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Emsleyfolium diasae n. gen. et n. sp., from the Brazilian, Colombian, Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon is described in this contribution. This new genus is morphologically very similar to Stilpnochlora, but is distinguished from the other Steirodiontini genera by its cone-head (similar to some genera of subfamily Conocephalinae, e.g. Neoconocephalus and Bucrates), modification of the tenth tergite into three lobes and absence of styles on subgenital plate. Thanatosis behavior is described as a defense mechanism.
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Accepted by D. Rentz: 7 Jul. 2016; published: 15 Aug. 2016
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN
1175-5334
(online edition)
Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 4150 (4): 493
500
http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/
Article
493
http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4150.4.6
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A521557A-A81F-4C79-9569-FB17078DE904
A new genus of katydid from the Amazon Rainforest (Orthoptera:
Tettigoniidae; Phaneropterinae; Steirodontini): Ninth contribution to the
suprageneric organization of the Neotropical phaneropterines
OSCAR J. CADENA-CASTAÑEDA
1,4
, DIEGO MATHEUS DE MELLO MENDES
2
& JOÃO RAFAEL ALVES-OLIVEIRA
3
1
Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas. Grupo de Investigación en Artrópodos “Kumangui”. Bogotá-Colombia.
E-mail: ojccorthoptera@gmail.com
2
Laboratório de Entomologia Sistemática, Urbana e Forense. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), CEP 69060-001,
Manaus, AM, Brazil. E-mail: diego.mello.mendes@gmail.com
3
Laboratório de Sistemática e Ecologia de Fauna de Solo. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), CEP 69060-001,
Manaus, AM, Brazil. E-mail: jraoliveira.bio@gmail.com
4
Corresponding author.
Abstract
Emsleyfolium diasae n. gen. et n. sp., from the Brazilian, Colombian, Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon is described in
this contribution. This new genus is morphologically very similar to Stilpnochlora, but is distinguished from the other
Steirodiontini genera by its cone-head (similar to some genera of subfamily Conocephalinae, e.g. Neoconocephalus and
Bucrates), modification of the tenth tergite into three lobes and absence of styles on subgenital plate. Thanatosis behavior
is described as a defense mechanism.
Key words: Phaneropterinae, Stilpnochlora, giant katydids, cone-head, thanatosis, distribution
Resumen
Emsleyfolium diasae n. gen. et n. sp., proveniente de la amazonia brasileña, colombiana, ecuatoriana y peruana, es de-
scrito en la presente contribución. Este nuevo género muy similar en apariencia a Stilpnochlora, se distingue de los demás
géneros de la tribu Steirodontini por la forma de cono del fastigio del vértex (similar a algunos géneros de la subfamilia
Conocephalinae como Neoconocephalus y Bucrates), modificación del décimo terguito en tres lóbulos y ausencia de es-
tilos en la placa subgenital. El comportamiento de tanatosis es descrito como un mecanismo de defensa.
Palabras clave: Phaneropterinae, Stilpnochlora, esperanzas gigantes, cabeza cónica, tanatosis, distribución
Resumo
Emsleyfolium diasae n. gen. et n. sp., da Amazônia do Brasil, Colômbia, Equador e Peru está descrito na presente con-
tribuição. Este novo gênero é muito similar na aparência ao Stilpnochlora, mas se distingue de outros gêneros da tribo
Steirodontini, pela forma de cone do fastígio-vértice (semelhante a alguns gêneros de subfamília Conocephalinae como
Neoconocephalus e Bucrates), modificação do décimo tergito em três lóbulos e na ausência de estilos na placa subgenital.
O comportamento de tanatose é descrito como mecanismo de defesa.
Palavras chave: Phaneropterinae, Stilpnochlora, esperanças gigantes, cabeça cônica, tanatose, distribuição
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Introduction
The Amazon rainforest covers most of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Peru,
Suriname and Venezuela, being one of the largest biodiversity hotspots of the world. This region has a great
diversity of phaneropterine katydids and that is where the greatest number of genera and species have been
reported for the Neotropics (Eades et al., 2016). The tribe Steirodontini, which name refers to the dentate pronotal
carinae typical of the group is no exception, since all genera described to date presented highest species number in
the Amazon Rainforest (Emsley, 1970; Eades et al., 2016).
Currently there are three genera in this tribe, which are Steirodon Serville, 1831, with 33 species, Stilpnochlora
Stål, 1873 with 16 species and Cnemidophyllum Rehn, 1917 with 7 species, (Eades et al., 2016). Although there is
no single character that distinguishes this tribe from others, the morphological similarity of the taxa suggests that
the Steirodontini are a monophyletic group (Emsley, 1970).
This paper describes Emsleyfolium n. gen., a new monotypic genus belonging to the tribe Steirodontini, which
has close similarity to Stilpnochlora Stål, 1873 in its general appearance. The specimens were collected in the
Amazon rainforest of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
This is the ninth contribution in a series of publications of the Neotropical Phaneropterinae and related papers
(Cadena-Castañeda, 2011, 2012, 2013a, 2013b, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015d; Cadena-
Castañeda & Gorochov, 2012, 2013; Gorochov & Cadena-Castañeda, 2015; Sovano & Cadena-Castañeda, 2015;
Cadena-Castañeda et al., 2015), which has as its main objective contribute to the organization of Neotropical
Phaneropterinae at tribal, generic and at specific level.
Material and methods
The studied specimens are deposited in the Colección de Artrópodos y otros Invertebrados de la Universidad
Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, Colombia (CAUD) and Coleção de Invertebrados of Instituto Nacional
de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Brazil (INPA). The side view photographs of the specimens have been
taken using a Nikon D3000 and Sony α-300 digital cameras, with an 18–65 mm macro lens. The other images were
taken with a Leica DFC295 attached on a stereoscopic microscope M205.
The measurements are defined as follows: Body Length (BL), distance from the front to the abdominal apex,
excluding ovipositor; pronotum dorsal length (Pr), maximal distance from the anterior to posterior pronotal
margins; tegmina length (Teg), distance from the humeral sinus to apex; hind femur length (HF), from the base to
the genicular lobes; hind tibiae length (HT), subgenital plate length (SP), distance from its base to its apex.
Results and discussion
Emsleyfolium n. gen.
Diagnosis. Fastigium of vertex conical, extending considerably forward. Lateral margins of the pronotal disc finely
serrated, lateral lobes of pronotum wider than long. Male macropterus, tegmina lanceolate. Tympanum of the
foretibiae mostly covered, both inside and outside. Mid and hind femora latero-laterally flattened, basal half
portion dilated. Tenth tergite modified into three lobes that covers the epiproctus and paraproctus. Cerci simple and
curving inward. Subgenital plate without styli.
Type species: Emsleyfolium diasae n. sp., described below.
Description. Head (Fig. 1B–D). Head more or less elongated. Fastigium of vertex conical, longer than scapus
and pedicellus together, being prolongated towards the front, moderately flattened latero-laterally and frontally
ovoid (longer than wide), partially covered by the lower edge of the apex of the fastigium frontis (the fastigium of
vertex is similar to the species of some genera of the subfamily Conocephalinae as Neoconocephalus Karny, 1907
and Bucrates Burmeister, 1838). Antennae filiform, longer than the body, scapus 2.5 times longer than the
pedicellus. Ocelli rounded and conspicuous, lateral ocelli placed at the base of the fastigium of vertex; frontal
ocelus in the middle of the lower margin of the antennal sockets, well defined and comparatively large. Eyes
globose and middle sized relative to size of the head. Face longer than wide, frons slightly pronounced and smooth,
genae delimited from the frons by the genal carinae; mandibles and clypeus symmetrical. Thorax (Fig. 1C–E).
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Pronotum smooth; pronotal disc flat, metazona wider than prozona and mesozona; anterior margin of pronotal disc
concave and posterior margin rounded; lateral carinae finely denticulate; principal transverse sulcus present and
straight, across from the anterior to the posterior edge. Lateral lobes of pronotum slightly wider than width with a
sulcus delimited the prozona and metazona. Humeral sinus developed. Thoracic auditory spiracle oval, covered in
lateral view by the lateral lobe of pronotum. Prosternum unarmed, meso and metasternal lobes triangular and
elongated, with lateral edges slightly elevated; meso and metasternal medial plate wider than high without
tubercles. Wings (Fig. 1A). In male fully developed. Tegmina coriaceus, elongate, lanceolate, surpassing apices of
hind femora; hindwings slightly protruding from the apex of tegmina. Legs (Fig. 1F–H). Coxal spine of the
forelegs reduced, mid and hind coxae without tubercles or spines. Fore, mid and hind femora armed ventrally only
on inner margin with small serrated denticulations; mid and hind tibiae laterally compressed and dilated in basal
half. Tympanic opening of foretibia mostly covered on inner and outer sides with a narrow, straight slit. Abdomen
(Fig. 1I–K). Dorsal surface of abdominal tergites smooth and unmodified.
Male. Tegmina longer than wide. MA vein extending a little more than half the total length of tegmina; Rs vein
originating on half of the length of the tegmina, R vein with two additional branches near the apex. Tenth tergite
modified with two lateral lobes of similar shapes and one additional central lobe, thinner and a little more
pronounced that the other ones; the tenth tergite covers the epiproctus. Cerci simple, curved upwards and inwards,
covered by numerous bristles. Epiproctus triangular, slightly longer than wide, with a rounded apex. Subgenital
plate rectangular, longer than wide and without styles, instead has two pseudo-styli prolongations.
Female. Unknown.
Distribution. Distributed in amazon region from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Brazil (Fig. 3).
Etymology. The genus name is dedicated to Michael G. Emsley, in recognition of his valuable contribution in
the study of the tribe Steirodiontini and other Phaneropterinae groups. The Latin word: -folium is added (as
termination), which refers to the leaf shape of the tegmina of the species here described.
Comparison. Emsleyfolium n. gen. differs from other Steirodontini (except most Stilpnochlora species and the
subgenus Steirodon (Frontinus), lacking the well-developed spines or teeth in the pronotal disk, in addition of the
conical shape of the fastigium of vertex (not present in the other Steirodontini genera). In general appearance it
resembles Stilpnochlora. Besides that, the new genus has underdeveloped coxal spine of the forelegs, and differs in
not having the whitish band across its face (common in Stilpnochlora species). Also the new genus is distinguished
by having a more covered tibial auditory tympanum than Stilpnochlora species. In addition the tenth tergite is
modified and the subgenital plate does not bear styles.
As to the modification of the terminalia, Emsleyfolium n. gen., has resembles Cnemidophyllum Rehn, 1917
species; but the new genus has pseudo-styli prolongation on its subgenital plate and the tenth tergite modified into
three lobes, covering the epiproctus. In contrast, Cnemidophyllum species has only one species without styles on
the subgenital plate, and the other species have the tenth tergite modified into a single prolongation.
Commentaries. This genus is distinguished by the characters provided in the diagnosis and description, but
being a genus with only one known species, it is possible the discovery of new species, in which case the
description and diagnosis should be amended or supplemented; for example, the shape of the tenth tergite of males
and basal dilatation of the mid and hind tibiae, which may vary in size and shape, as in Cnemidophyllum species.
Emsleyfolium diasae n. sp.
http://lsid.speciesfile.org/urn:lsid:Orthoptera.speciesfile.org:TaxonName:479184
Holotype: ♂. Colombia, Amazonas, PNN Amacayacu, ~170 m. 3°20'29.44"S, 70°12'24.69"W. 9 Nov. 2014. C.
Rodríguez leg. (CAUD).
Paratypes: ♂. Peru, Loreto, Puerto Agustín, Zona Reservada “Yaguas” ~120 m. 2°47'56.29"S,
71°20'56.11"W. 6 Nov. 2014. C. Rodríguez leg. ♂. Ecuador, Orellana, Puerto Ventura, ~190 m. 0°58'38.53"S,
75°25'35.07"W. 22 Feb. 2015. M. González. (CAUD). ♂. Brasil, AM, Presidente Figueiredo, Estrada de Balbina,
km 24, Comunidade São Francisco. 02º 01’ 05’’ S / 59º 49’ 59’’ W. 26.vii–03.viii.2005. F. F. Xavier Fº, G. Lourido,
R. J. P. Machado leg. ♂. Brasil, AM, Presidente Figueiredo, AM – 240, km 24, ramal São Francisco. 02º 00’ 55’’ S
/ 59º 49’ 40’’ W .01–04.viii.2013. Arm. Lençol luz Mista + BLB. F. F. Xavier Fº, A. Agudelo, C. Maldaner & D.
M. M. Mendes leg. Idem. ♂. Brasil, AM, Presidente Figueiredo, AM – 240, km 24, ramal São Francisco. 29–
31.x.2008. Arm. Luz solo. J. A. Rafael, F. F. Xavier Fº, G. Lourido, R. J. P. Machado & E. Amat leg.
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FIGURE 1. Male Emsleyfolium diasae sp. nov. (holotype). A: habitus in dorsal view; B: head in frontal view; C: Head and
pronotum in dorsal view; D: Head and pronotum in lateral view; E: Thoracic sternites in ventral view; F: Fore leg in lateral
view; G: Mid leg in lateral view; H: Hind leg in lateral view; I–K: Terminalia in dorsal, ventral and lateral view respectively.
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FIGURE 2. Stridulatory file Emsleyfolium diasae sp. nov.. A: left file; B: right file.
FIGURE 3. Map of Emsleyfolium diasae sp. nov. geographical record.
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FIGURE 4. Live male Emsleyfolium diasae sp. nov. habitus, from Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil. A: In natural
stance. B: In camouflage stance.
Description. Male. Lower edge and lower half of anterior edge outline of creamy white and slightly expanded
sideways (Fig. 1D); anterior and lower edge of the side lobes gently curved, posterior edge straight until the
humeral sinus (Fig. 1D). Stridulatory vein (CuP vein in dorsal view) as long as two thirds of the posterior edge of
the pronotal disk, slightly curved from the anal to distal border; triangular mirror with a central area ovoid and
membranous. Left stridulatory file convex, 5.3 mm long, its maximum width 0.9 mm. 171 teeth. Basal and apical
teeth small, increasing in size towards central region of file. Teeth from central region of file thick, similar and
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close spaced (Fig 2A). Right stridulatory file concave, 4.5 mm long, its maximum width 0.5 mm. 139 teeth. Basal
and apical teeth small, almost quadrangular and widely spaced. Teeth from central region of file thick and close
spaced (Fig 2B). MA vein distally forked and with two additional branches on half of its length, that go to anal
edge. Tympanum covered by 90–95% on both sides, fore femur armed with three spines, fore tibiae with five
spinules in each ventral margin (Fig. 1F); mid femur with four spines (Fig. 1G), hind femur with a ventral lamina
that has ten spines (Fig. 1H); dorsal margin of the mid and hind tibiae slightly serrate. Tenth tergite covering the
epiproctus and distally divided into three lobes, the central lobe a little longer and thinner than lateral lobes. Cerci
cylindrical, curved upwards and inwards in distal half section. Subgenital plate with cylindrical and robust pseudo-
styli prolongations, neckline of the subgenital plate square with straight distal margin (Fig. 1 I–K).
Female. Unknown.
Coloration (Fig. 4A–B). General coloration green with creamy white stripes and some purple spots. Green
white head. Lateral carinae of the pronotal disc and lower edge of the lateral lobe of pronotum outlined by a thick
and creamy white stripe, midline of pronotal disk slightly delineated in creamy white, in the same way that the Sc,
R, M and MP veins. Eyes, post-ocular stripe, last tarsomere of all legs and inferior edge of metapleura purple.
Basal portion of the tegmina, between Sc vein and costal edge, pigmented in blurred whitish green.
Etymology. Dedicated to our orthopterist colleague Priscila Guimarães Dias.
Measurements (mm) ♂: BL: 57–63; Pr: 8.8–9.1; Teg: 52–54; HF: 25.5–26; HT: 22–24.3; SP: 1.8–2.5.
Distribution. Emsleyfolium diasae sp. nov. seems to be widely distributed in Amazonian Rainforest, being
present at four countries: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru (Fig. 3).
Behavior notes. The Brazilian specimens were collected at night time, using a sheet light by a 250W white
lamp, in Terra Firme dense ombrophilous forest. E. diasae were attracted between the 00:00 till 04:00am interval.
They display a camouflage behavior, in which they lean their heads on the substrate, usually twigs and branches,
elevating the rest of the body with their hind legs, at an approximately 45 degree angle. In this manner, they
camouflage themselves as leaves. The tegmina resemble a leaf blade and the fastigium of vertex a leaf petiole
(Figs. 4A–B). This behavior is similar to that shown by the Phaneropterinae genera Aegimia (Dias et al, 2012) and
Agaurella (Mendes & Alves-Oliveira, 2015). Emsleyfolium differs from Aegimia by its fastigium of vertex conical
rather than flattened and from Agaurella for not having the laminar projections on the fore and mid legs that assists
the individual to conceal the head while in camouflage stance.
When touched, the katydids moved away from the stimulus either walking or jumping, commonly flying
shortly after. After being captured, they loudly stridulate at a high frequency. This defense behavior, displayed
when the individual is restrained is called a distress or disturbance call, and it is common in several insect orders. In
Orthoptera, it is recorded for several families, as Anostostomatidae, Gryllacrididae, Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae,
(Robinson & Hall, 2002). Other Steirodontini, such as Steirodon careovirgulatum Emsley, 1970 also stridulates
loudly when disturbed (Belwood, 1990).
Acknowledgments
The first author would like to thank Alexander García during the academic formation in the District University
Francisco José de Caldas (Bogotá, Colombia), also thanks to the Orthopterists' Society for funding and approval
the Ted Cohn Grant, to the purchase of equipment, which has improved the quality of our work. The second author
would like to thank to Dr. José Albertino Rafael for the orientation and all the work infrastructure provided by the
Laboratório de Sistemática de Diptera do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia—INPA of the FAPEAM
(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas, Edital 016/2006, Proc. 1437/ 2007) and third autor
would like to thank Dr. Elizabeth Franklin, Dr. José Wellington de Moraes and Laboratório de Sistemática e
Ecologia de Invertebrados de Solo - INPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3937.3.10
Stål, C. (1873) Orthoptera nova descriptist. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlinger, 30 (4), 39–53.
... It includes some of the world's largest katydids. With many species the pronotum is armed with teeth or spines (Rehn, 1944;Hebard, 1927;Emsley, 1970;Cadena-Castañeda et al., 2016). The tribe currently includes four genera: Emsleyfolium Cadena-Castañeda et al., 2016;Stilpnochlora Stål, 1873;Steirodon Serville, 1831(comprising four subgenera: Steirodon Serville, 1831Frontinus Stål, 1874;Peucestes Stål, 1874 andPosidippus Stål, 1874) and Cnemidophyllum Rehn, 1917(comprising four subgenera: Cnemidophyllum Rehn, 1917Eupeucestes Hebard, 1927;Peucestoides Hebard, 1927 andPeucestophyllum Emsley, 1970). ...
... With many species the pronotum is armed with teeth or spines (Rehn, 1944;Hebard, 1927;Emsley, 1970;Cadena-Castañeda et al., 2016). The tribe currently includes four genera: Emsleyfolium Cadena-Castañeda et al., 2016;Stilpnochlora Stål, 1873;Steirodon Serville, 1831(comprising four subgenera: Steirodon Serville, 1831Frontinus Stål, 1874;Peucestes Stål, 1874 andPosidippus Stål, 1874) and Cnemidophyllum Rehn, 1917(comprising four subgenera: Cnemidophyllum Rehn, 1917Eupeucestes Hebard, 1927;Peucestoides Hebard, 1927 andPeucestophyllum Emsley, 1970). Currently 57 valid species are recognized (Eades et. ...
... Both authors included the "Phaneropteriden monography" by Brunner von Wattenwyl (1878Wattenwyl ( , 1891, laying the foundation for the review of the tribe by Emsley (1970), who organized the genera and subgenera, delimited species into species groups, and provided distributional data based on specimens examined by the author. Subsequently, Nickle (1985) -Castañeda, 2012-Castañeda, , 2014a-Castañeda, , 2014b-Castañeda, , 2014c-Castañeda, , 2015a-Castañeda, , 2015b-Castañeda, , 2015c-Castañeda, , 2015dCadena-Castañeda et al., 2016), whose main objective is to contribute to the subfamily's organization at tribal, generic and specific level. The present contribution includes the descriptions of a new genus and a new species, two new combinations and synonyms and an updated key to genera. ...
Article
The tribe of the giant katydids Steirodontini is reviewed, its relationship with other groups of Phaneropterinae from the Old and New World is discussed, and an updated key to genera is presented. Nicklephyllum n. gen. is established to accommodate one species described as Stilpnochlora acanthonotum Nickle, 1985 from Colombia. Cnemidophyllum tani n. sp. from the Colombian Amazon is described. Another new combination and two synonymies are proposed: Steirodon (Frontinus) emsleyi (Piza, 1979) n. comb., Steirodon (Posidippus) parastahli Piza, 1979 n. syn. (of Steirodon (Steirodon) ponderosum Stål, 1873), and Steirodon (Posidippus) tricenarius (Piza, 1974) n. syn. (of Steirodon (Frontinus) rufolineatum Emsley, 1970). Finally, Steirodon (Posidippus) rarospinulosum (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1891), only known from Peru, is reported from the Colombian Amazon
... A biogeographical analysis is also provided, based on the results of the licenciatura thesis of the first author, directed by the two coauthors (Cadena-Castañeda 2013c). This is the sixth part of the studies on the tribe Dysoniini (Cadena-Castañeda 2011b;2013a, b, c;Cadena-Castañeda & Gorochov 2012 and the eleventh contribution in a series of publications on the Neotropical Phaneropterinae concerned with the subfamily's organization at tribal, generic, and specific level (Cadena-Castañeda 2012, 2014a,b,c,d 2015a,b,c,d,e, 2016Cadena-Castañeda et al. 2016b). ...
Article
The tribe Dysoniini is widely distributed in the Neotropics, ranging from northeastern Mexico across Central and South America to northern Argentina. In the latter subcontinent it is most diverse. These tettigoniids are remarkable for their lichen- and bryophyte-mimicking camouflage and for having a particularly elevated vertex, which is unusual in the family Phaneropterinae. A cladistic analysis for 23 terminal taxa has been performed (20 in the ingroup and 3 in the outgroup), using 76 morphological and ecological characters in order to prove monophyly of the following genera and tribes: Hammatoferina n. subtr. (including Hammatofera), Markiina n. subtr. (Machimoides (Machima (Apolinaria (Lichenodraculus + Markia)))) and Dysoniina n. stat. (Quiva (Yungasacris (Dissonulichen (Alexanderellus n. gen. (Paraphidnia + Anaphidna) (Dysonia (Lichenomorphus + Lichenodentix)))))). The tribe’s genera resulted as monophyletic, except for Dysonia sensu Gorochov, so it was necessary to revalidate generic status for Dissonulichen n. stat. to recover monophyly for Dysonia. The three aforementioned subtribes and a new subgenus Dissonulichospinus n. subgen. (within Dissonulichen n. stat.) are proposed, as well as five new combinations of species so far included in Dysonia: Alexanderellus mariposa n. comb., Dissonulichen diffusus n. comb., D. ornatus n. comb., D. elegans n. comb. and Lichenomorphus pirani n. comb. Four species names are considered as synonyms: Hammatofera brasiliensis n. syn. (under H. nodicornis), Dysonia similis n. syn. (under Dissonulichen minensis), Dysonia cuiabensis n. syn. (under Dissonulichen hebardi) and Lichenomorphus nigriventer n. syn. (under L. puntifrons). Dysonia lamellipes is considered a nomen dubium. Characters referring to camouflage, mimicry, and behaviors associated with these adaptative preferences were optimized. Optimizations for structural phylogenies were indicated on each of the optimized characters, displaying nodes in which the different optimizations by characters differ. Characters analyzed on the ambulatory behavior of the studied taxa are closely related to the type of mimicry or camouflage occurring in each group, so those taxa that camouflage in foliose lichen move in a slow, circumspect fashion, contrasting to taxa mimicking crustose or fruticose lichen, which simulate lichen parts stirred by a breeze. This most effective strategy makes them almost impossible to spot in their natural habitat. Likewise, species with wasp mimicry tend to show behaviors that make their imitation strategy more efficient. The ancestral state of the tribe is a phyllomorphic type (leaf camouflage) as is usual in most genera of the family Phaneropterinae. The appearance of camouflage and mimicry in the species of the tribe is discussed, and how these converge with taxa of other areas of the planet. The relationship between optimized characters is then grouped in the most parsimonious tree, indicating frequency and relation between taxa and characters. A biogeographic dispersal-vicariance analysis of the tribe’s genera indicates that the ancestral area is in the Brazilian Shield as the only resulting ancestral distribution, with a secondary center of radiation in the Andes. Four vicariant events are postulated: 1) The differentiation of some genera by the rising of the Andes, 2) forming a barrier between species groups of the genus Markia. 3) Expansion from the ancestral area towards the Amazon and 4) the Andes. Diagnoses and a pictorial key to the identification of all genera, plus conventional keys for identification of all species are provided, along with distribution maps. A list presents all taxa of the tribe within the proposed classification, including distribution data, depositories of type specimens, and additional comments.
... Taxonomic distribution TI has been described-often anecdotally-in a wide range of taxa, but there remain relatively few papers presenting quantitative accounts of the phenomenon. In the invertebrates, it has been suggested to occur (at least) in: crustaceans, stick insects, spiders, butterflies, stoneflies, water-scorpions, cicadas, crickets, mites, beetles, damselfly larvae, ants, bees and wasps (see Cassill et al. 2008 for a partial list and references, and the following for a few more recent invertebrate examples: Coutinho et al. 2013;Ritter et al. 2016;Cadena-Castañeda et al. 2016;Neves and Pie 2017). In the vertebrates, it has been recorded in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (again, see Cassill et al. 2008 for a partial list and references, and the following for a few more recent vertebrate examples: Gally et al. 2012;Marques et al. 2013;Sannolo et al. 2014;Batista et al. 2015;Muscat et al. 2016;Sanchéz Paniagua and Abarca 2016;Patel et al. 2016;de Castro et al. 2017;Freret-Meurer et al. 2017). ...
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Thanatosis—also known as death-feigning and, we argue more appropriately, tonic immobility (TI)—is an under-reported but fascinating anti-predator strategy adopted by diverse prey late on in the predation sequence, and frequently following physical contact by the predator. TI is thought to inhibit further attack by predators and reduce the perceived need of the predator to subdue prey further. The behaviour is probably present in more taxa than is currently described, but even within well-studied groups the precise taxonomic distribution is unclear for a number of practical and ethical reasons. Here we synthesise the key studies investigating the form, function, evolutionary and ecological costs and benefits of TI. This review also considers the potential evolutionary influence of certain predator types in the development of the strategy in prey, and the other non-defensive contexts in which TI has been suggested to occur. We believe that there is a need for TI to be better appreciated in the scientific literature and outline potentially profitable avenues for investigation. Future use of technology in the wild should yield useful developments for this field of study. Significance statement Anti-predatory defences are crucial to many aspects of behavioural ecology. Thanatosis (often called death-feigning) has long been an under-appreciated defence, despite being taxonomically and ecologically widespread. We begin by providing much-needed clarification on both terminology and definition. We demonstrate how apparently disparate observations in the recent literature can be synthesised through placing the behaviour within a cost-benefit framework in comparison to alternative behavioural choices, and how aspects of the ecology differentially affect costs and benefits. Extending this, we provide novel insights into why the evolution of thanatosis can be understood in terms of coevolution between predators and prey. We offer further novel hypotheses, and discuss how these can be tested, focussing on how emerging technologies can be of great use in developing our understanding of thanatosis in free-living animals.
... Almost all of these records are the type localities of the original species description. Recent studies on Tettigoniidae ( Cadena-Castañeda et al., 2016;Mendes et al., 2016;Tavares et al., 2016;Mendes et al., 2017) and Grylloidea ( Martins et al., 2013Martins et al., , 2014) in the Brazilian Amazon have shown the great potential for the discovery and description of new Amazonian taxa, primarily for groups that have been historically neglected as crickets. Souza-Dias & Desutter Grandcolas (2014) proposed the Aracambiae group to include the genera of Luzarinae characterized by the development of phallic glands within the pseudepiphallic sclerite of male phallic complex associated with a pair of tubular pseudepiphallic arms. ...
Article
A new genus and two new species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) are described from the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil and Colombia. Desutterella manauara n. gen. n. sp. and D. colombiana n. gen. n. sp. are described based in characters of external morphology and genitalia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of reduced and pubescent male forewings, with stridulatory vein visible but other areas for sound production and propagation absent, and file teeth very reduced, vestigial. Regarding the male genitalia, Desutterella n. gen. presents an extra projection in the pseudepiphallic paramere 2, a condition not observed in the Aracambiae until now. Besides the description, we provide morphological evidence for the glandular nature of the metanotum of males through scanning electron microscopy analysis, a discussion about the morphological and genital features of this new genus, and a distribution map of the Aracambiae group.
... A biogeographical analysis is also provided, based on the results of the licenciatura thesis of the first author, directed by the two coauthors (Cadena-Castañeda 2013c). This is the sixth part of the studies on the tribe Dysoniini (Cadena-Castañeda 2011b;2013a, b, c;Cadena-Castañeda & Gorochov 2012 and the eleventh contribution in a series of publications on the Neotropical Phaneropterinae concerned with the subfamily's organization at tribal, generic, and specific level (Cadena-Castañeda 2012, 2014a,b,c,d 2015a,b,c,d,e, 2016Cadena-Castañeda et al. 2016b). ...
Thesis
Se realiza un estudio filogenético, biogeográfico y taxonómico para la tribu Dysoniini. En el análisis cladistico se usó 81 caracteres y 23 taxones terminales, este se realizó con el fin de probar la monofilia de la tribu y construir una hipótesis filogenética. El análisis demostró la monofilia de la tribu con un único árbol más parsimonioso con L: 170, CI: 0,806, CR: 0.911 así como la relación entre sus géneros (Hammatofera ((Machima + Machimoides) (Apolinaria (Lichenodraculus + Markia)) (Quiva (Yungasacris (Dissonulichen (Alexanderellus (Paraphidnia + Anaphidnia) (Dysonia (Lichenomorphus + Lichenodentix)))))). Se proponen 3 nuevas subtribus, 5 géneros nuevos, 33 especies nuevas, 5 sinonimias y 18 nuevas combinaciones a nivel específico. Claves, diagnosis, datos distribucionales se presentan para la tribu, subtribus, grupos, géneros y especies, estas son acompañadas con figuras y comentarios taxonómicos o notas biológicas de las especies. Se optimiza los caracteres ecológicos usados en la filogenia, para proporcionar una hipótesis acerca del origen y diversificación del camuflaje, mimetismo y comportamientos derivados del grupo, discutiendo posibles escenarios de aparición y diversificación de aquellos caracteres y la relación entre los mismos. Se realiza un estudio biogeográfico, el cual permitió proponer como área de distribución ancestral el sur-oriente de Brasil, sobre la región del Paraná, primer foco de diversificación el centro de la transición sudamericana, tercer foco de diversificación el pie de monte amazónica del norte de Perú, Ecuador y sur de Colombia, mediante la metodología de árboles libres de paralogía, con algunas modificaciones aquí expuestas y reforzada con una optimización de áreas sobrepuestas en la filogenia de la tribu. Estudios de esta naturaleza son importantes para el conocimiento de la biodiversidad, y este conocimiento es importante para la conservación de la entomofauna Neotrópical.
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Two genera of the American Phaneropterinae are discussed: Viadana Walker, 1869; Tomeophera Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878. The former tribe Viadanini is considered as a subtribe (Viadanina Cadena-Castañeda, 2012, stat. nov.) including Viadana, Tomeophera and two other possible genera only; for the genus Anaulacomera Stål, 1873, a separate subtribe (Anaulacomerina Brunner-Warttenwyl, 1878, stat. nov.) is proposed. The genus Ctenophlebia Stål, 1874, gen. resurr. as well as V. transversa Walker, 1869, sp. resurr. and T. piracicabensis (Piza, 1971), sp. resurr. are restored from synonymy to Viadana, C. myrtifolia (Linnaeus, 1758) and T. modesta Brunner-Wattemwyl, 1891, respectively; two former genera are included in the genus Viadana as its subgenera Paraviadana Piza, 1980, stat. nov. and Proviadana Hebard, 1933, stat. nov.; and V. griffini (Giglio-Tos, 1897), comb. nov. is transferred to the latter genus from the genus Tomeophera. The following new taxa (43) from Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, French Guiana and Guatemala are described: Arcuadana subgen. nov. (in the genus Viadana); V. (V.) hamata sp. nov.; V. (V.) semihamata sp. nov.; V. (V.) ultrahamata sp. nov.; V. (V.) obliqua sp. nov.; V. (V.) satipo sp. nov .; V. (V.) bulbosa sp. nov.; V. (V.) biloba sp. nov.; V. (V.) aguarico sp. nov.; V. (V.) amboro sp. nov.; V. (V.) piracicabae strelnikovi subsp. nov.; V. (V.) brasiliensis mercadoi subsp. nov.; V. (V.) diegomendesi sp. nov.; V. (A.) cusco sp. nov.; V. (A.) dentata sp. nov.; V. (A.) abbreviata sp. nov.; V. (A.) nulla sp. nov.; V. (A.) appendiculata sp. nov.; V. (A.) ordinaria sp. nov .; V. (A.) o. signata subsp. nov.; V. (A.) decora sp. nov.; V. (A.) arcuata sp. nov.; V. (A.) tristis sp. nov.; V. (A.) barrancoi sp. nov.; V. (A.) brunneri sp. nov.; V. (A.) hebardi sp. nov.; V. (Paraviadana) intermedia sp. nov.; V. (P.) i. atalaya subsp. nov.; V. (P.) cercata sp. nov.; V. (P.) c. cuyabeno subsp. nov.; V. (P.) napo sp. nov.; V. (P.?) aenigma sp. nov.; V. (Proviadana) ornata sp. nov.; V. (Pr.) lobulata sp. nov.; V. (Pr.) proxima sp. nov.; V. (Pr.) illobulata sp. nov.; V. (Pr.) taediosa sp. nov.; V. (Pr.) guatemalensis sp. nov.; T. semilata sp. nov.; T. s. boliviana subsp. nov.; T. ucayali sp. nov.; T. australis sp. nov.; T. modesta angusta subsp. nov. Lectotype for V. (A.) difformis (Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1878) is designated; male of V. (A.) fruhstorferi (Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1891) is described for the first time.
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Se propone a Phyllopterini n. stat. y Plagiopleurini n. stat & n. sensu como tribus nuevas de Phaneropterinae. Se describen dos nuevas subtribus (Uberabina n. subtr. y Phyllopterina n. subtr.), cinco géneros: Cephalophylloptera n. gen., Hyperphorina n. gen., Julchiella n. gen., Resecabimus n. gen. y Raggeiella n. gen.; doce nuevas especies: Phylloptera inmaculata n. sp., P. servilli n. sp., Arota parafestae n. sp., A. parabinotata n. sp., Itarissa guatemalensis n. sp., I. brimmed n. sp., Phrixa guatemalensis n. sp., P. mexicanensis n. sp., Hyperphrona forcips n. sp., H. brunneri n. sp., H. stali n. sp. y Parableta maculosa n. sp. Dos géneros y 24 especies son propuestos como sinónimos: Godmanella n. syn., Symmetropleura n. syn., boliviana n. syn., S. laevicauda n. syn., S. fausta n. syn., Prosagoga opaca n. syn., Itarissa crassa n. syn., Phylloptera erosifolia n. syn., P. lenkoi n. syn., P. simpla n. syn., P. laevigatus n. syn., P. proxima n. syn., P. neotenella n. syn., P. alliedea syn., P. incognita n. syn., P. modesta n. syn., P. breviramulosa n. syn., Parableta zenirae n. syn., Arota rosaura n. syn., Ctenophlebia granulosa n. syn., Phrixa hoegei n. syn., P. schumanni n. syn., P. sima n. syn., P. bidentata n. syn., Khaoyaiana nitens n. syn. y Plagiopleura arbustorum n. syn. 32 nuevas combinaciones son propuestas: Arota binotata n. comb., A. festae comb., A. lineamentis n. comb., A. nitidula n. comb., A. panamae n. comb., A. pisifolia n. comb., Cephalophylloptera brevifolia n. comb., C. gracilipes n. comb., C. peruviana n. comb., C. spinulosa n. comb., Hyperphorina abnormis n. comb., Itarissa laevis n. comb., I. tarda n. comb., Julchiella chelata n. comb., J. aberrans n. comb., Metaprosagoga strigipennis n. comb., biornata n. comb., Phylloptera abreviata n. comb., P. affinis n. comb., P. bariana n. comb., P. nitidula n. comb., P. vaginalis n. comb., P. difficilis n. comb., P. dubitata n. comb., P. riparia n. comb., P. insularis n. comb., P. tenellus n. comb., Resecabimus arata n. comb., Hyperphrona digramma n. comb., Anaulacomera contracta n. comb., Parapyrrhicia madagassus comb., y Khaoyaiana ambigua n. comb. Se proporcionan claves de géneros para cada tribu aquí estudiada, claves para grupos de especies de Phylloptera y Metaprosagoga y para las especies de Phrixa. Adicionalmente se estudia el género Symmetropleura y se resuelve el estatus de las especies americanas y africanas, todas transferidas o sinonimizadas; el género Symmetropleura, pasa a ser un sinónimo formal de Diplophyllus n. stat. También se discute acerca de los actos taxonómicos realizados en esta contribución. Finalmente se listan los géneros y especies incluidas en cada tribu, indicando sus respectivos cambios nomenclaturales, aportando además comentarios sobre el estatus y perspectivas de algunos taxones.
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Phyllopterini n. stat. y Plagiopleurini n. stat & n. sensu are proposed as new tribes of Phaneropterinae. Two new subtribes (Uberabina n. subtr. and Phyllopterina n. subtr.), five genera: Cephalophylloptera n. gen., Hyperphorina n. gen., Julchiella n. gen., Resecabimus n. gen. and Raggeiella n. gen.; and twelve species are described: Phylloptera inmaculata n. sp., P. servilli n. sp., Arota parafestae n. sp., A. parabinotata n. sp., Itarissa guatemalensis n. sp., I. brimmed n. sp., Phrixa guatemalensis n. sp., P. mexicanensis n. sp., Hyperphrona forcips n. sp., H. brunneri n. sp., H. stali n. sp. and Parableta maculosa n. sp. Two genera and 24 species are synonymized: Godmanella n. syn., Symmetropleura n. syn., S. boliviana n. syn., S. laevicauda n. syn., S. fausta n. syn., Prosagoga opaca n. syn., Itarissa crassa n. syn., Phylloptera erosifolia n. syn., P. lenkoi n. syn., P. simpla n. syn., P. laevigatus n. syn., P. proxima n. syn., P. neotenella n. syn., P. alliedea n. syn., P. incognita n. syn., P. modesta n. syn., P. breviramulosa n. syn., Parableta zenirae n. syn., Arota rosaura n. syn., Ctenophlebia granulosa n. syn., Phrixa hoegei n. syn., P.. schumanni n. syn., P. sima n. syn., P. bidentata n. syn., Khaoyaiana nitens n. syn. and Plagiopleura arbustorum n. syn. 32 new combinations are proposed: Arota binotata n. comb., A. festae n. comb., A. lineamentis n. comb., A. nitidula n. comb., A. panamae n. comb., A. pisifolia n. comb., Cephalophylloptera brevifolia n. comb., C. gracilipes n. comb., C. peruviana n. comb., C. spinulosa n. comb., Hyperphorina abnormis n. comb., Itarissa laevis n. comb., I. tarda n. comb., Julchiella chelata n. comb., J. aberrans n. comb., Metaprosagoga strigipennis n. comb., M. biornata n. comb., Phylloptera abreviata n. comb., P. affinis n. comb., P. bariana n. comb., P. nitidula n. comb., P. vaginalis n. comb., P. difficilis n. comb., P. dubitata n. comb., P. riparia n. comb., P. insularis n. comb., P. tenellus n. comb., Resecabimus arata n. comb., Hyperphrona digramma n. comb., Anaulacomera contracta n. comb., Parapyrrhicia madagassus n. comb., and Khaoyaiana ambigua n. comb. Keys to the genera of the tribes here proposed, key to the Phylloptera and Metaprosagoga species group and to the Phrixa species are given. Additionally the genus Symmetropleura is studied and the status of the American and African species is resolved, all transferred or synonymized. The genus Symmetropleura, becomes a Diplophyllus n. stat. formal synonymous. In addition the taxonomic acts proposed in this contribution are discussed. Finally, the genera and species in each tribe are listed, with their respective nomenclatural changes and comments on the status and perspectives of some taxa.
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Se describen cinco especies nuevas: Montezumina lineata n. sp., M. quadripunctata n. sp., (Pycnopalpini), Ischyra magna n. sp., I. walkeri n. sp., Microcentrum scudderi n. sp. y Petaloptera leroyae n. sp. (Microcentrini). Se propone M. bruneri n. nom. como nuevo nombre para M. modesta, y se sinonimiza a M. ocularis n. syn. bajo M. latipennis. Finalmente, se realiza una breve revisión del género Petaloptera, redescribiendo las especies previamente descritas y sinonimizando a P. confusa n. syn., bajo P. filia.
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Se proponen Scudderiini n. stat., Ectemnini n. trib. y Percynini n. trib. como tribus nuevas de Phaneropterinae. Se describe un género nuevo y ocho especies nuevas: Caroliniella rosea n. gen. et n. sp., Ceraia magna n. sp., Ceraiaella zebrina n. sp., Homotoicha amazoniensis n. sp., Homotoicha orlandoi n. sp., Scudderia florae n. sp., Ectemna melici n. sp. y Euthyrrhachis griffini n. sp. Cuatro géneros son sinonimizados (Ligocatinus Rehn, 1901 n. syn., Ctenophorema Piza, 1967 n. syn., Polyurena Piza, 1967 n. syn., Hebardius Piza, 1980 n. syn.), trece especies son propuestas como sinónimos, y se propone nueve combinaciones nuevas, dos combinaciones revividas y un nombre nuevo: Ceraia tresmariae n. syn., Ctenophorema balneare n. syn., Hebardius rubrovittatus n. syn., Polyurena precaria n. syn., P. hexacercata n. syn., Theudoria. catalao n. syn., T. nigrolineata n. syn., T. cinctipes n. syn. Scudderia bivittata n. syn., S. surinama n. syn., S. trombetana n. syn., S. williamsi n. syn., Z. acreana Piza, 1973 n. syn., Ceraia beckeri n. comb., C. paraensis n. comb. C. salesopolensis n. comb. Euthyrrhachis consobrina n. comb., Homotoicha similis n. comb. H. spinatus n. comb., Anaulacomera pallens n. comb., A. longicercata n. comb., Montezumina latipennis n. comb., T. jahyrae reinst. stat., E. gracilis reinst. stat. y E. gigliotosi n. nomb. Se suministran claves de géneros para cada tribu aquí propuesta y una clave para especies de los géneros Homotoicha y Theudoria. Adicionalmente se discute acerca de los actos taxonómicos realizados en esta contribución. Finalmente se listan los géneros y especies incluidas en cada tribu, indicando sus respectivos cambios nomenclaturales, aportando además comentarios sobre el estatus y perspectivas de algunos taxones.
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A regional study is performed for the Amazonian species of the genus Microcentrum Scudder, 1862, its proposed Microcentrum punctifrons Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1891 as nomen dubium n. stat. and two new species are described: Microcentrum amacayacu Cadena-Casteñada, Sovano n. sp. and Microcentrum xavieri Sovano, Cadena-Casteñada n. sp. the Colombian and Brazilian Amazon, respectively. A list and a key to the Amazonian species are also provided, along with a discussion on their distribution, according to endemism areas established to Amazon rainforest
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The present review establishes Microcentrini stat. nov. (formerly the Microcentra group) and Amblycoryphini stat. nov. (formerly the Amblycoryphae group) as new tribes of Phaneropterinae. Five new species are described in the Microcentrini stat. nov.: Ischyra policromica n. sp., Microcentrum lobophylloides n. sp., Microcentrum stridulomaculosa n. sp., Syntechna lineata n. sp., Syntechna monzoni n. sp., and two new species in the Amblycoryphini stat. nov.: Orophus amazonicus n. sp. and Orophus andinus n. sp. Seven new combinations, eight new synonyms, six reinstated combinations (reinst. stat.) and a nomen dubium status are proposed: Rossophyllum clausum n. syn., Microcentrum triangulatum n. syn., M. bicentenarium n. syn., M. linki n. syn., M. divisa n. syn., Orophus aztecus n. syn., Orophus precarius n. syn., Amblycorypha tepaneca n. syn., Anapolisia micromargaritifera n. comb., A. zonata n. comb., Turpilia plana n. comb., Lamprophyllum otomius n. comb., Microcentrum acorifolius n. comb., M. peruvianus n. comb., Orophus guatemalae n. comb., Microcentrum cribrosus reinst. stat., M. decorates reinst. stat., M. elephas reinst. stat., M. erosus reinst. stat., M. ligatus reinst. stat. M. martinicus reinst. stat., and Microcentrum costaricense nomen dubium. Keys to the genera of both tribes and a key to the species of the genera Orophus and Syntechna are given. Additionally, the taxonomic problems of the genera Orophus and Microcentrum are discussed. Finally, the genera and species in each tribe are listed, with their respective nomenclatural changes and comments on the status and perspectives of some taxa.
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