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Emblica officinalis (Amla, EO, and E. officinalis) is one of the most important herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, especially Ayurveda and also known as the king of all medicinal plants. EO is famous ayurvedic herb (the name means sour in Sanskrit) is likely one of the most useful drug treatments within the Indian pharmacopoeia, and is considered to be one of the most strongest uvenatives (Rasayana), particularly for the blood, bones, liver, and heart. It is an exceptionally rich source of vitamin C containing 30 times the amount found in oranges. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. EO (Amla) is widely used in the ayurvedic medicines and believed to increase defense or immune power against diseases. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the “fruit.” The fruit is rich in quercetin, phyllemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. A wide range of phytochemical components including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and tannins have been shown to possess useful biological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of EO as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumor, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory activities, anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, inhibitory effects, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, hair growth tonic, wound healing activities, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and many other traditional uses of the plant. The present study also includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytoconstituent, and physico-chemical evaluation.
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Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016 ISSN- 2321-6824
TRADITIONAL INDIAN HERB EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND ITS MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE
PUSHPENDRA KUMAR JAIN1*, DEBAJYOTI DAS2, NALINI PANDEY1, PRACHI JAIN3
1Department of Pharmacy, Naraina Vidya Peeth Group of Institutions, Panki, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2Department of Pharmacy,
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar - 751 030, Odisha, India. 3 Department of Life Science,
Dr. Virendra Swarup Education Centre, Panki, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Email: jainpk1443@gmail.com
Received: 21 June 2016, Revised and Accepted: 09 July 2016
ABSTRACT
Emblica officinalis (Amla, EO, and E. officinalis) is one of the most important herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, especially Ayurveda and
also known as the king of all medicinal plants. EO is famous ayurvedic herb (the name means sour in Sanskrit) is likely one of the most useful drug
treatments within the Indian pharmacopoeia, and is considered to be one of the most strongest uvenatives (Rasayana), particularly for the blood,
bones, liver, and heart. It is an exceptionally rich source of vitamin C containing 30 times the amount found in oranges. It is one of the oldest oriental
medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. EO (Amla) is widely used in the ayurvedic medicines and believed to
increase defense or immune power against diseases. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is
the “fruit.” The fruit is rich in quercetin, phyllemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C and also contains various
polyphenolic compounds. A wide range of phytochemical components including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and tannins have
been shown to possess useful biological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of EO as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic,
antitumor, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory activities, anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, inhibitory effects, antidepressant,
antiulcerogenic, hair growth tonic, wound healing activities, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and many other traditional
uses of the plant. The present study also includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytoconstituent, and physico-chemical evaluation.
Keywords: Amla, Emblica officinalis, Vitamin C, Ayurvedic medicines, Hair growth tonic, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Phytoconstituent, Physico-chemical,
Macroscopy, Microscopy, Traditional uses.
INTRODUCTION
At present, approximately 70% of the arena population is depending on
medicinal herbs. Medicinal plants contain so many chemical substances
which can be the principal supply of therapeutic sellers to healing
human diseases [1]. Emblica officinalis (EO) or Indian goose berry is
also known as the king of all medicinal crops. It is most important drug
in Indian ordinary approach, primarily Ayurveda. It has occupied an
important location in ayurvedic drugs.
EO has lengthy been and stays greatly preferred in India, and the extract
is consumed as a nutraceutical in more than a few meals, two rasayana
merchandise, chyawanprash and triphala, contain amla because the
predominant ingredient. Chyavanprash is a natural gel or paste that
contains as a rule EO berries with other herbal constituents and is used
daily via thousands of millions of Asians as a basic panacea tonic for the
whole family. Not most effective is EO largely consumed in India, but it
surely has been famous to be used in over 20 nations of the world for
health advantages [2].
EO (amla) is a deciduous tree belongs to family Euphorbiaceae [3]. It
also reward on the hill slopes up to 200 m. It is commercially cultivated
within the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is also grown in Tamil Nadu,
Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. Dried fruits, contemporary fruits, seed,
leaves, root bark, and plant life of EO (amla) are regularly used in drug
treatments. EO (amla) is the medium measurement deciduous plant.
It grows to the peak of 8-18 m with thin, gentle gray bark. Its flower
is yellow-greenish in color. The fruit is spherical faded yellow with
six vertical furrows enclosing six trigonous seeds in two seeded three
crustaceous cocci. The traditional weight of the fruit is 20-25 g. It has a
gray bark and reddish wood. Its leaves are feathery, linear rectangular
in form, and scent-like lemon. Its wood is difficult in texture.
EO (amla) is particularly nutritious and is among the richest sources
of diet C, amino acids, and minerals [4]. It is an especially rich supply
of diet C containing 30 occasions the quantity discovered in oranges.
The suitable for eating EO (amla) fruit tissue has three occasi ons the
protein concentration and 160 instances the ascorbic acid awareness
of an apple. The fruit additionally includes higher awareness of most
minerals and amino acids than apples. EO (amla) fruit ash includes
chromium, zinc, and copper. It is considered as adaptogenic tha t
improves immunity. It contains a number of chemical ingredients
such as tannins, alkaloids, phenols, and plenty of more [5]. Am ong all
hydrolysable tannins, emblicanin A and B, gallic acid, and ellagic acid
are reported to own biological endeavor.
Just about all components possess medicinal properties, notably
fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a strong rasayana and
in customary treatment within the therapy of diarrhea, jaundice,
inflammation, and a number of other illnesses [6]. EO (amla) fruit
is generally used in the Indian system of medicine as on my own
or in mixture with different crops fresh fruit is refrigerant, diuretic,
and laxative. Fruit can be carminative and stomachic. Dried fruit
is sour and astringent. Bark is act as astringent and containing
leukodelphinidin, tannin, and proanthocyanidin. The herb is
also aphrodisiac, hemostatic, nutritive tonic, and rejuvenative.
It raises red blood mobile count [3]. The fruits are valuable in
vitiated stipulations of tridosah, diabetes, cough, bronchial asthma,
bronchitis, cephalalgia, ophthalmopathy, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence,
hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, erysipelas, skin diseases, leprosy,
hematogenesis, inflammations, anemia, emaciation, hepatopathy,
jaundice, strangury, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages, leukorrhea,
menorrhagia, cardiac problems, intermittent fevers, and grayness
of hair or hair loss [7-9]. The fermented liquor from the fruits is
used in dyspepsia, jaundice, and cough. Exudation from incision on
the fruit is used as an external utility for the infection of the eye.
Because of wealthy diet C, EO (amla) is used in the healing of human
scurvy. It is also precious in neutralizing snake venom and act as an
antimicrobial agent [10]. EO (amla) is utilized in sauces, candy, dried
chips, pickle, jellies, and powder. It is even used within the dyeing
Review Article
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
industry. It extract is popularly used within the ink. EO (amla)
timber is almost always utilized in firework [3].
TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION
Class: Dicotyledonae
Division: Angiospermae
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Emblica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Geraniales
Species: Oficinalis Geartn.
Synonym: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
VERNACULAR NAMES OF EO
Assam: Amlaku, amalaki, amalakhu
Bengali: Dhatri
Chinese: An mole
English: Emblic myrobalan, Indian goose berry
French: Phyllanthe emblica
German: Amla
Gujarati: Ambla
Hindi: Amla
Italian: Mirabolano emblico
Kannada: Nellikayi
Karnataka: Nellikayi, bela nelli
Kashmir: Aonla
Malayalam: Nelli kayi
Malaysian: Popok melaka
Marathi: Amla
Orissa: Anala, Ainla
Punjabi: Aula, Amla
Sanskrit: Dhatriphala, amla, amaliki, amalakan, sriphalam, vayastha
Tamil: Nelli
Telugu: Usirikaya.
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
EO (amla) is observed for the duration of the Deccan, sea-coasts
districts, Kashmir and on hill slopes up to 200 m. It is common far and
wide tropical and sub-tropical India and likewise observed in Burma.
It is abundant within the deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh. It
additionally grows in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh,
South East Asia, China, and Malaysia [11]. With orchard cultivation,
about 200 trees can also be accommodated per acre, and trees endure
fruit for up to 65-70 years.
PLANT MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
EO (amla) is a small- to medium-sized tree with greenish-gray or red
bark, growing to a height of about 8-18 m [12]. Flowering in March to
May and fruiting from September to November.
Bark
Thin light gray bark exfoliating in small thin irregular flakes (Fig. 1) [13].
Flowers
Small, inconspicuous, greenish-yellow flowers are borne in compact
clusters in the axils of the lower leaves. Male flowers are unisexual and
numerous on short, slender pedicels, females few, sub sessile, ovary
three celled (Fig. 2) [13].
Fruit
Pale yellow, depressed, fleshy, globose, about 2 cm in diameter
with 6 obscure vertical furrows enclosing 6 trigonous seeds in
2 seeded 3 crustaceous cocci (Fig. 3) [13].
Fresh fruit
It consists of fresh fruit pulp of EO (amla): (a) Macroscopic, (b) microscopic,
(c) identity, purity, and strength, and (d) dose (Fig. 3) [14].
a. Macroscopic: Fruit, globose, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter, leshy, smooth
with six prominent lines, greenish when tender, changing to light
yellowish or pinkish when mature, with a few dark specks: Taste,
sour, and astringent followed by delicately sweet taste [14]
b. Microscopic: Transverse portion of mature fruit shows an epicarp
such as a single layer of skin and pair of-four layers of hypodermis,
epidermal mobile, tabular. In shape, included externally with a
thick cuticle and show up in loor view as polygonal, hypodermal
cells tangentially elongated, thick-walled, smaller in dimension
than epidermal cells, mesocarp varieties bulk of fruit, consisting
of skinny-walled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces,
peripheral 6-9 layers smaller, ovoid or tangentially elongated
even as rest of cells better in dimension, isodiametric and radially
elongated, a couple of collateral ibrovascular bundles scattered for
the period of mesocarp which include xylem and phloem, xylem
composed of tracheal factors, iber tracheids, and xylem ibers,
Fig. 1: Bark
Fig. 2: Flowers
Fig. 3: Fresh fruit
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
tracheal factors show reticulate scalariform and spiral thickenings,
xylem ibers elongated with slender lumen and pointed end,
mesocarp comprises large aggregates of numerous irregular silica
crystals [14].
c. Identity, purity, and strength [14]:
Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 2%
Alcohol-soluble extractive: Not <40%
Foreign matter: Not more than 2%
Moisture content: Not <80%
Total ash: Not more than 7%
Water-soluble extractive: Not <50%.
d. Dose: 20 g of the drug 5-10 ml of fresh juice.
Dried fruit
It consists of pericarp of dried mature fruits of EO (amla):
(a) Macroscopic, (b) microscopic, (c) identity, purity, and strength, and
(d) dose (Fig. 4) [14].
a. Macroscopic: Drug contains curled pieces of pericarp of dried fruit
taking place both as separated single segment, 1-2 cm lengthy or
united as three or four segments, bulk color gray to black, portions
displaying, a large, particularly shriveled and wrinkled outside
convex surface to moderately concave, transversely wrinkled lateral
loor, external surface shows a couple of whitish specks, every so
often some portions exhibit a portion of stony testa (which must
be removed earlier than processing), texture rough, cartilaginous,
tough, style, bitter, and astringent [14]
b. Microscopic: Transverse portion of fruit indicates epicarp including a
single layered epidermis, telephone appearing tabular and polygonal
in loor view, cuticle present, mesocarp cells tangentially elongated
parenchymatous and crushed, differentiated roughly into periphe ral
eight or nine layers of tangentially elongated smaller cells, leisure
consisting of regularly is diametric larger cells with partitions
showing irregular thickenings, ramiied vascular factors on occasion
present, stone cells present either remoted or in small companies
closer to endocarp, pitted vascular iber, walls appearing serrated
due to the pit canals, leading into lumen [14]
c. Identity, purity, and strength [14]:
Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 2.0%
Alcohol-soluble extractive: Not <40.0%
Foreign matter: Not more than 3.0%
Total ash: Not more than 7.0%
Water-soluble extractive: Not <50.0%.
d. Dose: 3-6 g of the drug in powder form.
Powder
Fine powder shows hexagonal, thick, straight-walled epidermal cells
in surface view embedded with small prismatic crystals of silica,
isolated or groups of thin-walled pitted stone cells, fragments of thick-
walled fibers and sclereids, fragments of pitted vessels, tracheids and
parenchyma, crystals of silica and simple oval to spherical starch grains
scattered as such or embedded in the parenchymatous cells of the
mesocarp, (a) Identity, purity, and strength and (b) dose (Fig. 5) [14].
a. Identity, purity, and strength [14]:
Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 2%
Alcohol-soluble extractive: Not <40%
Foreign matter (including seed and seed coat): Not more than
3%
Total ash: Not more than 7%
Water-soluble extractive: Not <50%.
b. Dose: 3-6 g of the drug in powder form.
Leaves
They are 3 mm wide and 1.25-2 cm long, alternate, bifarious, pinnate,
leaflets numerous, alternate, linear-obtuse, entire, petioles are striated,
round (Fig. 6) [13].
Seeds
Obovate-triangular, 3 celled, seeds 2 in each cell (Fig. 7) [13].
ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERS OF EO
Qualitative evaluation based on the sensory profile by observation of
color, odor, taste, and consistency was done (Table 1).
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EO (TABLE 2) [14]
Physicochemical constants were studies in order to evaluate purity
parameters of the drug as per pharmacopoeial standard and the
Fig. 4: Dried fruit
Fig. 5: Powder
Fig. 6: Leaves
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
percentage of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and
extractive values (water soluble, alcohol soluble & organic solvent
soluble), pH of extracts, powder microscopy and loss on drying (LOD),
etc were calculated as per the Indian Pharmacopoeia and Ayruvedic
Pharmacopoeia.
Inorganic components present in EO
Prepared ash of the drug material was added with 50% of v/v HCl.
The filtrate was then subjected to analyses the inorganic elements
(Table 3) [14].
Phytoconstituent screening
Qualitative chemical examination of aqueous extract of EO (AEO)
(amla) revealed the presence or absence of various plant constituents
(Table 4) [15].
Nutritive value
EO (amla) has been called the first-rate of the ayurvedic rejuvenating
herb, considering by way of the usual stability of tastes (sweet, sour,
pungent, bitter, and astringent) multifunction fruit and is well identified
for its dietary characteristics. EO (amla) fruit is regularly the richest
recognized normal source of vitamin C (200-900 mg per a hundred g
of safe to eat component). The fruit juice involves close to 30 instances
as so much nutrition C as orange juice, and a single fruit is the same
as antiscorbutic value to at least one or two oranges. It also involves
minerals and amino acids akin to calcium, phosphorus, iron, niacin,
carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid (Fig. 8) [16,17].
Chemical constituents
EO (amla) is without doubt one of the most extensively studied plants.
The active ingredient that has significant pharmacological motion in
EO (amla) is specified through Indian scientist as “Phyllemblin.” The
fruit is wealthy in quercetin (Fig. 9), phyllemblic compounds, gallic
acid (Fig. 9), tannins, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C and likewise
involves quite a lot of polyphenolic compounds. An extensive variety of
phytochemical accessories including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids,
and tannins (Table 4) [18].
The fruits, leaves, and bark are wealthy in tannins. Fruits contain
28% of the whole tannins disbursed in the whole plant. The fruit
contains two hydrolysable tannins: Emblicanin A and B, (Fig. 9) [19]
which have antioxidant houses, one on hydrolysis offers gallic acid,
ellagic acid (Fig. 9), and glucose, wherein the opposite offers ellagic
acid and glucose, respectively. The fruit additionally involves
phyllemblin [20]. Pastime directed fractionation printed the presence
of a few phytochemicals such as gallic acid, corilagin, furosin, and
geraniin [21]. Flavonoids such as quercetin (Fig. 9) and alkaloids such
as phyllantine and phyllantidine (Fig. 9) are located. Along with these, it
peculiarly includes amino acids, carbohydrates, and other compounds
given in Table 5. Its fruit juice contains the perfect attention of vitamin C
(478.56 mg/100 ml). Nutrition or vitamin C phases are more than these
in oranges, tangerines, and lemons [22].
Pulpy portion of fruit, after drying found to contain: Gallic acid 1.32%,
tannin, gum 13.75%, albumin 13.08%, crude cellulose 17.08%, mineral
Fig. 7: Seeds
Table 1: Organoleptic characters of EO (Amla)
S. No Parameters Observations
1. Color Yellowish green
2. Consistency Hard
3. Odor Aromatic
4. Taste Sour
EO: Emblica officinalis
Table 2: Physico-chemical properties of EO (Amla)
S. No Parameters Observations
1. Acid-insoluble ash (w/w %) 1.90%
2. Alcohol-soluble extractive (w/w %) 15.5%
3. Disintegration time 39 minutes
4. Hardness test 6.9 kg/m2
5. Loss on drying at 110°C (w/w %) 3.4%
6. pH of 5% aqueous solution 3.37
7. Powder microscopic 15-20 μ
8. Total ash (w/w %) 5.33%
9. Water-soluble extractive (w/w %) 41.30%
EO: Emblica officinalis
Table 3: Inorganic components present in EO (Amla)
S. No Parameters Observations
1. Calcium +
2. Carbonate -
3. Chloride +
4. Iron +
5. Magnesium -
6. Nitrate -
7. Potassium +
8. Sodium +
9. Sulfate -
10. Zinc +
+: Present, -: Absent, EO: Emblica officinalis
Fig. 8: Nutritional value of fruit of Emblica officinalis (amla) (% or
per 100 g)
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
Fig. 9: Chemical constituents present in Emblica officinalis (amla)
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
(3-ethoxy 4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid), and isostrictinin (Table 5) [23].
EO (amla) fruit also contains flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-alpha L-(6’’-
methyl) rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-alpha L (6’’-ethyl)
rhamnopyranoside (Fig. 9) [21]. A new acylated glucoside was isolated
from the methanolic extract of the leaves of EO (amla). Their structures
were named as apigenin7-O-(6”-butyryl-beta)-glucopyranoside, along
with four known compounds gallic acid, methyl gallate, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-
Ogalloylglucose, and luteolin-4’Oneohesperiodoside [24].
The seeds of EO (amla) include fixed oil, phosphatides, and small
wide variety of important oil. The seeds yield a fixed oil (16%)
which is brownish-yellow in color. It has the following fatty acids:
Linolenic (8.8%), linoleic (44.0%), oleic (28.4%), stearic (2.1 5%),
palmitic (3.0%), and myristic (1.0%) [25]. The leaves contain gallic
acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid (Fig. 9).
Phyllemblic acid, a novel highly oxygenated norbisabolane, was
isolated from the roots. The root contains ellagic acid (Fig. 9 )
and lupeol and bark contain leukodelphinidin [26,27]. Chemical
constituents present in various parts of EO (amla) [4,13,28] are
proven in Fig. 9 and Table 5.
House hold remedies and preparation prepared from EO (amla)
The plant is used in many forms:
Chyavanaprash (CHY)
Confection
Decoction
Fixed and essential oil
Fresh juice
Fruit paste
Infusion
Liquor
Oil
Paste
Pickles
Powder
Shampoo.
TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL USES
EO (amla) enhances production of red blood cells and strengthens the
teeth, hair [7,9,29], and nails, as well as regulating blood sugar. In addition,
it is used in bleeding, hemorrhoids, anemia, diabetes, gout, vertigo,
obesity, diabetes-all varieties, hyperacidity, eczema, psoriasis, hoarse
voice, sore throat, infection, hiccoughs, hepatitis B, non-specific urethritis,
sterility, anemia, gingivitis, glaucoma, diarrhea, constipation, active fistula,
hair loss [7,8,30], a couple of voice, and eyes. Seeds used for bronchial
asthma, bronchitis, and biliousness. Dried fruit is used for he morrhage,
diarrhea, dysentery, for anemia (with iron), Jaundice, and dyspepsia. For
acute bacillary dysentery taken as syrup with lemon juice. As triphala just
right for laxative, headache, biliousness, dyspepsia, constipation, piles,
Table 4: Phytochemical screening of EO (amla)
S. No Plant constituent Reagent used Observations
1. Alkaloids Hager’s reagent
Wagner’s reagent
Mayer’s reagent
Dragendorff’s reagent
+
+
+
+
2. Amino acids Ninhydrin test -
3. Carbohydrates Benedict’s reagent
Fehling solution
Iodine test
Legal’s test
Libermann-Burchard’s test
Molisch’s reagent
+
+
+
+
+
+
4. Fixed oils and fats Spot test
Saponification test
-
-
5. Flavonoid +
6. Glycosides Cardiac glycosides
Coumarin
Anthraquinone
-
-
-
7. Hexose Seliwanoff’s reagent -
8. Monosaccharide Barfords -
9. Non-reducing
sugar
Benedicts +
10. Pentose Bails -
11. Phenolic +
12. Polysaccharide Iodine test -
13. Proteins Millon’s reagent
Ninhydrin reagent
-
-
14. Reducing sugar Benedicts -
15. Saponins Foam test -
16. Steroids -
17. Tannins Ferric chloride solution
Lead acetate solution
+
+
18. Test for organic
acid
Citric acid
Oxalic acid
Tartaric acid
+
-
-
19. Test for vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
-
-
+
+: Present, -: Absent, EO: Emblica officinalis
Table 5: Different chemical constituents present in various parts of EO
Part Chemical constituents
Bark Leukodelphinidin, lupeol, β-sitosterol, tannins
Fruit Alanine, arginine, ascorbic acid, aspartic acid, ash, β-carotene, boron, calcium, carbohydrates, chebulagic acid, chebulagic acid,
chebulic acid, chebulinic acid, chloride, copper, corilagic acid, corilagin, cystine, d-fructose, d-glucose, ellagic acid, emblicol,
emblicanin, ethyl gallate, fat, fiber, flavonoids, gallic acid, gallic acid ethyl ester, gibberellina-1, gibberellin-a-3, gibberellin-a-4,
gibberellin-a-7, gibberellin-a-9, glucogallin, glucose, glutamic acid, glycine, glycosides, histidine, iron, isoleukine, leukine, lysine,
magnesium, manganese, methionine, myo-inositol, myristic acid, niacin, nitrogen, pectin, phenylalanine, phosphorus, phyllantidine,
phyllantine, phyllemblic acid, phyllemblin, phyllemblinic acid, polysaccharide, potassium, proanthocyanidins, proline, protein,
quercetin, riboflavin, rutin, selenium, serine, silica, sodium, starch, sucrose, sulfur, tannin, terchebin, thiamin, threonine, trigalloyl
glucose, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, water, zeatin, zeatin nucleotide, zeatin riboside, zinc
Leaf Amlaic acid, astrogalin, ellagic acid, gallo-tanin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, phyllanthin, rutin, tannin
Pericarp Ellagic acid, emblicol, gallic acid, phyllemblic acid
Root Ellagic acid, lupeol
Seed Linoleic acid, linolenic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, phosphatides, stearic acid, β-sitosterol
Shoot Chebulagic acid, β-sitosterol, chibulinic acid, corilagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, glucogallin, lupeol
EO: Emblica officinalis
matter 4.12%, and moisture 3.83%. EO (amla) fruit ash contains
chromium - 2.5 ppm, zinc - 4 ppm, and copper - 3 ppm. Compounds isolated
from EO (amla) fruit are gallic acid, ellagic acid, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-
glucose, 3,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, chebulinic acid, quercetin, chebulagic
acid (Fig. 9), corilagin, 1,6-di-O-galloyl beta-D-glucose, 3-ethylgallic acid
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enlarged liver, and ascites. Juice of bark mixed with honey and turmeric
for gonorrhea gastritis, hepatitis, osteoporosis, constipation, biliousness,
weak point of liver and spleen, untimely graying or hair loss [8,31], basic
debility, tissue loss, palpitation. Amla is also mentioned to h ave hepato,
cardio, nephrology, and neuroprotective results, antioxidant, anti-
inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and restorative houses. List of EO
(amla) usual purposes [32] is given in Table 6.
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL ACTIVITIES
Antioxidant
A riskless and feasible high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) procedure with diode array defection has been developed for
the determination of ascorbic acid (Fig. 9). EO fruit is processed with
the ayurvedic method. The antioxidant results have additionally been
evaluated in assessment to the true stages of nutrition C by way of special
antioxidant exams the information bought exhibit that the Emblica fruit
involves ascorbic acid (0.4%, w/w) and that the ayurvedic procedure of
processing raises the healthy characteristics of the fruit due to a higher
antioxidant endeavor and a better content material of ascorbic acid
(1.28%, w/w). It has additionally been observed that vitamin C debts
for approximately 45-70% of the antioxidant pastime [33].
Anticancer
Anticancer knowledge of six phenolic compounds remoted from amla
fruit using in vitro proliferation assay. (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-
2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) procedure was used to gain
knowledge of the consequences of those compounds on splenocyte
proliferation and the cytotoxicity to each human breast cancer mobile
(MCF-7) and human embryonic lung fibroblast cell (HELF). Isocorilagin
exhibited a robust cytotoxicity to HELF telephone with inhibitory
concentration 50% of 51% 4 g/mL, whereas geraniin, quercetin,
kaempferol, and their glycosides confirmed susceptible cytotoxicity in
opposition to HELF cells. EO inhibits the progress and unfold of distinct
forms of melanoma such as breast, pancreases, liver, uterus, belly, and
malignant ascites. It also reduces the aspect outcome triggered using
chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often used for the healing of
cancer [34]. EO even has some medicinal houses, including immune
stimulator and antitumor recreation [35]. Polyphenolic compounds of
EO motive induction of apoptosis in Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA)
and CeHa mobile lines. It additionally suggests inhibition of DNA
topoisomerase I in saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutant cellphone culture,
and the exercise of cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) tyrosine phosphatase
[35]. EO may be very invaluable as an element in combo cure of
sufferer beneath cyclophosphamid remedy [36]. Kalpaamruthaa (KA)
is a modified Siddha education containing EO, Semecarpus anacardium
(SA), and honey. The accelerated stages of free cholesterol, whole
cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids, and free fatty acids
or lowered levels of ester low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
in plasma, kidney, and liver found in cancer suffering animals were
reverted again to near usual levels on therapy with KA and SA [37].
Triphala (amla, bellirica myrobalan, and chebulic myrobalan) has been
said to exhibit chemo preventive talents. The presence of triphala in
the weight loss program had enormously decreased the benzo caused
Table 6: EO (amla) pharmacological and traditional applications
Pharmacological effect Part used
Antibacterial activity Fruit, leaves
Antifungal activity Fruit
Antiviral activity Fruit
Antimicrobial activity Fruit, infusion and decoction of leaves, seeds
Anticancer activity Fruit, fruit juice, leaves, roots, branches
Antiepileptic Hydro alcoholic extract of EO
Anti-inflammatory EO gel, leaves, fruit
Antinociceptive Fruit
Antipyretic Roots, decoction of leaves and seeds, fruit
Antioxidant activity Fresh juice, fruits, seeds
Antiulcerogenic Fruit, decoction of leaves, bark of the root
Aperient Fruit, flowers
Astringent Root, bark, fruit
Antiatherosclerotic Fruit, fresh juice
Cardioprotective Fruit
Cytoprotective Fruit
Dental problems Root, juice of the leaves
Diabetes Fruit, decoction of leaves and seeds, infusion of seeds, EO juice mixed bitter gourd juice
Diarrhea Decoction of fruit, root, infusion of leaves, bark
Dysentery Dried fruit, paste of leaves mixed with honey
Eye care Fresh EO juice or capsules
Febrifuge Infusion of seeds
Gonorrhea Juice of the bark combined with honey and turmeric
Hair growth Dried EO fruit are boiled in coconut oil
Hepatoprotective Fruit
Hypotensive potential Fruit
Immunomodulatory Fruit
Indigestion Leaves with buttermilk
Jaundice, dyspepsia, and cough Fruit juice or powder to a glass of warm milk
Lipid lowering Fruit, fresh juice
Menstrual problems Mixture of EO with honey and saunf or mixing it with squished banana and consuming
Pruritus Seeds are burnt, powdered and mixed with oil
Respiratory problems Fruit, expressed juice of fruit, juice/extract of the fruit mixed with honey and pipli to stop cough
Rheumatism Dry fruit powder mixed with jaggery
Scurvy Powder of the dry herb mixed with equal quantity of sugar, taken with milk
Scabies and itch Seed burnt, powdered and mixed with oil
Skin sores and wound Milky juice of leaves, Bark
Vaginal complaints Mixture of fruit juice and sugar
Vermifuge Juice of fruit with honey
Vomiting Fruit juice mixed with honey
EO: Emblica officinalis
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fore-belly papillomagenesis in mice. It was once extra amazing in
lowering tumor incidences in comparison with its person components.
Triphala additionally tremendously elevated the antioxidant status of
animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention [38].
Antibacterial
Investigation is serious about antibacterial capabilities of aqueous
infusions and aqueous decoctions of EO (amla) and Coriandrum
sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to
six distinctive genera of Gram poor bacterial population isolated
from urine specimens by employing well diffusion process.
Aqueous infusion and decoction of EO exhibited powerful
antibacterial pastime against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella
pneumoniae (51), Klebsiella ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5),
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), Salmonella
Paratyphi A (2), Salmonella Paratyphi B (1), and Serratia
marcescens (2), however, did not show any antibacterial activity in
opposition to Gram poor urinary pathogens [39].
Antifungal
Antifungal property of EO used to be reported in opposition to
Aspergillus [40]. Fruit ethanol and acetone extracts confirmed average
pastime toward Fusarium equiseti and Candida albicans where
griseofulvin was once used as ordinary antibiotic [41]. Plant methanolic
extract of EO did not exhibit antifungal pastime against phytopathogenic
fungi Aspergillus niger F2723 [42].
Antiviral
Antiviral and endocrine results, exercise on mammalian enzymes,
ability to modulate immune and inflammatory cellphone operate, affect
delicate muscle groups and have also effects on lipid peroxidation and
oxyradical construction. Pentagalloylglucose can inhibit influenza a
virulent disease replication with a twin mode of motion assessed by
way of WST-1 assay, plaque-forming unit assay, time of addition assay,
and hemagglutination inhibition assay [43].
Antidiabetic
Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica,
EO, and their combo named “Triphala” (equal share of above three
plant extracts) are being used greatly in Indian approach of remedy.
They were located to inhibit lipid peroxide (LPO) formation and to
scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration
of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation precipitated
with Fe (2+)/ascorbate have been food to be 85.5, 27, 74, and 69 μg/ml,
respectively. The concentration wanted for the inhibition of hydroxyl
radical scavenging have been 165, 71, 155.5, and 151 μg/ml and that
for superoxide scavenging pastime were located to be 20.5, 40.6,
6.5, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively. Oral administration of the extracts
(100 mg/kg body weight) diminished the blood sugar stage in common
and in alloxan (120 mg/kg) diabetic rats tremendously inside 4 hrs.
Persisted, day-to-day administration of the drug produced a sustained
influence [44].
Antidepressant
The antidepressant undertaking of aqueous extract of fruits of EO
in inbred grown up male Swiss Albino mice weighing 25-30 g. The
experiment was applied using forced swim experiment and tail
suspension scan. The outcomes of this test confirmed the antidepressant
recreation of EO as comparable to the of usual antidepressant drug
imipramine [45].
Anti-inflammatory
EO extracts on carrageenan and dextran-brought on rat hind paw
edema. Anti-inflammatory exercise was determined within the water
fraction of methanol extract of the plant leaves. The effects of the same
fraction had been proven on the synthesis of mediators of infection
such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4), platelet-activating component, and
thromboxane B2 and on LTB4 and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-
L-phenylalanine -prompted migration of human polymorph nuclear
leukocytes (PMNs) in-inhibited migration of human PMNs in slightly
low concentrations. It did not inhibit LTB4 or PAP human platelets
throughout dotting, suggesting that the mechanism of the anti-
inflammatory motion found in the rat paw model does now not involve
inhibition of the synthesis of the measured lipid mediators [46].
Antimicrobial
The antimicrobial hobbies of amla extract had been investigated via
Mayachiew and Devasahtin (2008) through two special ways (disc
diffusion and agar dilution methods) in opposition to Staphylococcus
aureus. The minimum inhibitory awareness price of amla used to be
observed to be 13.97 mg/mL and the minimum biocidal awareness
value used to be 13.97 mg/m. However, the word useful advancement
made in microbiology in addition to manage of microorganisms,
intermittent occurrences of epidemics as a result of drug resistant
microorganisms and earlier unknown disease-inflicting microbes
pose a colossal hazard to public well-being. These hostile health
tendencies demand a universal initiative for the development of novel
tactics for the prevention and healing of infectious sickness. For over
100 years, chemicals isolated from medicinal plants have served as
the items for a lot of clinically confirmed medicinal drugs and are now
being reassessed as antimicrobial sellers. The reasons for this revival
include a cut back in the new antibacterial drugs in the pharmaceutical
pipeline, a proliferation in antimicrobial resistance, and the necessity
of therapies for brand new evolving pathogens. Factually, thousands
of plant species have been tried against hundreds of bacterial traces
in vitro and plenty of medicinal plants are lively toward an extensive
range of Gram-positive as good as Gram-terrible bacteria [47].
Antiaging
The effects of EO on the lipid metabolism and protein expression
involved in oxidative stress for the duration of the getting old approach
sunamla or ethyl acetate (Et Ac) extract of amla, a polyphenol-wealthy
fraction, was administered at a dose of 40 or 10 mg/kg physique
weight per days for 100 days to younger rats aged 2 months and aged
rats aged 10 months. The lipid levels, corresponding to cholesterol and
TGs, in serum and liver had been markedly extended in aged manage
rats, and at the same time, they had been enormously decreased by
way of the administration of EO (amla). The peroxisome proliferator-
activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is famous to control the
transcription of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism.
The PPARalpha protein stage in liver was reduced in aged manage
rats. Nonetheless, the oral administration of amla vastly accelerated
the hepatic PPARalpha protein degree. In addition, oral administration
of amla drastically inhibited the serum and hepatic mitochondrial
thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance levels in aged rats. In
addition, the elevated expression stage of bax used to be drastically
reduced after the oral administration of EO (amla) while the level
of bcl-2 ended in a massive broaden. In addition, the expressions of
hepatic nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and
cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels have been also elevated with
aging. Nonetheless, EO (amla) extract decreased the iNOS and COX- 2
expression phases through inhibiting NF-kappa B activation in aged
rats. These results point out that EO (amla) could preclude age-related
hyperlipidemia via attenuating oxidative stress within the growing
older system [48].
Antiatherogenic effects
Oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) is the main etiologic factor in atherogenesis and
antioxidants are accepted as the effective treatment of atherosclerosis.
The aim of this study was to clarify whether the mechanism of the
antiatherogenic effects of the herb EO (amla), which is widely used
to treat atherosclerosis-related diseases, is associated with ox-LDL
via its compounds of soluble tannin, corilagin (beta-1-0-galloyl-3.6-
(R)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose), and its analog Dgg16 (1,6-di-
O-galloyl-bela-d-glucose). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells,
ECV-304 were incubated with ox-LDL (SO mg/L), treated with corilagin
or Dgg16 at different doses (0.0001-0.1 mmol/L), and then incubated
with monocytes malondialdehyde (MDA) in the culture media was
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determined and the number of monocytes adhering to ECV-304 cell s
was counted with cytometry. In another experiment, the rat vascular
smooth muscular cells (VSMC) were incubated in media with or
without ox-LDL (50 mg/L), and with corilagin or Dgg16 also at different
doses (0.0001-0.1 mol/L), the proliferation of which was assayed with
MTT. The results showed that both corilagin and Dgg16 were able to
decrease MDA, prevented ECV-304 cells from being adhering to by
monocytes, and inhibited VSMC proliferation activated by ox-LDL.
The results suggest that the two compounds are effective in inhibiting
the progress of atherosclerosis by alleviating oxidation Injury or by
inhibiting ox-LDL-induced VSMC proliferation, which may be promising
mechanisms for treating atherosclerosis [49].
Antitumor activity
AEO (amla) used to be observed to be cytotoxic to L 929 cells in
culture in a dose elegant method. Concentration needed for 50%
inhibition was located to be 16.5 μg/ml. EO (amla) and CHY (a non-
poisonous natural training containing 50% EO (amla)) extracts were
observed to diminish ascites and stable tumors in mice triggered with
the aid of DLA cells. Animals handled with 1.25 g/kg between of EO
(amla) extract increased existence span of tumor bearing animals
(20%) even as animals dealt with 2.5 g/kg between of CHY produced
60.9% increased within the existence span. Each EO (amla) and CHY
tremendously decreased the stable tumors. Tumor quantity of manage
animals on the 30th day was once 4.6 ml, whereas animals handled
with 1.25 g/kg between of EO (amla) extract and a 2.5 g/kg between
of CHY confirmed a tumor quantity of 1.75 and 0.75 ml. Respectively
EO (amla) extract was once found to inhibit mobile phone cycle
regulating enzymes CDC25 phosphatase in a dose dependent method.
Attention wanted for 50% inhibition of CDC25 phosphatase was found
to be 5 μg/ml and that needed for inhibition of CDC2 kinase used to be
found to be >100 μg/ml. The results propose that antitumor exercise
of EO (amla) extract could in part be as a result of its interplay with
mobile phone cycle regulation [35].
Antitussive activity
The antitussive undertaking of EO Gaertn. was verified in mindful
cats via mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and
tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The outcome confirmed
that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. per orally, the cough suppressive
outcomes of EO isn’t unambiguous. A better dose (200 mg/kg
physique wt.) of this substance per orally was more powerful, notably
in decreasing the quantity of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough
(NE/min(−1)), and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+)
and expirium (1A−) was once more stated. These outcomes showed
that the cough suppressive exercise of EO is dose based and also
proven that the antitussive activity of EO is much less strong than
shown using the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, however,
extra amazing than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine.
It is supposed that the antitussive endeavor of the dry extract of EO is
due now not best to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic, and antioxidant
efficacy effects, but in addition to, its result on mucus secretion in the
airways [50].
Antiproliferative activity
A total of 18 most important compounds, together with
4 norsesquiterpenoids (1-4) and 14 phenolic compounds (5-18)
remoted beforehand from P. emblica, in conjunction with a foremost
constituent, proanthocyanidin polymers (19) toward MK-1 (human
gastric adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human uterine carcinoma), and
B16F10 (murine melanoma) cells utilizing an MTT system. All of the
phenolic compounds including the principal 5-8 from the fruit juice, 8,
9, and 12 from the branches and leaves, and 19 from the roots confirmed
more desirable inhibition in opposition to B16F10 cell growth than
against HeLa and MK-1 phone progress. Norsesquiterpenoid glycosides
three and 4 from the roots exhibited colossal antiproliferative events,
despite the fact that their aglycon 1 and monoglucoside 2 showed no
inhibitory endeavor in opposition to these tumor cells [51].
Antimetastatic activity
Five rasayanas and one of the most materials EO were studied for
their antimetastatic undertaking making use of B16F-10 melanoma
cells in C57BL/6 mice. Simultaneous oral administration (50 mg/
animal/dose) of Brahma Rasayana (BR) and Aswagandha Rasayana
(AR) tremendously reduced the lung tumor nodule formation by
way of seventy 0.23% (p<0.001) and 55.6% (p<0.001), respectively.
Similarly, the lung collagen hydroxyproline content and the serum
sialic acid phases have been additionally low in BR dealt with
(4.8±0.97 ug/m protein. 35.6±2.6 ug/ml serum) and AR handled
animals (6.15±0.5 ug/mg protein; 56.3±8.7 ug/ml serum) in
comparison with the untreated controls (10.43±0.7 ug/mg protein;
151.3±9.5 ug/ml serum) Narasimha Rasayana (NR), Amnthaprasam.
Chyavanaprasam (CP) and Emblica extract EO administration had no
tremendous outcome in the discount of lung nodule formation and lung
hydroxyproline and serum sialic acid contents which was just like that
of untreated controls. Lifestyles span of BR, AR and NR treated animals
was once located to be enormously expanded. These outcome points
out that BR and AR possess antimetastatic exercise in opposition to
melanoma cells [52].
Antipyretic and analgesic activity
The study was designed to examine the antipyretic and analgesic
exercise of ethanol EO (EEO) and AEO extracts of EO fruits in a number
of experimental units. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/
kg, i.p.) confirmed huge reduction in brewer’s yeast precipitated
hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory
effect on acetic acid-prompted writhing response in mice in the
analgesic test. Both EEO and AEO did not show any giant analgesic
pastime in the tail-immersion scan. These findings advocate that
extracts of EO fruits possessed potent antipyretic and analgesic
activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts s howed
the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates,
and amino acids, which could also be responsible for antipyretic and
analgesic activities [53].
Antisnake venom activity
The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn., and EO Gaertn had
been explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant
(V. negundo and EO) extracts tremendously antagonized the Vipera
russellii and Naja kaouthia venom caused lethal exercise each in in vitro
and in vivo reviews. V. russellii venom-caused hemorrhage, coagulant,
tibrinogen, and inflammatory undertaking was greatly neutralized via
each plant extracts. No precipitating bands had been located between
the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed
that the plant extracts possess robust snake venom neutralizing ability
and want extra investigation [54].
Ameliorating effects
The ethanolic extract from the fruits of EO Gaertn was investigated
to evaluate its viable ameliorating results, on the L-thyraxine (L-
T4) precipitated hyperthyroidism and on hepatic lipid peroxidation
in mice. While an develop in serum T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4
(thyroxine) concentrations, and in a thyroid dependent parameter,
hepatic glucose 6-phospatase (glu-6-pase) pastime was once
observed in L-T4 (0.5 mg/kg/day) treated animals, simultaneous
oral administration of the plant extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg/
day (p.o.) for 30 days. In hyperthyroid, mice lowered T3 and T4
concentrations via 64% and 70%, respectively, as compared to a
usual antithyroid drug, propyl thiouradl that reduced the phases
of the thyroid hormones by 59 and 40%, respectively. The plant
extract also maintained almost typical value of glu-6-pase exercise
in hyperthyroid mice. The plant extract also decreased hepatic LPO
and accelerated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)
events in hyperthyroid mice, exhibiting its hepatoprotective nature.
The findings advocate that the experiment material could potentially
ameliorate the hyperthyroidism with one more hepatoprotective
advantage [55].
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Boils and spots
The pericarp of the fruit is in general utilized in decoctions along with
different parts and also applied externally on boils with cow ghee to
advertise suppuration [56].
Body coolant
Despite the fact that amla-berry is excellent for all doshas and seasons,
it is particularly effective in the hot season to chill pitta dosha. It is a
specifically good rasayana for humans with pitta and vata physique
varieties. In Tibetan medication, the fruit were described as having a
bitter style with cooling potency [57] .
Chemopreventive activity
Chemoprevention with meals photochemical is presently regarded
as some of the important procedures for melanoma manipulate. EO
indigenous to India is valued for its unique tannins and flavonoids,
which include very robust antioxidant properties. The inhibition of
tumor incidences with the aid of fruit extract of this plant has been
evaluated on two-stage procedure of dermis carcinogenesis in Swiss
albino mice, brought on by a single application of 7, 12-dimethyabenz,
(a) Anthracene (a 100 μg/a 100 μl acetone), and 2 weeks later, promoted
with the aid of repeated utility of croton oil (1% in acetone/thrice
every week) until the tip of the test (16 weeks). The tumor incidence,
tumor yield, tumor burden, and cumulative quantity of papillomas had
been determined to be higher in the control (without EO healing) as
compared to experimental animals (EO). The diversities in the values
of the outcome of experimental businesses had been statistically
analyzed and determined to be large in comparison to the manipulate
group (p<0.05) The present gain knowledge of demonstrates the
chemo preventive talents of EO fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)
anthracene (DMBA) caused epidermis tumor genesis in Swiss albino
mice [58].
Chelating agent
Photo aging of the skin is a complex biologic process affecting various
layers of the skin with major changes seen in the connective tissue
within the dermis. EO was shown to reduce ultra violet-induced
erythema and had excellent free-radical quenching ability, chelating
ability to iron and copper as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1)
and MMP-3 inhibitory activity [59].
Cardioprotective
An emblicanin-A (37%) and B (33%) enriched fraction of recent
juice of Emblica fruits (EOT) used to be investigated for antioxidant
undertaking against ischemia-reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion injury
[IRI])-prompted oxidative stress in rat heart vitamin E (VE) was used
as the usual antioxidant agent IRI used to be caused in remoted rat
heart through perfusing it with modified Kreb-Henseleit’s resolution
for five min, adopted via a period of ischemia (stoppage of per fusion)
for 10 minutes after which restoring the perfusion (reperfusion) for
15 minutes. IRI prompted a gigantic cut back within the routine of cardiac
SOD, CAT, and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx), with a concomitant
expand in lipid peroxidation These IRI-induced effects were avoided
via the administration of EOT (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt.) and VE
(200 mg/kg body wt.) given orally twice day-to-day for 14 days before
the sacrifice of the animals and initiation of the perfusion experiments.
The study confirms the antioxidant influence of EO and suggests that the
fruits of the plant may have a cardioprotective result [60].
Constipation
Constipation reasons infrequent stool, anal, and peripheral agony and
abdominal discomfort. This power straining for the duration of the
defecation results in bleeding piles (hemorrhoids). Amla being rich in
fibers regulates the bowel action and continues constipation at bay. Juice
of amla interested in 250 mg of giloy extract supplies an potent remedy
for hemorrhoids. The fruit is every now and then pickled or preserved in
sugar. When dry it is stated to be gently laxative, according to some sources
the recent fruit is also laxative. The fresh ripe fruits are used greatly in
India as a laxative, one or two fruits being adequate for a dose [61].
Diarrhea
It is used medicinally for the therapy of diarrhea. As a fruit decoction,
it is combined with bitter milk and given by means of the natives in
cases of dysentery. The bark partakes of the astringency of the fruit.
A decoction and evaporation of the foundation resolution produces
an astringent extract equal to catechu. An infusion of the leaves with
fenugreek seed is given for persistent diarrhea [56].
Degradation kinetics
The kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in EO (amla) as good as in pure
ascorbic acid solutions at initial concentrations reward in EO (amla)
over a temperature range of 50-120°C (regular-state temperature)
has been studied. The ascorbic acid degradation followed first- order
response kinetics where the fee regular multiplied with broaden in
temperature. The temperature dependence of deterioration used to be
thoroughly modeled through the Arrhenius equation. The activation
energies have been observed to be 4.09 kcal/mole for amla and 4.49
kcal/mole for pure vitamin. The degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid
used to be also evaluated in usual open pan cooking, strain-cooking, and
a newly developed and patented gasoline-efficient EcoCooker (unsteady
state heating method). A mathematical model was developed utilizing
the consistent-stale kinetic parameters obtained to foretell the losses
of ascorbic acid from the time-temperature knowledge of the unsteady
state heating processing system. The outcome bought indicates the
ascorbic acid degradation is of an equivalent order of magnitude in the
entire approaches of cooking [62].
Dental problems
The roots of EO (10 g) are floor and taken twice day-to-day for 1 day
most effective after taking food. However, the leaves of EO are squeezed
and the juice extracted. This juice is put in the ear (a few drops) to find
relief from toothache. A final replacement is to grind the node of an EO
and blend it with water. After full of life stirring, it is filtered by way of
a cloth. This water is put drop with the aid of drop in the right ear if the
tooth on the left hand face is in agony and vice versa. The remedy is
continuing for 3 days [58].
Fevers
Malays use a decoction of its leaves to deal with fever. The fresh fruit is
refrigerant. The seeds are given internally as a cooling relief in bilious
affections and nausea, and in infusion make an excellent drink in fevers.
The plants are employed via the Hindoo medical professionals for his
or her supposed refrigerant and aperient features. Most often after a
fever there is a loss of style and a decoction of the emblic seed, dried
grapes, and sugar is used for gargling. A decoction of the emblic seed,
chitrak root (Plumbago zeylanica or Leadwort), chebulic myrobalan,
and pipli (Piper longum) is given in fevers and there’s also a compound
powder composed of equal elements of the emblic seed (EO), chitrak
root, chebulic myrobalan, pipli, and saindhava (rock salt) which may
also be used [63].
Food absorption
The general use of EO (amla) can enhance digestion, absorption, and
assimilation of meals. Persons taking it become aware of that they enjoy
the style of food higher. It enhances all 13 digestive fires (agni). However,
it works more slowly and gently than ginger or different digestion-
enhancing herbs, so it may be taken by way of individuals with quite
a few pitta without fear of creating extra belly acid. Furthermore, it
improves assimilation of iron for healthy blood [61].
Gastroprotective effects
An EEO (amla) used to be examined for its antisecrotory and ant iulcer
pursuits using specific experimental units in rats, together with pylorus
ligation. Shay rats, indomethacin, hypothermic restraint stress-induced
gastric ulcer and necrotizing dealers (80% ethanol 0.2 M NaOH and
25% NaCl). Oral administration of amla extract at doses 250 mg/kg
and 500 mg/kg vastly inhibited the progress of gastric lesions in all
experiment items used. It also brought on gigantic cut down of the
pyloric-ligation brought about basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity,
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and gastric mucosal injury. Besides, amla extract supplied defense
against ethanol-triggered depletion of stomach wall mucus and
reduction in non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. Histopathological
analyses are in excellent agreement with pharmacological and
biochemical findings. The outcome point out that amla extract possesses
antisecretory, antiulcer and cytoprotective properties [64].
Hair growth promoting activity
EO (amla) act as normal and world’s oldest hair conditioner and
provide excellent nourishment and in addition support in normalizing
the blood deliver. EO (amla) is wealthy in nutrition C, tannins, and
minerals similar to phosphorus, iron, and calcium, which presents diet
to hair and likewise explanations darkening of hair [7,8]. A fixed oil is
acquired from the berries that are used to reinforce and promote the
development of hair [8]. The dried fruits have a good result on hair
hygiene and have lengthy been respected as an ingredient of shampoo
and hair oil [29]. Indian gooseberry is a permitted hair tonic in natural
recipes for enriching hair growth and in addition pigmentation. A fixed
oil bought from the berries strengthens and promotes the growth of
hair. The fruit, reduce into pieces, is dried, preferably in color after
which boiled in coconut oil, the resulting oil is claimed to be fine for
stopping hair graying, a basic sign of excess pitta dosha. The water
where dried amla portions are soaked overnight act as detergent, so it
is an active ingredient of shampoo and likewise utilized in hair oil which
offers nourishing to the hair [30].
Natural hair oil formulated from EO (amla), Bacopa monnieri, and
Cyperus rotundus alcoholic extract or as an entire drug. The hair oil used
to be prepared individually and in a various awareness of all three herbs
and a blend of the entire three herbs in constant proportion utilizing
coconut oil as base [9]. The formulated oil in various attentions was
evaluated bodily, chemical, and hair progress homes of formulated oil
using applying it topically on shaved skin of albino rats. Fundamental
dermis infection test and hair size test were carried out, and the
hair growth was in comparison with typical minoxidil 2% ethanolic
resolution making use of healthful albino rats. It used to be found that
hair oil method confirmed the pleasant outcome among the many
other systems evaluated using displaying an enlargement of follicular
dimension and prolongation of the anagen segment [7,29,31].
Hypolipidemic
EO (amla) fruit has been reported to have enormous antihyperlipidemic,
hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic [65]. Healing with EO-induced
enormous discount of complete cholesterol, LDL, TG, and very LDL and
a giant develops in high-density lipoprotein levels in patients with form
II hyperlipidemia. Both treatments from EO (amla) and simvastatin
produced a gigantic reduction in blood pressure; nonetheless, this
useful influence was once more marked in sufferers receiving EO
(amla). Histopathological gain knowledge of thoracic aorta of EO (amla)
handled workforce has proven lessen in atherogenicity compared to
untreated excessive cholesterol food plan fed rats. The info verified that
EO (amla) formulation used to be related to hypolipidemic results on
the experimentally brought on hypercholesterolemic rats. It is usually
visible that EO (amla) dealt with rat confirmed extra hypoglycemic and
hypolipidemic endeavor than Phyllanthus acidus dealt with diabetic
rats [66].
Hepatoprotective activity
Hepatoprotective recreation of EO (amla, EO) and CHY extracts had
been studied utilizing carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) brought on liver
harm model in rats. EO and CHY extracts had been determined to
inhibit the hepatotoxicity produced by way of acute and persistent
CCl4 administration as obvious from the diminished levels of serum
and liver LPOs, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline
phosphatase. Chronic CCl4 administration used to be also found to
provide liver fibrosis as obvious from the accelerated phases of collagen
hydroxyproline and pathological analysis. EO and CHY extracts were
discovered to reduce these increased stages vastly, indicating that the
extract might inhibit the induction of fibrosis in rats [67].
HIV-reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory
Inhibition of HIV-RT by way of EO (amla) plant extract fractions was
once proven on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. From this test, it
was found that aqueous fraction and n-hexane fraction have perfect
inhibition of recombinant HIV-RT (91% and 89%, respectively)
at 1 mg/ml concentration. Chloroform fraction confirmed highest
inhibition of HIV-RT at 0.5 mg/ml and CCl4 fraction at 0.12 mg/ml
concentration. At 0.12 mg/ml and 0.5 concentrations 50% of the
HIV-RT endeavor is inhibited in n-hexane fraction and CCl4 fraction,
respectively [68].
Hypercholesterolemia activity
The effects of EO (amla) on LDL oxidation and cholesterol phases
had been investigated in vitro and in vivo using Cu (2+) prompted
LDL oxidation and cholesterol-fed rats sunamla and Et Ac extract of
EO (amla) significantly inhibited TBA-reactive substance stage in the
Cu (2+)-precipitated LDL oxidation and the effects had been greater
than those of probucol. Furthermore, the administration of sunamla
(at a dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg physique weight/day) or Et Ac extract of
amla (at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg physique weight/day) for 20 days
to rats fed 1% cholesterol weight loss plan enormously lowered and
LDL cholesterol stages in a dose-dependent manner, and Et Ac extract
of amla exhibited extra amazing serum cholesterol-decreasing ef fect
than sunamla in the equal quantity. Moreover, the ox-LDL stage in
serum was once markedly improved in cholesterol-fed control rats as
in comparison with usual rats, even as it used to be vastly lowered by
way of the administration of sunamla or Et Ac extract of EO (amla).
In addition, the serum TBA-reactive substance stage was additionally
drastically lowered after oral administration of sun amla or Et Ac
extract of amla. These results advocate that amla may be powerful for
hypercholesterolemia and prevention of atherosclerosis [69].
Hyper-locomotor activity
A panchagavya ayurvedic system containing EO (amla) and cow’s ghee
used to be evaluated for its influence on pentobarbital-prompted dozing
time, pentylenetetrazol-triggered seizures, maximal electroshock-
triggered seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance
(motor coordination), and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The
system (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a colossal prolongation of
pentobarbital-induced napping time and decreased spontaneous
locomotor endeavor. The formulation also vastly antagonized the
amphetamine prompted hyper-locomotor pastime (500, 750 mg/kg,
po) and covered mice toward tonic convulsions caused using maximal
electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The system reasonably extended
the phases of seizure recreation but did not guard mice against lethality
triggered through pentylenetetrazole. The components did not show
neurotoxicity. The result means that the panchagavya components are
sedative in nature [70].
Immunomodulation
Immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of EO (amla) were
evaluated utilizing chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive
agent. It additionally inhibited apoptosis and DNA fragmentation
and relieved the immunosuppressive effects of (chromium) Cr on
lymphocyte proliferation [71]. Lymphocyte proliferation exercise
and histopathological severity of synovial hyperplasia had been used
to learn the anti-inflammatory response of each the extracts, which
confirmed a marked reduction in infection and edema or brought
on immunosuppression in adjuvant precipitated arthritic (antigen-
induced arthritis) rats, indicating that these medications may just
provide a substitute process for the healing of arthritis [72]. Albino
rats had been used to check the immunomodulatory routine of triphala
on quite a lot of neutrophil capabilities such as adherence, phagocytic
index, avidity index, and nitro blue tetrazolium. Oral administration
of triphala appears to stimulate the neutrophil services within the
immunized rats, and stress triggered suppression within the neutrophil
features have been tremendously prevented using triphala [73]. Immu-
21 is the ayurvedic polyherbal system containing extracts of EO (amla),
Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, and Tinospora cordifolia. Its
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
immunomodulatory undertaking used to be studied on the proliferative
response of splenic leukocytes to T-cell mitogens, concanavalin (Con)-A,
phytohemagglutinin and B phone mitogen and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
in vitro by way of [3H]-thymidine uptake assay in mice. Pretreatment
with Immu-21 selectively increased the proliferation of splenic
leukocyte to B-cell mitogen, LPS and cytotoxic exercise in opposition
to ok 562 cells in mice. EO (amla) has been said to inhibit Cr induced
free radical construction and also restored the antioxidant popularity
back to manipulate level. It relieved the immunosuppressive results
of Cr on lymphocyte proliferation and even restored the interleukin
2 and gamma-interferon construction [74]. Extracted amla powder
extended the hemagglutination antibody titer, sheep crimson blood
cells in dose stylish method and in addition brought on the delayed
sort of hypersensitivity response, macrophage migration index, and
respiratory burst recreation of the peritoneal macrophages, complete
leukocyte count, percentage lymphocyte distribution, serum globulin,
and relative lymphoid organ weight.
Insecticidal activity
Saponins that are fundamental parts of EO (amla) have insecticidal or
cytotoxic residences to distinctive insects. Although saponins which had
proven insecticidal endeavor was once amassed from typical sources
rather than EO (amla). However, as saponins are bioactive compounds
located in EO (amla) too, it is apparent that EO (amla) might have
insecticidal activity, and additional evaluation can be performed to get
more detailed analysis [75].
Inhibitory effects
Influence of EO extract administration on the in vivo genotoxicity CP
used to be studied making use of bone marrow chromosomal aberration
and micronucleus induction tests in mice. Three doses (50, 250, and
500 mg/kg body weight) of the plant extract had been administered
orally for 7 consecutive days before the administration of single dose
of mutagens (CP 40 mg/kg i.p). It used to be located that administration
of 250 and 500 mg/kg of EO extract tremendously inhibited the
genotoxicity of as well as CP in both the assay programs. Administration
of 50 mg/kg of the plant extract had no inhibitory effect. Diet G, a primary
constituent of EO when administered at dose stage of 9 mg/kg b.w. (the
approximate estimated amount gift within the highest dose of plant
extract, i.e., 500 mg) for 7 days did inhibit chromosomal aberrations and
micronuclei induction but now not in a significant manner. Influence
of administration of the abovementioned effective doses (250 and
500 mg/kg oral for 7 days) of plant extract and vitamin C (9 mg/kg oral
for 7 days) on the hepatic activation and cleansing enzymes used to be
additionally studied. Colossal induction in the stages of GSH content
and of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, viz., GPx, GSH reductase,
and GSH-S transferase (GST) resulted from plant extract medication to
animals. However, cytochrome P 460 level was once drastically reduced
in the plant-extract-dealt with animals. There was once no massive
alternate in cytochrome P 450 GSH contents and movements of enzymes
on treatment with diet C. The data indicate that the possible mechanism
of inhibition using plant extract is mediated using its modulatory
outcome on hepatic activation and disposition procedures [76].
Indigestion
In indigestion, the gentle shoots of amla given in buttermilk therapy
indigestion and it is recognized that green fresh leaves mixed with
curds have similar outcome. Fruit is carminative and stomachic [38].
The gentle shoot given in butter-milk therapy indigestion and it is
recognized that green recent leaves mixed with curds have a similar
outcome. EO fruit has tannins as its important factor and really a
lot astringent in nature, and tannins have excessive talents treating
intestinal disorders equivalent to diarrhea and dysentery. The
methanol extract of EO confirmed gigantic inhibitory outcomes on
castor oil and magnesium sulfate precipitated diarrhea and reduction
in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal assessments in rats. It also
inhibited prostaglandin E2 -caused in the rat. Amla is often used as a
laxative to relieve constipation in piles [77].
Larvicidal and mosquitocidal
In a mosquitocidal property, analysis test observed larvicidal and
pupicidal routine of methanol extract of EO (amla) against the
malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi showing 98% mortality fee at
100 ppm. The EEO and methanol extracts of EO (amla) additionally
exerted 100% mortality (no hatchability) at 400 ppm and above
mentioned that the larvicidal recreation of EO (amla) Et Ac leaf
extracts. The gain knowledge of concluded that the Et Ac extract
of EO (amla) exhibited the highest larvicidal recreation 99.6%)
with lethal concentration 50% (lethal awareness brings out 50%
mortality) worth of 78.89 ppm in opposition to the larvae of Aedes
aegypti [78].
Memory enhancing activity
The learn was once geared toward investigating the consequences
of EO (amla) powder an ayurvedic education on reminiscence, total
serum LDL cholesterol levels, and brain cholinesterase exercise in
mice EO (amla) powder was administered orally in three doses (50,
100, and 200 mg/kg) for 15 days to exceptional corporations of
young and aged mice. Multiplied plus maze and passive avoidance
apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral units for trying out
memory. Diazepam-scopolamine and aging-caused amnesia served
as the interoceptive behavioral items. Total serum cholesterol stages
and mind cholinesterase pastime additionally estimated. EO (amla)
powder (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent
improvement in memory scores of young and aged mice. Furthermore,
it reversed the amnesia prompted using scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg,
i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p). Apparently, mind cholinesterase
pastime and total LDL cholesterol phases were diminished using EO
(amla) powder administered orally for 15 days EO (amla) powder
may just prove to be a useful comfort for (he management of
Alzheimer’s ailment due to its multifarious precious effects akin to,
memory improving property, LDL cholesterol lowering property, and
anticholinesterase exercise [79].
Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity
An activity-directed fractionation and purification procedure were once
used to identify the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging add-ons of EO (amla).
Dried fruit rind of EO (amla) used to be extracted with methanol and
then separated into hexane, Et Ac, and water fractions. Among these
handiest, the Et Ac phase confirmed powerful NO scavenging exercise
in vitro, compared with water and hexane phases. The Et Ac fraction was
then subjected to separation and purification using Sephadex LH-20
chromatography. Five compounds displaying powerful NO scavenging
pastime were identified using spectral approaches (1H nuclear
magnetic resonance [NMR], 13C NMR, and MS) and via evaluation with
literature values to be gallic acid, methyl gallate, corilagin, furosin,
and geraniin. In addition, HPLC identification and quantificati on of
isolated compounds have been also carried out gallic acid used to be
observed to be a predominant compound within the Et Ac extract and
geraniin showed easiest NO scavenging recreation among the isolated
compounds [80].
Ophthalmic disorders
It is valuable in the remedy of conjunctivitis and glaucoma. It reduces
intracular anxiety in a remarkable manner. An open potential
multicenter clinical trial was conducted in sufferers suffering from quite
a lot of ophthalmic disorders, particularly conjunctivitis, conjunctival
xerosis (dry eye), degenerative stipulations (pterygium or pinguecula),
and post-operative cataract patients with a natural eye drop practice
(Ophthacare) containing common concepts of one-of-a-kind herbs which
have been conventionally used in the ayurvedic process of treatment
when you consider that time immemorial. These comprise Carum
copticum, Terminalia bellirica, EO, Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum,
Cinnamomum camphora, Rosa damascena, and meldespumapum.
The reward study was once undertaken to explain the position of this
natural product in a kind of eye illnesses. An improvement used to be
observed with the treatment of the herbal eye drop treatment by and
large. There have been no aspect effects observed for the duration of the
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Innov J Ayruvedic Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2016, 1-15
course of the study and the eye drop was good tolerated with th e aid of
the sufferers. The herbal eye drop opthacare has a useful role in a type of
infective, inflammatory, and degenerative ophthalmic issues. EO (amla)
is commonly used in opposition to many continual illnesses together
with diabetic cataract. Tannins gift in its aqueous extract produced
inhibition in opposition to rat lens, purified recombinant human aldose
reductase, and sugar caused osmotic alterations [81].
Prophylactive effect
Result of lively tannoid concepts of EO (amla), comprising of emblicanin
A (37%), emblicamn B (33%), punigluconin (12%), and pedunculagin
(14%), was once investigated on a rat mannequin of tardive dyskinesia
(TD) induced with the aid of as soon as every day administration of
haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, ip) for 28 days. Involuntary orofacial actions
(chewing actions, buccal tremors, and tongue prolusion) had been
assessed as TD parameters. The tannoid principles of EO (amla) have
been administered concomitantly with haloperidol within the doses of
10, 20, and 50 mg/kg. po, for 28 days Sodium valproate (200 mg/kg, po),
a Gaba-mimetic agent, and diet E (400 mg/kg, po), an antioxidant, were
used as the commonplace medicines and administered for the equal
period. EO (amla) precipitated a dose-associated inhibition of all the
three TD parameters assessed, as did diet E. The outcomes of sodium
valproate remained statistically insignificant. The results advocate that
EO (amla) exerts a prophylactive effect toward neuroleptic triggered TD
which is likely to be due to its earlier said antioxidant effects in rat brain
areas, including striatum [82].
Regulates elimination
EO (amla) pacifies apana vata, as a consequence helping with the
downward waft of vigor in the body. They hold perform of removing
standard and ease constipation. The fruit is sometimes pickled or
preserved in sugar. When dry it is said to be gently laxative, according
to a few sources, the recent fruit is also laxative. The recent ripe fruits
are used widely in India as a laxative, one or two fruits being adequate
for a dose. They have been exported to Europe, preserved in sugar,
and are valued as a satisfactory laxative for youngsters and made into
a confection including the pulp of the de-seeded fruit. Drury, Colonel
Heber: The valuable vegetation of India; with notices of their chief
medicinal price in commerce, treatment, and the arts [38].
Radio protective activity
Mice had been treated with 2.5 g/kg between of Emblica for
10 consecutive days earlier than irradiation and exposed to a
single dose of 700 rads (7Gy) of radiation after the final dose. One
group was once given Emblica regularly for a different 15 days after
irradiation. Changes in the whole leukocyte rely, bone marrow viability,
and hemoglobin were studied after entire physique irradiation.
Administration of Emblica significantly accelerated these levels that
have been lowered with the aid of irradiation. Animals were sacrificed
at more than a few time facets after irradiation and the events of the
antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST, and stages of GSH were
assayed in the blood. The harm to the phone membrane after whole
body Irradiation was studied via measuring the tissue LPOs phases.
Administration of Emblica greatly more suitable the recreation of the
various antioxidant enzymes and GST as good as GSH system in the
blood therapy with Emblica additionally lowered the elevated levels
of LPOs within the serum the information naturally indicated th at the
extract significantly reduced the bioeffects of radiation. Emblica extract
is also valuable in lowering the facet effects produced for the period of
therapeutic radiation [83].
Skin sores and wounds
For a character with low vitamin C degree remedy of wounds and
fractures is a sluggish method. For quick healing, one needs to devour
amla. The milky juice of the leaves is good software to sores. Grind the
bark of EO (10 g) into a paste and practice to reduce or wound area once
day-to-day for 2-3 days. Then again, squeeze EO leaves and extract the
juice to the cut once daily for 3-4 days. Cure occurs when the dynamic
concord of the doshas is restored [84].
Skin whitening
Epidermis lightening retailers have been widely used to both lighten
and depigment the skin within the Asia, a long way East and Middle East
international locations, whereas within the European market products
tend to be employed for age spots and freckles. The effectiveness of a
standardized antioxidant fraction of EO (amla) fruits as a skin lightener
and likewise as an antioxidant was proven [85].
Source of vitamin C
EO (amla) is essentially the most centerd form of vitamin C loc ated
in the plant kingdom and when the entire fruit is used rather than an
energetic ingredient, the vitamin C is effectively assimilated via the
human physique. The vitamin C in the amla fruit is bonded with tannins
that protect it from being destroyed by heat or mild. The vitamin C in
amla helps in dilating the blood vessels and thereby decreasing the
blood stress [63,86].
Vitality
Considering it has five tastes and helps all of the doshas and plenty of
our bodies’ services and cleanses the blood and the micro channels
of the physique, EO (amla) increases energy and removes fatigue. It
supports regeneration of cells-the system through which worn out
historic cells are replaced by central, new ones [87].
Cultural importance
EO (amla) has been viewed as the sacred tree in India. The tree
was once worshipped as Mother Earth and is believed to nurture
humankind since the fruits are very nourishing. The leaves, fruits, and
residences are utilized in worship in India. Kartik Mahatma and Vrat
Kaumudi order the worship of this tree. The leaves are provided to the
lord of Shri Satyanarayana Vrata, Samba on Shri Shani Pradosha Vrata,
and Shiva and Gowri on Nitya Somvara Vrata. In Himachal Pradesh, this
tree is worshipped in the month Kartik as propitious and chaste [88].
CONCLUSION
About 70% of the world’s people depend largely on traditional p lant
derived drugs for their primary health care. Natural product research
can often be guided by ethnopharmacological knowledge and it can
make substantial contributions to drug innovation by providing novel
chemical structures and mechanisms of action.
EO scientifically is the most widely used herb in the ayurvedic system
of medicine. EO (amla or Indian gooseberry) has been playing a
significant role from ancient times in traditional medicine, Ayurveda,
and in tribal medicine. EO (amla) has said to be useful against many
severe diseases, including cancer, diabetes, hepatic disorders,
and heart diseases. Different biological activities of amla include
antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic,
antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive, hair growth and hair care, and
hepatoprotective. EO (amla) is one of the richest natural sources of
vitamin C.
Several researchers revealed that various extracts and herbal
formulations of EO (amla) showed potential therapeutic benefits
against various diseases, and the results are similar to standard drugs.
Even though EO (amla) has various medicinal properties since ages,
there is a colossal necessity to scientifically explore and evident its
medicinal values at the molecular level with the help of various latest
biotechnological tools a nd techniques.
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... The antihypercholesteremic activity of test drugs ingredients like Amla, Filfil Daraz, Zanjabeel, Post-e-Balela, Sheetraj Hindi might be responsible for weight reduction. [26,43,44,45,46,47] Hair is dry, brittle, and lackluster in low thyroid function and tend to fall out. [1] Rawal C et al., 2013 stated that, tablet hairback (Emblica officinalis one of its content) very effective in hair fall. ...
... [1] Rawal C et al., 2013 stated that, tablet hairback (Emblica officinalis one of its content) very effective in hair fall. [48] Muqwwi-i-Sha'r (Hair tonic) properties of Amla [25,29,32] and Anti alopecic properties of Zanjabeel and Mawaiz Munaqqa also help to prevent hair fall [21,43] The positive result on TSH in test groups but no previous studies on test intervention correspond to this trial. Improvement in the test group was due to individual content properties of test interventions that are immunemodulation, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and hepato-protective. ...
Article
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Objective: Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinal disorders worldwide characterize as a clinical syndrome that occurs due to decreased functioning of thyroid hormones lead to varieties of clinical and biochemical signs and symptoms. Autoimmunity, 131 I-therapy, and thyroidectomy account for 90% of the causes of thyroid hormone deficiency. The use of levothyroxine is lifelong and controversial in certain conditions. Today, there is a need to seek herbs as an alternative therapy. The present clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Majoon-e-Falasafa and Safoof-e-Aqarqarha in Hypothyroidism-A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. Methods: This study was carried out on 40 patients after the screening of 56 subjects. All enrolled patients were randomized by computer-generated random numbers into two groups, 30 in the test group (Majoon-e-Falasfa 10gm/day and Safoof-e-Aqarqarha 3.2gm/day) and 10 in the control group (levothyroxine 1.6µg/kg/day) for 45days, and assessing on subjective & objective parameters. All data analyses were done by using paired proportion tests and student t-test, before and after, to assess the effect of interventions. Result: The demographic data of both groups were similar at baseline. The all-subjective & objective parameters significantly improved (P<0.001) in both groups except weight change, loss of hair, free T3, and T4 (P>0.05). The TSH was significantly improved by 26.7% (P=0.013) in the test group and 50% (P=0.06) in the control group at baseline and after treatment. No significant difference (intergroup P>0.05) were observed in all subjective and objective parameters between groups at baseline and after treatment except free T4. Conclusion: The test intervention has an effect on subjective and objective parameters but the control group was superior to the test group. [Trial registration: CTRI/2018/02/011768].
... Presence of giloy in certain products showed the reduction in moisture and fat and an improved shelf life [27] . Ascorbic acid is higher in amla fruits, so that the AG candy with lower concentration of giloy will have higher concentration of vitamin C. Research have also stated that β-carotene is present in higher concentration in giloy than amla, therefore AG candy with higher concentration of giloy will have presence of higher β-carotene [20,37] . Apart from the sugar added into the candy, amla naturally have a higher amount of total and reducing sugar present in it [3] . ...
Research
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The juice extracted from the giloy (Tinospora cordifolia L.) stem was incorporated with the pulp of amla (Embilica officinalis Gaertn.) for the preparation of value-added nutritive candy. The process optimization was carried out for the prepared amla-giloy (AG) candy using the 'one factor at a time' (OFAT) method. Different concentrations of giloy juice (24ml, 48ml, 60ml, 72ml, and 96ml) were mixed with amla pulp for the development of candy and named AG-1, AG-2, AG-3, AG-4, and AG-5, respectively. AG-3 candy(1:1) with 60ml giloy juice and 60ml amla pulp was selected as the best candy for consumption which is rich in ascorbic acid (186.84mg/100g), β-carotene (166.120µg/100g), free radical inhibition rate (23.42%), total phenol content (55.472mg GAE/100g) and showed no growth of microbes in it. The selected AG candy is accepted with respect to the taste, color, and mouthfeel with overall sensory acceptability of 7.53 on the 9-point hedonic scale.
... It has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties which prevent itching and scaling. Amla hair oil serves as a good conditioner if used regularly as it absorbs extra oil from oily hair (Jain et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
Plants have an immense contribution to improving the lifestyle of human beings. They have been used for healing and curing purposes. Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda, documents over hundreds of plants for their medicinal properties. Advances in science and technology has helped to identify over thousands of these medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) that traditionally were also used as cosmetics, for preparing creams and formulations for skin and/or hair applications. Sophisticated chromatographic tools have led to the identification of unique bioactive compounds from individual plants. These bioactives offer a great potential for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. This book chapter deals with the history of MAPs with a focus on their cosmetic applications, briefly highlighting important Indian plants with their past and present potential for the cosmetic industry.
... cetin, kaempferol , phenolic compounds i.e., gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid, trigallayl glucose , tannins i.e., emblicanin A and B, phyllaemblicin B, punigluconin, pedunculagin, chebulinic acid, corilagin, geraniin, ellagitannin , amino acids i.e., glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, proline, cysteine , fatty acids i.e., stearic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid , alkaloids i.e., phyllantine, phyllembein, phyllantidine , pectin, citric acid, ascorbic acid vitamin C , cellulose, gum, and albumin 2,3 . ...
Article
Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) has been used to promote hair growth for decades. In this study, dried PE fruit powder was extracted, tested for biological activities, and loaded into transfersomes for hair follicle targeting. Before lyophilization, PE fruit powder was extracted using 2 solvent systems, water and 30% ethanol. The PE 30% ethanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic content than the PE aqueous extract. However, the cytotoxicity of the PE 30% ethanolic extract was higher than that of PE aqueous extract. As a result, the PE aqueous extract was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and found that the major component of the PE aqueous extract was gallic acid. Afterward, the PE aqueous extract was tested for its potential to activate the expression of genes involved in hair growth promotion in human keratinocytes. At a non-toxic concentration (10 µg/mL), this extract promoted various growth factors comparable to 1% minoxidil. PE-loaded transfersomes were prepared to deliver the PE aqueous extract to the hair follicle. The particle size and polydispersity index of PE-loaded transfersomes were 228 nm and 0.25, respectively. After 3 months of storage, the particle size at 4°C and 30°C was 218 nm and 241 nm, respectively, which was comparable to its initial size. However, at 40°C, the particle size dramatically increased (315 nm). The fluorescent agent, rhodamine B, was used to evaluate the potential of transfersomes to target hair follicles. Rhodamine B transfersomes had better penetration and accumulation in hair follicles than rhodamine B solution. To conclude, the PE aqueous extract, mainly composed of gallic acid, can activate hair growth gene expression. The extract can be loaded into hair follicles targeting transfersomes. Thus, PE-loaded transfersomes are a promising delivery system for hair follicle targeting to promote hair growth.
... Phyllanthus emblica pharmacological and traditional applications[7] ...
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Phyllanthus emblica is an important medicinal plant widely used in Ayurveda and Unani medicine systems. It is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Different parts of this plant are used in various forms, edible and therapeutic. P. emblica is rich in Vitamin C, amino acids, and minerals. This plant contains phytochemicals like tannins, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanin, flavonoids, phenolics, etc. Apart from these it also contains a potent antioxidant, ellagic acid, which helps prevent gene mutations and repair chromosomal defects. It can scavenge a wide range of ROS and reactive nitrogen species because of its four hydroxyl and two lactone functional groups.
... E. officinalis contains different phytonutrients such as vitamin C, tannins, gallic acid, phyllemblic compounds, carbohydrates, quercetin, polyphenolics, pectin and flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and tannins. E. officinalishas wide ranging biological activities such as antigenotoxic, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, antidepressant, anti-HIV-reverse transcriptase, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant (Jain et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
... Similar observation is made by Boulahlib et al. [26] (as shown in Fig. 12) where he removed calcium ions by using a molecule having deprotonated carboxylic acids and successful complexation between two results into removal of calcium ions. Moreover, certain groups are present in the raw material containing OH groups on the adjacent positions, for example, ascorbic acid in pine nut shells [38], leucodelphinidin and tannins in amla bark [39] and polyphenols, quercetin in ginger [40]. It is reported by Vermerris et al. that presence of such groups with polyphenolic group enhances the adsorption of metal cations [41]. ...
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Biomass (a renewable resource) is getting huge attention as a feedstock for preparation of adsorbents due to its low cost of production, enormous availability and eco-friendliness. In this context, bio-adsorbent and activated carbons were synthesised using pine nut cover, amla bark, ginger peels as raw material, and their applicability in softening of hardwater was investigated. In addition, conventional and microwave method were employed to find the efficient and promising technique for their preparation. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was used as a chemical activating agent because of its low toxicity and to achieve high porosity. The maximum adsorptive capacities of pine nut B, pine nut AC, Ginger AC, Amla C and Amla AC1 were 92.92, 102.92, 88.33, 62.9 and 68.33 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbents were characterised using PXRD, SEM and FT-IR data and possible mechanism of interaction was investigated using FT-IR. Comparative analysis of adsorptive capacities and kinetics of the adsorbents revealed that pine nut covers were cost-effective and efficient material for removal of water hardness. In this study, economic, efficient and eco-friendly activated carbons have been synthesised using negative market materials for the removal of hardness from water. Graphical abstract
... The tree is small to moderate, reaching 1-12 m in height, and has 10-20 cm long deciduous branchlets with light green feathery leaves, greenish-yellow flowers, and nearly spherical, light greenish-yellow fruits [9,10]. Emblica has been used for internal and external applications since ancient times [11,12]. In addition, emblica is well-known for its high antioxidant content compared to vitamin C [13], which results in a skin whitening effect, and other aesthetic benefits including anti-collagenase and anti-elastase [14]. ...
Article
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Oily skin is a problem for a large number of people, especially in tropical countries. This condition results in comedones, inflammatory acne, and other aesthetic problems in the skin. Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) has a number of benefits for the skin; for instance, there were some studies that suggested that emblica has skin whitening effects, and anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities; however, its anti-sebum efficacy has not been reported.The objective of this research was to study the anti-sebum efficacy of emblica toner on facial skin. The toner base was formulated, accelerated stability was tested, and preferences were evaluated in 10 volunteers. The toner base with the highest preference score was mixed with emblica extract. Then, the toner base and emblica toners were assessed for skin irritation by a single patch test in 30 volunteers. The anti-sebum efficacy was conducted using the randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face method with unwashed and only-washed skin positions added to the middle of the forehead in the same group of volunteers assessed by a skin sebum measurement, SebumScale®, at 1 h before the test, once after washing, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after applying the toners on forehead and cheek skin. The stable toner base with the highest preference (85.6 ± 1.8%) was mixed with 1%, 2%, and 3% emblica extract. The toners were stable and did not cause any skin irritation. The 3% emblica toner was chosen for efficacy evaluation. The casual sebum levels of the forehead skin and cheek skin were 66.66 ± 7.01 and 56.12 ± 7.75 µg/cm2, respectively. The sebum level of the unwashed skin position changed (5.0 ± 1.66%) insignificantly up to 4 h (p > 0.05). In comparison, the sebum level of the only-washed skin position was recovered to the casual sebum level (99.4 ± 1.23%) within 3 h. Furthermore, the anti-sebum efficacy of the emblica toner (23.5 ± 1.24%) was higher than that of the toner base (12.0 ± 1.52%) (p < 0.05). The anti-sebum efficacy of emblica toner on cheek skin (26.9 ± 1.78%) was higher than that on forehead skin (20.1 ± 1.34%) (p < 0.05). In summary, the model of evaluation of anti-sebum efficacy used in this study has been found to be practical, and the emblica toner is safe and has apparent anti-sebum efficacy on facial skin.
Article
Heavy metals are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Some heavy metals are necessary while present in the growing medium in moderate concentrations known to be essential heavy metals as they required for the body functioning as a nutrient. But there are some unwanted metals and are also toxic to the environment and create a harmful impact on the body, which termed to be non-essential heavy metals. Upon exposure, the heavy metals decrease the major antioxidants of cells and enzymes with the thiol group and affect cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. It interacts with the DNA repair mechanism and initiates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It subsequently binds to the mitochondria and may inhibit respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation in even low concentrations. This mechanism leads to damage antioxidant repair mechanism of neuronal cells and turns into neurotoxicity. Now, phytochemicals have led to good practices in the health system. Phytochemicals that are present in the fruits and herbs can preserve upon free radical damage. Thus, this review paper summarized various phytochemicals which can be utilized as a treatment option to reverse the effect of the toxicity caused by the ingestion of heavy metals in our body through various environmental or lifestyles ways.
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It is said that the use of Bacopa monnieri (BM) for memory enhancement goes back 3000 years or more in India, when it was cited for its medicinal properties, especially the memory enhancing capacity, in the vedic texts " Athar-Ved Samhila " (3:1) of 800 BC and in Ayurveda. In the folklore of Indian medicine, several herbs have been used traditionally as brain or nerve tonics. One of the most popular of these neurotonics is BM, a well-known memory booster. Brahmi has been administered at religious institutions to help students to enhance their memory for learning ancient, religious hymns. It is also used as cardio-tonic, tranquilizer and sedative, improves the process of learning, restores memory, and enhances power of speech and imagination, diuretic and nervine tonic, antistress, for nervous and mental strain, use in insanity, epilepsy, hysteria, esthenia, nervous breakdown. It is a small, creeping succulent herb. The leaf and flower bearing stems are 10-30 cm long and arise from creeping stems that form roots at the nodes with pale blue or pinkish white flowers belonging to family Scrophulariaceae grown nearly banks of freshwater streams and ponds, paddy fields, and other damp places. The chief phytoconstituents present are brahmine, herpestine, alkaloids, and saponins.
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ABSTRACT Objective: The main objective of present study is to treat Alopecia. Alopecia areata is an unpredictable hair-loss condition. Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Herbal systems of medicine have become increasingly popular in recent years. Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of hair diseases since antiquity. Herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, Cyperus (Nagarmotha), and holy basil are integral parts of ayurvedic formulations. Cyperus rotundus is a well-known ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Methods: Extracts are prepared by separating the soluble matter from vegetable tissues by the application of a suitable solvent such as alcohol, water, or ether. The resultant liquid is concentrated by evaporation to obtain a liquid extract or concentrated almost to dryness to obtain the solid extract and its volatile oil. Hair formulation of C. rotundus belonging to family Cyperaceae in the form of herbal formulation (5% herbal cream and oil) was studied and it showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution) in Wister albino rats. Results: Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the oil, as compared to control animals. The hair growth promoting effect was evaluated against the control, standard, and test animals at 0, 10, 15, and 20 days with the formulated hair oil and hair cream prepared from the volatile oil extracted from the C. rotundus and the significant hair growth was observed, and the growth was compared with the standard drug used 2% solution of minoxidil. Conclusion: The results of treatment with oil were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil.
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ABSTRACT Objective: The present study was carried out in order to study the hair growth activity of some traditional herbal medicinal plants. Herbal traditional drugs are used frequently in therapeutics; more often their chief principles are employed in a more specific manner. Method: Centella asiatica, Cyperus rotundus & Emblica officinalis alcoholic and aqueous extract were prepared and evaluated for the hair growth properties using albino rats. The hair growth formulation was formulated as hair oil and applied topically on shaved skin of rats. Primary skin irritation test, hair length, hair density test were performed. The hair growth-promoting efficacies were evaluated at 0 day, 10 days, 15 days, and 20 days after the application through the hair re-growth area significant hair growth was observed and the hair growth was compared with the standard drug used 2% solution of minoxidil. Result: The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested and compared with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution) by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Conclusion: Excellent results of hair growth were observed in formulations prepared by cloth pouch decoction method for preparation of hair oils.
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Herbs & herbal drugs are clinically proved good for hair growth. Hair loss problem is of great concern to both males & females & the main problems associated with hair loss are hair fading, dandruff & falling of hair. Various synthetic medicines are available for hair loss which does not treat permanently & also shows severe side effects. The main objective of this work is to develop such an herbal hair oil formulation which can resolve the problem related to hair fall & other hair diseases. Herbal drugs like Emblica officinalis, Bacopa monniera and Cyperus rotundus were selected for the formulations of poly herbal hair oil. The hair oil was prepared individually and in a varying concentration of all three herbs and a mixture of all the three herbs in fixed proportion using coconut oil as base. The formulated oil in varying concentration was evaluated physical, chemical and hair growth properties of formulated oil by applying it topically on shaved skin of albino rats. Primary skin irritation test, hair length test were performed and the hair growth was compared with standard Minoxidil 2% ethanolic solution using healthy albino rats. It was observed that hair oil formulation (HF3) showed the best result among the other formulation evaluated by showing an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase.
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Epilepsy is not a disease, but a syndrome of different cerebral disorders of the CNS. This syndrome is characterized by paroxysmal, excessive, and hypersynchronous discharges of large numbers of neurons. The first major division of epilepsy is localization-related (i.e., focal, local, partial) epilepsies, which account for about 60% of all epilepsies. The remainder, about 40%, is composed of generalized epilepsies. The most common, and most difficult to treat, seizures in Adult patients are complex partial seizures, whereas primary generalized tonic-clonic (formerly, “Grand mal" epilepsy) seizures respond in most patients to treatment with anticonvulsants. Thus a need for new drugs with a greater benefit as related to side effects and tolerability, even at the expense of efficacy, when compared to the existing antiepileptic agents.
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Hair is a major esthetic display feature of the human body, especially in social and sexual interactions. Diagnosis of hair diseases occurred as early as ancient Egyptian times and is one of the oldest medical disciplines. Today, hair loss or thinning, and hypertrichosis or hirsutism are common complaints in clinical dermatology, but patients seeking advice for their hair problem are not necessarily completely bald or overall haired. The difficult task in diagnosing hair and hair disorders is to distinguish between a true disorder and a subjective complaint and to analyze the underlying pathogenesis. Patients consult for focal or diffuse effluvium, non-scarring or scarring alopecia, changes in hair structure or color and hair graying. Establishing the correct diagnosis is the key feature of successfully managing a hair patient.
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The purpose of this article is to study and to verify the therapeutic effects and margin of safety of traditional medicines used by the tribal community for treating various diseases as described in ancient literature found in our country. Herbs have been important contributors to the quality of human life for thousands of years. Herbal medicine is the oldest and most widely used form of medicine in the world today. Throughout history plants have served humankind as valuable components of seasonings, teas, cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. Medicinal plants have a traditionally important position in the socio-cultural, spiritual, and medicinal arena of rural and tribal lives throughout the world; India is rich in indigenous herbal resources due to its diverse climatic and soil conditions and multiple ecological regions. In Himalayan region of India, more than 2000 medicinal plant species exist. Although medicinal plants have been used since long, their scientific substantiation has recently been initiated. Looking into the steady expansion in the global population and prevalence of various diseases, such studies are the need of time to ensure availability of drugs in sustainable manner from natural sources for future generations. Based on the therapeutic and commercial importance of medicinal plants, the Cyperus rotundus has been undertaken to evaluate various ethnopharmacological parameters, as it has been used by number of tribal communities in Central part and Southern part of India. According to the WHO estimates about 80% of the of the world's population (mostly in developing countries) rely on traditional medicine, almost plant-based drugs, for their primary healthcare needs. Plants products also play an important role in the health-care systems of the remaining 20% of the population residing in developed countries. Currently, at least 122 phytoconstituents, derived from 94 plant species, can be considered as important drugs that are in use in one or more countries as therapeutic agents.
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Nyctanthes arbortristis (N. Arbortristis) is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. It is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions and Southwards to Godavari. Each part of the plant has some important medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases and also for the development of some industrial products. The present review is to focus on the potential phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activity of plant N. Arbortristis. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant pharmacological activity. Phyto-chemicals like flavanoid, glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid have been reported for significant hair tonic, hepatoprotective, anti-leishmaniasis, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-pyretic, anti-histaminic, anti-malerial, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Night jasmine and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.