequency counts, means and percentages. The data was further analysed with the ANAVO with the help of the statistical package ver23
... They are fearful of causing harm and concerned about coworkers who perceive accommodations as unfair (Williams-Whitt et al., 2016). Previous theories support the view that supervisors can experience negative psychological, physical and professional outcomes when strain levels are high (Bickford, 2005;Karasek, 1979;Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). But no quantitative study has yet verified the impact of accommodation responsibilities on supervisors' job strain. ...
... The major outcomes associated with job strain are exhaustion, depression, and job and life dissatisfaction (Karasek, 1979;Luo, 1999;Xie, 1996). Concepts of stress and strain are difficult to distinguish from each other because of their psychological nature (Cooper, Dewe, & O'Driscoll, 2001;Hurrell, Nelson, & Simmons, 1998;Jackson, 1992;Jimenez & Dunkl, 2017). ...
... Over the past century, various models have been developed to better understand the mechanisms, factors, and facets of job strain. Karasek (1979) stated that most probably, F.W. Taylor started the journey in his principles of job design by acknowledging job strain as a crucial factor in a workplace environment and predicting that job strain can be mitigated by paying more compensation and taking tight control over decision-making. However, Karasek (1979) opposed that view, suggesting that tightening controls can lead to more job strain and dissatisfaction. ...
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we investigated how job demands of disability accommodation influence supervisors’ job strain and motivation. We also investigated the factors that make disability accommodation complex. We collected data from 335 supervisors using an online survey questionnaire through Prolific Academic UK. We analyzed our data using a thematic approach in NVivo, and confirmatory factor analysis, hierarchical regression analysis and process macro model 4 in SPSS. We found that job demands of disability accommodation are positively associated with accommodation-related supervisors’ job strain. Disability accommodation complexity is positively associated with accommodation-related job demands and job strain. However, job control, reward and social support are negatively associated with supervisors’ job strain during disability accommodation. The study identifies several factors that contribute to increasing disability accommodation complexity, such as the extent of physical environmental changes needed, required social support and resources, and availability of position alternatives.
... The JD-R model predicts that employees' increased job strain may negatively affect their motivation (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004). In line with the JD-R model and several empirical studies, we expected that if supervisors experience increased job strain during DA, they are more likely to be exposed to various strain-related adverse outcomes, including reduced work motivation (Karasek, 1979;Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). According to the JD-C model (Karasek, 1979) and its extension, the JD-CS model (Johnson & Hall, 1988), sufficient job control (available skill, discretion, and autonomy)/social support (available supervisors' and coworkers' supports) may reduce supervisors' strain while managing DA (Johnson & Hall, 1988;Karasek, 1979;Vegchela, Jongea, Bosmab, & Schaufelia, 2005). ...
... In line with the JD-R model and several empirical studies, we expected that if supervisors experience increased job strain during DA, they are more likely to be exposed to various strain-related adverse outcomes, including reduced work motivation (Karasek, 1979;Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). According to the JD-C model (Karasek, 1979) and its extension, the JD-CS model (Johnson & Hall, 1988), sufficient job control (available skill, discretion, and autonomy)/social support (available supervisors' and coworkers' supports) may reduce supervisors' strain while managing DA (Johnson & Hall, 1988;Karasek, 1979;Vegchela, Jongea, Bosmab, & Schaufelia, 2005). Relatedly, the ERI model suggests that providing sufficient rewards to supervisors on DA (i.e., the additional tangible and intangible benefits that a supervisor receives during DA) may reduce strain during DA (Siegrist, 1996). ...
... In line with the JD-R model and several empirical studies, we expected that if supervisors experience increased job strain during DA, they are more likely to be exposed to various strain-related adverse outcomes, including reduced work motivation (Karasek, 1979;Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). According to the JD-C model (Karasek, 1979) and its extension, the JD-CS model (Johnson & Hall, 1988), sufficient job control (available skill, discretion, and autonomy)/social support (available supervisors' and coworkers' supports) may reduce supervisors' strain while managing DA (Johnson & Hall, 1988;Karasek, 1979;Vegchela, Jongea, Bosmab, & Schaufelia, 2005). Relatedly, the ERI model suggests that providing sufficient rewards to supervisors on DA (i.e., the additional tangible and intangible benefits that a supervisor receives during DA) may reduce strain during DA (Siegrist, 1996). ...
... Thus employees, particularly those on the front line, must marshal their own resources-broadly, their knowledge, expertise, teamwork, and psychological power (Richter and Hacker, 1998)-and devote more effort and longer hours to their work responsibilities. Existing research in psychology and organizational behavior, though it has not addressed workload surge in particular, offers insight into the effects on employees of high job demands (e.g., Karasek, 1979;Edwards and Harrison, 1993;Van Yperen and Hagedoorn, 2003;Spector et al., 2007). Such employees are likely to experience exhaustion, stress, and even burnout or depression (Karasek, 1979;Demerouti et al., 2001;Hakanen, Schaufeli, and Ahola, 2008), increasing their chances of health impairment or physical illness (Schnall, Landsbergis, and Baker, 1994;Bakker et al., 2003) and diminishing work engagement and job satisfaction (Hakanen, Bakker, and Schaufeli, 2006;Spector et al., 2007). ...
... Existing research in psychology and organizational behavior, though it has not addressed workload surge in particular, offers insight into the effects on employees of high job demands (e.g., Karasek, 1979;Edwards and Harrison, 1993;Van Yperen and Hagedoorn, 2003;Spector et al., 2007). Such employees are likely to experience exhaustion, stress, and even burnout or depression (Karasek, 1979;Demerouti et al., 2001;Hakanen, Schaufeli, and Ahola, 2008), increasing their chances of health impairment or physical illness (Schnall, Landsbergis, and Baker, 1994;Bakker et al., 2003) and diminishing work engagement and job satisfaction (Hakanen, Bakker, and Schaufeli, 2006;Spector et al., 2007). These effects can undermine job performance (Taris, 2006;Jones et al., 2007;Bakker, Van Emmerik, and Van Riet, 2008). ...
Article
This two-year inductive study of a refugee-resettlement agency examines how employees navigated a workload surge caused by a refugee crisis and sustained the perceived meaningfulness of their work during and after the surge. Employees shifted their conceptualization of meaningfulness from quality to quantity during the surge; post-surge, they again redefined meaningfulness, to encompass both quality and quantity. During these transitions, employees changed how they worked to resettle refugees via three subprocesses: negotiating emotional tension (“how I feel”), adopting a situational purpose (“what my work is for in this situation”), and adjusting their work practices (“what to do to achieve the situational purpose”). Though some refugees who arrived during the surge reported worse outcomes, those who had been told the rationale for employees’ quantity approach to work reported well-being and employment outcomes similar to those of refugees who had arrived during non-surge conditions. I offer a process model that elucidates how aid workers adapt their enactment of meaningful work in crisis conditions, highlighting finding a situational purpose—the provisional “why” or “for what” of their work in light of a new situation—while navigating a changing work environment.
... We have used questions from the EWCS questionnaire on psychosocial aspects of work to build two scales of work stress, according to the two most widespread psychosocial theoretical models, i.e., the demand control, or job strain (Karasek 1979), and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model (Siegrist 1996). Exposure to work stress assessed through these models has been consistently associated with psychological (Theorell et al. 2015) and musculoskeletal disorders (da Costa and Vieira 2010). ...
... Regarding differences in exposure to work hazards between men and women across the different organizational models, we found in both 2010 and 2015 surveys that the female/male prevalence ratio of exposure to work stress, defined according to the job demand-control model (Karasek 1979), was significantly lower in workplaces Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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Purpose To examine differences between genders in exposure to psychosocial and ergonomic factors at work and in work-related health, according to different work organization models. Methods The study population included a sample of 9749 (women: 37.1%) and 10,374 (women: 39.9%) employees who participated in the 2010 and 2015 European Working Conditions Surveys, respectively. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was applied to work characteristics reported by workers to estimate principal components, followed by Hierarchical Clustering on principal components to identify clusters of work organization models. Gender differences in exposure to work hazards and health outcomes were assessed through Poisson robust regression. Differences of PRs across organizational models were tested through interaction between gender and type of work organization. Results Three organizational models were identified in 2010, including lean production, Tayloristic production, and a “reflexive production” model, whereas in 2015, a “simple” or traditional model was also found. In 2010, women employed in companies adopting the Tayloristic or the lean production models were more likely than men to be exposed to unfavourable psychosocial and physical work factors, and to report musculoskeletal pain, compared to those belonging to reflexive production. In 2015, a significantly higher female/male ratio persisted in lean production for exposure to high job strain and for carrying/moving heavy loads, whereas gender differences in Tayloristic and traditional production were quite similar to those of reflexive production. Conclusions Our results suggest that employment in workplaces characterized by lower monotony, repetitiveness, and production constraints may contribute to reduce exposure to job strain among working women.
... The learning potential value of a job is a job's potential as 'a nutrient for the employee's further professional development, and refers to the extent to which occupational knowledge and skills can be used and broadened in one's job position' (Van der Heijden & Bakker, 2011, p. 234). According to Karasek (1979), a job that offers growth and learning potential has two main characteristics: (1) it presents job demands that are optimally broad and complex, so that it offers a positively experienced amount of work pressure; and (2) it entails an optimal level of job autonomy. As regards the latter, a work environment offers more learning potential when the dimensions of job demands and job autonomy are in balance (Karasek, 1979). ...
... According to Karasek (1979), a job that offers growth and learning potential has two main characteristics: (1) it presents job demands that are optimally broad and complex, so that it offers a positively experienced amount of work pressure; and (2) it entails an optimal level of job autonomy. As regards the latter, a work environment offers more learning potential when the dimensions of job demands and job autonomy are in balance (Karasek, 1979). In such a situation, an employee perceives sufficient opportunities and freedom to adjust successfully to the challenging demands arising from their work environment (Gijbels et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Education is one sector being challenged by aging staff, as well as by increased pressure to innovate. In order to cope with these challenges, educational institutions require teaching staff members, who include teachers, support staff and managers, to show a high level of employability. In this survey-based study, the predictive value of quantitative and qualitative job demands, job autonomy and self-directed learning orientation for three employability competences (occupational expertise, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization) was investigated using a Dutch sample (N = 3139). Moreover, three teaching staff age groups were compared: < 35 years old (young), 35-50 years old (middle-aged), and > 50 years old (senior). Path analysis results showed that self-directed learning orientation was positively associated with the three employability competences across all three different age groups. Positive relationships across age groups were also found between quantitative job demands and occupational expertise, and between qualitative job demands and personal flexibility. In addition, multi-group comparisons revealed age differences in our model relationships. The relationship between self-directed learning orientation, on the one hand, and personal flexibility and anticipation and optimization on the other, was stronger for seniors in comparison with the young employees. For the young employees, the role of autonomy was more important in enhancing their occupational expertise. Implications for school principals and HRD managers are discussed. Promoting a self-directed learning orientation and custom-made workplaces that take into account age differences among teaching staff members appear to be key for protecting and enhancing sustainable employability.
... Ces résultats traduisent le fait que les salariés de ces entreprises travaillent non seulement dans une situation de job strain et d´iso strain mais aussi dans une situation de travail nécessitant de grands efforts physique et mental sans récompenses conséquentes. Selon les modèles d´analyse de ces auteurs [25,26], ces résultats révèlent des charges de travail physiques et mentales importantes associées à un faible pouvoir de décision et une inadéquation entre l´effort fourni et les rémunérations: ce qui est à l´origine du stress vécu chez ces salariés. ...
... Cependant, ce stress est non exprimé du fait du contexte culturel burkinabé qui banalise la situation pourtant préoccupante. L´utilisation de ces modèles a permis non seulement de mesurer objectivement le stress chez ces salariés mais aussi de contribuer à fournir un cadre théorique sur lequel de futures recherches pourraient s´appuyer pour élaborer des recommandations pour l´amélioration de la qualité de vie au travail [25,26]. ...
Article
Introduction: in Burkina Faso, work-related stress is a public health problem. The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors of stress among formal private sector employees in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods: we conducted a survey using the 26-item scale derived from Karasek and the 23-item scale derived from Siegrist. Validated Karasek and Siegrist´s models as well as SPSS software were used to analyze data. Results: we surveyed 223 employees (186 men and 37 women) with an average age of 36.70 years ± δ = 33.25. In addition, 70,40% of employees had job strain; 50,22% iso strain and 52,02% effort-reward imbalance. Post-hoc analyses showed the following stress factors: great efforts and poor decision-making ability. Conclusion: this study confirms the presence of stress among private sector employees and highlights the importance of combining Karasek and Siegrist's questionnaires in the study of stress factors.
... This concept can be explained as the amount of leeway individuals have in performing their job responsibilities, or the authority and the decisionmaking latitude in their jobs (Karasek, 1979; Andreason, 2003; Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005). ...
... Hence, expatriates that encounter too many demands at work may be less able to respond in an adequate way to these demands. Role overload could therefore have a detrimental effect on work adjustment (Karasek, 1979; Tung, 1982; Black, 1988). However, studies of private sector expatriates have not found much empirical support for this theoretical assumption (cf. ...
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While the literature on private sector expatriates is burgeoning, research on public sector expatriates is scant, despite their increasing numbers. This is unfortunate, as these two groups of expatriates may face different work conditions at their foreign assignment. The target group for this study was the US Department of Defense administrators located at US embassies around the world. Results showed that the time expatriates had spent in their current location had a positive association with both work adjustment and work effectiveness. So did role clarity, which also had a positive association with job satisfaction, making it a more important job factor than role conflict, role overload or role discretion. Although role clarity may have a similar impact on work outcomes of expatriates, both in the private and public sector, the findings regarding role conflict and role overload may constitute a discrepant outcome for the two groups. There may also be a difference between the two categories of expatriates with regard to role discretion. Implications of these findings are discussed in detail.
... A valuable tool for illustrating the practical divide, as well as common theoretical starting points, between the fields of occupational health and organizational research is the job demands-control (JDC) model by Karasek and Theorell (1990), one of the best established models, that has been guiding how work environment conditions are conducted and measured. The JDC model brought together two theoretical perspectives on work and health: the qualification perspective and the stress perspective (Karasek 1979). According to Karasek (1979, p. 285), it is likely that contradictory results from studies on the relationship between the work's design and health were due to the fact that they occurred within two mutually exclusive theoretical traditions, and that the solution to this was to merge them into one model, thereby enabling more accurate analyses. ...
... The two main dimensions of the JDC model are job demands and job control. 'Job demands' refer to psychological stressors in the work environment (Karasek 1979), while 'job control' refers to the individual worker's possibility of controlling his or her own activities and utilization of skills (Karasek & Theorell 1990, p. 60). The model assumes that healthy work is achieved when the degree of job control is higher than the degree of job demands. ...
Article
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The aim of this article is to discuss how the concept of inequality regimes can contribute to theoretical and methodological advances in occupational health research. We posit the mutual advantages of bringing together feminist intersectional analysis of inequality in working life with studies of working conditions and health. The job demands and control model (JDC) is used as a starting point for the discussion. Reintegration of organizational analysis into studies of working conditions and health is warranted, as organizations influence how working conditions are distributed and individuals are stratified in the labor market. We refer to that development as going from healthy work to healthy workplaces. We discuss how the concept of inequality regimes is open for mixed method analysis and how it can be used as a theoretical framework for unraveling the ways in which inequalities in working conditions and health are (re)created in different types of organizations.
... Krasek (1979) presented the JD-C Model, which is one of the mainstream models for explaining the pressure sources from working [53]. Bakker etc. (2004Bakker etc. ( , 2007 on the basis of JD-C Model, put forward the job demands-resource model (JD-R Model) [39][40]. ...
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Background Overwork has become the common for some employees in China. The ‘Healthy China 2030’ plan mandates prevention of excessive overtime, making serious overwork was not advocated. Meeting new regulations requires clarification of the factors influencing overwork; however, Chinese researchers have not thoroughly examined ‘overwork’ and few proven models are available for addressing its relationship to job demands, job resources, and workaholism. Methods This study analysed these factors and overwork among employees in Chinese companies. A total of 1047 employees completed the Workers Fatigue Accumulated Degree by Self-Diagnostic Questionnaire (WFAD-SQ) for Assessment of Workers' Accumulated Fatigue to measure the degree of overwork; Workaholism Battery (WorkBAT) was applied to evaluate workaholism; the Job content qualifications (JCQ) were adopted to survey job demands–resources. Results Structural equation modelling (SEM) verified the effects shown, indicating job resources significantly negatively affect and job demands positively affect overwork. Workaholism demonstrated a significant intermediary role between job demands-resources and overwork. The SEM results indicate job demands-resources have both direct and indirect effects on overwork, and task demands, psychological requirements, and colleague support are the primary positive protective predictors for overwork. Conclusions The findings indicate the importance of employers strictly enforcing overtime rules, ensuring staffs’ rights for rest, and establishing harmonious working relationships between employees.
... The level of stress among some teachers have risen to such an extent that now it has become a major health hazard and we can see individuals with mental and health problems and psychological disorders. In several cross-sectional studies, an association was found between job stress and depressive symptoms or disorders (Karasek, 1979;Broadbent, 1985). ...
Article
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Teaching has become stressful due to the changing academic scenario. The core objectives of this study were to identify the factors causing occupational stress and also to identify the important symptoms of occupational stress as experienced by the faculty members. The researchers did a survey among 52 faculty members working in Kollam district. The collected data was statistically tested with tools such as weighted average mean, Pearson's Chi-Square test, Multi Dimensional Scaling Alscal Model, Euclidean Distance model etc. Based on the analysis it is understood that the variables such as Show-Off's during the office meetings, anxiety about career and future, travel time, inability to find time for oneself, Inability to grab the right opportunity Lack of recognition of work, Uncertainty about career opportunities, inability to live up to own expectation, Thoughts about work even while at home are some of the important stressors. Teachers experience the following physical symptoms like Head ache and neck ache, muscular aches & tension and fatigue. They have also experienced mental symptoms like apathy/ Loss of interest in work and frequent mood swings. Yoga, Meditation, Time Management, Bio Feedback, Proactive planning etc suggested as methods to mitigate stress. The study has been concluded by mentioning how this research work can be beneficial to other researchers.
... We also observed more flexibility associated with the outside sales role because the inside salesperson remains, surprisingly, restricted to stringent processes. Because high job demands and low levels of control are important predictors of negative psychological outcomes (Karasek, 1979;Schnall et al., 1994), JD-R theory suggests that managers may need to reconsider the empowerment afforded to the inside sales role. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the changing nature of the inside sales role and the individual capabilities required for success. Additionally, it examines the influence of organizational structure on inside sales force capabilities. Although business-to-business firms are investing heavily in inside sales forces, academic research lags behind this evolution. Design/methodology/approach Using a two-study qualitative approach, the authors examine contemporary inside sales forces’ responsibilities and operational configurations. Study 1 uses a cross-industry sample of sales leaders and professionals to examine roles and responsibilities. Study 2 used the second sample of sales leaders and professionals to explore the impact of various organizational configurations. Findings The study identifies important differences between inside and outside salespeople in terms of job demands and resources; inside salespeople’s greater reliance on sales technology and analytics than outside counterparts; and existing control systems’ failure to provide resources and incentives to match with inside salespeople’s increasing strategic benefits and job demands. The study also explores four distinct inside–outside configurations. The differences among these configurations help to explain the distinct benefits and costs of each configuration regarding the company, customer and intra sales force processes, which, in turn, determine inside salespeople’s strategic benefits and job demands. Research limitations/implications The authors discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for research on the evolving roles and capabilities of the inside sales force; antecedents and consequences of firms’ choice of inside–outside sales force configurations; and the impact of technology and the inside sales force. They propose a research agenda that includes a series of specific future research questions. Practical implications This study informs managers of the unique role of the inside sales force and how it differs from their outside counterpart. The results inform managers of the issues inherent to various inside sales configurations, helping them determine, which configuration best addresses their customers’ needs. Originality/value This research provides a detailed, updated account of the differences between inside and outside sales forces and the benefits/costs of major inside–outside sales force configurations. Drawing from job demands-resources, organizational structure and strategy-context fit theories, the authors develop research propositions about the underlying structural differences of inside-outside sales force configurations; how these differences drive the inside sales force’s increasing strategic benefits and job demands; and organizational choice of inside sales force configurations. A research agenda is then presented.
... (vrt. Karasek 1979) Tutkimusten mukaan työn kuormitustekijät voivat olla laadullisia tai määrällisiä ja voivat aiheuttaa niin yli-kuin alikuormitusta. Työn kuormittaa määrällisesti, jos sitä on liikaa tai siihen liittyy kiirettä ja aikapaineita. ...
Book
Tässä julkaisussa kuvataan Tekes-rahoitteisen Osallistuva innovaatiotoiminta ja sen johtamista edistävät tekijät -tutkimusprojektin teoreettinen tausta, tutkimuskysymykset, tavoitteet sekä toteutusmalli. Monitieteisen tutkimusprojektin avulla saadaan kattava käsitys tavoista, joilla osallistuvaa innovaatiotoimintaa ja sen johtamista voidaan edistää. Osallistuva innovaatiotoiminta mahdollistaa asiakkaiden ja henkilöstön osallistumisen palveluinnovaatioiden synnyttämiseen samalla parantaen henkilöstön kokemaa työn mielekkyyttä osallisuuden ja vaikuttamismahdollisuuksien myötä.
... El agotamiento se ha definido como un tipo específico de estrés laboral entre estos profesionales, como resultado de las relaciones exigentes y emocionalmente cargadas entre el profesional y a quienes van dirigidas sus atenciones o cuidados (43) . Los sentimientos del agotamiento emocional se consideran el iniciador del SQT (45) , al que se suman otras características centrales como son el desarrollo de actitudes negativas y cínicas hacia En el trabajo de Bakker y colaboradores (49) , después de controlar el impacto de los indicadores ya conocidos (estrés organizativo y componentes del modelo de control de la demanda de trabajo) (50) , implicados en el SQT, prueban la hipótesis del contagio del SQT, con cuestionarios validados (carga de trabajo objetiva, escala de libertad de decisión, escala de agotamiento percibido, agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y logros personales) (43,(51)(52)(53) , entre los equipos de Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), en un proyecto europeo (EURICUS-I),que se llevó a cabo bajo el auspicio de la Fundación para la Investigación sobre Cuidados Intensivos en Europa (FRICE), en el que han participado un total de 3.000 enfermeras de ambos sexos, y 80 UCIs en 12 países europeos diferentes). En su análisis de regresión multinivel se constata que el agotamiento se comunica de una enfermera a otra, tanto consciente como inconscientemente, donde las quejas de agotamiento entre colegas contribuyen a explicar la variación en los niveles individuales de agotamiento de las enfermeras. ...
... Second, excessive job pressure can represent a burden and an element of a negative work environment. As exemplified by its centrality in workstress frameworks, excessive job pressure is a quintessential work stressor associated with negative personal and social outcomes (Karasek 1979;Ducharme and Martin 2000;Koltai and Schieman 2015). These features--the requirement of a level of sustained contribution to the work role and its character as a stressor--make job pressure a potentially important working condition associated with higher reward expectations. ...
Article
Decades of research in social psychology demonstrate that the sense of distributive injustice has emotional, health, and behavioral consequences. It is therefore important to assess how individuals come to perceive their earnings as unjust. I provide new insights to this question by integrating perspectives in distributive justice, the stress process, and the work-family interface. Specifically, I describe a model that delineates how excessive work pressures elevate workers' sense of what they should earn through actions and strains in the work-family interface. Using data from a 2017 sample of Canadian workers, the results indicate that higher job pressure is associated with a greater expectation of rewards. Part of this association is indirect through role blurring behavior and work-to-family conflict, and this mechanism is intensified for parents. Collectively, these discoveries expand the scope of what counts as inputs in shaping our sense of what we should justly earn.
... The main conceptual models of psychosocial working conditions used in health research have separated the measurement of potentially stressful working conditions from the health effects of work stress. A widely used work stress model, developed by Karasek and Theorell, conceptualizes work stress in terms of the psychological demands of work and the degree of control over working conditions (Karasek, 1979;. In Karasek's initial formulation of the model, it was hypothesized that high job demands together with low control over working conditions would be particularly bad for health, and this was labeled job strain. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Final Report to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH). Employment Conditions Knowledge Network (EMCONET)
... Verder hebben we bij de bespreking van de prevalentie van burn-out reeds aangestipt dat Vlaamse normgegevens van cruciaal belang zijn om geldige uitspraken te kunnen doen, vermits de UBOS-handleiding ons niets kan vertellen over mogelijke culturele verschillen. Ten slotte lijkt het ons zinvol om in toekomstig onderzoek te kijken naar de aanwezigheid van werkstressoren en hulpbronnen in het werk zoals gesuggereerd door arbeidspsychologische verklaringsmodellen, zoals het Job Demand-Control Model (Karasek, 1979) en het Job Demand-Resources Model (Bakker, 2001;2003). De relevantie van deze modellen in de verklaring van burn-out (Schaufeli & van Dierendonck, 2000;Maslach, 2001) belooft verder inzichten te kunnen geven in het welzijn van klinisch psychologen. ...
Article
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S a m e n v a t t i n g ] In deze bijdrage wordt een empirische studie toegelicht over burnout bij 405 klinisch psycholo-gen van de Vlaamse Vereniging van Klinisch Psychologen (VVKP). Centraal staat de vraag naar het vóórkomen van burnout maar tevens wordt aandacht besteed aan de mechanismen die vermoedelijk aan de basis liggen van het burn-outfenomeen. Tegen de achtergrond van beschrijvende demografische variabe-len peilen we naar de invloed van elementen uit de klinische praktijk en bestuderen we de kwaliteit van de relatie tussen de cliënt en de hulpverlener. Verder wordt aandacht besteed aan de mate waarin initiële ver-wachtingen van psychologen door het huidige werk worden ingelost. De resultaten tonen aan dat in deze onderzoeksgroep burnout heel weinig voorkomt. Wanneer burn-outverschijnselen toch voorkomen, blij-ken initiële verwachtingen en de kwaliteit van de therapeutische relatie een sterk bepalend karakter te heb-ben in de verklaring van burnout .
... Over the years, studies using the Person-Environment Fit model have uncovered a great number of personal and organisational characteristics that play a more or less important role in work stress and how it affects the worker. According to Karasek and Theorell's influential job demand-control-support model (Karasek 1979;Theorell and Karasek 1996), though, job strain does not result from an aggregated list of "stressors", but from the interaction of three types of job characteristics: the demands of the work situation, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the range of decision-making freedom and the amount of social support available to the worker facing those demands. A third model, the Effort-Reward imbalance model (Siegrist 1996), focuses on the reciprocity of exchange in occupational life. ...
Article
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The worldwide implementation of school governance reforms over the last decades has changed the function and roles of school principals. Now identified as key players, these changes expose them to new health risks. International research has established the principalship to be highly demanding and stressful. This study addresses work stress, its main causes and coping strategies among school principals in French-speaking Switzerland. While they are most frequently bothered by time stressors, coping efforts are primarily directed at reducing or preventing conflictual interpersonal relations.
... The level of stress among some teachers have risen to such an extent that now it has become a major health hazard and we can see individuals with mental and health problems and psychological disorders. In several cross-sectional studies, an association was found between job stress and depressive symptoms or disorders (Karasek, 1979;Broadbent, 1985). ...
Article
Full-text available
Teaching has become stressful due to the changing academic scenario. The core objectives of this study were to identify the factors causing occupational stress and also to identify the important symptoms of occupational stress as experienced by the faculty members. The researchers did a survey among 52 faculty members working in Kollam district. The collected data was statistically tested with tools such as weighted average mean, Pearson's Chi-Square test, Multi Dimensional Scaling Alscal Model, Euclidean Distance model etc. Based on the analysis it is understood that the variables such as Show-Off's during the office meetings, anxiety about career and future, travel time, inability to find time for oneself, Inability to grab the right opportunity Lack of recognition of work, Uncertainty about career opportunities, inability to live up to own expectation, Thoughts about work even while at home are some of the important stressors. Teachers experience the following physical symptoms like Head ache and neck ache, muscular aches & tension and fatigue. They have also experienced mental symptoms like apathy/ Loss of interest in work and frequent mood swings. Yoga, Meditation, Time Management, Bio Feedback, Proactive planning etc suggested as methods to mitigate stress. The study has been concluded by mentioning how this research work can be beneficial to other researchers.
... Basicamente, o desempenho dos trabalhadores pode ser motivado de duas formas: reforço positivo ou reforço negativo (Daniels & Daniels, 2007 (Karasek, 1979 Ganster, Kiersch, Marsh & Bowen, 2011) A Ambiguidade e Conflito de Papéis, são relacionados a baixos níveis de satisfação no trabalho, altos níveis de ansiedade e intenção de abandonar o emprego (Jackson & Schuler, 1985 (Cunha & Borloti, 2009). ...
Chapter
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“Arte” é uma designação geral para um amplo conjunto de classes de comportamentos pre- sentes em todas as culturas humanas, desde o início de sua história. Não obstante, a análise do comportamento pouco tem se dedicado à compreensão das funções da arte. Neste ensaio interpretativo, busco identificar al- gumas das possíveis funções da arte musical para seus ouvintes, utilizando como fontes estudos sobre vários aspectos da música e, em alguns momentos, minha própria experiência como ouvinte e observador de ouvintes de música. Concluo que a música desempenha diversas funções socialmente e pessoalmente relevantes para seus ouvintes, envolvendo um amplo espectro de relações comportamentais, desde movimentos culturais e políticos até processos via de regra tidos como íntimos e individuais, como emoção, memória e fanta- sia. Uma compreensão mais refinada de tais relações comportamentais pode auxiliar ana- listas do comportamento a identificar a rele- vância dos estímulos musicais e a utilizá-los como parte de suas intervenções.
... Basicamente, o desempenho dos trabalhadores pode ser motivado de duas formas: reforço positivo ou reforço negativo (Daniels & Daniels, 2007 (Karasek, 1979 Ganster, Kiersch, Marsh & Bowen, 2011) A Ambiguidade e Conflito de Papéis, são relacionados a baixos níveis de satisfação no trabalho, altos níveis de ansiedade e intenção de abandonar o emprego (Jackson & Schuler, 1985 (Cunha & Borloti, 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Práticas culturais de desenvolvimento sustentável são aquelas que atendem às necessidades de uma população atual sem comprometer a sobrevivência ou qualidade de vida de gerações futuras. Culturas contemporâneas são fortemente caracterizadas por arranjos de contingências sociais que resultam em alta concorrência entre produção de consequências que favorecem indivíduos e aquelas que beneficiam o grupo. Tais concorrências sociais vêm sendo estudados na análise comportamental da cultura a partir de arranjos experimentais como (1) dilema dos comuns; (2) autocontrole ético; e (3) autocontrole cultural. O presente trabalho discute as possibilidades de transposição do conhecimento advindo da análise experimental de práticas culturais para o delineamento de culturas voltadas ao desenvolvimento sustentável. Discute-se interlocuções e contribuições entre as áreas mencionadas e possíveis implicações para o planejamento cultural. Espera-se que as discussões apresentadas apontem caminhos de pesquisas aplicadas e, posteriormente, tecnologia comportamental para o delineamento de culturais sustentáveis.
... Research has demonstrated that job stressors are associated with employees' health. In several crosssectional studies, an association was found between job stress and depressive symptoms or disorders (Karasek, 1979;Kawakami et al, 1990). In fact, SE employees have many job stressors, thus, their mental This study examined whether intelligence and stress mindsets moderate the influence of difficulties inherent in obtaining qualifications on learning motivation and mental health among system engineers. ...
Article
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This study examined whether intelligence and stress mindsets moderate the influence of difficulties inherent in obtaining qualifications on learning motivation and mental health among system engineers. Questionnaires were completed by 188 Japanese system engineers working in a large IT company. The survey revealed that (a) individuals with an intelligence mindset tend to exhibit higher learning motivation for obtaining qualifications, while individuals with a fixed mindset exhibit equal learning motivation based on the degree of setback experienced (b) individuals with a “stress-is-debilitating” mindset exhibit more mental illness when they perceive higher setback, while individuals with a “stress-is-harmless” mindset equally exhibit mental illness based on the degree of setback experienced. These results suggest that mindsets regarding intelligence and stress may be useful references for system engineers, who are required to continuously adapt to new technologies in busy environments while acquiring qualifications in a healthy and challenging manner.
... Basicamente, o desempenho dos trabalhadores pode ser motivado de duas formas: reforço positivo ou reforço negativo (Daniels & Daniels, 2007 (Karasek, 1979 Ganster, Kiersch, Marsh & Bowen, 2011) A Ambiguidade e Conflito de Papéis, são relacionados a baixos níveis de satisfação no trabalho, altos níveis de ansiedade e intenção de abandonar o emprego (Jackson & Schuler, 1985 (Cunha & Borloti, 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
O laboratório didático de Análise Experimental do Comportamento (AEC) tem papel importante para a formação do psicólogo, pois constitui-se em oportunidade para o estudante vivenciar os princípios básicos do comportamento e desenvolver habilidades relacionadas a prática profissional e experimental em psicologia. Neste contexto, o uso de animais não humanos, em geral ratos, se mostra pertinente por favorecer o controle de variáveis. Entretanto, o custo de manutenção do laboratório com ratos e o maior rigor na legislação sobre o tema têm levado muitos cursos à adoção de procedimentos alternativos diversos, não necessariamente norteados pelos mesmos princípios didático-pedagógicos. Este capítulo discute a situação atual do laboratório didático de AEC no Brasil, buscando apontar estratégias tanto para a manutenção do laboratório tradicional quanto para o desenvolvimento de práticas alternativas. Discute-se ainda a necessidade de se estabelecer um currículo alternativo válido para nortear as práticas de laboratório que fogem ao modelo tradicional com ratos.
... Function needs would be the quantity of almost all mental stresses that will effect a person's capability to carry out at the office (Karasek, 1979). Depending on Vehicle dieser Doef plus Maes (1999), work needs are usually facets of the task which will require continual bodily and emotional (cognitive in addition to emotional) work or even abilities in addition, consequently, are usually related to particular physical and even internal expenses, like exhaustion together with becoming easily irritated, to be able to execute the task efficiently (Hu, Schaufeli, and Taris, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Science, Education and Innovations in the context of modern problems - SEI IMCRA - International Meetings and Conferences Research Association ISSN 2790-0169 / E-ISSN 2790-0177 October, 2021, Baku, ISSUE IV, VOL.IV
... Notably, a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 research that does explore meaning at work is mainly related to non-manual or service workers, and produces associations rather than causal effects. However, these associations crisscross many domains that management care about, suggesting positive relationships between increasing meaningfulness with work engagement [3], job satisfaction [4], stress reduction [5][6][7], individual performance [8,9], personal fulfillment [10], absenteeism [11], and overall work motivation [12]. Of particular note are papers by Grant [13] and Grant [14], who, in an experimental field setting, demonstrated that by highlighting the benefits of their output to fundraisers for educational scholarships the workers made more calls and the donations received increased significantly. ...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a field experiment in a small electronics manufacturing firm in the US with the specific aim to improve minutes worked, punctuality, tardiness and safety checks. Our intervention was to put posters on the production floor on a random day, which made salient to the blue-collar employees the meaning and importance of their job, which comprised of routine repetitive tasks, in a before and after design. Overall, the intervention was a success with positive and significant effects consistently found for the outcomes both immediately after the experiment finished (+3 days) and also more than two weeks after (+15 days). Our study highlights it is possible to motivate blue collar manual workers intrinsically by drawing attention to the meaning of their work.
... Dit leidt niet alleen tot minder arbeidsdeling en meer uitdagende en gevarieerde taken, maar ook tot meer autonomie voor medewerkers. Uit de literatuur weten we dat ook autonomie bijdraagt aan informeel leren en innovatief gedrag (Karasek en Theorell, 1990;Karasek, 1979; Van Amelsfoort en Van Hootegem, 2017; Dhondt, 2017;Borham & Morgan 2004;Habermehl, et al., 2017;Cerasoli et al., 2014). Autonomie geeft medewerkers namelijk de ruimte om zelf te bepalen hoe ze doelen (die vaak samen met opdrachtgevers of managers worden bepaald) zo goed mogelijk kunnen realiseren en hoe ze werkprocessen slimmer kunnen inrichten. ...
Article
Full-text available
Door snelle technologische ontwikkelingen worden innovatie en 'leven lang ontwikkelen' steeds urgenter. Om meer inzicht te krijgen in het bevorderen van innovatief en lerend gedrag in organisaties hebben we een theoretisch model ontwikkeld waarin de belangrijkste stimulerende factoren voor (informeel) leren en (sociale) innovatie zijn opgenomen. Dit model is gebaseerd op wetenschappelijke literatuur over onder meer informeel leren, lerende organisaties, werkplekleren, sociale innovatie en intrapreneurship. Tevens hebben we drie goede voorbeelden in de IT-sector onderzocht met de vraag hoe zij in de praktijk concreet invulling geven aan de verschillende factoren uit het model. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat het stimuleren van sociale innovatie en informeel leren een integrale uitdaging is waarbij vele aspecten van de organisatie van invloed zijn. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan gevarieerde en uitdagende taken, autonomie, psychologische veiligheid, rolmodellen, participatief leiderschap, transparantie en externe oriëntatie. Deze inzichten bieden werkgevers en werknemers concrete handvatten om het leervermogen en het innovatieve vermogen van de organisatie te versterken.
... It has been demonstrated in other occupational fields that holding a leadership position does not confer increased strain and health risk, but rather that perceived occupational stress is inversely related to status in professional hierarchy (Marmot et al., 1991;Schnall et al., 1994). This may be explained within the framework of the classical job demand-control model (Karasek, 1979), in which mental strain due to demanding work is reduced if an individual can exert greater job control in terms of decisional latitude and scope for action. To further clarify this issue, our research approach could be extended in future studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.
... Psychosocial stresses at work were evaluated with three stress indicators using Karasek extended model of job control, job demand, and support at work. 31,32 The same 25 self-reported items were used in both Britain and Japan. They measured control for 15 items, demand for four items, and support for six items, and the range of response categories was 0 to 3 points, and each scale was calculated by summing the item scores. ...
Article
Objective: To explore national and socioeconomic differences in overall job satisfaction, we examined whether those differences can be explained by what job-related factors. Methods: Our datasets for this study are from the Whitehall II study and the Japan Civil Servant Study. Of the participants who were 5540 cases, with 3250 people from Great Britain and 2290 from Japan. Results: The odds ratio for job dissatisfaction was more than double in Japan compared with Britain. However, after adjusting the related factors-especially the facets of job satisfaction variables-the difference was reversed. Also, regarding the occupational differences, lower occupational grades had lower risks of overall job dissatisfaction, after adjusting for related factors. Conclusions: The national and socioeconomic differences in overall job satisfaction were strongly related to facets of job satisfaction rather than job stress factors.
... The development of exhaustion as well as rehabilitation and return to work among patients with stressrelated exhaustion are interconnected with one of the most predominant work stress models within the field of psychosocial working conditions, namely the job demand-control (JDC) model [21] model as well as the extended model referred to as the job demand-controlsupport (JDCS) model [22]. Commonly the JDCS model has been used to measure psychosocial stress at workplaces but it can also serve as a reasonable model to be used to understand the driving forces for plausible changes at work, among individuals who have developed stress-related exhaustion. A. Physical and mental symptoms of exhaustion with minimum two weeks duration. ...
Article
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Background Exhaustion disorder (ED) is a common cause of sick leave in Sweden, and patients often have long-lasting symptoms and reduced work capacity. The aim of this study was to explore whether patients with ED had made any changes in their work situation from the period of treatment and up to 7 years later. Methods In this cross-sectional study, patients diagnosed with ED at a specialist outpatient clinic were followed up after 7 years (n = 217). They received questionnaires at baseline covering sex, age, marital status, level of education, and symptoms of burnout, depression, and anxiety measured with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After 7 years, they were sent a follow-up questionnaire asking about their work situation and work-related stressors both before they fell sick and at the 7-year follow-up. There were three questions on work situation (change of workplace, change of work tasks, and change of working hours), and 155 patients responded to all three. Results After 7 years, the majority of the patients (63%; n = 98/155) reported that they had made some kind of change at work. Women were more likely than men to report decreased working hours (p = 0.001), and work-related stressors such as conflicts at work, reorganization, deficient leadership, and general discontent with the work situation were significantly more common at baseline in the group who had made changes at work. Patients who made no changes at work experienced more work-related stress due to quantitative demands in the 7-year follow-up. Conclusion The majority of the patients with ED made some kind of change in their work situation, and gender differences were found for changes of work tasks and working hours. Work-related stressors might be decisive for making changes at work.
... Psychosocial factors are not detected instantly; rather, this process takes time since by their nature they are perceived once their consequences are manifested, which means their prevention as a control strategy is not possible or is very difficult. In this sense, the models that account for this have also been expanding, from the so-called Demand-Control-Social Support model [47] to ISTAS21 [48][49][50], through the effort compensation imbalance model [51,52] and the COPSOQ [53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological distress and psychosocial factors are studied in the sports context in players of various specialties, but are only little studied with coaches who carry out their work with these athletes; that is where we put the emphasis, trying to determine the perception of coaches on psychological distress and psychosocial risk factors that may influence their sports work in times of a pandemic. It is an ex post facto study with a single-group retrospective design, with a representative sample of 94 coaches out of a possible 109. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the short version of the ISTAS21 Psychosocial Risk Assessment at Work Questionnaire were adapted to the sports context. The results show that the youngest, those with the least experience and level 1 and level 2 coaches show the highest levels of stress. According to the psychosocial risk assessment, level 1 and 2 coaches, with experience between 6 to 10 years, are in the risk zone. Therefore, it is important to work with a group of coaches who are in the psychosocial risk zone and with high levels of psychological discomfort in order to avoid mental, emotional and physical stress, for the good performance of their work in the best possible conditions.
... Function needs would be the quantity of almost all mental stresses that will effect a person's capability to carry out at the office (Karasek, 1979). Depending on Vehicle dieser Doef plus Maes (1999), work needs are usually facets of the task which will require continual bodily and emotional (cognitive in addition to emotional) work or even abilities in addition, consequently, are usually related to particular physical and even internal expenses, like exhaustion together with becoming easily irritated, to be able to execute the task efficiently (Hu, Schaufeli, and Taris, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
... Function needs would be the quantity of almost all mental stresses that will effect a person's capability to carry out at the office (Karasek, 1979). Depending on Vehicle dieser Doef plus Maes (1999), work needs are usually facets of the task which will require continual bodily and emotional (cognitive in addition to emotional) work or even abilities in addition, consequently, are usually related to particular physical and even internal expenses, like exhaustion together with becoming easily irritated, to be able to execute the task efficiently (Hu, Schaufeli, and Taris, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Science, Education and Innovations in the context of modern problems - SEI IMCRA - International Meetings and Conferences Research Association ISSN 2790-0169 / E-ISSN 2790-0177
... For psychological and sociological theories, the detrimental effects of high work intensity on wellbeing may be direct-for example, in predicting suicidality (Younès et al. 2018). More commonly, work intensity is also seen as a job demand with effects theorized to be mediated and/or mitigated by other factors, notably the degree of autonomy in the job demands-control model (Karasek 1979), or the level of social support (e.g., Fletcher and Payne 1980;Deery, Iverson, and Walsh 2010). In the more general job demands and resources model, work intensity is a job demand with both direct and mediated effects on stress (Bakker and Demerouti 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors use data from the British Skills and Employment Surveys to document and to try to account for sustained work intensification between 2001 and 2017. They estimate the determinants of work intensity, first using four waves of the pooled cross-section data, then using a constructed pseudo-panel of occupation–industry cells. The latter approach suggests biases in cross-section models of work intensity, associated with unobserved fixed effects in specific occupations and industries. The pseudo-panel analysis can account for slightly more than half (51%) of work intensification using variables that measure effort-biased technological change, effort-biased organizational change, the growing requirement for learning new things, and the rise of self-employment. The authors interpret the work intensification and these effects within a power-resources framework.
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