Luffa acutangula (Roxb.) L. is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family cucurbitaceae. L. acutangula is an annual climber showed sharp longitudinal ribs on fruits. Traditionally, it is used in the treatment of vatta, kapha, and pitta. Due to rich source of fibres, vitamin B2, vitamin C, carotene, niacin, minerals, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, and fluorine, fruits are used as vegetable. Bioactive metabolites like phenolics, flavonoids, sterols, terpenoids, and volatile compounds have been reported from all plant parts of L. acutangula. Fruits represent number of promising bioactivities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, larvicidal etc. Fruit
extract exhibit strong antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, and immunomodulatory activities. Similarly, leaves extracts possess appreciable hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities. Phenolics and flavonoids such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillin, catechin, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, pinocembrin, cirsimaritin, sakuranetin, gardenin
B, chrysin, scutellarein, tetramethyl scutellarein, and quercetin have been reported from the plant. Oleanane-type triterpenes (acutoside-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and -G) and ribosome inactivating proteins (luffaculin 1 and 2) also isolated from ridge gourd. The current chapter highlights the traditional use, chemical compounds, and potential benefits of ridge gourd.