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Benefits, need and importance of daily exercise

Authors:

Abstract

Regular Physical activity and exercise can help you stay healthy, energetic and independent as you get older. Exercise play avital role in preventing health diseases and stroke. The health benefits of doing regular Exercise have been shown in many studies. This paper review the evidence of the benefits of exercise for all the body systems. Physical activity and exercise can reduce stress and anxiety, boost happy chemicals, improve self-confidence, increase the brain power, sharpen the memory and increase our muscles and bones strength. It also helps in preventing and reducing heart disease, obesity, blood sugar fluctuations, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer.
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International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health 2016; 3(5): 22-27
P-ISSN: 2394-1685
E-ISSN: 2394-1693
Impact Factor (ISRA): 5.38
IJPESH 2016; 3(5): 22-27
© 2016 IJPESH
www.kheljournal.com
Received: 07-07-2016
Accepted: 08-08-2016
Mohammed Abou Elmagd
Senior Executive Sports,
Student Affairs, Physical
Activity department, Ras Al
Khaimah Medical and Health
Sciences University, RAK,
11172, United Arab Emirates
Correspondence
Mohammed Abou Elmagd
Senior Executive Sports,
Student Affairs, Physical
Activity department, Ras Al
Khaimah Medical and Health
Sciences University, RAK,
11172, United Arab Emirates
Benefits, need and importance of daily exercise
Mohammed Abou Elmagd
Abstract
Regular Physical activity and exercise can help you stay healthy, energetic and independent as you get
older. Exercise play avital role in preventing health diseases and stroke. The health benefits of doing
regular Exercise have been shown in many studies. This paper review the evidence of the benefits of
exercise for all the body systems. Physical activity and exercise can reduce stress and anxiety, boost
happy chemicals, improve self-confidence, increase the brain power, sharpen the memory and increase
our muscles and bones strength. It also helps in preventing and reducing heart disease, obesity, blood
sugar fluctuations, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer.
Keywords: sports, need, exercise, benefits, physical activity, importance
1. Introduction
Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require
energy expenditure. The term “Physical activity” is not equal to “exercise”. Exercise is a
subcategory of physical activity which is structured, repetitive, and purposeful [1]. “A sound
body has a sound mind” It means that if a person is weak, dull, and sick, he is not able to do
his work efficiently and quickly. It is very important to have a fresh mind before any work,
like office work, study or some creative work. The people who make exercise as essential part
of their routine are more happy and efficient than others. Exercise does not mean to go to gym
or some club for daily activity; it only means to do some physical activity no matter how and
where. Exercise is useful in preventing or treating coronary heart disease, osteoporosis,
weakness, diabetes, obesity, and depression. Strengthening exercises provide appropriate
resistance to the muscles to increase endurance and strength. Cardiac rehabilitation exercises
are developed and individualized to improve the cardiovascular system for prevention and
rehabilitation of cardiac disorders and diseases. A well-balanced exercise program can
improve general health, build endurance, and slow many of the effects of aging. The benefits
of exercise not only improve physical health, but also enhance emotional well-being. Regular
physical activity remains an essential behavior for endorsing health, postponing or preventing
predominant musculoskeletal disorders such as mechanical low back pain, neck and shoulder
pain and decreasing the risk of increasing coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes,
osteoporosis, obesity and colon cancers [2, 3]. The period of adolescence represents the
transition from childhood to adulthood and lifetime habits such as regular exercise are
normally begun at this time [4]. But unfortunately research indicated that physical activity rates
decline consistently during the adolescent years [5, 6]. No matter what your age or shape, you
should exercise daily. Not only does exercise so you can wear your favorite dress, it
strengthens your muscles, keeps your bones strong, and improves your skin, increased
relaxation, better sleep and mood, strong immune function, and more. Daily exercise helps in
strengthening of heart muscles. It helps maintain desired cholesterol levels. Daily physical
activity reduces one’s chances of stroke and the risk of heart disease. Regular exercise lowers
blood pressure and improves blood circulation. Exercise helps in reduction of excess body
weight leading to lower blood pressure. Exercise results in the burning of calories. If
supplemented with proper nutrition, exercise is the way to prevent obesity. Any healthy person
may become unfit physically if he does not practice exercise regularly. The efficiency of our
muscles reduces if we are not doing regular physical workout. So we must do physical fitness
exercises every day. Exercise is linked with many physical and physiological benefits that help
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International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
an individual to function effectively and feel good. Exercise
provides an entertaining way to spend enjoyable time. People
of all age who are usually inactive can improve their health
and well-being by becoming active at a level of moderate
intensity in daily basis. Regular Exercise significantly reduces
the high blood pressure, risk of developing heart disease,
stroke, some cancers, diabetes, and may help to remove the
stress, anxiety, and depression. At any age, being physically fit
is an advantage to your overall health.
2. Exercise
Exercise is a subcategory of physical activity that is planned,
structured, and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any
part of the body. Exercise is used to improve health, maintain
fitness and is important as a means of physical rehabilitation.
Also we can define exercise as any bodily movement
performed in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and
overall health.
3. Types of exercise
Exercise and physical activity fall into four basic categories
endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility. Most people have
a habit of to focus on one activity or type of exercise and think
they're doing enough for their health. Each type of exercise is
different, however, doing them all will give you extra benefits.
Mixing it up also helps to reduce boredom and stop the
possibility of injury.
3.1 Endurance
Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and
heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system
healthy and improve your overall fitness. Building your
endurance makes it easier to carry out many of your everyday
activities. Walking or jogging, mowing, raking, digging and
Dancing are kinds of this type.
3.2 Strength
Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Even small
increases in strength can make a big difference in your ability.
We can find this type of exercise in Lifting weights, using a
resistance band with your own body weight.
3.3 Balance
Balance exercises help prevent falls, a public problem in older
adults. Many lower-body strength exercises also will improve
your balance. This type can be noticeable in Standing on one
foot, Heel-to-toe walk and Tai Chi.
3.4 Flexibility
Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your
body stay limber. Being flexible gives you more freedom of
movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday
activities. Some examples for that in Shoulder and upper arm
stretch, Calf stretch and Yoga.
3.5 Depending on the overall effect on the human body
Physical exercises can be generally grouped into two types: [7]
Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large
muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen
than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is
to increase cardiovascular endurance [8]. Examples of
aerobic exercise include cycling, swimming, brisk
walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis,
continuous training, and long slow distance training.
Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and
resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and tone muscles,
as well as improve bone strength, balance, and
coordination. Examples of strength moves are push-ups,
lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells. Anaerobic
exercise also include weight training, functional training,
eccentric training, Interval training, sprinting, and high-
intensity interval training increase short-term muscle
strength [9].
3.6 According to the intensities of the exercise it can also
divided to three categories, heart Rate is typically used as a
measure of exercise intensity [10]. Heart rate can be an
indicator of the challenge to the cardiovascular system that
the exercise represents [11, 12].
Light exercise: Does not induce sweating unless it's a hot,
humid day. There is no obvious change in breathing
patterns, sleeping, writing, desk work, typing, very slow
walking, are examples for the first category.
Moderate exercise: It should raise your heart rate, make
you breathe faster and make you feel warm enough to start
to sweat after performing the activity for about 10
minutes. Breathing becomes deeper and more frequent.
You can carry on a conversation but not sing, bicycling,
very light effort, calisthenics, home exercise, light or
moderate effort are examples for the second one.
Vigorous exercise: will make you breathe hard, increase
your heart rate significantly and make you hot enough to
sweat profusely after 3-5 minutes. Breathing is deep and
rapid. You can only talk in short phrases, the examples for
this type include running, jogging, jogging in place,
calisthenics (e.g. pushups, sit-ups, pullups, jumping
jacks), heavy vigorous effort, rope jumping.
4. Need of Exercise
Everybody knows that the need of exercise in our daily lives,
but we may not know why or what exercise can do for us.
Exercise means, the daily practice of doing some physical
work. Exercise is the key to good health and fresh mind [13].
The daily practice of some physical work does not mean to
take stress on body, but it is actually the stress relieving
activity. A good health is obligatory for doing a good work. A
famous quote is there is awesome evidence that people who
lead active lifestyles are less likely to suffer from illness and
more likely to live longer. Exercise not only makes you
physically fitter but it also improves your mental health and
general sense of well-being. Getting fit is not just about
running on a treadmill for hours in your local gym, it can be a
dance class or a new hobby like fencing or mountain biking. It
could be a group or team activity like football or a karate class.
Whatever form of exercise you choose, you’ll practically
certainly meet new people and may make new friendships.
These recommendations can be achieved through 30-60
minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (five times a week) or
20-60 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise (three times a
week) or a combination of both types. One continuous session
combined with multiple shorter sessions (of at least 10
minutes) is also acceptable [14].
5. Importance of Exercise
Each one of us has a physical body made of muscles, blood,
bones and various other living tissue. When any of these are
injured or not working properly then we get ill. Nobody likes
to be ill. So, it is important that we keep our body healthy and
fit. Exercising the body is one way of keeping it healthy. If we
do not exercise then our muscles become weaker and we are
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International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
less able to do things properly. Also the bones can become
weaker and thus break easily. It is performed for various
reasons, including increasing growth and development,
preventing aging, strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular
system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and
merely enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise
boosts the immune system and helps prevent "diseases of
affluence" such as cardiovascular, type 2 diabetes, and obesity
[15, 16]. It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase
quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid to
treat diseases such as insomnia, help promote or maintain
positive self-esteem, improve mental health, maintain steady
digestion and treat constipation and gas, regulate fertility
health, and augment an individual's sex appeal or body image,
which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-
esteem [17, 18]. Childhood obesity is a growing global concern,
[19] and physical exercise may help decrease some of the
effects of childhood and adult obesity. Some care providers
call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drugalluding to the
wide variety of benefits that it can provide for many
individuals [20, 21].
In the United Kingdom two to four hours of light activity are
recommended during working hours [22]. This includes walking
and standing. In the United States, the CDC/ACSM consensus
statement and the Surgeon General's report states that every
adult should participate in moderate exercise, such as walking,
swimming, and household tasks, for a minimum of 30 minutes
daily [23].
6. Benefits of Exercise
Regular exercise makes the heart stronger and the lungs fitter,
enabling the cardiovascular system to deliver more oxygen to
the body with every heartbeat and the pulmonary system to
increase the maximum amount of oxygen that the lungs can
take in. Exercise lowers blood pressure, slightly decreases the
levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
(the bad cholesterol), and increases the level of high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the good cholesterol). These
helpful effects decrease the risk of heart attack, stroke, and
coronary artery disease. In addition, colon cancer and some
forms of diabetes are less likely to occur in people who
exercise regularly [24]. Exercise makes muscles stronger,
allowing people to do tasks that they otherwise might not be
able to do or to do them more easily. Every physical task
requires muscle strength and some degree of range of motion
in joints. Regular exercise can improve both of these qualities.
Exercise stretches muscles and joints, which in turn can
increase flexibility and help prevent injuries. Exercise may
also improve balance by increasing strength of the tissues
around joints and throughout the body, thus helping to prevent
falls. Weight-bearing exercise, such as brisk walking and
weight training, strengthens bones and helps prevent
osteoporosis. Other health benefits include the following:
6.1 Reduce stress and anxiety
Stress relief is one of the most common mental benefits of
exercise. Regular Exercise can help to manage physical and
mental stress. Exercise also increases concentrations of
norepinephrine, a chemical that can moderate the brain’s
response to stress. Being active greatly causes a reduction in
tress levels. Aerobic and anaerobic physical training helpful
for overall health. Study suggests that 30 Minutes Exercise for
5 or more days in a week, it helps in lowering the desperation
and mental stress [25]. On the other hand Physical activity
makes you more tired so you’re more ready to sleep. Good
quality sleep helps improve overall wellness and can reduce
stress. Regarding anxiety, the warm and chemicals that are
released during and after any physical exercise can help people
with anxiety disorders calm down [26]. Jumping on the track or
treadmill for some moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise
can reduce anxiety sensitivity [27].
6.2 Boost happy chemicals
Exercise releases endorphins, which create feelings of
happiness and euphoria. Studies have shown that exercise can
even improve symptoms among the clinically depressed [28].
For this reason, doctors recommend that people suffering from
depression or anxiety. In some cases, exercise can be just as
effective as antidepressant pills in treating depression. Higher
energy levels resulting from exercise help a person in
remaining fresh and happy. Following a suitable exercise
program can add some fun and brightness to the day. Working
out for just 30 minutes a few times a week can instantly boost
overall mood.
6.3 Improve self-Confidence and self-Image
Physical fitness can boost self-esteem and improve positive
self-image. Regardless of weight, size, gender, or age, exercise
can quickly elevate a person's perception of his or her
attractiveness, that is, self-worth [29]. It has been proved that in
less time of aerobic exercise and resistance training method
definitely will help to improve self-image [30]. One of the latest
research was in consistency with most of the previous studies
which found significant relationship between physical activity
and self-esteem by using different study designs and self-
esteem scales. This finding can be considered to recommend
increased physical activity participation for college student
who face self-esteem problems [31]. Even if you will take your
workout outside and start Exercising in the great outdoors can
also increase self-esteem even more [32].
6.4 Increase brainpower
Various studies on mice and men have shown that
cardiovascular exercise can create new brain cells (aka
neurogenesis) and improve overall brain performance [33].
Studies suggest that a vigorous workout increases levels of a
brain-derived protein (known as BDNF) in the body, believed
to help with decision making, higher thinking, and learning [34].
6.5 Sharpen memory
Regular physical activity increases memory and ability to learn
new things. Getting sweaty increases production of cells in
hippocampus responsible for memory and learning [35]. For this
reason, research has linked children’s brain development with
level of physical fitness, but exercise-based brainpower isn’t
just for kids, regular exercise can boost memory among adults,
too. A study showed that running sprints improved vocabulary
retention among healthy adults [36].
6.6 Improves muscles and bones strength
Exercise involves a series of sustained muscle contractions, of
either long or short duration, depending on the nature of the
physical activity. Muscle-strengthening activities can help you
increase or maintain your muscle mass and strength. Strong
muscles and ligaments reduce your risk of joint and lower
back pain by keeping joints in proper alignment. Additionally,
with exercise improvements to the circulatory and respiratory
systems can facilitate better delivery of oxygen and glucose to
the muscle [37]. Research shows that doing aerobics bone-
strengthening physical activity of at least a moderately-intense
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International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
level can slow the loss of bone density that comes with age,
along with that hip fracture is a serious health condition that
can have life-changing negative effects, especially if you're an
older adult. But research shows that people who do 120 to 300
minutes of at least moderate-intensity aerobic activity each
week have a lower risk of hip fracture [38].
6.7 Reduce the Risk of Heart Diseases
The heart is a muscle and needs exercise to stay in shape.
When it's exercised, the heart can pump more blood through
the body and continue working at optimal efficiency with little
strain. This will likely help it to stay healthy longer. Regular
exercise also helps to keep arteries and other blood vessels
flexible, ensuring good blood flow and normal blood pressure.
Daily exercise helps in strengthening of heart muscles. It helps
maintain desired cholesterol levels. Daily physical activity
reduces one’s chances of stroke and the risk of heart disease.
According to the American Heart Association (AHA),
exercising 30 minutes a day, five days a week will improve
your heart health and help reduce your risk of heart disease.
You can even break it up into quick and manageable 10-
minute sessions, three times a day [39].
6.8 Preventing Obesity
Obesity and overweight are associated with increased risk for
hypertension, osteoarthritis, abnormal cholesterol and
triglyceride levels, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease,
stroke, gallbladder disease, sleep apnea, respiratory problems
and some cancers [40]. Obesity is a significant health problem
all over the world for all ages. Genetics can play a role in the
possibility that a person will become obese, the condition
occurs when the amount of calories consumed exceeds the
amount of calories expended over a long period of time. The
more you exercise, the easier it is to keep your weight under
control. Excess calories are stored as fat in the body, and with
long-term caloric excess, an individual eventually becomes
obese. Exercise can help prevent excess weight gain or help
maintain weight loss. When you engage in physical activity,
you burn calories. The more intense the activity, the more
calories you burn. Regular exercise (and proper nutrition) can
help reduce body fat. Weight loss will achieve most effectively
when we follow a cardiovascular exercise of moderate-
intensity activity accumulated over 5-7 days per week. Eating
a healthy diet are ways in which to combat obesity [41].
6.9 Exercise and Diabetes
Diabetes and exercise go hand in hand, at least when it comes
to managing your diabetes. Exercise can help you improve
your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and
reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke. But diabetes and
exercise pose unique challenges, too. To exercise safely, it's
crucial to track your blood sugar before, during and after
physical activity. You'll learn how your body responds to
exercise, which can help you prevent potentially dangerous
blood sugar fluctuations. The affect physical activity has on
your blood glucose will vary depending on how long you are
active and many other factors. Physical activity can lower your
blood glucose up to 24 hours or more after your work out by
making your body more sensitive to insulin [42].
6.10 Exercise and Cancer
Exercise is one of the most important actions you can take to
help guard against many types of cancer. Up to one-third of
cancer-related deaths are due to obesity and a sedentary
lifestyle, including two of the most common cancers in the
United States, breast and colon cancer [43].
Many people exercise to prevent heart disease, but exercise
can also play a key role in preventing and reducing the danger
of many cancers. It is estimated that 30 to 60 minutes of
moderate to vigorous physical activity per day is needed to
protect against colon cancer, endometrial cancer and lung
cancer [44, 45]. Most studies suggest that 30 to 60 minutes per day
of moderate- to high-intensity physical activity is associated
with a reduction in breast cancer risk also, there is one recent
study suggested that regular vigorous activity could slow the
progression of prostate cancer in men age 65 or older [46].
7. Conclusion
Exercise not only makes you physically fitter but it also
improves your all body health and general sense of well-being.
Physical activity or exercise can reduce the risk of developing
several diseases like type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular
disease. Daily exercise can reduce stress and anxiety, boost
happy chemicals, improve self-confidence, increase the brain
power, sharpen the memory and increase our muscles and
bones strength. Physical activity and exercise can have
immediate and long-term health benefits. Most importantly,
regular activity can improve your quality of life. A minimum
of 30 minutes a day can allow you to enjoy these benefits.
8. Acknowledgment
The Author would like to express his gratitude to the Vice
Chancellor RAKMHSU, Deans, Faculty/Staff and students for
their Valuable support and contribution.
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... Obesity, in general, is closely related to a diet that is not good and tends to be over-energized. Obesity is defined as a medical condition in the form of accumulated fat in the body, which is clinically expressed in the form of a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg / m 2 (Elmagd, 2016;Lavie et al., 2019). Various nutritional advantages in toddlers will have a continuous impact until adulthood. ...
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Obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and poor cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood can be bad for children especially regarding physical fitness and increased weight. This study aimed to analyze and compare the physical fitness and weight status of children and adolescents in Surabaya and Sidoarjo regency. This research uses a survey approach using physical fitness tests and weight measurements. The research instrument on physical fitness uses a physical fitness test with 5 items test. While the weight status is measured by measuring the body mass index (BMI). The sample selection of research subjects used random sampling techniques. The results showed that the physical fitness boys' students in The city of Surabaya and Sidoarjo regency are the same in the moderate category. In contrast, girls in the city of Surabaya are better compared to Sidoarjo regency. The teenage boys and girls of Surabaya city are better than the adolescent boys and girls students of the Sidoarjo regency. The weight status of Surabaya city boys is better compared to Sidoarjo regency boys. In contrast, the girls of Surabaya and Sidoarjo are included in the average category. The teenage boys of Surabaya city are better than the adolescent students of the Sidoarjo regency, in the teenage students of Surabaya city are better than the female adolescent students of the Sidoarjo regency. This research can be used as data on the development of students, teachers, and all related parties that must correctly stabilize the condition of students, children, and adolescents to carry out their activities.
... Mandolesi et al. [47] argued that intense physical activity can cause blood to flow to the brain, which boosts neurons and cell growth. Some literature claims that just a 30-minute physical activity can improve the students' learning concentration [48]. Lastly, when they engage in physical activity, they feel healthy and good, which increases confidence, peer acceptance, leadership skills, and empathy [49]. ...
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... Penjas adaptif merupakan bagian dari upaya melalui aktivitas gerak yang telah disesuaikan dengan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan baik fisik maupun psikis anak yang terbatas berkebutuhan khusus demi tercapainya tujuan pendidikan yang diharapkan (Taufan et al., 2018). Pemberian aktivitas fisik melalui penjas adaptif terhadap anak dengan gangguan autis memiliki manfaat positif seperti mengurangi kecemasan, mengurangi stres, dan memperbaiki pola tidur yang buruk (Elmagd, 2016;Hillier et al., 2020). Aktivitas fisik pada anak dapat mengurangi resiko terjadinya obesitas serta memberikan banyak manfaat fisiologis dan psikososial (Curtin et al., 2014;Egan et al., 2013;Hills et al., 2015). ...
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This study aims to develop a locomotor movement learning module for class II autistic SDLB teachers. The research method used is the research and development method. While the research and development use the ADDIE development model. The research and development method uses a quantitative descriptive approach, with data collection techniques through needs analysis questionnaires, and assessment instruments. The research subjects were 3 students and 3 teachers of SLB Autism Laboratory, State University of Malang, then 6 students and 6 teachers of SLB C Autism Tuban. The results of the validation of the learning module by media expert validators, material experts, and characteristics experts for autistic children get very valid results, namely with a score of 98%, 100%, and 87%. The results of trials in large groups get a score of 96% with very valid information. Results of the studies concluded that the teacher module in learning locomotor motion material for class II SDLB with autism is very valid for use in learning.
... Physical activity (PA) is defined as 'any bodily movement that causes energy expenditure by using the skeletal muscles' (Caspersen et al., 1985). In contrast, exercise is a subcategory of PA and defined as 'structurally planned activity for a purpose and is conducted frequently' (Elmagd, 2016). Additionally, physical inactivity is the action by which individuals do not conduct the recommended levels of PA. ...
Thesis
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The benefits of participating in regular physical activity are wide-ranging and well-accepted globally, yet physical inactivity is increasing, especially amongst adults. Occupations involving sedentary behaviour are considered a leading contributor to the inactive lifestyle responsible for many health-related problems. An increasing number of occupations involving predominantly sedentary work and the incidence of work-related health issues is becoming more prevalent, with evidence suggesting that adults spend approximately 60% of their waking time at work. Moreover, higher educational institutions are arguably one of the predominant sources of influence on society and can play a significant role in developing the nation and changing attitudes. Despite this, research in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health and wellbeing substantially lacks in these settings. Therefore, this thesis adds to the limited knowledge about physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health and wellbeing interventions on university employees in the workplace. To elucidate this, several studies were conducted to evaluate existing physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour, followed by the exploration of barriers to physical activity amongst employees. The outcomes of these investigations contributed to the subsequent design and implementation of five physical activity, health and wellbeing interventions within the university. The five interventions were: • Accessibility and the availability of exercise resources in the workplace • Reducing sitting time through sit and stand workstation amongst university employees • Exploring the impact of seated, standing and walking meetings in the university setting • Getting university employees on the stairs: The impact of points of decision prompts • Promoting PA amongst employees through the 10,000 steps team-based competition Findings concluded that there is potential for physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health, and wellbeing interventions to be extended to other settings to promote physical activity engagement, reduce sitting time, and improve employees health and wellbeing. For instance, findings of intervention one indicate, employees engaged in 1287 minutes of physical activity/exercise throughout the intervention period and staff reported positive mood, work productivity and stress relief by having access to the exercise resources in the workplace. The intervention two findings indicate that having access to the height-adjustable sit-stand workstation resulted in sedentary behaviour reducing from 1974 to 821 minutes. Standing time increased from 439 minutes to 923 minutes across the week. The results of intervention three demonstrated that staff indicated enhanced anger, fatigue, tension, and vigour post seated meeting instead of standing and walking meetings. The outcomes of this thesis demonstrate that these interventions can be generalizable and physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related interventions must be tailored to the needs of employees in other settings. The intervention four results demonstrated that 84 participants noticed the banners, 54 were influenced to take the stairs, 68 felt physical, and 66 felt mental benefits of taking the stairs, whilst 88 suggested that the banners displayed in the workplace will influence them to take the stairs in future. Intervention five showed that the daily average steps increased from 5959 to 10308, and staff reported motivation, competitiveness, enjoyment, active and behaviour change due to 10,000 steps challenge intervention. These findings support the implementation of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related interventions across settings. This thesis contributes to the existing knowledge of behaviour theories, including the Trans-theoretical Model, Self-determination theory and Social-Ecological Model in the subject of exercise psychology associated with public health, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health, and wellbeing of employees in the university workplace.
Chapter
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ABSTRAK : Penelitian dan pengembangan ini memiliki tujuan yaitu mengembangkan dan menguji kelayakan modul guru untuk pembelajaran materi gerak variasi dan kombinasi gerak lokomotor, non-lokomotor dan manipulatif pada SMALB kelas XII. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode Research and Development (R&D) dengan menggunakan model ADDIE. Pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen angket. Subjek uji coba kelompok kecil berjumlah 7 guru PJOK SLB dan uji coba kelompok besar berjumlah 14 guru PJOK SLB. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data menunjukkan uji coba kelompok kecil dengan tingkat kelayakan 80% sehingga layak digunakan dengan sedikit revisi, kemudian untuk uji coba kelompok besar dengan tingkat kelayakan 92% sehingga layak digunakan untuk pembelajaran. Hasil dari penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa produk pengembangan modul pembelajaran materi variasi dan kombinasi gerak lokomotor, non-lokomotor dan manipulatif kelas XII SMALB Autis berdasarkan uji coba kelompok besar dan kecil dapat dinyatakan bahwa modul guru pada materi variasi dan kombinasi gerak lokomotor, non-lokomotor dan manipulatif kelas XII SMALB autis sangat valid digunakan dalam pembelajaran. ABSTRACT : This research and development aimed to develop a teacher module in learning the subject matter of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulatif movement variations and combinations for SMALB class XII. In this study using the Research and Development (R&D) method using the ADDIE model. Data collection uses a questionnaire instrument. The subject of the small group trial was opened by 7 PJOK SLB teachers and the large group trial was opened by 14 PJOK SLB teachers. Based on the results of data analysis, small group trials with a scale of 80%, so it is suitable for use with a little revision, then for large group trials with a scale of 92% so that it is suitable for use for learning. The results of the research can be said that the product of the development of learning modules for the material variations and combinations of locomotor, non-locomotor and manipulatif movements for class XII SMALB with autism based on large and small group trials, it can be stated that the teacher module on material variations and combinations of locomotor, non-locomotor and manipulatif movements class XII SMALB with autism is very suitable for use in learning
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We welcome the opportunity to respond to Dr Noonan’s letter regarding our recent article in CHEST.¹ Statistical power is always a potential limitation in biomedical studies. This is especially true in retrospective observational studies, in which an a priori power analysis cannot be performed. As mentioned in our article, although our reference group of miners with normal high-resolution CT scan (NCTS) studies was relatively small, there was enough power to detect statistically significant differences in mean lung function data between the NCTS reference group and the miner group with pleural plaques and interstitial fibrosis and the miner group with other high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan findings. However, when we compared the miner group with pleural plaques only (PPO) with the NCTS reference group, we were unable to detect a statistical significance in mean lung function data, even though the PPO miner group had many more subjects than did the miner group with pleural plaques and interstitial fibrosis or the miner group with other HRCT scan findings. Information contained within the 95% CI for comparison of the PPO miner group with the NCTS reference group indicates that we should not reject the null hypothesis. Tukey analysis was also used to minimize type 1 error. Thus, our analysis supports the conclusion that pleural plaques alone have no significant effect on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners.
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An international group of experts was invited by Public Health England and a UK community interest company (Active Working CIC) to provide guidelines for employers to promote the avoidance of prolonged periods of sedentary work. The set of recommendations was developed from the totality of the current evidence, including long-term epidemiological studies and interventional studies of getting workers to stand and/or move more frequently. The evidence was ranked in quality using the four levels of the American College of Sports Medicine. The derived guidance is as follows: for those occupations which are predominantly desk based, workers should aim to initially progress towards accumulating 2 h/day of standing and light activity (light walking) during working hours, eventually progressing to a total accumulation of 4 h/day (prorated to part-time hours). To achieve this, seated-based work should be regularly broken up with standing-based work, the use of sit–stand desks, or the taking of short active standing breaks. Along with other health promotion goals (improved nutrition, reducing alcohol, smoking and stress), companies should also promote among their staff that prolonged sitting, aggregated from work and in leisure time, may significantly and independently increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and premature mortality. It is appreciated that these recommendations should be interpreted in relation to the evidence from which they were derived, largely observational and retrospective studies, or short-term interventional studies showing acute cardiometabolic changes. While longer term intervention studies are required, the level of consistent evidence accumulated to date, and the public health context of rising chronic diseases, suggest initial guidelines are justified. We hope these guidelines stimulate future research, and that greater precision will be possible within future iterations.
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Over the past 4 decades, numerous scientific reports have examined the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular health. Expert panels, convened by organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and the American Heart Association (AHA),1–3 along with the 1996 US Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health,4 reinforced scientific evidence linking regular physical activity to various measures of cardiovascular health. The prevailing view in these reports is that more active or fit individuals tend to develop less coronary heart disease (CHD) than their sedentary counterparts. If CHD develops in active or fit individuals, it occurs at a later age and tends to be less severe. As many as 250 000 deaths per year in the United States are attributable to a lack of regular physical activity. In addition, studies that followed large groups of individuals for many years have documented the protective effects of physical activity for a number of noncardiovascular chronic diseases, such as non–insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, and colon cancer.4 In contrast, we see a higher rate of cardiovascular events and a higher death rate in those individuals with low levels of physical fitness.1,4 Even midlife increases in physical activity, through change in occupation or recreational activities, are associated with a decrease in mortality.5 Despite this evidence, however, the vast majority of adults in the United States remains effectively sedentary; less than one-third of Americans meets the minimal recommendations for activity as outlined by the CDC, ACSM, and AHA expert panels. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the 5 major risk factors (along with high blood pressure, abnormal values for blood lipids, smoking, and obesity) for cardiovascular disease, as outlined by the AHA. Evidence from many scientific studies shows …
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Previous studies have shown that housing mice with toys and running wheels increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances performance on the water maze. However, the relative contribution of running versus enrichment to the neurogenic and pro-cognitive effects is not clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that enrichment devoid of running wheels does not significantly enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis in female C57BL/6J mice. However, novel toys were not rotated into the cages, and dietary enrichment was not included, so it could be argued that the environment was not enriched enough. In addition, only females were studied, and animals were group-housed, making it impossible to record individual running behavior or to determine the time spent running versus exploring the toys. Therefore, we repeated the study in singly housed male C57BL/6J mice and enhanced enrichment by rotating novel tactile, visual, dietary, auditory, and vestibular stimuli into the cages. Mice were housed for 32 days in one of four groups: running-only, enrichment-only, running plus enrichment, and standard cage. The first 10 days bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to label dividing cells. The last 5 days mice were tested on the water maze, and then euthanized to measure number of BrdU cells co-labeled with neuronal nuclear marker (NeuN) in the dentate gyrus. Mice in the running-only group ran, on average, equivalent distances as animals in the running plus enrichment group. The combination of enrichment and running did not significantly increase hippocampal neurogenesis any more than running alone did. Animals in the running-only condition were the only group to show enhanced acquisition on water maze relative to standard cage controls. We confirm and extend the conclusion that environmental enrichment alone does not significantly increase hippocampal neurogenesis or bestow spatial learning benefits in male C57BL/6J mice, even when the modalities of enrichment are very broad.
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Data about effects of exercise training in adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) are very limited. This study investigated the effect of 2 different frequencies of the same intensity and total training volume of combined exercise training on indices of body composition, physical fitness, and lipid profile in overweight and obese adolescents with ID. A total of 45 overweight and obese adolescents with ID aged 14-22 years with a total IQ 45-70 received combined exercise training 3 times a week (CET3) for 30 sessions (10 weeks; n = 15), twice a week (CET2) for 30 sessions (15 weeks; n = 15), or no training (10 weeks; n = 15). Groups were matched for age, sex, and education form. Before and after the intervention period, indices of body composition, physical fitness and lipid profile have been evaluated. Compared to the control group, CET3 resulted in a significant improvement of physical fitness, obesity indices, and lipid profile of the participants. Comparing CET2 with CET3, no significantly different evolutions were noticed, except for lower limb strength in favor of exercising 3 times a week. In conclusion, exercising 2 times a week, which is more feasible and practical for participants and guidance, has the same health beneficial effects as 3 times per week in overweight and obese adolescents with ID in short-term training.
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Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans.