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Effects of corm size and plant density on Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield and its components

Andabjadid et al. Page 20
RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS
Effects of corm size and plant density on Saffron (
Crocus sativus
L.) yield
and its components
Samira Sameh Andabjadid1*, Bahman Pasban Eslam2, Amir Reza Sadeghi Bakhtavari1,
Hamid Mohammadi1
1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Azerbaijan
Shahid Madani, Tabriz, Iran
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of East Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
Key words: corm size, plant density, saffron, stigma yield.
Article published on March 03, 2015
Abstract
In order to investigate the saffron yield and its components at different levels of corm size and plant density, an
experiment was conducted at East Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural resources Research Center, as a factorial
based on randomized complete block design with three replications for two years (2012-2013). First year was
considered for better plant establishment. The factors consist of corm sizes based on the corm diameter in two
levels (A1=2-4 cm and A2=4-6 cm), planting rows space in three levels (B1=10, B2=20 and B3=30 cm) and corm
space within the row in two levels (C1=7 and C2=14 cm). Traits including plant emergence percentage, number of
plants and flowers per unit area, length of rod, length of stigma, fresh and dry weight of flowers, fresh and dry
weight of stigmas, total stigma yield, the onset of flowering and flowering period were evaluated on the plants.
Results showed that all above mentioned traits except length of rod were significantly affected by corm size.
Bigger corms showed more emergence percentage and flower fresh weight. Number of plants was significantly
affected by the interaction which three factors so that maximum number of plants per unit area was observed at
treatment of bigger corms with 10 (cm) corms spacing between rows and 7 (cm) corms spacing within rows. 7
(cm) corms spacing on the row created maximum flower number per unit area. Length of stigma, dry weight of
flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma were significantly affected by the interaction between corm size with corms
spacing within row so that bigger corms with less spacing were superior. Maximum stigma yield was obtained
from the bigger corms in 7 (cm) corm space on the row and 10 (cm) corm space between rows. Flowering of
bigger corms began sooner and their flowering period was more than others.
*Corresponding Author: Samira Sameh Andabjadid Samehs07@yahoo.com
International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
ISSN: 2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online)
http://www.innspub.net
Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 20-26, 2015
Andabjadid et al. Page 21
Introduction
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is the most expensive
plant spice in the world. The economic portion of this
plant is the dried stigma of flowers. That is as
subtropical plant. In traditional medicine, saffron was
considered as an excellent drug for stomach ailments
and an antispasmodic that helps digestion and
increases appetite. It is also recommended as an
emmenagogue and aphrodisiac herb (Rios et al.,
1996). Saffron is a cold tolerant plant but temperate
climate is better for its growth (Behnia, 1996). This
plant is mainly produced in Iran (Schmidt et al.,
2007). The saffron cultivation areas have increased
from 10000 (ha) in 1987 to 57000 (ha) in 2008 and
its production rate at the same time, increased from
40 ton to 240 ton in Iran at the past two decades
(Saiedi-rad and Mokhtarian, 2011). Saffron is
reproduced by corms because it is sterile (Vurdu et
al., 2004). Therefore selection of productive corms is
an important factor in saffron production.
Studies have shown that corm size has a positive
effect on saffron flowering (De-mastro and Ruta,
1993). The results of a research conducted in India
showed that by increasing the diameter of corms, the
number of flowers and leaves increased and corms
with more than 3 (cm) diameter and 10 gram weight
were more productive (Pandy and Srivastava, 1979).
Bigger corms increase yield in following years via
production of bigger daughter corms (Sadeghi, 1994).
Omidbaigi et al., (2000) reported the maximum
number of flowers and daughter corms, obtained
from corms with 11 gram weights. Also they stated
that some of big corms are not able to initiate to
flower due to injury in corms during transport and
planting, will lead to yield decrease. The mother corm
has a limited life span and after maximum flowering,
aging will be started, therefore this hypothesis should
be rejected that by increasing corm, the number of
flowers will be increased without limitation. The
results of some research showed a positive correlation
between the number of flowers and leaves, so this is
not true that big corms are weak for flowering due to
the high vegetative growth (Mashayekhi and Latifi,
1998). Corm density is different due to planting
method (Mollafilabi, 2004). Suitable planting density
in saffron will increase the period of exploitation
(Abrishami, 1997). Behdad (2001) studied plant
density in both single and double corms and reported
that single corm cultivation had lower performance.
Behnia and Mokhtarian (2010) stated that 10 corms
with 30 (cm) spacing between rows had maximum
yield. The planting of saffron at higher densities led to
increase in the yield during first three years of
planting (Kochaki et al., 2012). This study was
conducted for determination of suitable planting
density and corm size of saffron to achieve maximum
stigma yield.
Material and methods
Site description and experimental design
This experiment was conducted at East Azerbaijan
Agricultural and Natural resources Research Center,
as a factorial based on randomized complete block
design with three replications for two years (2012-
2013). Since establishment is important for bulbous
plants, first year was considered for better plant
establishment. Corms were prepared from Bonab
village located in Marand in East Azerbaijan. Soil
texture was silty loam with pH= 7.8 and EC= 2/18
dSm-1. In each plot three rows were planted.
Measurement of traits
After removing marginal effects in each plot, initially,
flowers were counted and then10 flowers were taken
as sample. Length of rod and stigma were measured
and then fresh weight of flower and stigma was
determined. Samples were placed in an oven with 72
0C for 24 hours and then dry weight were measured.
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis of the data was performed with
MSTAT-C software. Duncan multiple range test was
applied to compare means of each trait at 5%
probability.
Results and discussion
Emergence percentage
Emergence percentage was significantly affected by
corm size (p≤ 0.01) (Table 1). Corms with 4 to 6 (cm)
Andabjadid et al. Page 22
diameter were best (151.126 percentage) (Table 2).
Pandy and Srivastava (1979) reported in saffron,
diameter of corms is important for emergence
percentage and resultant flowering percentage. Sadeghi
(2010) showed emergence percentage in corms with
diameter 8 to 10 (cm) was more than medium and
small corms. Buds that appears at the right time will
produce strong plants and more flowers.
Table 1. Analysis of variance of selected parameters of Saffron by corm size and plant density treatments.
Flowering
period
Time
interval
from first
irrigation
tofirst
flowering
Total
yield of
stigma
Fresh
weight
of
stigma
Dry
weight of
flower
Fresh
weight of
flowers
Length
of
stigma
Length
of rod
Number
of
flowers
per unit
area
Number of
plants per
unit area
Emergence
percentage
df
S.O.V
55.361
26.861
1368.130
58.588
599.011
22413.086
114.142
72.442
817.583
533.083
881.002
2
Block
306.250**
44.444**
9692.402**
194.603**
1250.801**
39846.812**
303.921**
7.471ns
7000.111**
22550.028**
33838.831**
1
A
1.694ns
1.194ns
244.717ns
1.541ns
3.086ns
933.110ns
8.130ns
3.287ns
234.750ns
462.333*
503.251ns
2
B
6.083ns
2.694ns
67.336ns
2.123ns
7.119ns
2128.830ns
4.697ns
43.632ns
79.528ns
483.444*
446.991ns
2
A×B
46.694ns
11.111ns
1745.847**
77.734*
439.601*
13615.002ns
170.738*
31.360ns
1320.111**
42918.028**
219.632ns
1
C
1.361ns
9ns
103.022ns
73.103*
590.490**
13888.622ns
136.890*
80.401ns
75.111ns
2826.694**
18.662ns
1
A×C
56.028ns
11.861ns
467.509*
22.934ns
39.260ns
1667.764ns
15.935ns
12.202ns
321.861ns
257.444ns
151.987ns
2
B×C
8.528ns
7.583ns
251.606ns
1.493ns
7.831ns
340.792ns
12.891ns
4.312ns
154.194ns
445.444*
382.006ns
2
A×B×C
15.846
3.770
134.468
13.369
62.790
3748.587
22.745
51.395
102.311
127.841
166.894
22
Eror
31.50
4.63
29.10
19.77
18.64
20.42
17.99
20.67
28.90
11.51
10.72
CV (%)
A: Corm size, B: Corms spacing between rows, C: Corms spacing within rows.
Ns=Non significant; * and ** = Significant at 5% and 1% probability level, respectively.
Table 2. Mean comparisons for different traits of Saffron under different corm size treatments.
Corm
size
(cm)
Emergence
percentage
Number of
flower per
unit area
Fresh
weight of
flower
(mg/m2)
Total
yield of
stigma
(mg/m2)
Time interval
from first
irrigation to first
flowering (day)
Flowering
period
(day)
2-4
89.808
12.055
266.611
13.25
43.055
9.722
4-6
151.126
39.944
333.15
46.066
40.833
15.55
Number of plants per unit area
Number of plants per unit area was affected the
interactions among all three factors significantly (p≤
0.05) (Table 1). Also maximum numbers of plants per
unit area (191.7 plants per unit area) was observed at
treatment of bigger corms with 10 (cm) corms spacing
between rows and 7 (cm) corms spacing within rows
(Fig. 1).
Number of flower per unit area
Effect of corm size and corm spacing within rows on
number of flowers per unit area were significant (p≤
0.01) (Table 1). Bigger corms (39.944 flowers per unit
area) were better than small corms (12.055 flowers
per unit area) (Table 2). De-mastro and Ruta (1993),
Sadeghi (1994) and Ramazani (2000) mentioned that
big corms produces more flower. Small corms are not
able to produce flower from physiological aspect and
in order to produce economically, three or four years
is require for plant establishment (Mashayekhi and
Latifi, 1998). Since big corms have more food, are
able to produce bigger daughter corms. On the other
side, relationship between rate of leaf photosynthesis
and mother corm size has shown larger leaf area in
the plant collected from the bigger corms. It causes
high accumulation of reserves in alternate corms.
Finally this leads to production more flowers and
higher stigma yield at the following years. It should be
remembered that development of alternative corms
continues to a certain extent but it cannot goes
beyond sink capacity (Renau-Morata et al., 2012). So
the correct choice of corms can rise the saffron yield
for several years.
Mean comparison of number of flowers per unit area
at different levels of corm spacing within rows
showed that 7 (cm) corm spacing with 32.055 flowers
against 14 (cm) space with 19.944 flowers, created
maximum number of flowers per unit area.
Increasing density of saffron corms has a positive
Andabjadid et al. Page 23
effect on the number of flowers and stigma yield
(Gresta et al., 2009). Rostami and Mohammadi
(2013) reported that by increasing corm density,
flowers per unit area was enhanced linearly.
Fig. 1. Means comparison of interaction effects of
corm size (A) × corm space between row (B) × corm
space within row (C) on number of plants per unit
area.
The means with same letters are not significantly
different at p 0.05. (A1= 2-4, A2= 4-6 cm), (B1=10,
B2=20, B3=30 cm), (C1=7, C2= 14 cm).
Length of rod
Effect of corm size and plant density on rod length
were insignificant (Table 1). Sadeghi (2010) stated
that effect of corm size on length of rod was
significant just from the second year of planting and
bigger corms had longer rods.
Length of stigma
Length of stigma was significantly affected by
interaction between corm size and corm spacing
within rows (p≤ 0.05) (Table 1). Flowers obtained
from small corms that were planted with 14 (cm)
space on rows, had the shortest stigmas (Table 3). It
seems that when cultivated corms are smaller, longer
stigma can be obtained with consideration of a higher
density so that the effect of low density can be
compensated by planting big corms. Rostami and
Mohammadi (2013) showed that different planting
densities have a significant impact on length of
stigma. They mentioned that the length of stigma was
reduced by increasing plant density due to
competition among saffron plants. In the present
study, plants with higher density produced longer
stigma.
Table 3. Mean comparisons traits of Saffron at
different levels of corm size and corm space within
row.
Treatment
Length
of
stigma
(cm)
Dry
weight
of
flower
(mg)
Fresh
weight
of
stigma
(mg)
Dry
weight
of
stigma
(mg)
A1C1
27.7 a
44.17 a
19.07 a
4.211 a
A1C2
19.48 b
29.08 b
13.28 b
2.656 b
A2C1
29.64 a
47.86 a
20.87 a
4.711 a
A2C2
29.19 a
48.97 a
20.78 a
4.811 a
The means with same letters in each column are not
significantly different at p ≤ 0.05. (A: diameter of
corms, A1= 2-4, A2= 4-6 cm and C:corm space within
row, C1=7, C2= 14 cm)
Fresh and dry weight of flower
According to the results just the effect of corm size
was significant on fresh weight of flower (p≤ 0.01)
(Table 1). Flowers obtained from corms with 4 to 6
(cm) in diameter showed more fresh weight (Table 2).
Effect of corm size and corm spacing within rows
were significant on the dry weight of flower (p≤ 0.01)
(Table 1). Based on the mean comparison table of
interaction corm size and corm spacing within rows,
smaller corms with lower density have less dry weight
(Table 3).
Fresh and dry weight of stigma
Factors of corm size and corm spacing within rows
had a significant effect on fresh and dry weight of
stigma, whereas corm spacing between rows has no
significant effect on this variable (Table 1). Mean
comparison table of interaction corm size and corm
spacing within rows demonstrated stigmas of flower
that obtained from small corms with less density had
less fresh and dry weight (Table 3). Gresta et al.,
(2009) and also Rostami and Mohammadi (2013)
reported that there is a negative relationship between
corm density and dry weight of stigma that is
inconsistent with the present study. De Juan et al.,
(2009) observed that dry weight of stigma was
decreased by increasing corm density. Since dry
weight of stigma has effect on total yield undeniably,
Andabjadid et al. Page 24
they believed that optimal density of corms depends
on the yield comparison unit in such a way that if
yield is expressed in terms of corm weight, less corm
density will be more appropriate and if it is expressed
based on area planted, more corm density will be
better.
Total yield
The results showed total stigma yield affected by corm
size and corm spacing within rows (p≤ 0.01) (Table1).
Corms with 4 to 6 (cm) in diameter, had more yield
than others (Table 2). In the bigger corms, cell
division and leaves growth occurs earlier, and their
growing period is longer than others. This ability will
able those corms to grow better and produce heavier
corms that support high yield for following year
(Molina et al., 2005). Interaction of corm spacing
within and between rows had significant effect on the
total yield (p≤ 0.05) (Table 1). When corms spacing
between rows 10 (cm) and their spacing within rows
were 7 (cm), maximum yield will be attained (Fig. 2).
It seems that increasing corms density and reducing
corms distances between and within rows, cause
enhancement in yield. Behnia (2008) and Kochaki et
al., (2012) concluded that yield will be increased
significantly by increasing plant density. Galavand
and Abdollahian-Noghani (1994) reported that
planting pattern of corms in 30 (cm) distance
between lines and 10 (cm) space within rows had
more performance. Alavi-Shahri et al., (1994) stated
that by increasing corm density, saffron yield
increased. They believed that 20 (cm) corm space
between rows and 10 (cm) within rows were
appropriate in terms of performance increase. Gainst
Yau and Nimah (2004) indicated that more planting
distances (20×20) is superior than lesser distances
(10×10 and 10×20). Results of the present study is in
conflict with results of Mohammad-Abadi et al.,
(2007) who said planting density had no significant
effect on the saffron yield. Probably interaction of
planting density with numerous factors such as
planting depth and method can contain different
effects and therefore different results can be
attributed to these cases.
Fig. 2. Means comparison of interaction effects of
corm space between row (B) × corm space within row
(C) on total yield of stigma.
The means with same letters are not significantly
different at p 0.05. (B1=10, B2=20, B3=30 cm),
(C1=7, C2= 14 cm).
The onset of flowering and flowering period
In order to investigate the effect of studied factors on
onset of flowering, date of first irrigation demand
were considered as prominent ones. Results indicated
that corm size had significant effect on the onset of
flowering and flowering period (p≤ 0.01) (Table 1).
The bigger corms, the earlier flowering time is to
happen (Table 2), but since flowering of big corms
started just three days earlier, this issue was not
important. Mashayekhi and Latifi (1998) indicated
that flowering time had not clear correlation with
weight of corms.
Flowering period of corms with a 4 to 6 (cm) in
diameter was more than smaller corms (Table 2).
Previous studies showed that bigger corms have
longer flowering period than smaller once (Cavusoglu
and IclalErkel, 2005). Probably the reason can be low
physiological power in smaller corms which will
produces lower flowers (Renau-Morata et al. 2012),
Therefore big corms owing to emergence of flowers
non-simultaneously produce more flowers in the
longer time. Rostami and Mohammadi (2013) showed
that higher plant density not only causes earlier
flowering but also reduces flowering period. They
explained reason for this facilitate in exit of flower
tube due to high density. This subject is noted in
saffron production at western agronomic lands of
Iran, where rainfall starts earlier.
Andabjadid et al. Page 25
Conclusion
Different sizes of corms and plant density affect
stigma yield and its components, so that corms with a
greater diameter due to more food reserves, cause
more emergence percentage which increases number
of plants and flowers per unit area and its follow
yield. On the other side, larger corms produce big
flowers which have stigma with more length and
weight, ultimately increased total yield of saffron. Big
corms have higher physiological ability to start
flowering earlier. As a result higher number of flowers
and their non-concurrency in emergence, flowering
period is longer in big corms.
Planting the corms of saffron with high density
increases its total yield that arises from increase in
number of plant and flower. In this survey high corm
density, led to bigger flowers with more weight of
stigma. Also total yield is more affected by number of
flowers than stigma weight.
The population of daughter corms rises over time.
Higher densities can cause an increase in competition
for current sources in the long time. It can also be
effective on saffron yield at following years. Result of
high density is early exploitation from saffron farms,
so achieving the highest yield occurs at shorter time
range.
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... Pandy et al. [17] studied that diameter of corms is more important for days to emergence and also in flowering percentage. Andabjadidet et al. [18] and Sadeghi, [19] was observed that earliest days to emergence in corms with diameter (8 to 10 cm) as compared to medium and small corms sizes. Corm size along with temperature are the most important factors controlling the growth and flowering in saffron. ...
... The greater physiological ability of bigger corms together with the optimum temperature the flower formation of saffron is quite obvious. However, unusual smaller size and low temperature, particularly during the short period of flowering very greatly affects the flower production of saffron [18,20]. ...
... For successful saffron cultivation, the size and quality of corms is essential because mature and bigger corms produce higher number of flowers with the maximum production of stigma, which constitutes the commercial saffron [20]. Several other authors such as Andabjadid et al. [18] also conducted experiments on different sizes of saffron and concluded that bigger corms produce large flowers which resulted in the enhancement of stigma weight and length, consequently, resulting in the better saffron yields. They argued that due to the greater physiological ability of big corms, they initiated earlier emergence, flowering with higher number of flowers and with longer flowering periods and almost 15-20 % increase in flower production reported [25]. ...
Article
Two experiments were conducted: one on the evaluation of three different saffron cultivars i.e., Local, Mongra and Sergul and the other one was examined the effects of corm size on the growth and production of local variety. Results showed that the small sized (less than 10 g) corms couldn't produce flowers during the first year of planting. While maximum size corms (S-1 to S-5) produced good quality flowers. The significant higher number of flowers (412568/ha) were produced by S-1 corms followed by S-2 (187614/ha). Among different varieties of saffron (Local, Mongra and Sargul), the significantly higher number of flowers (214936.24flowers/ha) were produced by local variety which followed by Sargul. The higher yield of flowers can be attributed to longer flowering period (flowering days, i.e., 24) by local as compared to Sargul (17.66) and Mongra (13.66). These results showed that maximum corms (20-35 g) resulted in the higher production of flowers, higher yield stigma (Saffron) with higher number of daughter corms in the very first year of plantation. And the local varieties proved to be the best cultivar in terms of flower and saffron yield along with its other related yield components. So, this study revealed that the local variety of saffron is very much suitable for planting under agro-climatic conditions of Quetta, Balochistan Pakistan.
... Ait-Oubahou et El-Otmani (1999) ont mentionné que les densités légères de 50 à 70 cormes/m 2 sont appropriées pour produire du safran dans le contexte de la région de Taliouine avec une exploitation pérenne de la safranière sur 5 années. Ce même constat a été rapporté par Andabjadid et al. (2015) et concorde avec les résultats de la présente étude. ...
... Généralement, la plantation du safran à des densités élevées entraîne une augmentation du rendement en cormes au cours des trois premières années de plantation (Koochaki et al., 2012). L'étude de Andabjadid et al., (2015) a montré que l'augmentation de la densité des cormes et la réduction des distances entre les lignes et dans les rangées, améliore le rendement en cormes. Toutefois, l'évolution progressive du nombre de cormes de remplacement peut favoriser la concurrence si nous réduisons l'espacement dans les rangées, donc les densités élevées affectent les conditions de la nutrition minérale et l'approvisionnement en eau pour les racines, par conséquent, le remplissage des cormes au cours de la période de croissance. ...
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Dans la région de Taliouine, le projet d’extension des superficies de la culture du safran suscite la question de la disponibilité des cormes-semences de bonne qualité. Il est primordial de dresser un schéma de multiplication en plein champ et d’optimiser la production des cormes «semence». Une expérimentation pluriannuelle, sur 5 saisons, dont l’objectif est l’étude du comportement d’une safranière installée à différentes densités (35, 50 et 100 cormes/m2) en comparaison avec le mode traditionnel (semis en poquet à 150 cormes/m2), a été réalisé dans les conditions du terroir de Taliouine. Les résultats ont montré que les densités de plantation légères (35 et 50 cormes/m2) ont engendré des taux de multiplication supérieurs et un rendement en nombre de cormes récoltés significativement semblables au cas des hautes densités et de la méthode traditionnelle de semis. Néanmoins, ces derniers cas ont engendré une production de cormes de remplacement de faibles poids et un effet négatif sur leurs calibres. Dans le cas de faibles densités, 65% et 75% des cormes ont un diamètre commercial supérieur assurant une bonne production de safran épice. La production et la multiplication des cormes de safran est directement liée au choix de la densité et du rendement escompté.
... If larger MC be used, the more RC are produced in the annual cycle, which influences flower production in future years (Kumar et al., 2009). Small MC physiological can't produce flower and more than one year is needed for their economical flowering (Sameh Andabjadid et al., 2015). The presence of sufficient food reserves in large MC provides more energy to flower and stigma production (Koocheki et al., 2016b). ...
... Flowering capacity in saffron is highly dependent on number of flowering buds per corm which itself is affected by MC weight (Mohammad-Abadi et al., 2011;Koocheki et al., 2016a). In accordance with our findings, De-Juan et al. (2009), Khorramdel et al. (2015), Sameh Andabjadid et al. (2015, and Koocheki et al. (2016a) showed that larger MC have more emergence percentage and rate and higher flowering capacity. The preference of MC weight reduced by increase in corm density, so that, bigger MCs in densities of 50, 75 and 100 corms per m 2 , respectively, produced 143, 87 and 62% higher flower than smaller ones (Table 5). ...
Article
In this study the best corm weight (4–6 g as small-sized and 6–8 g as medium-sized corms) and density (50, 75 and 100 corm m⁻²) was determined for saffron fields in different ages (1, 2 and 3 years-old). For this purpose, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications was performed during 3 growing seasons from autumn 2015 up to spring 2018, in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad research site. The highest flower number, flower and stigma yields in one- (21.7 flower per m², 67 and 0.97 kg ha⁻¹, respectively) and two-years old (70.4 flower per m², 214 and 2.92 kg ha⁻¹, respectively) fields were obtained from medium-sized and density of 100 corms per m², while in three-years old field, their maximum values (101 flower per m², 302 and 4.09 kg ha⁻¹, respectively) were gained when medium-sized corms were planted at density of 75 corms per m². The priority of corm weight in lower corm densities was higher, so that, flower yield in medium sized corms was 2.43, 1.87 and 1.62 times more than small-sized corm in 50, 75 and 100 corms per m² densities, respectively. Corm weight was prior to corm density, so that, planting of 3.5-ton ha⁻¹ medium-sized corm with density of 50 corms per m², was produced more flower than planting of 5-ton ha⁻¹ small-sized corm with density of 100 corms per m² (47.5 vs. 36.7 flower per m² and 1.99 vs. 1.50 kg ha⁻¹ dry stigma). Corm weight preference in one- and two-years old fields were more than three-years old filed, where larger corms increased flower yield by 1.94, 2.15 and 1.75 times compared with small-sized ones in mentioned fields, respectively. Mean replacement corm weight and number of large replacement corms (>9 g) decreased when small-sized mother corms were planted and when the farm became elderly. The highest replacement corm yield (52.8-ton ha⁻¹) and number (2034 NO. m⁻²) were obtained when medium-sized mother corms were planted at density of 100 corms per m² and remained in field for three years. Overall, the corm harvesting from one-year-old field was preferable in terms of mean corm weight and production of larger replacement corms.
... Crocus sativus L., commonly known as the saffron plant, is a triploid (2n=3x=24) monocotyledonous, herbaceous, perennial geophyte about 20-30 cm tall belonging to the family Iridaceae (Iqbal et al., 2012;Kahriz, 2020). Saffron is cultivated for its dried stigma and styles of flower which is the economical part of it (Andabjadid et al., 2015;Brian, 2006). Among the 85 species under the Crocus genus, Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is economically the most important species (Behdani, 2011). ...
... High corm density leads to bigger flowers with heavier stigma. The total yield is more affected by the number of flowers than the stigma weight (Andabjadid et al. 2015). Koocheki et al. (2014) reported that flowers and corm yield increased when the corms are planted densely. ...
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Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a monocotyledonous herbaceous triploid plant that produces the most expensive spice in the world. Its main constituents, crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal, are responsible for color, taste, and aroma, respectively. The saffron plant produces a red-colored spice that is important in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, perfumery, and textile dye-producing industries. Iran produces almost 90% of the total world production. The saffron market is expected to grow by 12.09% in the forecast period 2020 to 2027. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the taxonomy, geographical distribution, reproductive biology, chemical composition, therapeutic and traditional uses, and agro-technology of the world’s most expensive spice crop, saffron.
... The weight of dry leaves as a crucial index of saffron leaf specification is effective by 80% in filling up the daughter corms and is more effective than mother corms. Obviously, an increase in the weight of daughter corms leads to the increase in the flower traits, and hence it boosts the economical yield of saffron [Lundmark et al. 2009, Andabjadid et al. 2015. The positive and high correlation coefficient obtained for the weight of dry leaf and economical yield (dry weight of stigma) of saffron (Tab. ...
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As well as the expansion of land use due to the short period of saffron growth, its intercropping can also enhance yields and agronomic traits, which usually happens through weed control, shading, and the reduction of soil temperature and growth climate. Therefore, the effects of cumin seed rates in an intercropping on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of saffron were studied in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in Zaveh, Torbat-E Heydariyeh, Iran, during 2016–2017. Treatments included five levels of cumin seed proportions (25, 50, 75 and 100% of the optimum density). The results of the study indicated the significant effect of cumin seed rates on all the measured traits of saffron except the number of flowers, daughter corms and leaves, as well as safranal value. The minimum and maximum weight of dry stigma was associated with the ratios of 100 and 25% of cumin seed, respectively. Any increase in the ratio of cumin seed by over 25% reduced the amount of other quantitative traits. The cumin seed ratio showed significant effects on the number of umbels per plant, the number of seeds per plant, and seed yield. Since the increase in the number of seeds per plant as a result of low ratios of cumin seed cannot compensate for the reduction of plants, therefore, lower yields would be attained. Totally, increasing shading and less competition, due to lower ratios of seed, improves physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil, and helps to save more water. Such conditions improve the traits of corm, flower, and photosynthetic area, and so results in an economical saffron yield.
... Mide ve sindirim sistemi rahatsızlıklarında rahatlatıcı ve sindirime yardımcı, iştah artırıcı bir antispazmodik olarak bilinmektedir. Ayrıca, kalp kuvvetlendirici, göz hastalıklarında, hipertansiyonda ve yüksek kolesterole karşı, adet düzensizliği ve ağrılarında, genital sistem rahatsızlıklarında ve afrodizyak olarak da kullanımı bilinmektedir (Arslan, 2007;İpek ve ark., 2009;Yıldırım ve ark., 2017c;Andabjadid et al., 2015). Anadolu'da Hititler döneminde safrana; drogların kraliçesi anlamına gelen "A-Zupiru" denildiği ve bu bitkiden ilaç ve baharat olarak faydalanıldığı belirtilmiştir (Koç, 2012). ...
... Mollafilabi, Koocheki, Moeinerad, and Kooshki (2013) reported that the highest yield was achieved under the high density of 150 corms m -2 . High density was also reported by (Andabjadid, Eslam, Bakhtavari, & Mohammadi, 2015) to have a positive effect on the saffron yield. Other authors suggested that a density of 50 corms m -2 is suitable for obtaining maximum yield (McGimpsy, Douglas, & Wallace, 1997). ...
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Due to its valuable properties, Saffron is considered one of the most expensive spices. Saffron was introduced to Lebanon in 2000 and promoted as alternative crop to Canabis Sativa. There has been little research for saffron on a variety of subjects, in particular on cultural practices. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of corm density on Saffron yield attributes. The study included three corm densities that were organized in randomized complete block design with three replicates; Low(LD)-25 corms m-2, 20 × 20 cm spacing; Moderate (MD)-44 corms m-2, 15 × 15 cm spacing; High (HD)-100 corms m-2, 10 × 10 cm spacing. The study was conducted at the Lebanese agricultural research institute (LARI) in Lebaa station for four consecutive years. Results showed a steadily significant high yield of flowers m-2 at high density compared to low density for four years .In contrast, the number of flowers (NF)/100 corm clusters (CC) was significantly increased at low density in last two years compared to high density. Treatments showed no significant effect of the main compounds of air-dried stigmas (Crocin, Picrocrocin and Safranal). Fresh (FWSS) and dry (DWSS) weight of single stigma was affected by year showing a significant change from year to year. These results revealed that success of long-term cultivation can be achieved by planting saffron corm at moderate and low densities.
... Spacing treatments didn't showed any significant effect on the stigma fresh and dry weight, however, highest mean values for these traits were noticed in spacing treatment S 1 (30x20 cms). The present findings are in contrast with the earlier reports of Andabjadid et al., (2015) who reported that length of stigma, dry weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma were significantly affected by lesser spacing within rows. Yield of crop is the most important criterion for comparing and judging the efficiency of different treatments. ...
Article
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Saffron is well known as the most expensive spice in the world by weight. It is the dried stigmas of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus). Besides being well known as a culinary spice, saffron is also important in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and dye industries. Saffron crocus is cultivated in a wide range of environments, from the Mediterranean to the Middle East, and even to northern India's subtropical climate. Saffron crocus is an environmentally friendly and low-input crop, making it a perfect match for low-input and organic farming, and sustainable agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of producing saffron in New England. The study was conducted from Sept. 2017 to Dec. 2019 at the University of Rhode Island. Two different corm planting densities and two winter protection methods were evaluated. In 2018, corm planting density did not affect the number of flowers per unit area or total stigma yields, but flowers from the low-density plots produced significantly (P < 0.05) heavier pistils than flowers from the high-density plots. In 2019, planting density had no effect on flower number, stigma yield, or pistil dry weight. In 2018, flower number, stigma yield, and pistil dry weight were similar to subplots that had been covered with low tunnels the previous winter and subplots that had not been covered. However, in 2019, the plants in the subplots that remained exposed during the winter produced significantly more (P < 0.05) flowers than the plants in the subplots that were in low tunnels for the winter. Saffron yields followed the same pattern, with the unprotected subplots yielding 57% more than the protected subplots (P < 0.05). These data indicate that winter protection is not beneficial for saffron crocus production in Rhode Island. The use of winter protection increases production costs and can decrease yields.
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Effects of different plant distance on stigma dry matter yield, leaf dry matter yield, in vitro dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility and Digestible-value of Crocus sativus leaves were studied in an experiment which was conducted at Experimental Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2005-2006. Four plant distances (5 x 20, 10 x 20, 15 x 20 and 20 x 20 cm) were compared in a Randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that there were no significant differences between different plant distance in terms of fresh flower yield and, fresh and dry matter stigma yield. However, by increasing plant distance fresh flower yield and fresh and dry matter stigma yield were decreased. Plant distance had a significant effect on dry matter leaf yield. Dry matter leaf yield was higher in shorter plant distance. There were no significant differences between different plant distance in terms of In vitro dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility and D-value of saffron leaves. There were significant differences between different plant distances in terms of dry matter digestible yield. By increasing plant distance dry matter digestible yield of saffron leaves was decreased
Article
Conditions for the cold-storage of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) corms to delay flowering have been characterised. Storage of corms at 2°C after flower initiation resulted in a time-dependent abortion of those flowers already initiated. The more advanced the stage of flower initiation at the beginning of cold-storage, the faster the rate of flower abortion. Overall, no benefit resulted from cold-storing corms after flower initiation. Corms stored in the cold before flower initiation, formed flowers when incubated after storage at 21°-25°C. The number and size of flowers formed, and the yield of spice saffron per corm, depended both on the duration and conditions of cold-storage. Storage at freezing temperatures (0° or -1°C) damaged the corms. Flowering could be induced in corms stored between 0.5°-2°C. Within this range, temperature had little effect on the subsequent behaviour of corms. Flower number and flower size decreased gradually with increasing duration of cold-storage. This decrease was slower when storage was performed in 1% oxygen than in a normal atmosphere (21% oxygen). Corms lifted after leaf-withering, and stored at 2°C in 1% oxygen for 70 d, could be forced to flower from early December until the end of January with the same yield of spice saffron as non cold-stored corms. These results complement previous findings on the control of saffron flowering. Taken together, they allow saffron flowering without loss of spice yield from early September to the end of January. Flowering could be further delayed until May by extending the duration of cold-storage, but this delayed flowering resulted in a significant reduction in spice saffron yield.
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