The role of principals has undergone a number of changes, including new requirements, roles, skills and challenges. Research on school leadership has also been subject to various changes over the course of time. This paper presents an overview of models for school leadership research and discusses the relative concepts of leadership duties and activities in schools. Starting with a description of ... [Show full abstract] three main models, which differ in terms of the conceptual approaches of the players involved and start at different points in time, a new concept of school leadership is presented. School leadership 4.0 includes a Focus on values and meaning, but also aims to improve efficacy and quality.