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The secret of effective feedback

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... Whilst formative assessment is deemed by many educators (for example, Moss & Brookhart, 2019;Shepard, Penuel & Pellegrino, 2018;Wiliam, 2016;Wiliam & Leahy, 2015) as integral to the learning process there are still challenges associated with its use. In the context of Vietnam, at tertiary educational level, common teacher-related challenges have been reported to involve being a heavy workload (Can, 2019;Nguyen et al., 2021;Pham & Renshaw, 2015), a big class size Nguyen et al., 2021;Phan & Truong, 2020) and being time-consuming Phan & Truong, 2020). ...
... The unpacking of AtL is commenced by referring to Wiliam's (2016) belief that education is a process and not simply a destination. Wiliam's belief provides some guidance to the reader as to the direction this paper takes in explaining the authors' approach to formative assessment through AtL (Richardson et. ...
... By sharing these collective learning experiences, the authors contend the totality of the learner's, their peers' and their teacher/s' journeys can be used to focus on a learning process (journey) and not simply a destination (Wiliam, 2016). Consequently, by placing a greater emphasis on the learner's destination through the collective learning experiences of the participants, and then facilitate the sharing of those learning experiences, the participants, the authors argue, could be provided with sufficient knowledge to assist not only the learner but also their peers and teacher/s in reaching their destinations too. ...
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Focusing on formative assessment through social constructionism and collaborating and sharing of knowledge through future actionable knowledge
... Boud & Molloy, 2013b; Costa & Kallick, 2013;William, 2016 13. I build in opportunity for students to use feedback in different settings after they receive it. ...
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The crucial role of teacher productive feedback in supporting communicative competence of Iranian EFL learners calls for research on measuring teacher productive feedback. The paper therefore reports on the development and validation of an instrument for measuring EFL teachers’ self-reported productive feedback practices. The process of the instrument design consisted of two phases. Phase one dealt with grounding the instrument development in a rigid review of the literature, strengthening face and content validity and an initial pilot study followed by the refining of the instrument. Phase two entailed a second pilot study to confirm the face and content validity of the instrument before the final implementation of the instrument and consequent confirmation of the construct validity based on the data collected. For the two pilot studies as well as for the eventual implementation of the instrument, quantitative data were collected from Iranian EFL teachers from private language institutes. The results confirm the validity and reliability of the self-designed instrument and pave the way for further refining of the instrument and the opportunity for contextualising the instrument in future research.
... The data is statistically summarized to glean insights about student response and can be further analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistical methods to discern any significant variables affecting student responses. As with all survey-based data collection, an appropriate number of samples must be collected along with taking into account the statistical power and effect size [139], [140]. ...
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The exponentially growing Internet of Things (IoT) market presents compelling opportunities for innovators to develop and create meaningful applications affecting everyday life. This shifting IoT paradigm is placing new demands on educational institutions to train students with IoT-relevant skills. Numerous education researchers continue to document the implementation of IoT-based curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment techniques for STEM education. In this paper, we systematically reviewed this literature and identified 60 journal articles and conference papers that have reported implementing IoT curriculum and associated instructional approaches, educational technologies, and assessment strategies for K-12 and university students. The curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment strategies presented in these studies were analyzed in the context of the sensing, networking, services, and interface layers of the IoT technology paradigm. The review identifies best educational practices and synthesizes actionable strategies for educators to implement effective IoT learning experiences for students. These strategies leverage low-cost IoT hardware, open-source IoT software, active learning-based instructional approaches, and direct/indirect assessment methods. As IoT education becomes increasingly pervasive, the review and strategies provided in this paper may serve as a guide for future educational efforts.
... Por su parte, William (2016) indica que la retroalimentación debe enfocarse en motivar un cambio en el estudiante, el cual permita definir el estado en que se encuentra su aprendizaje, donde la tarea es solo una de las evidencias de lo aprendido. De ahí, surge la inquietud: ¿cómo incide la retroalimentación de la evaluación proporcionada por los profesores de matemáticas en los procesos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes de educación media? ...
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Saber y saber enseñar no son siempre cualidades concomitantes. Por eso los atributos para ser profesor se perfeccionan en la relación con el saber, la experiencia de enseñar y la reŒ exión sobre su propia práctica. No obstante, muchas veces los eslóganes y consignas de las pedagogías de moda pasan por alto los elementos constitutivos de la enseñanza, puesto que se centran en aprendizajes que deben estar al gusto y acomodo del estudiante. Es decir, invisibilizan el hecho de que la formación del sujeto implica a menudo incomodidad y esfuerzo: alcanzar el conocimiento es trastocar esquemas que hacen ver la realidad como consabida. Ser profesor es mucho más que ser un facilitador o un acompañante. Más allá del uso de una tecnología o de una actividad lúdica, las condiciones para que el otro se forme deben pasar por una interpelación que lo disponga a convertirse en estudiante: saber que no sabe y querer saber. Justamente, Enseñanza universitaria. Formación, evaluación y re exión didáctica brinda claves para entender que la enseñanza universitaria no es una mera práctica centrada en el aprendizaje, sino que es una práctica de formación.
... The suggestion is that, at each stage, the feedback given to the student should be the minimum that is necessary to direct their attention (i.e. a scaffolding and fading approach; see Mason, 2000;Foster, 2014). Similarly, Question 9 considers the possibility that making feedback deliberately less specific may be advantageous, as it may encourage students "to look at the feedback more closely and to think about their original work more analytically" (Wiliam, 2016). 10. ...
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This paper describes the collaborative development of an agenda for research on e-assessment in university mathematics. We adapted an established approach to develop the agenda from the contributions of 22 mathematics education researchers, university teachers and learning technologists interested in this topic. The resulting set of 55 questions are grouped into 5 broad themes: errors and feedback, students, design and implementation, affordances, and mathematical skills. This agenda gives the framework for a programme of research aligned with practical concerns, that will contribute to both theoretical and practical development.
... Sporcuya hareket ile ilgili becerinin sonuç bilgisi verilebildiği gibi hareketin kinematiği ile ilgili de bilgi verilebilmektedir. Hareketin sonucu veya sporcunun uygulamış olduğu hareketin kalitesi, yönü, hızı gibi bilgilerin kişiye sözel ve görsel olarak verilmesi motor öğrenme kuramcılarının üzerinde durduğu ve antrenörlerin sıklıkla kullandıkları geribildirim çeşitlerindendir (William, 2016). ...
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GENLER VE SPORCU GENETİĞİ
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This paper describes the collaborative development of an agenda for research on e-assessment in undergraduate mathematics. We built on an established approach to develop the agenda from the contributions of 22 mathematics education researchers, university teachers and learning technologists interested in this topic. The resulting set of 55 research questions are grouped into 5 broad themes: errors and feedback, student interactions with e-assessment, design and implementation choices, affor-dances offered by e-assessment tools, and mathematical skills. This agenda gives a framework for a programme of research aligned with practical concerns that will contribute to both theoretical and practical development.
Chapter
This chapter highlights and encourages the use of Direct Instruction (DI) as an evidence-based strategy that helps students participate in instruction with extensive guided practice and opportunities for meaningful review and feedback to refine their understanding as they develop independent skills. This chapter considers that, whether enacted as part of a particular published DI program or embedded more universally in the routine instructional processes and practices of daily instruction, DI approaches are invaluable to student learning. Suggestions are made for ways that DI procedures and practices should work cohesively to improve teaching and learning. In addition, there is a discussion about the strategies aligned with DI principles and the interrelations between effective Direct Instruction and formative assessment.KeywordsDirect Instruction DISTAR Explicit instructionFeedbackGuided practiceI do, We do, You doIndependent practiceLearning intentionsMastery learningPrior learningReading RecoveryScaffolded instructionShared readingSocratic circlesTeaching scriptVisual charts
Article
Formative assessment is a valuable tool that may be used to track academic progress and increase student learning. The purpose of formative assessment is to collect evidence of students' thinking and learning, thereby modifying teaching to meet students' needs based on the collected information. The literature has well established the significance of formative assessment in assisting students' learning. However, defining and implementing this in the classroom is a complicated task. The purpose of this study is to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and practices of formative assessment in mathematics teaching and to determine how their beliefs affect their use of formative assessment practices in a mathematics classroom. The research for this study was carried out over a semester in a rural high school classroom in eastern Georgia. Multiple types of data were collected from the three mathematics teachers through classroom observations of teachers' experiences with formative assessment, semi-structured interviews, and artifacts. The qualitative case study method was used to gather and analyze data. The framework used for this study was the Formative Assessment Model by Black and Wiliam (2009). Teachers discussed their experiences with the practice of assessment during semi-structured interviews. The analysis of teachers’ interview responses shows that the teachers valued and had a positive belief toward the importance of formative assessment and used it as part of their classroom instructional practices. Their responses also revealed that they used formative assessment as part of their instructional practices at a medium level. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Das Bewusstsein für die fehlerhafte Steuerung, die von Noten ausgeht, steigt: Besonders bei jungen Kindern und bei erfolgreichen Studierenden intensivieren sich Tendenzen im Bildungssystem, von Noten wegzukommen. Sie scheinen weder ein gutes Instrument zu sein, um Lust auf Lernprozesse zu machen, noch eigenen sie sich für die Qualifikation von beruflich erfolgreichen Menschen. Lediglich in der Mitte, dort wo Schülerinnen und Schüler an Schule gewöhnt sind, aber noch nicht in direkten Kontakt mit der Arbeitswelt getreten sind, dort halten sich Noten. In diesem Sinne sind die folgenden Seiten ein Plädoyer für ein Umdenken. Schule und Noten sind gedanklich aneinander geknüpft, wir haben gelernt, Unterricht mit Prüfungen und Bewertungen zu verknüpfen. Damit wir uns von dieser Vorstellung lösen können, müssen wir umdenken und den Prozess des Ent-Notens in Angriff nehmen. Dazu braucht es viele kleine Schritte, aus denen ein großer Schritt entstehen kann.
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