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Neolithic, Bronze and Modern Age settlement traces from 1981-1982, 2007-2011 archaeological research at site 20 in Klementowice

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In the course of archaeological research at site 20 in Klementowcie, apart from the finds associated with the Magdalenian culture, traces of settlements from the Neolithic (Funnel Beaker Culture – FBC, Globular Amphora Culture - GAC), Bronze (Trzciniec Culture – TC), and Modern (the first half of the 20th century) period have been also discovered.
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Klementowice.
A Magdalenian site in eastern Poland
edite d by tade u sz wiśniews k i
1
Klementowice.
A Magdalenian site in eastern Poland
2
3
Institute of Archaeology Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin 2015
Klementowice.
A Magdalenian site in eastern Poland
edite d by tade u sz wiśniews k i
4

prof. dr hab. Stefan Karol Kozłowski, prof. dr hab. Krzysztof Cyrek
 
Tadeusz Wiśniewski

prof. dr hab. Andrzej Kokowski, dr Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska
  
Anna Fecko-Mleczko
  
T. Wiśniewski, J. Libera, B. Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska, P. Mączyński, A. Rakoca, P. Rozbiegalski, J. Mugaj
  
Emilia Nodżak

Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska, Tadeusz Wiśniewski, Andrzej Kokowski
© Copyright by Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie 
© Copyright by Tadeusz Wiśniewski 
 ----

Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie

 pcs.
,   
 Skład-Druk-Oprawa, Spółka Komandytowa
ul. Tokarska , - Lublin
tel. (+)    , faks (+)    
e-mail: biuro@petit.lublin.pl, www.petit.lublin.pl
Donansowano ze środków Ministra Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego
Subsidized by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage
5Contents
Contents
Klementowice Project… (2013–2014) 7
Preface 9
Acknowledgements 11
ARCHAEOLOGY 13
Tadeusz Wiśniewski | MAGDALENIAN SETTLEMENT IN KLEMENTOWICE 15
Plates 115
Mateusz Zawadzki, Adam Sabat, Tadeusz Wiśniewski | DIGITIZATION OF THE DATA
FROM THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH CONDUCTED AT THE MAGDALENIAN SITE
IN KLEMENTOWICE IN 1981–1982, 2007– 2011 180
Katarzyna Pyżewicz | THE USE-WEAR ANALYSIS OF THE ARTEFACTS FOUND
AT THE MAGDALENIAN SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 184
Jerzy Libera | RESOURCES FOR STUDIES ON PALAEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT
IN THE LUBLIN UPLAND AREA POST-LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM 215
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 233
Przemysław Mroczek, Jan Rodzik | THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
SURROUNDING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE –
CURRENT SITUATION AND RETROSPECTIVE 235
Stanisław Fedorowicz | ABSOLUTE DATING
AT THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 260
Jan Rodzik, Przemysław Mroczek | SOIL PROBING IN THE AREA
OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE AS THE BASIS
FOR PRIMARY TOPOGRAPHIC SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION 265
Przemysław Mroczek | MICROMORPHOLOGY OF SOIL HORIZONS
IN THE VICINITY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 275
Przemysław Mroczek | PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF LOESS SEDIMENT
IN THE VICINITY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 282
Piotr Zagórski | THE USE OF GPS AND GIS
IN RESEARCHING THE MAGDALENIAN SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 285
6Contents
ANIMAL REMAINS 289
Jarosław Wilczyński | ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL AND TAPHONOMIC STUDY
OF THE FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 291
Alexander J.E.Pryor, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Alistair W.G.Pike | SEASONAL
MOBILITY OF THE ADULT HORSE KILLED BY HUNTERS AT KLEMENTOWICE 298
Miriam Nývltová Fišáková | THE SEASONALITY OF THE OPEN-AIR
MAGDALENIAN SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 305
Magdalena Gryzińska | MITOCHONDRIAL DNA (MTDNA) ISOLATED
FROM THE HORSE TOOTH FROM THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 308
PETROGRAPHY AND MINERALOGY 311
Lucjan Gazda | THE PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF STONE ARTEFACTS
FROM THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 312
Lucjan Gazda, Miłosz Huber | APRELIMINARY PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
OF THE SELECTED CHIPPED STONE ARTEFACTS COLLECTED AT
THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN KLEMENTOWICE 315
Joanna Trąbska, Adam Gaweł, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska,
Barbara Trybalska |
ARTEFACTS AND MICRO-ARTEFACTS. RED FERRUGINOUS MATERIALS
FROM KLEMENTOWICE SITE AND ACCOMPANYING MICRO-ARTEFACTS 320
Joanna Trąbska, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Barbara Trybalska |
BLACK CRUST ON THE SURFACE OF AFLINT ARTEFACT FROM KLEMENTOWICE 336
Joanna Trąbska, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Barbara Trybalska |
BLACK CRUSTS ON THE SURFACE OF STONE ARTEFACTS 343
Summary | Tadeusz Wiśniewski 349
ANNEX 353
Tadeusz Wiśniewski, Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska |
Neolithic, Bronze and Modern Age settlement traces
from 1981–1982, 2007–2011 archaeological research at site 20 in Klementowice 355
COLOUR FIGURES 359
355Neolithic, Bronze and Modern Age settlement traces from 1981–1982, 2007–2011…
 ,  -
Neolithic, Bronze and Modern Age settlement
traces from 1981–1982, 2007–2011 archaeological
research at site 20 in Klementowice
In the course of archaeological research at site  in
Klementowcie, apart from the nds associated with
the Magdalenian culture, traces of settlements from
the Neolithic (Funnel Beaker Culture – FBC, Globular
Amphora Culture – GAC), Bronze (Trzciniec Culture
– TC), and Modern (the rst half of the  century)
period have been also discovered.
In the entire history of the research at this site,
atotal of  fragments of ceramics have been dis-
covered, as well as afragment of banded int (Krze-
mionki type) axe and another of stone battle axe, are
int and ashell dating back to WWI or WWII (tab.;
g. –).
e artefacts associated with the aforementioned
cultures and the modern period have also been
recorded within the perimeter of the Magdalenian
site and in its nearest surroundings. e majority
have been found at astretch of about  m east
in astraight line from the site. In  (during the
summer season), six archaeological trenches were
delineated there. e highest number of the nds was
recorded in trench no. /, where artefacts were
discovered within two palaeosolic soils (Mroczek,
Rodzik, in this volume). ey occurred simultane-
ously within two clearly separated culture levels, of
which the bottom one is associated with GAC settle-
ment, and the top one with TC settlement. Asimilar
situation arose in the adjacent trench no. /,
where, however, only one artefacts-bearing palaeo-
solic soil was documented.
In the bottom culture level,  fragments of ceramics
and one fragment of afour-sided axe made of banded
int were discovered (g. :a-b). ermoluminescence
dating (TL) was conducted on one fragment of ceram-
ics, and the obtained age was .±. ka (UG-)
– (Fedorowicz, in this volume) – (g. :c). is dating
can be placed within the period of FBC activity.
In the top culture level,  fragments of ceramics
were discovered –  in trench no. / and  in
trench no. /. Similarly as in the previous case,
one fragment of ceramics was subjected to thermo-
luminescence dating, resulting in an age determina-
tion of .±. ka (UG-) – (Fedorowicz, in this
volume) – (g. :d). It corroborates archaeological
dating that has linked it with the Trzciniec culture.
Few and scattered materials associated with settle-
ment later than the Magdalenian were also discovered
within the arable-humus horizon and on the surface
of the ground.
Based on the analysis of their technological fea-
tures, atotal of  fragments of pottery were attrib-
uted to particular cultures and archaeological periods,
including:  – FBC,  – GAC,  – TC,  – Modern
Age. e remaining  fragments, due to the high
level of erosion and their minor sizes, were labelled
as prehistoric-undetermined.
e banded int axe should most likely be linked
to FBC settlement. is is supported by the strati-
graphic position of the nd and the dating obtained
from the fragment of ceramics discovered in the same
culture level. e stone battle axe could not be attrib-
uted to aparticular cultural unit due to its fragmented
state of preservation.
e dating of  fragment of modern ceramics and
asingle re int could be narrowed down to the rst
half of the  century.
Tab. . Summary of the nds younger than Magdalenian, discovered during archaeological research in –, –
. FBC – Funnel Beaker Culture, GAC – Globular Amphora Culture, TC – Trzciniec Culture.
Type of artefact FBC GAC TC Prehistoric – undetermined Modern Age Tot a l
fragments of ceramics 3 18 44 56 41 162
int tools 1? 1 2
stone tools 1? 1 2
metal artefacts 1 1
356 Tadeusz Wiśniewski, Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska
Fig. . Klementowice, site . Neolithic and Bronze artefacts: a – fragment of a banded int axe; b – reconstruction of an axe (with-
out scale); c – fragment of Funnel Beaker Culture pottery; d – fragment of Trzciniec Culture pottery. Drawn by B. Niezabitowska-
Wiśniewska. Photo by T. Wiśniewski.
During the summer  excavations in trench no.
/ one archaeological object was discovered. It
was interpreted as ashooting trench dated to WWI
or WWII. is is supported by the character of the
ll within this object, as well as ashell found within
it, most likely for aMauser military rie (g. :b-c) –
(Matuszewski, Wojciechowski ). Aerial photo-
graphs (g. :a) have proven extremely helpful in
interpreting the object in question. In them, adistinct,
unnatural and obscure trace can be discerned, about
 m in length and  m in width, oriented along the
SE-NW axis, which most denitely must be acknowl-
edged as part of the WWI or WWII defence system.
e authors would like to thank Marek Florek, PhD, from
the Institute of Archaeology at MCSU in Lublin for consultations
and help.
Aerial photographs were purchased from the Central
Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation in Warsaw
for the purposes of the “Klementowice…” project.
e contemporary residential buildings visible in the
photographs were only erected aer WWII (g. :d).
e traces of settlement from the Neolithic and
Bronze Age, discovered at site  in Klementowice,
may, in comparison with the materials dated as such
and originating from the neighbouring sites in this
locality, be deemed as insignicant (cf. Kowalczyk
, ; Lasota , ; Nogaj-Chachaj ,
; Nosek , a, b, ; Uzarowiczowa
, a, b, c, d, e; a,
b, , , ; Wiśniewski ). However,
cultural attribution of these materials perfectly reects
the cultural situation characteristic for the area of
Klementowice and the entire Nałęczów Plateau, where
Neolithic settlements – chiey FBC and GAC, and
slightly less numerous cultures of the Bronze Age–
predominate, with nearly complete absence of Early
Iron Age, Pre-Romanian Period and Roman Period
settlements.
357Neolithic, Bronze and Modern Age settlement traces from 1981–1982, 2007–2011…
Fig. . e nds from the rst half of the  century from the vicinity of site  in Klementowice: a – re trench from the World War
I or World War II period; b – a fragment of a shell, most likely for a Mauser rie type; c – vertical section of the re trench captured
in the trench no. /; d – fragment of a  map with location of the site marked and visible lack of contemporary buildings.
a – aerial photograph: Archives of the Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation Centre (CODKiG) in Warszawa; b-c – Photo by
T. Wiśniewski; d – map: Puławy, Pas , Słup , scale :  , by Publisher – Military Geographical Institute (WIG). Warszawa, .
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 Pradzieje gminy Kurów, Kurów.
Tadeusz Wiśniewski
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Faculty of Humanities,
Institute of Archaeology;
Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.wisniewski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl
Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Faculty of Humanities,
Institute of Archaeology;
Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
e-mail: barbara.niezabitowska-wisniewska@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Bronze and Modern Age settlement traces from
  • Neolithic
Neolithic, Bronze and Modern Age settlement traces from 1981-1982, 2007-2011…
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, sectio F
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Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland e-mail: tadeusz.wisniewski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Faculty of Humanities
  • Pl
Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland e-mail: tadeusz.wisniewski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Faculty of Humanities, Institute of Archaeology;
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Wiśniewski T. 2012 Pradzieje gminy Kurów, Kurów.
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