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Phonological stages and formation of replacement corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during growing period (Review article)

Authors:
  • Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract and Figures

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial and triploid- geophyte crop which can be maintained up to 8–10 years. During each season, saffron propagates exclusively by replacement corms produced from the mother corm after blooming. The new corms are formed above the old ones, so the crop density increases more and more. Therefore, the flower number and dry stigma yield of saffron are relatively low in the first year and increases to maximum in the fifth to sixth year after planting. The stigma yield of saffron largely depends on weather and soil conditions during replacement corms formation. Research activities have been conducted to developing the appropriate and new agronomic technologies can result in economic levels of production and improve the crop yield. The objective of this review article is to describe and discuss the phonological stages of saffron based on mother- replacement corms behaviors. In addition, relevant literature related to main factors affected the replacement corms behavior is reviewed.
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    Journal of Saffron Research
  Vol. 3, No. 2, Fall & Winter, 2015-2016

(Crocus sativus L.)




 E-mail: akooch@um.ac.ir
(Crocus sativus L.)
 



(Crocus sativus L.)










(Crocus sativus L.)
Sepaskhah &
Kamgar-Haghighi, 2009     
Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, 2011

(Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, 2011)
Table 1- Saffron production in the province of Iran in 2011 (Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, 2011)

Province

Area of cultivation (ha)

Production (kg)

Yield (kg.ha-1)


Un fertilized

East Azerbaijan
84.05
18.7
452.5
5.3

Ardabil
5.21
10.42
6.18
101

Esfahan
455.9
43.9
2637.9
5.7

Tehran
44.05
3
127.3
2.8

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari
40.43
7.5
127.05
3.1

South Khorasan
12411
579
46877
3.7

Razavi Khorasan
57275
-
195515
3.4

North Khorasan
363
92.5
1585.5
4.3

Zanjan
12.22
2.86
36.89
3

Semnan
67
5
250
3.7

Frars
350.15
25.2
1677.22
4.7

Qazvin
14.6
-
23.9
1.6

Qom
4
-
4
1

Kerman
282
30
1203
4.2

Kermanshah
4.5
1
18.95
4.2

Golestan
50
22
345
6.9
 


Lorestan
14.611
20.15
37.03
2.5

Markazi
60.2
16.8
203.4
3.3

Hamedan
32.15
5.9
125.6
3.9

Yazd
592
73
2807
4.7

Total
72162.07
956.93
254060.39
-

 



       

         
        



       
  
 Moayedi Shahraki et al.,
2010; Aghaei & Rezagholizadeh, 2011 
 


  
 

         
           
(Kumar et
1
- Triploid geophyte
al., 2009)


    
      
  

Gresta (Kafi, 2002;
et al., 2008)        

 


    
Khazaei et al., 2013
       



(Kafi, 2002; Kumar et al., 2009)
        
       

(Kafi, 2002; Kumar et al., 2009)
   
        

2
- Underground stem
3
- Replacement (daughter) corm
4
- Mother corm
5
- Generative phase (stage)
6
- Vegetative phase
7
- Dormant phase
  

 

          
          
        

(Kumar et al., 2009)
Fig. 1- Growth stages of saffron in Kashmir, India (Kumar et al., 2009)


       
      

      (Bagheri &
Vessal, 2003)       
(Kafi, 2002; Gresta et al.,
2008) 


   


    

Koul & Farooq, 1982, Ebrahimzadeh et
al., 1997; Abrishamchi, 2003     
       

        
       

(Sadeghi
et al., 2003b)    
(Koocheki et al., 2010)
 

 

 
   Gresta et al., 2009;
Koocheki et al., 2010  

(Amirshekari et al., 2007)  


   Sadeghi, 2008  
(Molina et al., 2005)




Foroughifar & Pour Kasmani,
2002; Monzon et al., 2006; Koocheki et al., 2007b
  
    

   
 
 (Rezvani Moghaddam et al.,
2013b)
   (Origanum vulgare)
-

(Koocheki et al., 2013)


       
Sadeghi et al., 2003b; Rostami & Mohammadi, 2013
        
Koul & Farooq, 1982;
Kumar et al., 2009



(Sadeghi et al.,
2003 b)

    
    (Naderi Darbaghshahi et al.,
2009)
        
(Koocheki et al., 2011 b)

           

         
        
      (Rezvani
Moghaddam et al., 2013a)   
      
    
         
   
Sadeghi et al., 1997; 2003a

          
    
      
    (Koocheki et al., 2010)
          

     

   
 

  

Fig. 2- Formation of flower and leaves in saffron


(Molina et al., 2004, 2005; Koocheki et al., 2010)
Sepaskhah et al., 2008; Azizi-Zohan et al., 2009;
Mohammad Abadi et al., 2011  
  
(Nassiri Mahallati et al., 2007)

(Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013a)
     
 (Koocheki et al.,
2014a; 2014c)       
       
  
        


Fig. 3- Saffron flowering by applying the wheat straw mulch
      
(Foroughifar
& Pour Kasmani, 2002; Limon-Ortega et al., 2008;
Danga & Wakindiki, 2009)   
  
Shabahang et al., 2013

 
         
       
 

(Azizi-Zohan et al., 2009)

 (Behdani et al., 2006;
Nehvi et al., 2010)

       
(Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013b)
         
(Sepaskhah et al., 2008; Azizi-Zohan et al.,
2009; Sepaskhah & Kamgar-Haghighi, 2009
   

   
(Alizadeh et
al., 2009)
 


 


 Alizadeh et al., 2009 
        

          
   

    
(Sadeghi et al., 2003b; Nassiri et al., 2007)

        


     


         
   
      (Molina et al.,
2005; Nassiri et al., 2007)
     



(Kafi, 2002; Tavakkoli et al., 2014)
        
     

  
(a)(b)(c)
Fig. 4- Formation of first shoot (a) and replacement corm (b) above its mother corm (c) of saffron
       
  

(Renau-Morata et al., 2012)


 
(Kafi, 2002)



 

-
Rahmati, 2003 


(Amirshekari et al., 2007)
        
        
(Chaji et al., 2013)-
        
(Pandey & Srivastava, 2003; Tavakkoli et
al., 2014)


 




  
Tavakkoli et al., 2014
           
        
   (Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013a)

  
(Amirshekari et
al., 2007; Renau-Morata et al., 2012)


-

(Koocheki et al., 2014 a; 2014c)


  Koocheki et al., 2007 a;
Gresta et al., 2008; Renau-Morata et al., 2012
 


        

(Molina et al., 2005)
(Sabet Teimouri et al., 2010)
          





       (Koocheki et al.,
2014b)
    Fusarium solaniF. oxysporum
Sclerotium rolfsiiSud et al., 1999; Kalha et al., 2007;
Husaini et al., 2010







        
       
       


ab
Fig. 5- Fourth and fifth stages of replacement corms formation of saffron
a: Replacement corm in the fourth stage; b: Replacement corm in the fourth stage. In this stage, tunics of corms
aproximately are formed.
 

       






1
- Absorbing (fibrous) roots
2
- Contractile roots
3
- Contractile absorbing roots
  

abcde



Fig. 6- The growth and development of saffron roots system in the fourth stage
a: A saffron seedling with a new replacement corm above the mother corm; b: Mother corm; c: Contractile roots; d:
Contractile absorbing roots; e: Absorbing roots (fibrous)
Saffron corms produce three types of roots: absorbing roots (fibrous), contractile roots and contractile absorbing roots
which are different in structure and function.



       
        
       

(Kumar et al., 2008)
        
       Rezvani
Moghaddam et al., 2013a    
(Shabahang et al., 2013)     

       
  Hassanzadeh Aval et al.,
2013; Teimori et al., 2013; Koocheki et al., 2014a;
Koocheki et al., 2014b(Rezvani
Moghaddam et al., 2013b)
 Amiri, 2008   




Rasouli et al., 2013
 

(Omidi et al., 2009)
    Koocheki et al., 2011a;
Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013a
 Hosseini et al., 2003, Koocheki et al., 2014c
Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013b;
Shabahang et al., 2013    
(Shabahang et al., 2013)    

(Rezvani Moghaddam et al.,
2013a)


        
      
    
-
         
      



 
(Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013a









abc

Fig. 7- Steps of replacement corms production in this experiment (koocheki et al., 2014 c)
a: Mother corm in planting time (11.93 g); b: Mother corm in end of the first growing season; c: 9 Replacement corms
of saffron (average weight per replacement corms: 1.71 g)
     (Koocheki et al.,
2014 a)-
-



   
        

       

  

Table 2- Comparison of number and yield of saffron replacement corms under experimental treatments in the first year (Koocheki et al., 2014a)

Treatments

)
2
Number of replacement corm (m

)
2-
Yield of replacement corm (g.m

4 g and lower

4.18 g

More than 8 g

Total
Number

4 g and lower

4.18 g

More than 8 g

Total yield

Mother corm size (g)

4 and lower
84.56 (79.9%) c *
18.33 (17.5%) d
2.78 (2.6%) d
105.7 d
134.00 (51.4%) d
100.54 (37.3%) d
30.58 (11.3%) d
265.11 d

4.1 8
90.00 (69.7%) bc
33.22 (25.4%) c
6.44 (4.9%) c
129.7 c
189.44 (42.4%) c
189.43(43.8%) c
62.37 (13.9%) c
441.24 c

8.1 12
96.78 (66.7%) b
39.22 (27.0%) b
8.78 (6.9%) b
144.8 b
262.88 (45.6%) b
222.42 (39.1%) b
86.95 (15.3%) b
572.25 b

More than 12
134.33 (65.9%) a
59.78 (29.3%) a
9.8889 (4.8%) a
204.0 a
357.47 (43.9%) a
351.65 (43.2%) a
105.31 (12.9%) a
814.43 a

Fertilizer sources

Manure
100.08 (66.6%) a
42.83 (27.5%) a
9.17 (6.0%) a
152.1 a
250.63 (43.5%) a
230.57 (40.7%) a
90.42 (15.8%) a
571.62 a

Chemical
101.25 (69.4%) a
39.83 (25.9%) a
7.08 (4.7%) b
148.2 ab
205.92 (40.3%) a
227.96 (45.4%) a
74.21 (14.4%) b
508.09 b

Control
102.92 (75.7%) a
30.25 (21.0%) b
4.67 (3.3%) c
137.8 b
251.29 (53.6%) a
189.50 (36.5%) b
49.27 (9.9%) c
490.06 b
*
* In each column and for each factor, means followed by at least one letter in common are not significantly different at 5% probability level using Duncan's
Multiple Rang test.
 

   (Rezvani Moghaddam et al.,
2013a)




        
     



          




          


ab
Fig. 8- Saffron flowering in the second year
a: Shoot initiation and b: First leaves initiation

          
          

(Koocheki et al.,
2014 a)

         

           


  

abcd
Fig. 9- Formation of replacement corm above the mother corm in the second year
a: Initial growth of replacement corm; b: Mother corm; c: Contractile roots; d: Absorbing roots

-

        
          

      



     
-
         




      

 


abc
Fig. 10- Saffron plant in the fifth stage (third year)
a: Replacement corm is growing on mother corm; b: Mother corm; c: Absorbing roots
(Khazaei et al., 2013)

      
      
  


      
 Kafi,
2002       
        
        (Kafi, 2002;
Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013a)   
     

   
        
(Koocheki et
al., 2011b)
    
 (Koocheki et al., 2014)    
(Koocheki et al., 2012)

 
        
   

        
        
(Koocheki et al.,
2012; 2014)
     
         
         
  
       (Kafi,
2002; Keykha Moghaddam et al., 2013) 

(Yarami et al., 2011)
(Kc)
       
  
Yarami et al., 2011

 (Keykhamoghadam et al., 2013)  
    

(Yarami et al., 2011)

(Sepaskhah & Kamgar-Haghighi, 2009) 







 
 (Rezvani Moghaddam et al., 2013a) 


       

(Alizadeh et al., 2009; Koocheki et al.,
2009)

        
         
      


 


-




       
         



 

         


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Phonological stages and formation of replacement corms of saffron (Crocus
sativus L.) during growing period
Alireza Koocheki1* and Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi2
1- Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2- PhD Student in Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
*- Corresponding author E-mail: akooch@um.ac.ir
Koocheki, A., and Seyyedi, S.M., 2015. Phonological stages and formation of replacement corms of saffron (Crocus
sativus L.) during growing period. Journal of Saffron Research. 3(2): 134-154.
Submitted: 25-05-2014 Accepted: 05-07-2015
Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial and triploid- geophyte crop which can be maintained up to 810
years. During each season, saffron propagates exclusively by replacement corms produced from the mother
corm after blooming. The new corms are formed above the old ones, so the crop density increases more and
more. Therefore, the flower number and dry stigma yield of saffron are relatively low in the first year and
increases to maximum in the fifth to sixth year after planting. The stigma yield of saffron largely depends on
weather and soil conditions during replacement corms formation. Research activities have been conducted to
developing the appropriate and new agronomic technologies can result in economic levels of production and
improve the crop yield. The objective of this review article is to describe and discuss the phonological stages
of saffron based on mother- replacement corms behaviors. In addition, relevant literature related to main
factors affected the replacement corms behavior is reviewed.
Keywords: Dormancy stage, Flowering, Mother corm, Root systems
... Flowers appear before or after or at the same time of leaves appearance depending on weather conditions (Koocheki and Seyyedi, 2015a;Molina et al., 2004a). As can be seen from Fig. 7.5 a relative increase in air temperature, postpone flowering until the leaves have started to appear (Arsalani et al., 2015;Kumar et al., 2009). ...
... The daughter corms may continue to form throughout the vegetative growth period (Fig. 7.6). However, the daughter corm growth rate reaches to its maximum in December (Koocheki and Seyyedi, 2015a;Renau-Morata et al., 2012). ...
... ( Kumar et al., 2009). Depending on soil microbial, physical and chemical properties, mother corm size and soil moisture content, the depth of penetration of these roots in the soil can be up to 30 cm (Koocheki and Seyyedi, 2015a). The contractile roots (about 3À10 mm diameter), which are usually tuber, fleshy, and white in color pull the plants deeper into the soil with a strong pulling force (Kumar et al., 2009;Rajaei et al., 2009;Zeybek et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), a member of the Iridaceae family, is a sterile triploid geophyte plant. Saffron is adapted to arid and semiarid regions and naturally has an annual life cycle, but it is cultivated as a perennial crop by controlling its corm growth. It is important to study the crucial factors affecting mother corm formation and growth due to their special role on the dried stigma yield of saffron. At the beginning of this chapter, various aspects of saffron corms have been described from a botanical point of view. In the following sections, agronomic factors affecting corms formation have been discussed to determine the importance of these factors. The adverse effects of global warming and climate change on saffron flower induction are also reviewed in this chapter.
... Koocheki & Seyyedi, 2015a;2015b ) . There is no supervision and inspection by authorities in supply and demand market of saffron corms. ...
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This book presents the aspects of cellulose obtained in correlation with its integration into the new concept of biorefining. The authors detail the individual steps of pulp manufacture as well as properties and fiber characterization techniques for paper, cellulose derivatives and processing by-products. This book is of interest to scientists and advanced students working in the fields of renewable resources and biorefining. The authors consider pulp production and processing from the perspective of not only chemical engineering, but also chemistry and physics. Addresses the process products as well as by-products, giving both their properties and potential applications.
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