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Abstract

Problems in transportation and logistics had to be tackled long before computers and Operational Research (OR) became available to support decision making. After the first optimization models were developed, OR has substantially contributed in making transportation systems efficient and companies with complex transportation and logistics problems competitive. Over the years, technology has evolved and the same has done OR. In this paper, the history of problems and OR contributions in transportation and logistics will be shortly reviewed together with the evolution of technology. Then, the future trends in this area will be discussed together with potential OR contributions.
... In other words, they exist for a short time. However, it takes tens of seconds for the microbubbles to disappear in the water after rupture, and in some cases several minutes [10]. Figure 1 shows a graph showing the change of bubbles of various diameters in the water (2) Generate free radical ions. ...
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In recent years, fresh fruits and vegetables have been sought after by Chinese people. The fresh-keeping technology, storage, and transportation of fruits and vegetables have also attracted a large number of people’s attention. Various methods of preservation, storage, and transportation of fruits and vegetables have begun to appear in the society. Micro and nanobubbles have the characteristics of long stay time, larger than the surface, high surface negative electricity, strong reliability, high efficiency of heat transfer, can cause oxygen free radicals, can greatly improve the actual effect of ozone and ozone utilization rate, and reduce the operation cost. This article aims to study the application of ozone micro-nano bubble processing vegetable fresh-keeping technology in air logistics and transportation, and put forward the idea of applying ozone micro-nano bubble processing fresh-keeping technology to fruits and vegetables fresh-keeping and transportation more widely. This article focuses on the introduction of ozone micro-nano bubbles, fresh-keeping technology, air transportation, and experiments on some fresh-keeping technologies in the article. The experimental results show that the vegetable preservation technology based on ozone micro-nano bubbles can better maintain the moisture and nutrients in the vegetables. The preservation technology of ozone micro-nano bubble treatment has improved the preservation of fruits and vegetables by 12%.
... To be specific, transportation can organically connect the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods. Transportation plays a crucial role in promoting the rational flow of production factors, such as talents, [2] capital, information [3], and resources [4], and in fostering social and economic growth. Small cars have become more and more popular and have taken over as the general public's mode of transportation, particularly in the twenty-first century. ...
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With the rapid growth of urbanization and motorization in China in recent years, the demand for transportation in people’s work and daily lives has increased. In this context, a number of issues such as urban traffic congestion, energy consumption, and environmental pollution have become increasingly severe. As a result, the tremendous socioeconomic, resource, and environmental pressures have been placed on the development of urban transportation. Sustainable economic and social development requires green development as a precondition. The economical and efficient use of resources and the protection and improvement of the ecological environment are conducive to the formation of a new pattern of modernization for the harmonious development of man and nature. Transportation planning is an essential technical field for promoting the development of green and ecological cities, and it is one of the primary responsibilities of urban planning. The application of green ecological planning technology and the scientific and reasonable development of traffic planning and management measures can aid in reducing energy consumption and, thus, achieving the goal of environmental protection. In this field, green transportation is a mature green ecological planning technology. Green transportation development is not only a key solution to urban transportation problems, but also an essential means of achieving sustainable urban development, so it has become a hot topic in the field of transportation. As the ideal city of the postindustrial era, ecocity can serve as a model for the sustainable development of China’s small and medium-sized cities. After all, industrial development is an unsustainable path, so human society must embrace green development. The core of green development lies in shifting from an exclusive reliance on industrialization to the urban transformation into an ecological civilization. Given the current contradictions between economic growth and resource and environmental degradation, promoting green and environmentally conscious transportation planning with resource conservation in mind is a crucial means of resolving these contradictions. Government incentives and restrictions are essential for the development of green transportation. Therefore, it is crucial to study the impact of environmentally conscious transportation planning and management measures on the economic growth of small and medium-sized cities. This will provide relevant departments and stakeholders with guidance and a reference for formulating policies that will contribute to the harmonious development of China’s green transportation and economy.
... erefore, more stringent requirements are put forward for the quality and the safety of products [9]. To improve the operational efficiency of the railroad transport industry, reduce costs and enhance service quality, and achieve industrial upgrading, the active development of modern logistics services is the way to go, and the use of computer technology to realize the informationization of logistics is one of the important means [10]. On the one hand, the rapid development of computers promotes the continuous development of optimization methods, on the other hand, it also makes the engineering optimization problems become larger and larger, and the nature of the optimization objective function becomes more and more complex [11]. ...
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The problem of joint optimization of inventory and transportation in agricultural logistics and distribution is a typical logistics problem, but agricultural logistics and distribution also have their own characteristics, such as uneven distribution of outlets, complex road conditions, very many outlets, a single order with few goods but high frequency of ordering, centralized distribution, and unified channels. To promote the sustainable development of the economy, it is necessary to save energy and reduce emissions, and eventually enter a new era of “low consumption, low pollution, and low emissions.” Modern logistics vehicle-scheduling process is complex and changeable, and the existing mathematical methods are not perfect in solving this problem, lacking scientific theory as a guide. The joint optimization problem introduces the inventory change factor on the basis of periodic vehicle path optimization and optimizes the inventory decision and path planning in an integrated manner. As a system to support the logistics industry, the visualized logistics information system is capable of video viewing and querying logistics information. In order to reduce gas emissions and save costs, it is necessary to optimize the transportation link, and the focus of optimization is the route optimization of distribution vehicles. Ant colony algorithm (ACA) is an emerging search and optimization technique, which emerged from the research of ACA. In this study, we study the joint optimization and visualization of inventory transportation in agricultural logistics based on ACA. In addition, the experimental results show that the inventory cost/total cost of improved ACA is 0.006 when the unit mileage transportation cost is 10, and the IBM ILOG CPLEX is 0.031, which is reduced by 0.0025, that is to say, in the case of high inventory cost per unit product, the use of improved ACA can lead to a significant reduction in inventory costs. Therefore, it can realize the whole process of control, traceability, and dynamic optimization to ensure the timeliness of emergency finished food security and provide real-time information for decision-making in command as well.
... As the logistics industry is expanding globally due to the deployment of industrial 4.0 [2] technologies such as big data, cloud IoT, and Blockchain, the use of IoT-sensing devices keeps transforming logistics operations into smart operations with improvements in the real-time tracking of goods, digitalized data collection, and so on ( [3]). But these IoT-enabled devices have privacy and security flaws [4] as they are prone to cyberattacks due to their centralized database storage system. ...
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As the global logistics business expands as a result of the industrial 4.0 revolution, logistics operations continue to evolve as new technologies such as IoT, cloud, and big data are deployed. These IoT devices improve the logistics function by boosting real-time product tracking, improved data collection, smart storage of logistics data, etc. Some of these new technologies present an avenue for cyberattacks on these logistics systems due to their centralized database structure. Logistics operations entail the exchange of private consumer information (name, address, phone number, and bank account information) as well as product information amongst logistics stakeholders (manufacturers, suppliers, transporters, and customers). And the engagement of so many logistics stakeholders creates privacy and security issues for the private information because customer information, as well as product details, are transferred and shared across different logistical stakeholders during the logistics process. It faces unwanted access, which could lead to fraud or the creation of counterfeit products by a bad actor in the system. All of these challenges are significant because logistics data integrity is important for customer satisfaction. The deployment of Blockchain innovation will address these challenges with the application of its special feature such as immutability, efficient cryptography, and distributed decentralized storage system. In this paper, we highlighted the technology that enables smart logistics and reviewed smart logistics, Blockchain, and IoT in logistics; we present the significance of integrating Blockchain and IoT in logistics. We proposed a Blockchain-based IoT-enabled system framework for secure and efficient logistics management where logistics data can be captured with the use of IoT sensors, and we also designed and describe the sequence diagram for secured communication between the logistics stakeholder through a smart contract. In conclusion, Blockchain can provide security to logistics data and enhance operational efficiency with its key features.
... ese technologies can be used to determine environments and locations and recognize the suitable routes amid obstacles and signage [1,2]. AVs are supposed to minimize vehicle accidents, enhance the ow of tra c and movability, reduce the utilization of fuel, be free from driving, and facilitate business operation and transportation [3][4][5][6]. Despite the massive potential advantages, there are many unsolved safety, security, legal and regulatory, social, own functionalities such as (i) Level 0: the individual operator is in-charge of all operating activities (No Automation), (ii) Level 1: the vehicle is controlled by a human driver, but the automation system assists in operating (Assistance to Drivers such as Tesla AutoPilot) [17], (iii) Level 2: the vehicle used automated features but the control and environment of the driving process require human intervention (Partially Automated Driving such as Tesla AutoPilot) [17], (iv) Level 3: the human driver should be ready to take control of the vehicle at any moment (Automated Conditional Driving), (v) Level 4: under some conditions, the automation system can drive the car automatically, but the human operator will still be able to control it (high-level automation of driving such as Waymo driverless cars [18]), and (vi) Level 5: under all the conditions, the automation system can drive the car automatically, but the human operator will be able to control it (fully automation Waymo driverless cars [18]). ...
... ese technologies can be used to determine environments and locations and recognize the suitable routes amid obstacles and signage [1,2]. AVs are supposed to minimize vehicle accidents, enhance the flow of traffic and movability, reduce the utilization of fuel, be free from driving, and facilitate business operation and transportation [3][4][5][6]. Despite the massive potential advantages, there are many unsolved safety, security, legal and regulatory, social, own functionalities such as (i) Level 0: the individual operator is in-charge of all operating activities (No Automation), (ii) Level 1: the vehicle is controlled by a human driver, but the automation system assists in operating (Assistance to Drivers such as Tesla AutoPilot) [17], (iii) Level 2: the vehicle used automated features but the control and environment of the driving process require human intervention (Partially Automated Driving such as Tesla AutoPilot) [17], (iv) Level 3: the human driver should be ready to take control of the vehicle at any moment (Automated Conditional Driving), (v) Level 4: under some conditions, the automation system can drive the car automatically, but the human operator will still be able to control it (high-level automation of driving such as Waymo driverless cars [18]), and (vi) Level 5: under all the conditions, the automation system can drive the car automatically, but the human operator will be able to control it (fully automation Waymo driverless cars [18]). ...
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