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Happiness is everything, or is it?

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... PWB isn't about living a life absent of struggle, strife, or pain. Rather, PWB is about fostering the resources, capabilities, and support-such as autonomy, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and selfacceptance (Keyes et al., 2002;Ryff, 1989)-to manage life's inevitable stressors. One is said to have optimal well-being, which tends to increase with age and education, when measures of both SWB and PWB are high (Keyes et al., 2002). ...
... As explored above, for example, in Seligman's (2011) PERMA model, positive relationships are one of the five key pillars. And in her review of the core components of psychological well-being common across multiple well-being theories, Ryff (1989) also identified positive relationships in addition to autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose, and self-acceptance. Similarly, self-determination theory asserts that as humans we have three primary psychological needs (Ryan & Deci, 2000). ...
... Some students will elect to work or learn a trade or start a family immediately after high school, and for those students, these are respect-worthy decisions. Again, autonomy-that is, freedom to choose, is also included in several theories of well-being (e.g., Ryan & Deci, 2000;Ryff, 1989). But there is another contingency of students who have elected against college not as a matter of choice but as a matter of resignation. ...
Article
The stories we tell can shape our lives and our experiences. Unfortunately, many African American adolescents are often subjected to stereotypes and one-sided deficit narratives that can become self-fulfilling prophecies undermining their achievement, aspirations, and well-being. However, the college admission process offers an intervention opportunity to help these students tell a different story—their story. In this paper, the author presents an analysis of the threats and opportunities inherent in the college-admission process and a literature review on topics aligned to three pillars—beliefs, belonging, and becoming. The paper concludes with the application plan for an intervention that leverages the college admission essay and essay-writing process to reframe beliefs and shape positive personal narratives. Inspired by research from narrative psychology, social psychology, and positive psychology, OurStory challenges dominant deficit narratives and aims to improve academic outcomes, college matriculation rates, and adolescent flourishing and well-being.
... Talking about psychological well-being in early adolescence means that there are good psychological conditions in adolescents, and there is no indication of mental disorders [8]. But in fact, many teenagers today are filled with problems and pressures, so they are vulnerable to having low PWB (Willis, 2014) [9]. ...
... Ryff [8] developed a multidimensional approach to measure PWB with six functional dimensions, including: 1. Self-acceptance, which is a form of a good attitude in the individual [8]. There is even this attitude in the form of recognizing and accepting good and bad things about oneself and having a good view of past experiences. ...
... Ryff [8] developed a multidimensional approach to measure PWB with six functional dimensions, including: 1. Self-acceptance, which is a form of a good attitude in the individual [8]. There is even this attitude in the form of recognizing and accepting good and bad things about oneself and having a good view of past experiences. ...
Article
This research is motivated by the low psychological well-being experienced by early adolescents, especially girls. This study aims to determine the effect of body image on psychological well-being in early teenage girls at SMPN 4 Malang City. This study uses a quantitative approach and correlational research methods. The population in this study were all SMPN 4 Malang City students, with 186 students taking samples through a simple random sampling technique. Data collection uses a Likert scale in the form of a body image scale (reliability = 0.86) and a psychological well-being scale (reliability = 0.87). The data analysis technique using simple regression analysis, using SPSS 21, obtained a significance of 0.00 <0.05, which means that there is a significant positive impact on body image variables on psychological well-being with a moderate category of 38.7%. Keywords: body image, psychological well-being, an early teenage girl
... They argue that recovery cannot be understood alone without some allowance or anticipation that positive outcomes may have emerged. They step away from conventional psychology's focus on the negative components of traumatic stress and propose growth after adversity is based on psychological well-being, in their view, that can be seen via Ryff's (1989) theory of PWB. They 'map' three main areas of PTG to Ryff's criteria for Well-Being 14 : ...
... Purpose in life is one of Ryff's (1989) six factors in her theory of Psychological Well Being (the other five being -autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others and self-acceptance). This theory has had thirty years of research exploring its validity and application. ...
... Ryff's (1989) model of psychological well-being drew on prior concepts in clinical, developmental, existential, and humanistic psychology in an extraordinarily creative act in weaving together work of psychologists such as Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Marie Jahoda, Charlotte Buhler, Erik Erikson and Gordon Allport. Ryff (1989) integrated theories of seven major psychologists in two categories, and offered a means by which this may be measured. In summary: Ryff asserted that an integration of mental health, clinical and life span developmental theories "points to multiple converging aspects of positive psychological functioning". ...
... They argue that recovery cannot be understood alone without some allowance or anticipation that positive outcomes may have emerged. They step away from conventional psychology's focus on the negative components of traumatic stress and propose growth after adversity is based on psychological well-being, in their view, that can be seen via Ryff's (1989) theory of PWB. They 'map' three main areas of PTG to Ryff's criteria for Well-Being 14 : ...
... Purpose in life is one of Ryff's (1989) six factors in her theory of Psychological Well Being (the other five being -autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others and self-acceptance). This theory has had thirty years of research exploring its validity and application. ...
... Ryff's (1989) model of psychological well-being drew on prior concepts in clinical, developmental, existential, and humanistic psychology in an extraordinarily creative act in weaving together work of psychologists such as Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Marie Jahoda, Charlotte Buhler, Erik Erikson and Gordon Allport. Ryff (1989) integrated theories of seven major psychologists in two categories, and offered a means by which this may be measured. In summary: Ryff asserted that an integration of mental health, clinical and life span developmental theories "points to multiple converging aspects of positive psychological functioning". ...
Conference Paper
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This work is a summary of the 4-5 months research work that was the resource for the presentation content delivered to the Iceland Positive Psychology Conference and loaded in parallel to this document. As the Coronavirus pandemic took hold and developed, we followed events as observers and researchers seeking to understand its impact, and to ask what positive psychology (PP) might contribute during and afterwards. As we all now know those questions have become harder and more complex with parallel developments and complexities in 2022 with dramatic increases in fuel and food costs, and an invasion and war in the Ukraine. These notes seeks to summarise: • Themes of Covid impact seen in the UK (which we suspect are likely to be replicated elsewhere). It's notable that this includes themes detected during the pandemic and those seen as enduring after-effects as the pandemic may move to become endemic. • The tour de force work of Waters et al (2020?) which offers a detailed review of research and potential contributions of PP. • How we suggest their work can be summarised and a focusing and contributory model. • A proposal from us on how we move beyond the theory and research summarised in Waters et al (2020) towards a model of applied research aimed at specific impacts of the pandemic, how PP might touch and support the daily lives of individuals, helping themselves, and in turn resourcing them to help others. The title of this document presupposes we are looking beyond the pandemic. We suggest that all 'seeds' of the post-pandemic state are present now. First author contact details: piers.worth@bnu.ac.uk
... According to this perspective, a person is well when he/she experiences more positive emotions and thoughts than negative ones [6]. On the other hand, psychological wellbeing, proposed by Ryff in 1989, is a more complex construct that involves the development and self-realization of the individual [7]. In other words, psychological wellbeing goes beyond a momentary experience of happiness and/or pleasure, and is "…the combination of feeling good and functioning well; the experience of positive emotions such as happiness and contentment as well as the development of one's potential, having some control over one's life, having a sense of purpose, and experiencing positive relationships" [8] (p. 1). ...
... According to this perspective, a person is well when he/she experiences more positive emotions and thoughts than negative ones [6]. On the other hand, psychological wellbeing, proposed by Ryff in 1989, is a more complex construct that involves the development and self-realization of the individual [7]. In other words, psychological wellbeing goes beyond a momentary experience of happiness and/or pleasure, and is "…the combination of feeling good and functioning well; the experience of positive emotions such as happiness and contentment as well as the development of one's potential, having some control over one's life, having a sense of purpose, and experiencing positive relationships" [8] (p. 1). ...
... This type of wellbeing has the capacity to change individual's life because it entails personal growth, self-fulfilment and self-development, full engagement, and the optimal performance of meaningful behaviour [9]. Hence, in contrast to subjective wellbeing experiences, which are focused on positive emotions, museums that stimulate psychological wellbeing may use negative emotions (e.g., the Museum of Holocaust) that may challenge visitors to think about themselves and the world, hence propelling their personal growth [7]. Therefore, when museums offer experiences that can stimulate such changes, they move from "…collecting, preserving, and exhibiting objects, and educating the public, to understanding and meeting visitor's multiple needs" [4] (p. 1). ...
Article
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Museums are expected to prove their social value and ability to have a long-term social impact. Hence, in order to do so, museums, as experience hubs and the most-visited cultural attraction, may use their potential to offer experiences that could help visitors thrive by increasing their psychological wellbeing. Although psychological wellbeing has been a hot topic, the synthesized and holistic review of the literature on this theme has been lacking in regard to museums. Hence, we conducted an analysis using the PRISMA protocol to answer two research questions: (1) Can museums increase the visitor’s psychological wellbeing? (2) How can the museum experience be designed to enhance the psychological wellbeing of the visitors and how can that potentially be measured? The results showed that museums can enhance visitors’ and other stakeholders’ psychological wellbeing. This can be achieved by designing museum experiences that are attractive, comfortable (restorative), comprehensible, participative, innovative, and sustainable, relying on specific detailed guidelines provided in the article. The Museum Wellbeing Toolkit serves to measure the efficiency of the proposed guidelines in stimulating the psychological wellbeing of museum visitors. If backed by wellbeing policy frameworks, museums may increase their role in fostering psychological wellbeing. As wellbeing public policies have been rather rare to date, future research may explore the effects of the existing ones to provide recommendations for new developments on the topic.
... The concept of psychological well-being has been difficult to operationalize but has more recently been understood within a eudaimonic framework, or a state of "flourishing" (Ryff, 2014). The sixfactor model of psychological well-being, developed by Carol Ryff, determines that there are six factors that contribute to an individual's psychological well-being: 1) the depth of connection they have in their social ties (positive relationships); 2) how well they feel they are managing life situations (personal mastery); 3) whether they view themselves to be living in alignment with their personal values (autonomy); 4) the extent to which they feel their lives have meaning and purpose (purpose in life); 5) the degree to which they are making use of their talents and potential (personal growth); and 6) the knowledge and acceptance they have of themselves, including their limitations (self-acceptance; Ryff, 1989;. ...
... Based on previous literature which has conceptualized social integration as being related to four primary mechanisms (i.e., the provision of social support, social influence, social engagement, and access to resources and material goods; Berkman et al., 2000), four indices of social integration were measured: social engagement (i.e., social network size), social interaction (i.e., frequency of social contact), satisfaction with social support, and participation in social activities. Psychological well-being was measured according to Carol Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being, which includes the following variables: positive relationships, personal mastery, autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth, and self-acceptance (Ryff, 1989). ...
... Psychological well-being was measured using the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB). The 18-item PWB measures six aspects of well-being and happiness: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and selfacceptance (Ryff, 1989). The original scale included 20 items for each of the six sub-dimensions of well-being (total of 120 items), and has established reliability and validity (Ryff, 1989). ...
Thesis
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A growing body of research has identified the relationship between loneliness and numerous adverse health outcomes in adults over the age of 55. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults have been flagged as an especially high-risk group, and while social networks have been shown to protect against loneliness in LGBT youth, this has yet to be investigated in older adults. A growing arena for social connection in older adults is the Internet, with over 45% of seniors reporting regular use of social media sites; however, disagreement persists regarding the influence of these sites on mental health, particularly in LGB older adults. This study examined associations between social integration and psychological well-being among lesbian older adults and a demographically similar sample of heterosexual women. Additionally, the study explored the mediating roles of mental health status (loneliness, depression, anxiety) and social media (use and attitudes) on this relationship, as well as the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on social communication. Lesbian (n = 201) and heterosexual women (n = 245) between the ages of 55 and 85 completed online questionnaires assessing social integration, psychological well-being, mental health status, social media, and changes in communication patterns during COVID-19. In each sample, social integration was significantly correlated with psychological well-being; however, lesbian and heterosexual older women did not significantly differ in levels of social integration or well-being, and neither sexual orientation nor age moderated this relationship. Loneliness, depression, and anxiety were found to significantly mediate the relationship between social integration and psychological well-being, particularly regarding the more objective dimensions of social integration. Conversely, social media use and attitudes were not found to be significant mediators, and no notable changes in communication patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic were found. These results suggest that social integration is importantly linked to psychological well-being in both lesbian and heterosexual older adult women, and that this relationship is indirectly affected by mental health status. While the limited representativeness of the study sample may restrict the generalizability of these findings, they generally strengthen support for considering social factors when addressing the mental health needs of lesbian older adults.
... Bienestar psicológico: mide el desarrollo de capacidades y crecimiento personal que presenta una persona. Los elementos que lo componen son: autoaceptación, relaciones positivas con otras personas, autonomía, dominio del entorno, propósito en la vida y crecimiento personal (Ryff, 1989). Para medir esta variable se hizo uso de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff (1989), adaptada al español por Díaz et al. (2006). ...
... Los elementos que lo componen son: autoaceptación, relaciones positivas con otras personas, autonomía, dominio del entorno, propósito en la vida y crecimiento personal (Ryff, 1989). Para medir esta variable se hizo uso de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff (1989), adaptada al español por Díaz et al. (2006). Este es un instrumento de 29 ítems que se valoran con puntuaciones comprendidas entre 1 (totalmente en desacuerdo) y 6 (totalmente de acuerdo). ...
Book
El libro Experiencias de atención con recursos de la intervención psicosocial se consolida como una caja de herramientas que describe ejercicios de atención de las metodologías que diseñaron profesionales en psicología, para responder a las necesidades que expresaban comunidades específicas. El libro se estructura en nueve capítulos. El primero de ellos expone las bases teóricas de la intervención psicosocial, lo cual ofrece un marco de comprensión común en los capítulos siguientes. Los capítulos del dos al nueve exponen un ejercicio de intervención diferente en cada uno de ellos. Estos apartados se componen de tres partes: explicación de las bases teóricas del capítulo; el desarrollo metodológico con la descripción de la población que fue atendida, las fases e instrumentos utilizados; por último, se presentan los resultados y conclusiones que surgieron de la experiencia profesional.
... (1) Variables Autoevaluación A partir de este estudio, se tomó en cuenta estudios acerca del bienestar en las organizaciones ya que la forma en que se relacionan las personas y cómo interactúan consigo mismas, con el entorno y sus colegas en el trabajo está directamente relacionado con el funcionamiento psicológico óptimo (Ryff, 1989), el cual sugiere un balance entre emociones positivas y negativas. ...
Conference Paper
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El emprendedor solitario, tiene menos posibilidades de éxito que aquel que emprende con un equipo de trabajo emprendedor. Cuando un emprendedor desea ingresar a un mercado es menester que se enfrenta a entornos económicos altamente competitivos, donde la rápida adaptación organizacional y un equipo de trabajo con las cualidades pueden darle una alta capacidad de respuesta. Existen diversos mecanismos de evaluación del desempeño, los cuales pueden ocuparse para la orientación de programas de capacitación y toma de decisiones, sin embargo el aprendizaje organizacional y la retroalimentación cumple un papel fundamental para el emprendedor. En este sentido, el modelo de retroalimentación para el aprendizaje organizacional a partir de la evaluación del desempeño, es posible reducir aspectos subjetivos de la evaluación, mediante la estandarización de perspectivas, en función de las variables del bienestar, que se ponderan en una escala con la finalidad de identificar en la ventana de Johari las áreas “libre”, “oculta”, “ciega”, y la “desconocida”. De tal manera que es posible obtener una radiografía (por así decirlo), del equipo de trabajo. En esta investigación se presenta el procedimiento de evaluación, la forma de calcular las escalas y valoraciones, así como el Modelo Organizacional de Retroalimentación para el Aprendizaje del Capital Humano: MORACH y el impacto que puede causar en al rápida adaptación del emprendedor al ambiente competitivo.
... There was greater variation in how the concept was defined, with effective functioning represented as school connectedness, engagement, educational purpose, and academic efficacy (Arslan & Renshaw, 2018). The reviewed studies using eudaimonic aligned definition mainly followed Ryff (1989)'s Psychological well-being theory which conceptualises well-being as a psychological phenomenon comprising six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. However, none of the reviewed studies included all the six dimensions of eudaimonic well-being. ...
Article
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Student well-being has recently emerged as a critical educational agenda due to its wide-reaching benefits for students in performing better at school and later as adults. With the emergence of student well-being as a priority area in educational policy and practice, efforts to measure and monitor student well-being have increased, and so has the number of student well-being domains proposed. Presently, a lack of consensus exists about what domains are appropriate to investigate and understand student well-being, resulting in a fragmented body of work. This paper aims to clarify the construct of student well-being by summarising and mapping different conceptualisations, approaches used to measure, and domains that entail wellbeing. The search of multiple databases identified 33 studies published in academic journals between 1989 and 2020. There were four approaches to conceptualising student well-being found in the reviewed studies. They were: Hedonic, eudaimonic, integrative (i.e., combining both hedonic and eudaimonic), and others. Results identified eight overarching domains of student well-being: Positive emotion, (lack of) Negative emotion, Relationships, Engagement, Accomplishment, Purpose at school, Intrapersonal/Internal factors, and Contextual/External factors. Recommendations for further research are offered, including the need for more qualitative research on student well-being as perceived and experienced by students and for research to be conducted in a non-western context.
... Psychological Well-Being. We used the Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1989) in Spanish (Díaz et al., 2006) in the 29-item version which has a consistent confirmatory factor structure (Chi-square = 845,593, df = 113, CH/DF = 7.48; p < 0.001; RMR = 0.029; NFI = 0.937, RFI = 0.942, IFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.956; CFI = 0.964; RMSEA = 0.05). The scale has six sub-scales: self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, and purpose in life. ...
Article
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The self- vs. external-regulation behavior theory , SR-ER Theory (2021) model has postulated the Self-Regulation /Non or De-Regulation/Dys-regulation (SR-NR-DR) continuum in the person and in their context. The model also generates a behavioral heuristic that allows us to predict and explain the variability of other dependent behavioral variables in a range of scenarios (clinical, educational, health and technology contexts). Consequently, the objective of this study was to validate the different scales prepared on the basis of the theory presented. A total of 469 students voluntarily completed at different times the five questionnaires presented, to give a total of 1,385 completed questionnaires. Using an ex post facto design, descriptive, correlational, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), reliability, and concurrent validity analyses were carried out. The scales were analyzed individually and as a whole. The results showed the acceptable structure of scale and consistent levels of reliability. The five levels generated by the SR-NR-DR (personal and contextual) combinatory heuristic that arises from the theoretical model determined significant differences in the levels of the variables analyzed for each psychological context. We discuss the theoretical implications and the implications for the assessment and improvement of the behaviors analyzed in function of the personal and contextual regulation levels evaluated.
... Eudaimonic well-being emphasizes the potential of individuals toward self-actualization, social participation, and the acquisition of meaning-"it is a matter of what one can do or be in one's life" (O'Neill 2006). As a consequence, eudaimonic wellbeing is concerned with enabling people to develop "basic capabilities" (Nussbaum 2011;Sen 1999), to realize "positive functioning" (Ryff 1989), and to fulfill "fundamental human needs" (Deci and Ryan 2000;Doyal and Gough 1991;Max-Neef 1991). Building on extensive literature on human needs, Di Giulio and Defila (2019) operationalize eudaimonic well-being within the context of sustainability issues termed the "Protected Needs." ...
Article
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Achieving deep cuts in the carbon footprints of everyday consumption is an indispensable component of climate actions globally, not least in the wealthier nations. Can sustainable consumption—and especially reduced consumption—enhance human well-being as stipulated by theories of the “well-being dividend” as well as contribute to environmental improvements? This article presents an empirical study of the well-being dividend among communities of “zero waste” in Chinese cities. Using 45 in-depth interviews and virtual ethnography of zero-waste practitioners, I explore how sustainable consumption could satisfy multiple human needs and enhance individual and collective well-being. This research highlights the significance of lifestyle communities in processes of needs fulfillment and points to how contemporary societies could enable sustainable needs fulfillment by giving special protections to synergic need satisfiers—starting by allowing green communities to flourish and thrive. Further, through the concept of “teleoaffective regimes,” this article brings to light how concerns over well-being give rise to shared ends, goals, and emotions within communities, hinting at the importance of engaging with people’s core pursuit of well-being in sustainability transformations. Finally, the vast majority of studies on sustainable well-being have focused on Western countries. By contrast, this work provides insights into this topic from China and raises critical questions about the dynamics between growth, consumption, and well-being in developing nations. It also calls for further exploration of more sustainable models of “development” that center on delivering well-being to all within planetary boundaries.
... Ayrıca psikolojik iyi oluş bireylerde gerçek mutluluğa ulaşmak için erdemin ifade edilmesi ve hayatta yapmaya değer olan birtakım şeylerle meşgul olmayı hedeflemek açısından da önemli bir kavramdır (Hefferon ve Boniwell, 2014, s. 77). Ryff (1989)'ın psikolojik iyi oluş modelini meydana getiren altı boyut, kişinin önemli ölçüde insani gelişimini ve olumlu bir yaşam sürmek için mücadele ederken karşılaşmış olduğu zorluklara karşı sergilemekte olduğu meydan okuma yollarını ifade etmektedir (Keyes vd., 2002(Keyes vd., , s. 1008. Psikolojik iyi oluş modelini meydana getiren bu altı boyut şunlardır: kendini kabul etme, başkalarıyla olumlu ilişkiler kurma, çevresel hakimiyet, özerklik, kişisel gelişim ve yaşam amacı olarak sıralanabilmektedir. ...
Research
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Hayatın hemen hemen her aşamasında yararlanılan internetin aşırı kullanımıyla ilişkili olan internet bağımlılığı, bireyi toplumdan soyutlamaktadır. Aynı zamanda internetin bu aşırı kullanımı yalnızlaşan ve pasifleşen bireyler meydana getirerek, kişilerin günlük yaşantısında olumsuzluklara neden olmaktadır. Bu çerçevede araştırmanın temel amacı internet bağımlılığı ve psikolojik iyi oluş ilişkisinin ne yönde olduğunun açığa çıkarılmasıdır. Alt amacı ise sosyodemografik değişkenlere göre internet bağımlılığı ile psikolojik iyi oluş arasında anlamlı bir farklılık olup olmadığını tespit etmektir. Araştırma 2021-2022 eğitim öğretim yılı güz döneminde Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi'nde eğitim görmekte olan, 242'si kadın ve 152'si erkek olmak üzere 394 öğrenci üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen veriler SPSS 22.0 programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde açımlayıcı faktör analizi, bağımsız örneklem t testi, Anova testi ve korelasyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları sonucunda internet bağımlılığı ve psikolojik iyi oluş arasında negatif yönlü bir ilişkinin olduğu saptanmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: İnternet Bağımlılığı, Psikolojik İyi Oluş, Üniversite Öğrencileri.
... Existen diversas aportaciones desde la psicología positiva al entorno educativo, de entre las cuales destaca la del modelo multidimensional sobre el bienestar psicológico de Ryff (1989), mismo que aborda seis dimensiones de comprensión de bienestar: autoaceptación, relaciones positivas, autonomía, dominio del entorno, crecimiento personal y propósito en la vida. De acuerdo con García-Alandete (2014), un punto a destacar en la psicología positiva es el considerar que las emociones de valencia positiva desarrollan la creatividad, favorecen el autoconocimiento, la resiliencia y las relaciones interpersonales, por ello la importancia de fomentarlas, ya que éstas promueven pautas de acción originales, favorecen el autoconocimiento, la resiliencia y la interpersonalidad, potenciando el bienestar del ser humano. ...
... Application of the general scale "Psychological Well-Being" (PWВ) with the questionnaire "The Scales of Psychological Well-being" ("SPW") (Ryff, 1989) is considered to be appropriate in the diversity of the suggested measurements. The coefficient of homogeneity α-Cronbach of the empirical data equaled α=.809. ...
Article
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The aim of the study is to perform comparative analysis of dominating psycho-emotional states of future specialists in a socionomic area under lockdown and martial law. A verification strategy is suggested for examining psycho-emotional states. The research used participant observation, valid and reliable psycho-diagnostic instruments, factor analysis, coefficients of empirical data reliability. It was established that in the comparison of the selected complex of psychological content parameters Group 1 (under lockdown) and Group 2 (under martial law) there are no significant differences. Two factor structures of the respondents’ psycho-emotional states were created: one of them – during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (59.91%) and the other – during the martial law (69.89%). It was found out that the obtained data on psycho-emotional states during the lockdown and the martial law are essentially different that did not allow determining or disproving significant differences by means of statistical coefficients. The study substantiated that the established empirical facts are characterized by scientific novelty which should be taken into consideration by organizers of educational and professional training for specialists in a socionomic area.
... Its core component is active and intentional self-changing behavior. The individuals who grow and change unintentionally are more like to have low positive relations, autonomy, self-acceptance, and a purpose in life which are associated with psychological wellbeing as proposed by Ryff (1989). It is thus reasonable to state here that the personal growth which followed an unintentional process, don't sustain for long especially when a person is encountered with life stressors. ...
Article
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Relapse is an inevitable part of recovery from substance use such that polysubstance users have high chances of relapse (Andreas et al., 2015). In Pakistan, approximately 70% of people with substance use have history of relapse (Masood & Sahar, 2014). Actively changing substance use behavior have a protective effect against relapse (Hartney, 2020) which is basic component of personal growth initiative (Robitschek, 1998). The overall personal growth initiative however has not yet studied in this context. The present study thus aimed to assess relationship of personal growth initiative and chances of relapse along with the moderating role of polysubstance use for this relationship. Personal Growth and Initiative Scale-II-Urdu (Zaman & Naqvi, 2020) and Advance Warning of Relapse (AWARE-Urdu) Questionnaire (Sahar & Naqvi, 2021) were administered on sample of people with substance use (N = 240) ranging in age from 20-60 years. The sample was recruited from rehabilitation centers within Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Findings demonstrate that personal growth initiative negatively associates and explains 15% variance in chances of relapse. Results from moderation analysis suggest that the interaction effect for polysubstance use and personal growth initiative explains about 5% of variance in chances of relapse (ΔR2 = .05) such that, significant decrease in chances of relapse is observed with increasing personal growth initiative among the drug addicts with lower polysubstance use. It was found that the most commonly used drugs among the sample were cannabis (n = 109), cocaine (n = 74), and alcohol (n = 67). These findings could help address relapse among drug addicts.
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In homage to the life and work of Ed Diener (1946–2021), the present study assessed the dimensions of the tripartite model (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) and two additional dimensions (domain satisfaction and happiness) to investigate the structure of subjective well-being using exploratory factor analysis and the bifactor model. Specifically, we tested whether these five dimensions belong to an essentially unidimensional subjective well-being construct. Towards this goal, we used a large, previously collected dataset closely matched to the U.S. census (N = 2,000, ages 18–65+ ; 52.4% female; 66.3% White; 14.9% Hispanic; 12% Black) and selected 24 items representing the five dimensions. Our results showed that all 24 items were internally consistent and highly correlated. Exploratory factor analyses revealed there were five underlying factors best characterizing the data. When fit to the bifactor model, a strong underlying general subjective well-being factor emerged. Additionally, general factor scores were highly reliable according to conventional reliability standards. A confirmatory factor analysis also supported the bifactor structure of subjective well-being. Overall, our findings suggest all 24 items from the five dimensions reflect one essentially unidimensional construct, which can be combined into a single subjective well-being score. Domain satisfaction and subjective happiness both belong to subjective well-being in the same way that the original three dimensions of life satisfaction, negative affect, and positive affect do.
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The inclusion of narratives in evidence-based patient information is a heavily discussed topic in literature. Narratives elicit intense engagement and emotional insights, but may also cause unintended persuasion effects. There is mixed evidence that adding narratives to non-narrative factual patient information is valuable for patients. In addition, providing patients with narratives about the outcome of treatments has been found to bias treatment decisions, in line with the direction implied by the narratives. This may counteract informed decision making of patients. However, narratives about the process of a treatment and personal experiences with treatments may support the well-being of patients in tertiary prevention. In order to investigate patients' views on narratives and their function in patient information, we conducted 26 semi-structured qualitative interviews with pulmonary embolism patients. Answers were coded using thematic analysis. Results show that patients are especially interested in experience and process narratives when combined with evidence-based patient information. We identified four main functions of experience and process narratives that patients ascribe to these narratives: (1) motivating self-reflection and reflection on the recovery process, (2) reducing the feeling of loneliness, (3) reducing emotional distress, and (4) inspiring mindful mastery.
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Human engagement with religion and spirituality is pervasive across the world, yet the extent to which religious and/or spiritual involvement promotes well-being is controversial theoretically and empirically. In the largest meta-analysis of religion/spirituality and life satisfaction to date (k = 256, N = 666,085), an overall effect size was computed (r = .18; 95% CI .16–.19; p < .01). Five dimensions of religion/spirituality were then examined separately to gauge their relationships with life satisfaction. Each dimension of religion/spirituality was significantly and positively associated with life satisfaction: religiosity (r = .16, 95% CI .14–.17, p < .01), spirituality (r = .30, 95% CI .25–.35, p < .01), religious attendance (r = .11, 95% CI .09–.13, p < .01), religious practices (r = .14, 95% CI .10–.18, p < .01), and religious/spiritual experiences (r = .29, 95% CI .24–.33, p < .01). The overall effect was moderated by several study-related variables, with a stronger relationship found in samples with higher average age, in more recent studies, in developing nations, and in countries with a higher percentage of people who consider religion very important in their lives. The theoretical and practical implications of the meta-analysis are discussed.
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Centuries of philosophical debate and decades of empirical research have sought to characterize what it means to be psychologically well. A unifying conceptual framework to organize these diverse perspectives is needed to facilitate clear communication and cumulative science within the field of well-being science. Although a handful of overarching theoretical and measurement models of well-being have been proposed, they typically make strong claims about which constructs should be included or excluded as well as the manner and degree to which well-being constructs are related to one another. Thus, these models are often not widely adopted as organizational or communicative tools, due to their exclusion of particular theoretical perspectives or disagreement among researchers about the empirical structure of well-being. While the field continues to grapple with these issues, it would benefit from a unifying conceptual framework that is broad in scope and that can flexibly accommodate diverse theoretical perspectives and new empirical advances. In this paper, I discuss the benefits of a unifying conceptual framework for well-being, as well as the challenges in its construction. Specifically, I review strengths and limitations of Park et al.’s proposed framework of “emotional well-being,” and suggest an alternative framework of “psychosocial well-being” that encompasses the diverse array of constructs that have been proposed as positive psychological aspects of well-being.
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The target article proposes a new term—emotional well-being—and a new definition of that term, which are meant to bring clarity to a broad set of psychological constructs that relate to well-being. Although we appreciate the goal of improving scientific communication through the clarification of terms and definitions, both the chosen terminology and definition are too narrow to capture the broad range of constructs that researchers in these areas study. This imprecision will likely impede rather than aid effective scientific communication. In this commentary, we consider whether it is necessary or even useful to try to define and label the broad category that is the focus of the target article, and we conclude the potential for confusion outweighs the limited benefits that would result.
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Against the negative conception of human nature employed by the Dark Triad, another instrument was recently developed to evaluate positive traits, the Light Triad Scale. Our first objective was to apply the same approach of bifactorial models of mental health, which argue that the absence of psychopathology does not necessarily indicate the presence of positive health, to the evaluation of personality. In this sense, we expected that the Light Triad and the Dark Triad are two distinct but interrelated domains of personality, and not just two opposite poles of the same spectrum. Moreover, we examined the relationship of both the Light Triad Scale and the Dark Triad Scale with well-being. To do it, we first adapted this instrument to Spanish and studied its factorial validity, factor invariance for age and gender, and reliability. A total of 1158 participants from Spain completed the Light Triad Scale, the Short Dark Triad Scale and Psychological Well-Being Scales. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the Spanish adaptation of the Light Triad Scale showed an adequate fit to the data and scalar invariance across gender and age. Parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis confirmed the bifactorial model of positive-negative personality traits. Finally, the results showed a positive relation between Light Triad and well-being. The Spanish adaptation of the Light Triad is a useful instrument to assess positive personality traits, independently of the negative personality characteristics assessed by the Dark Triad. In closing, the Light Triad seems to be a core component of positive psychological functioning.
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In The Book of Changes (I Ching), “Metaphysics is called dao (道, the way), concrete is called qi (器, the tool), and transformation is called bian (变, the change).” In other words, abstract metaphysical theories should converge, and concrete operationalization tools should be abundant and sufficient. These tools should also be guided by theories, and these theories should be expanded by tools; however, the tools should never be replaced by theories, and the theories should not be excluded in favor of tools (Zhao, Journal of Beijing University of Technology (social Sciences Edition) 18:1–7, 2018).
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Among Indian urban youth, individualism and autonomy are growing and there are fewer restrictive social norms and more visibility of non-arranged romantic relationships in contemporary India (Gala and Kapadia in Psychol Dev Soc 26:115–141, 2014). Establishing and maintaining relationships, accompanied by the goal of finding a long-term partner, are pivotal aspects during the stage of emerging adulthood (Mayseless and Keren in Emerg Adulthood 2:63–73, 2014). This necessitates understanding aspects that contribute to longevity, despite the challenges that come in the lives of young adults. The present phenomenological study sought to explore the nature and development, challenges experienced and resilient elements of romantic relationships in committed emerging adults. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven couples individually (7 men, 7 women) in the age range of 21–25 years, residing in New Delhi belonging to the middle and upper middle class. The data analysis included transcription of interviews and thematic coding of transcripts, within-case analysis for each couple and a cross-case analysis to highlight the emerging themes across the profiles. The findings revealed three main categories: couples who were ambiguous about their relationship, couples who experienced stability in their relationship and a couple whose relationship culminated in marriage. Several cross-couple themes emerged. Finally, alongside Sibley’s theory of resilient commitment (Exploring the theory of resilient commitment in emerging adulthood: A qualitative inquiry. (Publication no. 3708489) [Doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2015), other elements of resilience emerged: contribution of partner to personal growth, willingness to engage in self-work, learnings from the past relationship and notions of other relationships. In conclusion, the study captured the voices of young adults, their challenges and hopes regarding their romantic relationships contributing to Indian literature.
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Purpose: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is predictive of poorer mental health, greater psychiatric disorder risk, and lower positive mental health (PMH) during adulthood, outcomes potentially moderated by social support. The current study aimed to explore whether Canadian adults who have experienced CSA differ from those who have not in terms of PMH and social support. Within the CSA sample, it was further investigated whether gender differences exist with respect to PMH and social support, and if particular social support subscales predict PMH. Method: Using data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health (CCHS-MH), 1,328 adults between 20 and 64 years reporting CSA were profiled and compared in terms of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, using an age, sex, and frequency matched sample of non-CSA adults. Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (MHC-SF) means were subsequently compared between the CSA and non-CSA samples, and Hierarchical regressions were conducted for CSA males and females separately to examine whether SPS subscales predicted PMH after controlling for age and income. Results: Canadian adults reporting CSA had significantly lower PMH and social support (overall and for particular subscales). For adult CSA females, guidance, social integration, and reassurance of worth predicted higher PMH, while attachment and reassurance of worth predicted higher PMH scores for CSA males. Conclusion: Adults who have experienced CSA are at risk for lower PMH and social support. Gender differences are also evident in social support subtypes that predict PMH which have important clinical implications.
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The association of Facebook use and users’ psychological well-being has attracted growing scholarly attention, yet the nature of this association remains contentious. A literature review was conducted to examine psychological well-being influences linked with Facebook use. A total of 36 articles, extracted from a Scopus database, met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the study. While most study results revealed that Facebook usage was positively linked with users' psychological well-being, negative links have also been identified, which have far-reaching implications for healthcare providers such as counselors, psychologists, and public health workers to be aware of its possible consequences on psychological well-being of users. We explain the variables that mediate and moderate the Facebook use–psychological well-being link (such as social factors, Facebook use frequency, individual differences, and problematic Facebook). The application of meta-analysis techniques is required to quantify the nature and path of the Facebook use–psychological well-being link.
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Background The world’s growing population of older adults is one population that needs to be focused more regarding subjective well-being. It is therefore important to evaluate self-report instruments that measures general well-being for this specific group - older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of the GP-CORE (general population – Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation) in a group of older adults (> 65 years). Methods In this study, a psychometric evaluation of the GP-CORE is presented for 247 Swedish older adults (> 65 years), 184 women and 63 men who applied for home care assistance for the first time. Results The psychometric evaluation showed high acceptability; provided norm values in terms of means, standard deviations and quartiles; showed satisfactory reliability in terms of both internal consistency and stability; showed satisfactory validity in terms of convergent and discriminant validity; provided a very preliminary cut-off value and quite low sensibility and sensitivity and showed results which indicated that this scale is sensitive to changes. One gender difference was identified in that women without a cohabitant had a higher well-being than men without a cohabitant (as measured by GP-CORE). Conclusions The GP-CORE showed satisfactory psychometric properties to be used to measure and monitor subjective well-being in older adults (> 65 years) in the general population of community dwelling. Future studies should establish a cut-off value in relation to another well-being measure relevant for mental health in older adults.
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Background: Because traumatic life experiences are common, teaching and learning can be difficult without recognizing how trauma can make people feel psychologically unsafe. Safety can be restored through healthy relationships. Contributions to theory: We present a framework for how relational health-the capacity to develop and maintain safe, stable, and nurturing relationships with others-may allow flourishing in school communities, even amidst past and ongoing adversity. We propose four key assets for relational health-awareness of self, acceptance of self, awareness of others, and acceptance of others. To support this framework, we developed a relational asset score using data from a survey of 214 early childhood education professionals and examined its association with meaningful work, purpose in life, work satisfaction, and intention to stay in one's program. Implications for school health: School health requires relational health. Research should evaluate the associations between relational assets and the perceptions of safety and connection in school communities. Leadership can prioritize relational health by supporting staff in building and using their relational assets. Conclusions: School communities may be more likely to flourish, even amidst adversity, if all adults in the community prioritize relational health, which provides the psychological safety required for teaching and learning.
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Previous research on Schwartz’s theory of basic human values has mostly applied a variable-oriented approach . This study took a person-oriented approach and investigated how values co-occur and are manifested in individuals, that is, what kind of value profiles exist and how they differ in terms of subjective (i.e., life satisfaction) and social well-being (i.e., sense of belonging). In a sample of Finnish adolescents ( N = 973; women 59.6%; M age = 16.8, SD = .70), three value profiles emerged: personal-focus , growth-focus and self-protective , of which the personal-focus group scored highest on life satisfaction, the growth-focus group scored lowest on belonging to social media and the self-protective group scored highest on belonging to organizations. In all, subjective and social well-being were differently related to opposing values. The findings are discussed within a cultural and contextual framework.
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This study aimed at examining assumptions from Frankl’s (1946/1998) logotherapy and existential analysis. Using an online questionnaire with N = 891 U.K. residents, meaning in life was associated with higher life satisfaction, even when controlling for positive and negative affect. Furthermore, meaning in life intensified the positive effects of family role importance and work role importance on life satisfaction. Lastly, meaning in life neutralised the combined effect of high family strain and high family role importance on lower life satisfaction, but lack of meaning in life aggravated the combined effect of high work strain and high work role importance on lower life satisfaction. This study provides evidence of meaning in life as a source, a contributing factor, and a protective factor of life satisfaction. Helping people to find meaning through fulfilling creative, experiential, and attitudinal values (Frankl, 1950/1996), in personal and/or professional life, is likely to improve life satisfaction.
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Existing literature on measuring well-being (WB) indicates that The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS) is the only measure built on the negative–positive affect continuum. However, since the previous studies highlighted the psychometric properties of the SDHS exclusively using classical test theory (CTT), this research aims to fill this gap. By investigating the validity of this scale using both CTT and item response theory (IRT) approaches, this study aims to identify the precision of SDHS measurement. The sample consisted of 1326 Romanian participants (44.26% males, ages ranging from 18 to 64 years, Mage = 34.09, SD = 9.4). Results confirmed construct, convergent, and concurrent validity of the SDHS Romanian version. CFA replicated the unidimensionality found in the original study. The investigation of the scale precision through IRT showed that the SDHS is a highly reliable and accurate tool for capturing clinically low and moderate levels of WB, namely in the area of − 3.5 SD and + 1 SD from the mean of the latent trait. However, the scale does not perform well for higher levels of WB because there is no reliable information in the range between + 2 SD and + 3 SD of the latent trait continuum. Previous literature emphasized a similar pattern when measuring WB using the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). Additionally, the current study found that the SDHS has the advantage of measuring clinically low WB while the WEMWBS does not. The present research proposes a preliminary cut-off (< 7), before clinical assessment confirmation. Future clinical studies are needed. The findings of the current research should be useful for further psychometric developments of WB scales. Adding items of high difficulty would contribute to more measurement precision for higher levels of WB.
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This study looked at how work-family conflicts impact school teachers' workload, social support, and emotional health. In Punjab, Pakistan, female teachers at coeducational and women's schools had their levels of work-family conflict compared. Using a convenient sampling technique, this study chose a sample of female teachers from 10 women's schools and 10 coeducational schools in Punjab. From coeducational and women's schools, 700 female teachers were chosen. Demographic information regarding female teachers was gathered via a questionnaire. Using questionnaires with a five-point Likert scale, the demands of the job and societal support were assessed. Emotional health is evaluated using Goldberg's (1979) GHQ-12 (General Health Questionnaire). The findings indicated that there was a substantial amount of work-family conflict for both women and co-educational schools. Additionally, female educators at coeducational schools encountered more conflict than those in women's schools.
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Eudaimonic well-being builds on the writings of Aristotle and integrates contemporary theories of positive psychological functioning. The empirically operationalization is detailed, emphasizing the importance of rigorous psychometric evaluation. Scientific advances of this model of well-being are noted, showing links to sociodemographic factors, experiences in work and family life, and health outcomes. Three future directions for research are considered. The first addresses growing problems of socioeconomic inequality and their role in undermining the opportunities of disadvantaged segments of society to experience eudaimonia. These problems have now been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disproportionately impacted those who were already vulnerable. The second new direction examines the role of the arts and humanities as factors that nurture eudaimonic well-being. Whether the arts can activate needed compassion and caring among the privileged is also considered. The third new direction examines the intersection of entrepreneurial studies with eudaimonic well-being. Conventional conceptions of entrepreneurial success focus on business profits; a case is made that eudaimonia, of the entrepreneur as well as his/her employees and surrounding communities, constitute further measure of success that elevate issues of virtue, morality, and ethics.
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This chapter provides a brief introduction to the complex construct of wellbeing, some of the major societal challenges impacting on it and potential solutions. Wellbeing is a controversial topic and its definition is typically dependent on disciplinary perspectives. Here we take a broader view, encompassing individual, collective and planetary wellbeing that focuses on individuals, groups and the systems in which they are embedded. Some major barriers to achieving a sense of wellbeing include problems within society such as chronic disease, poverty and loneliness, intensified by the climate crisis and reinforced by the neoliberal model of development, all of which impact on the most vulnerable in society. Progress on sustainable development goals has been disappointing, and there is an urgent need for transformational change at multiple levels of scale that focuses on qualities and skills for inner development that lay stronger foundations for improving our capacity to manage increasingly complex societal challenges. Subsequent chapters further explore multidisciplinary and inter-disciplinary issues relating to understanding and promotion of wellbeing despite great hardship, suffering and inequity.
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