ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

This paper represents the overall electrical energy profile and access in Bangladesh. In the recent past Bangladesh has been experiencing shortage of electricity, and about 42 % of population no access to the electricity. The electricity consumption has rapidly increased over last decade. The demand and consumption will intensify in the remote future as overall development and future growth. To set “vision 2021” of Bangladesh; government of Bangladesh has devoted to ensuring access of affordable and reliable electricity for all by 2021. In the modern time, energy is the vital ingredient for socioeconomic growth in the developing country i.e., alleviating poverty. Along with electricity access in Bangladesh strived to become middle income country by 2021. Bangladesh has experienced that energy consumption inclines to increase rapidly when per capita income researches between US$ 1,000 and US$ 10,000, and a country’s
Content may be subject to copyright.
© Muhammad Taheruzzaman & Przemyslaw Janik
Abstract This paper represents the overall electrical
energy profile and access in Bangladesh. In the recent past,
Bangladesh has been experiencing the shortage of
electricity, and about 42 % of the population no access to
the electricity. The electricity consumption has rapidly
increased over last decade. The demand and consumption
will intensify in the remote future as overall development
and future growth. To set “vision 2021” of Bangladesh; the
government of Bangladesh has devoted to ensuring access
to affordable and reliable electricity for all by 2021. In the
modern time, energy is the vital ingredient for socio-
economic growth in the developing country i.e., alleviating
poverty. Along with electricity access in Bangladesh strived
to become the middle-income country by 2021. Bangladesh
has experienced that energy consumption inclines to
increase rapidly when per capita income reaches between
US$ 1,000 and US$ 10,000, and a country’s growth
momentum through reliable energy supply and consistent
energy supply ensured by the sustainable energy. As
increasing population in Bangladesh, the electric energy
generation is an important dispute through the sustainable
Index Terms Energy Profile, Energy efficiency, Electric Power
sector, Electricity reformation, Renewable energy access, Solar home
ccording to report 2012, Bangladesh is the 134th
ranked out of 144 countries on the quality of electricity
supply, which suggests the most problematic obstacles
to the further socioeconomic progress. The IEA estimates
approximately 1.5 billion people have no access to
electricity in 2008 [1], which estimates more than 20 % of
total population. According to UNDP report more than 96.2
million of people which is more than half the total
population in Bangladesh still remains without access to
Muhammad Taheruzzaman (email: muhammad.taheruzzaman@tu- Department of Energy Distribution and High Voltage, Brandenburg
Technical University Cottbus, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
electricity city [2], furthermore, the irregular electric power
supply causes load shedding. Electric energy access is the
far-way dream for many families in the rural area in
developing countries, about 80 % of the population are
living in the rural and remote areas in Bangladesh where
only 25 % of electricity available for p eople. Overcoming the
curse of poverty, sustainable economic growth by access
energy is an essential prerequisite and major criterion.
Electricity access with a modern form of energy resources
is promoting social and economic growth. It is also an
indispensable contribution to achieving Millennium
Development Goal (MDG) and vision 2021. In the modern
era, there is no country attained sustained economic growth
without improving access to clean and modern energy; the
modern form of energy delineates with an integration of
locally available renewable energy sources. Rural
electrification ensuring with improved electricity is
fundamental for socio-economic development. Electrical
energy access influences to the life standards, which
affecting agricultural productivity, education, health. The
Government of Bangladesh has set a noble vision to access
electricity for all inhabitants by 2021, to comply the vision
integrating solar PV and biomass sources which are richly
endowed in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, it is common about
4 - 6 h of power outage per day in rural areas, but summer
season the number of hours rises to 6 - 8 h, mostly during
18:00 - 22:00 h irregular power outage causes load
shedding. The demand for electricity increases with
increasing with Population but the generation of electricity
is not increasing to meet the demand. At present, almost 52
% of total people in Bangladesh are connected to the grid
[3], the power supply from the grid is inadequate to meet
both peak and basic demand in Bangladesh. Almost 75 % of
people in rural areas are not connected to the main grid, and
only 15 - 20 % of electric demand comply by the BREB
(Bangladesh rural electrification board) supplied electricity
[4]. Due to life standards and social standards enhances, the
consumption rate increased at 4.53 %, but the generation of
electricity increased only at a rate of 5.37 % that increased
Przemyslaw (e-mail: Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
Electric Energy Access in Bangladesh
Muhammad Taheruzzaman and Przemyslaw Janik*
Brandenburg Technical University-Cottbus, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
*Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
the rate of 6.72 % load shedding per year [5], graphically
present in figure 2-3. According to LEAP (long range energy
alternative planning) project [6], rural households loads
comprises with lighting, mobile charger, ceiling fan, TV, and
refrigerators. In rural areas lighting are the main loads in
the rural households. In 2010 rural households, consumes
300kWh per year for lighting solely satisfied by electricity
supplies. The demand for lighting growing at constant 1.67
% per year to 350 kWh by 2020 [7]. A tropical country like
Bangladesh, where summer seasons comprises almost 9
months requires cooling by the ceiling fan, consumes 250
kWh per year and assume the consumption rate increase up
to 1.9 % to 345 kWh in 2030. Likewise, refrigeration
consumption demand rate increase 0.93 %, the demand
increases from 476 kWh to 565 kWh in 2030. The
percentage of energy consumption has experienced
promptly increasing about 2.69 % from 2012 to 2013, but
still remains lowest per capita consumption. The studies of
EIA, the consumption has increased dramatically over 52 %
within the past decade [8]. If your paper is intended for a
conference, please contact your conference editor
concerning acceptable word processor formats for your
particular conference.
Bangladesh is moving towards achieving the tag of
Developing country with an annual GDP almost 6 % over
the last past decade [9]. Recently population thriving
dramatically nearly 158 million and annual growth rate of
1.39 % over the past decade [10]. The majority of them are
living in the rural areas, and only 32 % of households have
access to electricity, but the availability of electricity about
22 % [11]. Bangladesh is one of the largest in population at
9th position in the world with 158 million people at the end
of 2014, where total 52 % people have partially electricity
access, while only 10-15 % of rural have the access to
electricity demand mainly meets the light, ceiling fan,
refrigeration, irrigation, productive uses loads. In
Bangladesh, the electricity demand of all sectors including
agriculture, commercial service, industry, and domestic
services. The domestic households and industry sectors are
consuming of electrical power about 43 % and 44 %
respectively in total of about 87 % [12]. The GDP growth
rates significantly depend on the production of a country, as
Bangladesh is an agricultural and small size industrial
production based country, and production always depends
on electricity, the GDP growth and electricity generation
growth present in figure 1. It is estimated that 1 % increase
in per capita energy consumption causes an increase in per
capita GDP by 0.23 %.
Figure 1: GDP Growth Rate with Electricity Access
A. Demand of Electricity vs Climate of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is located between 20° to 26° North and 88°
to 92° east. It is bordered on the west, north and east by
India, on the south-east by Myanmar, and on the south by
the Bay of Bengal. The geographical location of Bangladesh
offers higher solar irradiation [13]. Bangladesh enjoys
generally a sub-tropical monsoon climate while there are
six seasons in a year, with three being more prominent,
namely winter, summer and monsoon season. Winter
begins in November and ends in February. In winter, there
is not much fluctuation in temperature, which ranges from
minimum of 7° - 13 °C to a maximum of 24 °C31 °C. The
maximum temperature recorded in the summer months is
37 °C although in some places this occasionally rises up to
41°C (105°F or more) [13]. As the temperature increases
the demand for electricity has increased due to
refrigeration, cooling, whereas the base load demand is
higher than the electricity generation. Bangladesh has three
main seasons: the monsoon or wet season from late May to
early October; the cold season from mid-November to the
end of January; and the hot season from March to mid-
September [15]; the imbalance between demand and
supply due to high electricity demand for ceiling fan,
refrigeration during March to August in each year.
B. Electric Energy Status and Demand Profile
Electric energy is one of the affable terms of energy which
is the fundamental contingent for socio-economic
development, which alleviate poverty. But, Bangladesh has
the major problem of the energy crisis that persisting
poverty, conventional fossil fuel causes environmental
degradation. Merely, 49 % of the population have the access
electricity that met by 4500 MW while peak demand 6000
MW causes the power outage. Currently, 53 % electricity
produced by public sectors and rest produced by several
private sectors with various form of generation [16]. The
existing available power generation 8,500 MW by October
2014 and vision set to 39,000 MW by 2030 [17]. The (table-
1), represents power generation from different
organization and Bangladesh Power Development Board
(BPDB) transmits and distributes across the country.
Natural gas and coal expected the main source of power
generation in Bangladesh, GOB also attentive on liquid fuel
based power generation. The conventional fuel
consumption to generate electrical power and traditional
power plant influenced to increase CO2 emission, power
generation sector alone contributes 40 % CO2 emission
[18]. The primary energy considered to consumption
estimated 62% of biomass, 25 % of natural gas, 12 %
imported oil, and coal and hydropower contribute 1 %.
Table 1: Daily Power Generation
Power Development
Electricity generation
company Bangladesh
Ashuganj Power
Station Co. Ltd
Independent Power
Producer (private)
Small size producers
Rental Power
Total generation
In Bangladesh, power sectors that highly dependent on
conventional fossil fuel including gas and coal. The total
capacity of electricity generation about 8,709 MW, and 62.9
% of electricity generation by natural gas present in figure
2. Besides natural gas, 10 % high-speed diesel, 5 % of coal,
and 3 % of heavy fuel oil used to produces electricity figure
2(a). Besides natural gas, 10 % high speed diesel, 5 % of
coal, and 3 % of heavy fuel oil used to produces electricity
[20], and only 3.3 % of electricity contributes by renewable
sources [21].
Figure 2: Installed electricity capacity (a) fuel type and (b)
plant type [19]
According to (BPDB) report expresses, 55 % of people have
access electricity, and per capita 321 kWh electricity
generation [22], which comparatively lower than other
developing countries. Access to power in Bangladesh is
limited to about 45 %50 % of the population and those
who have access faces severe power shortages. Load
shedding in Dhaka in 2011 and during the summer of 2012
was about 5 hours per day. Power shortages have
constrained the potential economic growth in Bangladesh
and cost of which have been estimated to be about 0.5 % of
GDP. According to “Vision 2021”; the government’s vision
for the power sector is to ensure universal access to grid
electricity by the year 2020, with an interim target to reach
an access level of 68 % by year the 2015. According to
government estimates, about 20,000 megawatts (MW) of
new generation capacity need to be added to the system by
2020, together with matching transmission and
distribution improvements to reach the universal access
Figure 3: Electrification Rate in Different Regions
The total installed capacity was 5262 MW in FY 200708,
which has increased to 8525 MW in FY 201213 with an
annual increase of 10.34 %. However, the maximum
generation was 4130 MW in FY 200708, which has
increased to 6350 MW in FY 201213 with an annual
increase of 8.96 %. The annual rise in maximum generation
(8.96 %) is lower than that of the installed capacity (10.34
%) between the FY 2007–08 and 201213. This is mainly
due to the less generation capacity of older power plants
and shortage of gas supply.
Total Rural Urban
Yearly Electricity Demand (Anticipated)
2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025 2027 2029
Table 2: Different fuel Consumption
4822 MW
186 MW
230 MW
250 MW
335 MW
Though attribution is difficult, this technical assistance may
have played a role in supporting a ‘balanced development’ of
the power sector, which during the project period (2004-2013)
saw an increase in electricity access from 35 percent to about
62 %; an increase in generation capacity from 3,622 MW in
2004 to 9,500 MW; a reduction of systems losses from about
20.0 percent to 1.3 percent; and a drop in accounts receivable
from 6.45 months to 2.21 months. About 40 % of electricity
generated by private enterprises by April, 2010 while the
number has been increased to 44 % by April 2011. Currently,
rental, quick rental and some others peaking plants were under
taken on a first track based power generation to manage present
power crisis. According to the Power System Master Plan
(PSMP), the peak demand anticipated 10,283 MW in 2015,
whereas total power generated about 12071 MW. The
anticipated peak demand 25199 MW anticipated in 2020 and
33708 MW in 2030 show in figure 5.
C. Infrastructure of Bangladesh Power development
First Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), is the
sole authority to delivered electricity to the national grid
through a common transmission line, to meet the national
demand BPDB produces and purchases electricity from
independent power producers (IPPs). The five authorities
contributes together to produces electricity in Bangladesh:
(i) Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
(ii) Ashuganj Power Station Company Ltd. (APSCL)
(iii) Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh
(iv) North West Power Generation Company
(v) Independent Power Producers (IPPs)
Table 3: Authorities of Power Generation and Capacities and
Market Share
Name of Authorities
Share (%)
Bangladesh Power
Development Board
Ashuganj Power Station
Company Ltd (APSCL)
Electricity Generation
Company of Bangladesh
North West Power
Generation Company Ltd
Independent Power
Producers (IPPs)
Considering country size and population, Bangladesh
electricity infrastructure are quite smaller than other
countries which is insufficient and poorly managed by
several authorities including BPDB, BPDC, DESCO and REB.
Amongst all these authorities, REB is one of the most
success government company since 1977 in Bangladesh,
40.10 % electricity purchased to electrifying rural areas.
Table 4: Share of electricity distribution by Authorities
Share (%)
Bangladesh power system including transmission system
comprises along with 16 substations capacity of 230/132
kV besides that 103 substations dimensions of 132/33 kV
substations, which total capacity of power contains 7525
MVA and 11892 MVA respectively. The distribution
network comprises 33 kV, 11 kV, and 400 V [27].
South Asia accounts for 37 % of the world's population
without access to electricity [28]. Such a situation continues
to exist despite several initiatives and policies to support
rural electrification efforts by the respective country
governments including the use of renewable energy
technologies including PV, wind, and biomass. The pace of
rural electrification over much of the developing world is
excruciatingly slow. In many countries in South Asian and
Sub-Saharan African, it is even lower than rural
electrification growth in Bangladesh. Bringing the socio-
economic development into the development countries like
Bangladesh, the essential elements considers rural
electrification [29], development of underprivileged rural
people [30] [31]. Demand for electricity with an
improvement of living standard, agricultural production,
community development in Bangladesh. Energy access
through rural electrification level still not sufficient enough,
but the impressive SHS growth and off-grid PV system in
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Installed Capacity (MW) Maximum Gemeration (MW)
Figure 4: Installed Capacity and Generation 2007-2013
Bangladesh. Development and implemented by IDCOL
(Infrastructure Development Company Limited).
Figure 3: Electric Energy Access
Electrification rate in rural areas still poor as only 38 % of
households is electrified [11], IDCOL (Bangladesh
Government owned agency) with other 30 partners
Organization (POs) working together for improving the
access of electricity around rural areas. Despite of
continuous efforts from the international community and
governments, the pace of rural electrification still very slow
[34]. The Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (BREP)
clearly expresses which benefit greatly from the
involvement of local communities improve electricity
access in rural areas. According to the vision 2021; GOB
aims at 100 % access to electricity to entire rural areas by
2020, Connecting over 0.7 million consumers and only 3 %
of electricity supplied by the REB, the dedicated
government organization, rest of can be supplied by the
including private company and partner organization (POs).
The process of rural electrification in developing countries,
which depends on various factors;
(1) The result of pre-phase economic and social impact
(2) Development of PBS (local partner)
(3) Technically and financially power system
(4)Available funding from international; community
There is the main process of electrical access in rural areas
centralized approach and decentralized approach;
centralized approached constituted by government and
partner stakeholders. In Bangladesh REB and BPS are the
main organization for rural electrification. The
decentralized approach formulated by both top-down and
bottom-up concept, standalone PV system, SHS, and
renewable integrated hybrid mini-grid the best example in
Bangladesh. The approach follows up and development of
rural electrification in Bangladesh considered;
(1) Extending and intensifying the central grid
(2) Deploying off-grid technologies (off grid mini-grid,
standalone MG, bottom up swarm electrification)
To implement the rural electric cooperative concept in
Bangladesh, a central statutory agency called the Rural
Electrification Board (REB) was formed by the government.
The REB was given the responsibility of organizing the rural
electric cooperatives (Palli Bidyut Samity, PBS); it employed
managers to oversee the financial and administrative activities
of the cooperatives. According to the World Bank manifesto, to
bring most of the people electrifying under project “Rural
Electrification and Renewable Energy Development” which
mainly deployed by PV system [43].
A. Features of Rural Electrification
Before 1977, the government-owned Power Development
Board (PDB) was the sole organization providing electricity
throughout the country, without there being any special
emphasis on rural areas. This actually left rural areas a very
little chance to get access to electricity, and so, given this
situation, the country launched the Rural Electrification
Program (REP), which exclusively targets rural areas. The
features of rural electricity in Bangladesh characterized by
low voltage loads and distributed medium voltage lines. The
power supply is unreliable and about 6 to 8 hours per day
and phase imbalance. Average rural electric loads from 5
kW to 20 kW per village, and load factor around 0.2 to 0.3
(average demand/maximum demand). The load
consumption in the households in rural areas are
predominantly lighting, agricultural pumping, and mobile
charge. The grids in a rural region often weak and high peak
demand during evening lighting and summer agricultural
pump. To implement the rural electric cooperative concept in
Bangladesh, a central statutory agency called the Rural
Electrification Board (REB) was formed by the government.
The REB was given the responsibility of organizing the rural
electric cooperatives PBS (Palli Bidyut Samity); it employed
managers to oversee the financial and administrative activities
of the cooperatives.
Figure 4: Typical Household Load Profile
B. Electric Energy Consumption Profile
In the modern epoch, electricity is the fundamental
infrastructural input for economic development. Electricity
is the flexible form of energy that drives development
factors including industrialization, extensive urbanization,
and intensification of living standards and modernization of
agricultural sector. In Bangladesh Electricity is a major
source of energy to meet the industrial and agricultural
sector, both of these sectors contribute to 50.3 % of
country’s GDP [35]. Historically, Bangladesh is standing at
overwhelmingly electricity generation by natural gas-
based. According to the estimation of IEA, 1,400 MW
electricity generation from 400 million cubic feet of natural
in each day (IEA, 2014). In Bangladesh, natural gas supplied
for consumption from two sources; state owned Petro-
Bangla, which contribute 99.4 % and international oil
companies (IOCs) which account for 0.5 % of total supply.
Customer Category
Unit Price (tk/kWh)*
Category A: residential
Life Line: from 1 to 50 unit
First Step : From 1 to 75 unit
Second Step : From 76 to 200
Third Step : From 201 to 300
Fifth Step: From 401 to 600
Sixth Step: Above 600 units
Category B: Agricultural
Category-C : Small Industries
Flat Rate
Off-Peak Time
Peak time
Category D: Non-Residential
Category E: Commercial and
Flat Rate
Off-Peak Time
Peak Time
80 tk= 1 US $
According to IEA Energy Access to comply the rural
electrification, household having reliable and affordable
electricity to clean cooking facilities, first electricity
connection, and increasing level of electricity consumption
over time as regional average. Bangladesh is the most
potential country for renewable energy, significantly
increases the number projects to meet the electrical energy
throughout the country. The most existing form of
renewable energy experienced in Bangladesh considering
PV based off grid system including SHS, nano-grid, and
mini-grid, where biomass also have high portentous to
integrated significantly. With increasing both life and social
standards urbanization is rapidly growing in developing
countries, as comply urbanization growth electricity
demand also increases promptly in Bangladesh. GOB has
set target about 90 % electricity access across the country
by 2018 [36] , to meet this vision innovative rural
electrification integrated renewable energy is the best
solution followed by the recent experiences, and achieving
the target 2018 by connecting 450,000 households per
months by 66 % SHS, and hybrid power system with
renewable sources.
Although Bangladesh is the seven largest natural gas
producer country among Asia, about 56% of gas
consumption as the primary source of energy. As high
dependency on natural gas, and experiences shortage of gas
supply. The regular peak demands 5500 MW, but only 4000
MW of electricity produced by the conventional power
generation system in 2007 that causes rolling electricity
blackout. Remote areas and rural villages are the major
mechanisms of holistic society; the development of socio-
economy and environmental prominence in Bangladesh
depends on productivity, and the productivity depends on
access to energy. But the true reality is the government of
Bangladesh not frequently involves for rural development
including rural electrification due to some geographical
constraints. In figure 7 represents, the electricity access
increasing rapidly from 2000 to 2015.
Figure 5: Change in Access to Electricity, 1990-2015
Electrifying in rural areas by conventional electrification
system is expensive due to households are situated
scattered and remote, and consumption rate low compare
to urban electrification. Hence, no-electrified remote areas
and poor villages electrifying by the conventional basis not
promoted and focused. Consequently, it is urgent for the
development of social life in Bangladesh by the availability
of a reliable, adequate, and reasonably priced source of
energy that uninterrupted balance of electricity supply.
Many countries and cities have already moved towards low
carbon and clean energy transformations. Such as in
Germany, for instance, is undertaking the ‘Energiewende’,
an economic watershed that aims to produce 80 % of its
electricity from renewable by 2050 [37]. Harnessing clean,
renewable, and more efficient energy solutions will
contribute not only to tackling a country’s or community’s
energy challenges but also to the target of limiting global
temperature rise to two degrees Celsius. As it is, a
significant amount of GHG emissions are generated from
energy production, thus tying sustainable energy directly to
the climate change negotiations. Bangladesh today faces a
different future than it did decades ago when abundant
natural gas seemed to be the key to prosperity. At the same
time as the centralized grid-based electrification has been
the most common approach, decentralized renewable
energy options especially, PV(photovoltaic) systems has
also been adopted, especially for areas where it is techno-
economically not feasible to extend the electricity grid.
These off-grid communities are generally small, consisting
of low-income households with characteristics that may
have been economically unattractive to electricity
distribution companies to extend the grid. Small-scale
renewable energy options, such as a solar home system
(SHS) and biogas plants, have evolved as promising
alternative for providing electricity to these disperse areas
[38]. Other renewable energy options, such as wind energy
and hydropower, have little potential to contribute to rural
electrification in Bangladesh. Among the renewable
technologies, the SHS option has accounted for the major
share (80 %) of off-grid technologies in Bangladesh [39]
[40] [41]. Bangladesh started its intensive rural
electrification program in 1977 when only 10 % of its total
population was connected to a grid. The country adopted a
rural electric cooperative (REC) concept from the National
Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), which had
successfully electrified rural America in the 1930s [42].
According to the World Bank manifesto, to bring most of
people electrifying under project “Rural Electrification and
Renewable Energy Development” which mainly deployed
by PV system [43].
Figure 6: Institutional development for off-grid program
Amongst 49 partners’ organization, IDCOL has developed a
competitive market for Solar PV system without any
geographic constraints by offering solar incentives; SHS
installation, PV system with battery and charge controller
supplies across the country [44]. Achieving quality and
reliability of electricity supply is an important factor for
each region, enhancement of reliability factor in integrating
intermittent renewable energy like solar and the wind no
choice except diesel generators, issues highlighted by
(Foster and Steinbuks, 2009), estimates power system that
generators owned compensated by 6 % of total capacity in
Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income countries up to
20 % [45]. Renewable electrification inspiring by the
institutional framework in Bangladesh present in figure 8.
Since renewable energy emerging in the power system of
Bangladesh, the capacity gained 78 MW until 2012 which
about 95 % of solar energy [46]. To comply the master plan,
targeting 30 million of population electrified by off-grid
system by 2016 which is about 18 % of the total rural
population, whereas the number was about 15 million in
A. Biomass Potential
It is proved that Bangladesh has significant potential in
biomass and biogas. Bangladesh is a tropical monsoon
region, and agricultural is the main income for people who
are living in the rural areas. Agricultural waste provides an
enormous amount of biomass resources’ assimilate with
animal waste, household waste, and MSW which utilized to
produce a large scale of electricity. Biomass generation
system offers a number of advantages, mainly sources in
low cost but high in energy efficiency compare to other
fossil fuel, which reduces fuel costs. Besides electricity
generation, biomass waste also affords fertilizer
simultaneously. In Bangladesh gas is the main source of
electricity production, according [47] about 88.8 %
electricity generated by domestic gas, and a big part of
electricity generation from imported furnace oil. In
Bangladesh, from agriculture produces rice, wheat, maize,
coconut, vegetables, jute, sugarcane, etc. About 46 %
biomass energy sources from rice, straw, rice, husk, jute
stick, sugarcane [48]. Most of the households in Bangladesh
produces their vegetables and summer and winter
accounted 48.16 % and 51.84 % respectively in the year
2011 [49].
Power generation from biomass gasification is reasonably
novel in Bangladesh and favorable technology. Electricity
generation by biomass gasification can be solved our day to
day problem at an immense scope. Eventually, the purpose
of rural electrification which is the expression of grief need
of Bangladesh. In addition to producing electricity, it is
advantageous to the agricultural and industrial expansion
and production. It is almost impossible without rural
electrification to meet the Bangladesh Government vision of
ensuring access to reliable and affordable electricity for
energy security-2020. Biomass and natural gas are the
major sources of energy in Bangladesh, whereas 70 %
biomass energy consumption of total energy consumption
[39]. Biomass encompasses of agricultural residues in
Bangladesh mainly rice, maize, wheat, coconut, groundnut,
bean, vegetables, jute, and sugarcane etc. About 46 % of
total Biomass energy has produced from agricultural crop
residues. Rice is the main agricultural crop, and 70 % of rice
husk energy is consumed. At present, NGOs are promoting
small scale biomass system for clean cooking and electricity
generation. There are two minor projects which supported
by IDCOL those generating 200-300 kW by using poultry
litter, moreover, the studies also suggested that up to 800
MW electricity by poultry waste litter. At present 15.00 tons
of poultry litter produced each day, and a small fraction
being used recycle. About 47 tons of waste expected, will be
produced in 2025. In Bangladesh another available but
significant raw material for biomass production rice husk,
several search has shown that up to 400 MW of electricity
can be generated single-handedly by rice husk.
B. Photovoltaic Potential
Bangladesh is blessed with enormous solar potential, as
solar insolation. The average solar energy incident from 4
kWh/m2/day to 6.5 kWh/m2/day, with average 10.5 solar
hours and about 300 clear sunny days. By the combination
of a solar cell in PV module, under standard test condition
(STC) module produces DC electricity at range 100 W to 400
W. In (figure 9) shown, clear bright sunlight, except June
and July, average 7 to 9 h operates rest 10 months to
produces solar energy. In figure 2-10, represents monthly
average solar irradiation in different regions in Bangladesh.
Figure 7: Solar Irradiation of different areas in Bangladesh
C. Solar Home System in Bangladesh
Solar sources and SHS has experienced a great success in
Bangladesh, particularly the improvement of rural
electrification. Currently, about 42 % of people have access
electricity and per capita consumption of electricity is about
133 kWh in 2005 [52], which is the lower comparatively
other developing countries. Nevertheless, the imbalance
power supply makes a big difference between demand and
supply, which makes load shedding. Started early 1980, PV
flourished across the country and the success factors focus
on; (i) Rural Areas electrified which are not yet accessible
into the main utility grid. (ii) Remote areas where electricity
access is almost impossible. (iii) Insufficient power supply.
Figure 8: IDCOL SHS Program and Growth rate [56]
SHS generated electricity mainly used in rural households’
loads including low power devices, CFL or LED lights, TV,
mobile charger [53]. Bangladesh annual variation of
inclination of the sun, measured from the vertical varies
from 0 to 46 degrees between the summer and the winter.
Summer days are longer, around 14 hours, with average
sunshine more than 6kW-hr/day on clear sunny day.
Although winter days are shorter around 10 h, still there is
more than 4.5kW-hr/day of insolation on a clear sunny day.
Solar Home System (SHS) are stand-alone photovoltaic
systems that offer a cost effective mode of supplying power
for lighting and appliances to remote off-grid households. In
remote areas, which are not connected to the grid; SHS can
be used to meet remote household’s energy demand. In
Bangladesh, SHS usually at a rate of 12 V DC and provide
power for low power DC appliances including lights, TV,
mobile charger, for about four to five hours. In developing
countries like Bangladesh, where the national grid
extension is not economically and technically feasible, an
array of PV cells is used to build SHS. The main components
of SHS include a solar panel, battery and a charge controller
which can be operated with minimum training [54]. Over
the past decade, since the Bangladesh government launched
a rural electrification program supported by World Bank
and other international aid bodies, the number of off-grid
installations in the country has rocketed. In 2002,
installations rates stood at 7000; today the figure has
exploded to nearly 2 million and continues to count, with
average installation rate now topping 80,000 per month
IDCOL with other partner organization financed by World
Bank 3357609 SHSs established until October 2014, and the
numbers increase intensely present in (figure 2-11). The
capacity achieved by SHS about 150 MW in the year 2013-
2014, and growth rate increases about 185 %from the
previous year. In 2015 the growth rate increases to 300 %
and capacity raised 234 MW electricity generation potential
from SHSs [57]. Generally distance between SHS about 2 to
2.5 meter, where most of the system capacity configured
with 60 WP. As shown in (figure 2-11), SHS program
promoted to increases more than 3.7 million by May 2015
[56], about 98 % of SHS installed through IDCOL [58], and
additional 70,000 SHS being installed every month, and
targeting more than 6 million more SHS by 2016 [59].
To achieved the Millennium Development Goals (MDG),
electrification across nationwide is one of the main
topology widely believed contribution, renewable sources
deploy to sustainable development which leads to
improvement of environment and fosters of socio-economic
life. In the modern time, only 11 % of people have the access
electricity in the Sub-Saharan countries [60], whereas in
Bangladesh about 40 % of households have the access
electricity [61] and the improvement rate of electricity
through SHS system and bottom-up swarm electrification
successfully experienced in Bangladesh past decades. The
households and communities are far away from the main
grid and grid extension are not always cost effective due to
infrastructure and insufficient power supply.
Figure 11: Word wide electricity access through Rural
Electrification [62]
According to the authors’ of [63] suggested, DC microgrid
configured by several distributed generation such as SHS
and from a local grid that might connect to the main grid. A
mini-grid can be configured by local distributed generation
system and the distributed generation sources’ considering
along with renewable resources such as PV, biomass, wind.
According to swarm electrification concept, neighboring
households are assimilating in an intelligent network where
scheme allows sharing their information about supply,
demand, and battery status within. To achieve this network
by sharing electricity among participants within the
scheme, consequently swarm network have the ability to
integrate with legacy based where participants have the
ability to produce electricity and consumption
simultaneously, in order to propagate without or with
limited number single centralized unit which has the ability
to function independently may be called nano-grid. It is
obverses that a sunny day an SHS in Bangladesh does not
utilized their own capacity respect to their lords connected
within the system, and 30% surplus electricity available for
others [64]. Tier based Swarm concept explain in figure-13
and figure-14, tier-1 represents an SHS configuration and
the loads consumption, self-generated electricity from PV
panel. Tier -2 and tier -3 countenance SHS and BHS
connected and formed a DC cluster, and tier -4 cluster grid
also allow to connect to the grid to sellback surplus
electricity. The major strategies for rural electrification to
access electricity for all, some studies expressed only about
30 % of rural areas electrified by the centralized grid,
whereas 70 % people can be electrified by the small scale
nano-grid or microgrid [65].
Figure 2: Swarm Electrification concept and stepwise
approaches [66]
Declining the fossil fuel along with natural gas, the
electricity production reduces whereas demand increases
day by day. GOB has restricted and privatized the electricity
generation sector by national Energy policy (NEP) in 1996.
The major target of the policy to increase the power
generation to meet the desires present and future demand
which adopted by following policies:
I. Harnessing solar potential, and dissemination of
RET in both urban and rural areas
II. Enable and encourage facilitate public and private
sector investment towards RE projects
III. Development of sustainable energy system to
substitute non-renewable sources
IV. Facilitating renewable energy at every level of
energy including households to commercial and
The national Energy Plan (NEP) envisions 5 % pf total
renewable generation from renewable sources, and by
2020 achieved by 10 % energy from renewable.
Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) imposed
the bulk tariff for electricity consumption for distribution
companies including Dhaka Electric Supply Company
(DESCO), Dhaka Electric supply Authority (DESA), West
Zone Power Distribution Company (WZPDC), Dhaka Power
Distribution Company (DPDC), and Rural Electrification
(REB). The distribution companies are working in the urban
areas and REB with 77 rural electric cooperatives Palli
Bidyut Samity (PBS) working for electrification in villages
and remote areas.
It is clear that most of the countries including low-income
and developing countries GDP affected by the level of
energy consumption, and per capita 0.23 % GDP increases
by consuming 1 % of per capita energy consumption. The
growth rate of electricity has increased by 5.5 % in the fiscal
year 2006-2007, which rapidly increased to about 13.2 % in
the fiscal year 2012-2013. Likewise, the GDP of Bangladesh
has increased at the rate of 6.8 % in the fiscal year 2012-
2013 from 2006-2007 observed at rate 6.15 %. Bangladesh
is the fast growing developing country, socio-economic,
industrialization, other development booming while
demanding of electricity increases day by day. Currently,
power sector of Bangladesh produces 7,445 MW by 2012,
and 8002 MW by 2016 along with different government
entities and non-government company working together to
meet the electricity demand. Almost 72.42 % of total
electricity generated from natural gas in the fiscal year
2013-2014, and on the other side, the renewable
penetration only about 2.5 % which is the insignificant
comparison to global power generation.
In the present time Bangladesh is one of the market leader
of SHS, and standalone PV system. In Bangladesh average 4
to 6.5 kWh/m2 solar irradiation, and Maximum amount of
solar radiation is available almost each month except
December-January, however, 300 high sunny days
suggested solar generated system like standalone PV
system, and SHS. IDCOL and other 47 partner organizations
(POs), NGO working together to installing 3 million SHS by
2013 and targeting almost 7 million by mid of 2018.
The conventional power system is expensive to configure
and present demand is lagging behind from the continuous
power supply to electrification, especially for electrifying
rural and remote areas. Notwithstanding, the conventional
trends to generates electrical power from the top-down
grid, and author convinced to follow up the concept of
bottom-up swarm electrification would be the best solution
for electrifying rural areas in developing countries. A robust
grid can be formed amongst hybrid power system which
configures with integrating distributed renewable sources
and the backup diesel generator that highly efficient and
reliable in the remote areas.
Currently, about 55.41 % of rural areas electrified by REB
and cooperative organization PBS, whereas 5.05 million
households connected to the grid. Yet 45 % of rural areas
not electrified by REB which government owned company,
but IDCOL and others POs working together to achieve
Millennium Development Goad (MDG) and “Vision 2021”
simultaneously, about 94 % households decreases about
1.7 liters of fuel (kerosene) consumptions compare to those
not connected to the grid, average 90,000 households
connected to the grid. During summer, the number of new
households slightly increased to 300,000, and to achieve
100 % of electrification about 450,000 new households
need to connect to the grid by 2018. By the successful SHS
program along other biomass integration, and enrichment
of electric power generation Bangladesh has achieved
almost 11000 MW electricity by 2014, but still 40 % of
population living without access to electricity.
IEA, “Addressing the Electricity Access Gap,” World
Energy Outlook 2009, Paris, 2010.
UNDP, “Human Development Report,” 2008. [Online].
[Accessed 29 feb 2016].
H. K. Alimul, R. Anisur and M. Moniruzzaman, “Source
Management of A Hybrid DC Micro Grid in Rural Area
of Bangladesh,” International Conference Materialsm
electronics and information engineering, ISBN 978-984-
33-8940--4, 2015.
H. Najmul and K. D. Barun, ““Analysis of cost,Energy
and CO2 Emission of Solar Home Systems in
Bangladesh,” International Journal of Renewable Energy
Research , 2012.
BD-Research, “Electricity Senario in Bangladesh,” 2012.
[Online]. Available:
[Accessed 28 Feb 2016].
M. Mondol, W. Boie and M. Denich, “Future demand
scenarios of Bangladesh Power Sector,” Energy Policy
Report 38, 2010.
H. Ahsan and C. Supachart, “Utilization of Solar and
Biomass for Rural Electrification in Bangladesh,” in
International Conference and Utility Exhibition
, Pattaya,
Thailand , 2014.
Regional Energy Security for South Asia: Regional
Report , “Sou
th Asian Regional Initiative for Energy
Integration,” 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.sari- [Accessed 30 Oct 2015].
Asian Development Bank, “Key Indicators for Asia and
the Pacific,” Asian Developlment Bank Report, 2011.
JIKA, “Bangladesh Power System Master Plan (PSMP),”
Tokyo Electric Power Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 2010.
BBS, “Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh,” Bangladesh
Bureau of Statistics, Governtment of Bangaldesh, Dhaka,
BPDB, “Power Generation Report,” Bangladesh Power
Developmenet Board ,, 2013.
IAEA, “Country Power Profile Edition,,” Available:
http://www-, 2013, [Accessed on 27 June,
L. Chanda and G. Hossain, “A green Economy in the
Context of Su
stainable development and proverty
Eradication: What are the IMplications for Bangladesh?,”
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development,
5, no. 3, pp. 119-131, 2014.
R. Plunkett, A. Newton and B. J. Wagenhauser,
Bangaldesh, Victoria, Autr
alia : Lonely Planet
Publications Pty Ltd. , 2000.
N. Hosnay, “Acquisition of Sustainable Economic
Growth through Proper Utilization of Renewable Energy
Sources A Study on Various Aspects, Challenges
andProspects of RE in Bangladesh,” NUB, ET-P11,
Dhaka , 2013.
Generation-Report, “Owner Wise Daily Generation
Report,” 2014. [Online]. Available:
w=article&id=193&I. [Accessed 12 Dec 2016].
A. Khairul and A. Husnain, “Power Crisis & Its Solution
through Renewable Energy in Bangladesh Cyber
Journals: Multidisciplinary,” Journals in Science &
Technology. Journal of Selected Areas in Renewable and
Sustainable Energy , 2011.
Bari,MN; Hall, DO; Lucas, NJD; et. al., “Biomass Energy
use at the Ousehold Level in two Villages of Bangladesh:
Assessment of field Methods,” Biomass Energy ,
vol. 15,
no. 2, p. 171180, 1998 .
A. Report, “Annual Report of 2012-2013,” Bangladesh
Power Development Board (BPDB), Dhaka, Bangladesh .
Asif, Islam; Maidul, Islam; Sanchita, Ghose; et al, “A
Review on Electricity Generation and Evacuation in
Bangladesh,” Energy and Power: academic research,
10.5923/j.ep.20150501.02, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2015.
B. Report-2014, “Daily Power Generation Report-,”
Bangladesh Power Development Board, Dhaka,
Bangladesh, 2014.
H. Gunatilake and D. Ronald-Holst, “Energy Policy
Options for sustinable Development in Bangladesh,”
Economics Working paper series , pp. 9-
12, November
R. Mustafizur, “Electricity Scenario in Bangladesh,”
Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators , Dhaka, 2011.
BPDB, “Power Generation Report,” angladesh Power
Development Board (BPDB), 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 12 Dec 2015].
Power-Division, “Bangladesh Energy Status Report,”
Power Division. Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral
Resources. Government of the Peoples Republic of the
Bangladesh, 2014. [Online]. Available:
ttp://www [Accessed
12 Dec 2015].
Annual-Report, “Power Grid Company of Bangladesh
(PGCB) 2012-2013,” PGBC, Dhaka, Bangladesh , 2014.
D. Palit, “Solar energy programs for rural electrification:
Experiences and lessons,
Elsvier: Energy for sustaiable
development , no. 17, p. 270279 , 2013.
B. Douglas and F. Gerald, “Rural Electrification in the
Development World: a Summery of Lessons from
Successful programs,” World Bank Energy Sector
Management Assistance Prog
ramme (ESMAP) ,
Washington DC, 2004.
D. Palit and A. Chaurey, “Off-grid rural electrification
experiences from South Asia: Status and Best Practice,”
Energy for Sustainable Development, pp. 266-
December 2011.
W. Bank, “Financing for Rural Electrification and
Renewable Energy Development Project: Bangladesh
(Project Paper Number 64347-
BD),” Word Bank ,
Washington DC, 2010.
BBS, Report of the Household Income & Expenditure
Survey, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics: Dhaka,
Bangladesh , 2010.
Power-Division, “Bangladesh Power Sector: An
Overview,” Bangladesh Power Development Board ,
September 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 12 Feb 2016].
C. Paul, “Infrastructure, rural electrification and
development.,” Energy for Development , no. 15, pp. 304
312, 2011.
M. Mahedi, “Electricity Consumption and Economic
Global Journal of Management and Business
Research, vol. 12, no. 11, 2012.
SREP-Bangladesh, “Scaling Up Renewable Energy in
Low Income Countries (SREP): Investment Plan for
Bangladesh,” Sustainable & Renewable Energy
Development Authority , Dhaka, Bangladesh , 2015.
M. Martinez Solaiman , “Inter Press Service,” NewS
Agency , 08 July 20015. [Online]. Available:
[Accessed 8 07 2015].
World Bank , “Designing Sustainable Off-Grid Rural
Electrification Projects:,” The World Bank, Washington
DC, USA , 2008.
I. AKM Sardul, I. Mazharul and R. Tazmilur, “Effective
renewable energy activities in Bangladesh,”
Energy, no. 31, pp. 677-688, 2006.
M. Z. Rahman, “Multitude of progress and unmediated
problems of olar PV in Bangladesh,”
Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, no. 15, pp. 466-473, 2012.
M. M. Rahman and J. V. Paatero, “A methodological
approach for assessing potential of sustainable
agricultural residues for electricity generation: South
Asian Prospective,” Biomass and Bio Energy ,
no. 47, pp.
153-163, 2012.
NRECA, “Guides for Electric Cooperative Development
and Rural Electrification,” NRECA International, Ltd ,
Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
E. Cecelski, “[10]. Cecelski,E, “Enabling equitable access
to rural electri
fication: urrent thinking and major activities
in Energy,” World Bank, Washington DC, 2000.
IEG-Report, “Rural Electrification and Rnewable Energy
Development,” Workd Bank, Dhaak, Bangladesh , 2014.
PRODUSE, “The Impact of Electricity Access on
Economic Development: A literature Review,” Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
GmbH, Frankfurt, Germnay, 2013.
IDCOL, “Renewable Energy Status in Bangladesh,”
Infrastructure Development Company Limited , 2014.
[Online]. Available: [Accessed 12
Dec 2016].
BBS, “Statistical yearbook of Bangladesh 2008,”
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; 2009, Dhaka,
Bangladesh , 2009.
M. Islam, M. Islam and M. Beg, “Renewable energy
ces and technologies practice in Bangladesh.,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev , vol. 12, p. 299
A. Huda, A. Mekhilef and A. Ahsan, “Biomass energy in
Bangladesh: Current status and prospects,”
and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 30, p. 504
M. Motin, M. Zaman and M. Sheikh, “Energy efficient
modelling of solar wind hybrid power system for a tourist
island,” Int J Adv Renew Energy Res (IJARER),
vol. 1, no.
1, 2013.
Hasan, AM; Khan, MF; Dey, A; et al, “Feasibility study
on the available renewable sources in the island of
Sandwip, Bangladesh for generation tion of electricity,”
In: Proceedings of the international conference on
developments in renewable energy technology (ICDRET),
p. 14, 2012.
PSMP, “Power System Master plan Update,” Ministry of
Power, Energy and Mineral Resources, Dhaka,
Bangladesh , 2006.
R. Paleta, A. Pina and C. Silva, “Remote autonomous
energy systems project: towards sustainability in
developing countries.,” Energy, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 431-
S. Islam, “Photovoltaic Technology for Bangladesh,” in
Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology,
Dhaka and Center for Renewable Energy System
Technology, Leicestershire, Infield, 2001.
B. Willis, “Friday Focus: How Bangladesh become the
world's biggest off-grid solar user,” PV-
tech, 05 July
2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.pv-
[Accessed 22 July 2015].
IDCOL, “Solar Home System Program and Projects,”
2014. [Online]. Available:
[Accessed 30 Dec 2015].
BPDB, “Power Divsion of Bangladesh,” Bangladesh,
Renewable energy in Bangladesh , 2015. [Online].
[Accessed 02 Feb 2016].
Khandker, S.R; Samad, H.A; Sadeque, Z.K; et al, “Surge
in Solar-Powerd Homes - Experience in Off-
Grid Rural
Bangladeseh,” The World Bank, Washington DC, USA,
M. Islam, “IDCOL Solar Home System Program,” 2014.
[Online]. Available:
AR_EAP_Renewable_Energy. [Accessed 30 Dec 2015].
Gunther, Bensch; Jochen, Kluve; Peters, Jörg, “Rural
Electrifi cation in RwandaAn
Impact Assessment Using
Matching Techniques,” RUHR Economic Paper , Dec
2010. [Online]. Available: http://en.rwi-
papers/REP_10_231.pdf. [Accessed 01 march
IBRD-IDA, “Lighting Up Rural Communities in
Bangladesh,” The World Bank, 15 Jan 2014. [Online].
bangladesh. [Accessed
02 Mar 2016].
ECOWAS, “ECOWAS Renewable Energy and energy
efficiency status report,” ECOWAS, 2014.
Sarker, M.J; Asare-Bediako, B; Slootweg, J.Gp; et. al,
“DC microgrid with distributed generation for rural
electrification,” in
47th International Conference on
Universities Power (UPEC), London, 2012.
K. Hannes, “Hidden Resources in Solar Home Systems as
the Base for Bottom-
Up Grids. Proc. of the Int. Conf.
Innovating Energy Access for Remote Areas: Discovering
untapped resourc,” in
Proc. of the Int.Conf. Innovating
Energy Access for Remote Areas: Discoverin
g untapped
resources, Berkeley, USA, 2014 .
OECD/IEA, “Energy for All: Financing Access to the
Poor,” World Energy Outlook, Paris, France , 2011.
Martina, Schafer; Daniel, Kammen; Noara Kebir; et al,
“Innovating Energy Access for Remote Area
Discovering Untapped Resources,” in
Proceedings of the
International Conference, University Berkeley
, Berkeley,
... Bangladesh is a developing country in Southeast Asia with a consistent~7% G.D.P. growth rate over the last two decades [1]. Keeping pace with such growth and development, the energy demand is also rising rapidly [2]. In its first Renewable Energy Policy, released in 2014, Bangladesh declared plans to increase its renewable share of electricity to 10% by 2030 [3]. ...
... (1) The rooftop areas of the factory buildings can provide reasonable spaces for installing PV systems, producing green power whilst cutting energy bills and the carbon emissions of the plants. (2) Scarce land can be saved for farming and other indispensable uses delivering a higher rate of return. (3) Solar energy can displace imports from the national grid, and excess energy can be fed back into the grid. ...
Full-text available
Bangladesh has a rapidly increasing population and coupled with healthy economic growth, is resulting in a rising energy demand. The country also aims to increase its renewable share of electricity to 10% by 2030. However, due to limited wind resources, solar energy seems to be most appropriate to deliver such a target. However, in a land-scarce country, this presents a major challenge, which this work aims to partially address. Being a globally leading producer of commodities, Bangladesh has a considerable number of large manufacturing plants with appropriate roofs that could be used for deploying solar energy conversion systems at scale. A methodology is presented which identified and assessed 6045 such plants, which have roof areas ranging from 100 m2 to 50,000 m2, and modelled the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology that can provide power through site available grid infrastructure. Such deployment takes advantage of net metering regulations to enhance the case for such power generation. A techno-economic assessment was also presented, addressing how such utilisation can support the 10% renewables target of Bangladesh without impacting scarce lands. The results showed that around 7.4 GWp of PV capacity can be achieved on such roofs with a corresponding annual electricity generation of 11 TWh. This represents more than 6% of Bangladesh’s current electricity consumption and more than half of the 2030 target. Furthermore, the deployment will save 13,000 acres of farmland, as well as providing power through site available grid infrastructure saving on investment if the systems are deployed on land. These results are likely to influence policy to support the presented proposition, not only in terms of increasing the renewable energy share in the country’s electricity supply mix but also in conserving much-needed land for agriculture.
... The Government of Bangladesh released a strategic plan for LPG distribution, and it declared a target of 70% for all households to use LPG by 2030. They previously set access to electricity targets for 2021, but these did not cover cooking fuels [45,46] ( ZS?locations=BD). ...
Full-text available
Background Household air pollution is a leading health risk for global morbidity and mortality and a major health risk in South Asia. However, there are no prospective investigations of the impact of household air pollution on perinatal morbidity and mortality. Our trial aims to assess the impact of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking to reduce household air pollution exposure on perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to usual cooking practices in Bangladesh. Hypothesis In a community-based cluster randomised controlled trial of pregnant women cooking with LPG throughout pregnancy, perinatal mortality will be reduced by 35% compared with usual cooking practices in a rural community in Bangladesh. Methods A two-arm community-based cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in the Sherpur district, Bangladesh. In the intervention arm, pregnant women receive an LPG cookstove and LPG in cylinders supplied throughout pregnancy until birth. In the control or usual practice arm, pregnant women continue their usual cooking practices, predominately traditional stoves with biomass fuel. Eligible women are pregnant women with a gestational age of 40–120 days, aged between 15 and 49 years, and permanent residents of the study area. The primary outcome is the difference in perinatal mortality between the LPG arm and the usual cooking arm. Secondary outcomes include (i) preterm birth and low birth weight, (ii) personal level exposure to household air pollution, (iii) satisfaction and acceptability of the LPG stove and stove use, and (iv) cost-effectiveness and cost-utility in reducing perinatal morbidity and mortality. We follow up all women and infants to 45 days after the birth. Personal exposure to household air pollution is assessed at three-time points in a sub-sample of the study population using the MicroPEM™. The total required sample size is 4944 pregnant women. Discussion This trial will produce evidence of the effectiveness of reduced exposure to household air pollution through LPG cooking to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to usual cooking practices. This evidence will inform policies for the adoption of clean fuel in Bangladesh and other similar settings. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001214224 . Prospectively registered on 19 July 2019
... The electricity industry in Bangladesh is heavily reliant on fossil fuels, with natural gas and coal serving as the country's primary power generating sources. Natural gas accounts for about 62.9 percent of Bangladeshi electrical generation, with diesel accounting for 10%, coal for 5%, heavy oil for 3%, and renewables accounting for 3.3 percent (Taheruzzaman M. & Janik P., 2016). Electricity production accounts for over 40% of worldwide carbon dioxide emissions, with fossil fuels being burned to provide the heat required to power steam turbines. ...
Full-text available
Bangladesh started its nuclear journey on 02 October 2013 with the inauguration of the first phase of Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant construction. The main purpose of the study is to find out the impacts of Rooppur Nuclear Power plant on the environment, social economy and socio-cultural elements at surrounding areas of the proposed site. Field observations, household surveys, FGD, key informant interviews, daily newspapers, google engine, journal articles, reports, and other relevant sources were used to collect the data. To fulfill the objective of the study, environmental impact value (EIV) tool was applied. After observing and calculating all the components, authors were found positive impact on socioeconomic impact (+198) and negative impacts on environmental parameters (-65) and socio-cultural parameters (-130). Finally, the project's total score (+3) indicates the project has a moderately positive impact on the social economy and environment and suggests that the project is acceptable. The significant positive impacts of the Rooppur nuclear power plant will be industrial and infrastructural development, economic growth, employment creation, knowledge transfer, river excavation, tree plantation, no greenhouse gas emission if the project follows national and international laws and legislation, a proper environmental management plan, strong cyber security, and free from any corruption or illegal activities.
... Presently, access to electricity for all by 2021 is the foremost goal of Bangladesh government. To fulfill the vision and commitment, electricity generation in the country is required to generate 20,000 MW (MW)by the year 2021 [1][2][3][4]. Currently, the government of Bangladesh underpins every possible solution to support the power crisis of the country. ...
Full-text available
As Bangladesh's economy expands, the country has experienced severe power crises over the decades. With the Government's effective implementation of policies, the country has shown remarkable progress in energy sector recently. Even though various initiatives have been undertaken to improve energy sector, thevision of power sector hasn't yet achieved. To accelerate the progress in energy sector, the country needs to reform the transmission and distribution sector of the country to reduce the distribution losses. The effort should be given to the fuel demand and supply side management, energy efficiency and diversifying program for sustainable development in energy sector. Thus, revisiting the existing reform process in the energy sector is needed to be investigated to meet ever rising energy demand. The paper assesses the major regulatory framework changes commenced by the government in power sector and identifies key issues that led to the passage of the affordable and sustainable energy for all. In addition, fuzzy rule-based GHG emission predicting system is designed in this research which demonstrates how the GHG emission varies with the variables i.e., renewable integration, fossil fuel management, fossil fuel quality and use of modern technology and suggests the effective and efficient GHG emission reduction process from power generating sector. Finally, policy perspective, control and co-ordination issues in energy sector were discussed.
... Looking at the load analysis of Bangladesh, it is easily realized that most of the loads in the country are very basic (such as lights, fans, etc.). These loads constitute around 50% of the total power consumption [15]. On the other hand, the CO 2 emission rate (metric tons per capita) has already increased rapidly from 0.2 for the year 2005 to 0.51 for the year 2016, and it has been increasing ever since [16]. ...
Full-text available
Being one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, Bangladesh needs to upgrade its electrical network and aim to reduce dependency on fossil fuel-based energy. For the aging and ever-expanding power network, it is necessary to have a smart substation in order to provide reliable, affordable, and sustainable electrical power. As Bangladesh is looking to integrate Distributed Generation (DG) in the power system, it is high time to think about integrating a smart distribution substation into its power network. In this paper, an investigation of the current power generation structure of Bangladesh was conducted and is described. The major focus was given to the upgradation of the existing substation and distribution setup of Bangladesh by providing suitable architectures, technologies, and communication protocols. Detailed studies of Bangladesh’s prospects to incorporate the new technology and renewable energy into its power network are discussed. ETAP was used to simulate the prospective system to show the feasibility of the prospective smart distribution substation in Bangladesh’s power network.
... Coal-fired power plants generate about 37% of the global electricity ( IEA, 2017 ). Bangladesh generates about 5% of its' total electricity using coal ( Taheruzzaman and Janik, 2016 ). Fly ash accounts 15-30% of total coal waste produced in thermal power stations ( Gupta et al., 2002 ). ...
Full-text available
A 1320-Megawatt capacity coal-fired power plant is establishing near the Ecologically Critical Area of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. This power plant will generate 0.71 million tons of coal fly ash annually. Most of the previous studies concentrated on the soil amelioration and growth and yield of agricultural crops. However, this study investigated the effects of coal fly ash on the seedling growth (collar diameter, height, and biomass) of the major tree species (Bruguiera sexangula, Excoecaria agallocha, Heritiera fomes, and Xylocarpus mekongensis) of the Sundarbans, as well as to assess the nutrient (N, P, and K) partitioning in their parts (leaf, stem, and roots). Mangrove soil and coal fly ash were mixed to get seven treatments say T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T7, which contained 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of fly ash (w/w) respectively. A significant (p<0.05) variation was observed among the species and treatments. Irrespective of species, almost similar growth for collar diameter, height, and biomass was observed for the treatments up to 10% of fly ash mixture. Collectively, a common decreasing trend for growth parameters was observed for the treatments of the higher proportion of fly ash. Similar to the growth pattern, nitrogen and potassium concentration in seedling parts showed a decreasing pattern at the higher proportion of fly ash. In conclusion, coal fly ash did not influence the growth of these studied mangrove species in a positive way but can tolerate up to 10% of fly ash mixture.
... For electricity production, Bangladesh is still mostly reliant on natural gas, coal, and fossil fuels (IEA, 2019). Apart from natural gas usage for household cooking purposes, it also contributes to producing more than 62% of electricity, and only 3.3% are contributed by renewable energy sources (Taheruzzaman and Janik, 2016). Masud et al. (2020) have recommended that the country minimize the gap between electricity supply and demand with electricity production from 4 to 5 kWh/m2 of solar radiation as an average. ...
Bangladesh, a climate-vulnerable country, has taken initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The country’s most significant challenge to achieving that goal is keeping economic growth even after ensuring commercial and residential energy for its people, primarily dependent on fossil fuel. This research investigates the residential electricity and gas consumption and its effect on Bangladesh’s economic growth with the data period 1975–2018. Household energy consumption is one of the critical factors for sustainable economic growth, although it is not directly converted to the country’s manufacturing output. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach has been used due to the robust and better performance in this study with the smaller size of the sample. The country’s labor-intensive economy has been found with a unidirectional relationship from household electricity consumption and population growth, which stresses the significance of ensuring electricity for all. Therefore, the country cannot take the energy conservation policy right now as it could obstruct its growth. However, energy sources might be replaced with renewable energies to meet the country’s residential energy demand.
Full-text available
Global demand for electricity is growing significantly in developing nations. Renewable energy accounts for barely 3% of total energy consumption in Bangladesh. Sources of renewable energy, e.g. solar, are increasingly being acknowledged as viable supply-side choices for microgrids. This article presents a grid-connected microgrid design based on meteorological data for a local community situated in Mohammadpur, Dhaka. This study presents a feasible design of a system that gives the lowest cost of energy production and emissions that is evaluated using software named Hybrid Optimization Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER Pro). Comparison and assessment of the net present cost, cost of energy, operating cost and environmental emission for five different feasible microgrids are analysed concerning real-time data. Also, a suitable case is sorted out and proposed for the local community for electrification. The proposed case offers a $0.0442/kWh cost of energy, which is ~32% cheaper than the current rate with a 57.5% renewable fraction and a payback period of 16.86 years. People of this local community will have access to considerably more clean energy at a lower price by this study; also this design could sell the excess energy to the grid to avoid frequent electricity outages.
The paper reports a re-examination of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Bangladesh; considering economic growth and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (such as CO2, CH4, and N2O). The autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) model and VAR-based innovative accounting approach (IAA) with the combination of Variance Decomposition and Impulse Response Function are used to check cointegration among the variables using data from 1976 to 2014. This approach is specifically employed for variance analysis in order to measure causal association and regressors’ shock to dependent variables. The EKC hypothesis is not supported because there is a positive association between economic growth and pollutants (CO2 and CH4 emissions) over time. However, the EKC is valid for N2O emissions. IAA causal analysis reveals a bilateral causative relationship between GDP and CO2 emissions, as well as a unilateral causal relationship between CH4 emissions and GDP. Trade liberalisation, urbanisation, and financial liberalisation do not necessarily improve or save the natural environment. Bangladesh needs to use renewable energies and cut GHG emissions by abandoning fossil fuels.
Full-text available
This study investigates the effect of electricity consumption on economic growth of four South Asian countries, namely Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, by employing time series annual data from 1980 to 2010. Pedroni’s panel cointegration results confirm that there exists valid long-run relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in South Asia. Results of random effects model suggest the positive and significant impact of electricity consumption on economic growth of South Asian countries. Robustness of the initial findings of positive and significant relationship is confirmed by four different sensitivity analyses. Results of panel Granger causality test confirm the unidirectional causal relationship runs from electricity consumption to economic growth. It is therefore recommended that the South Asian countries should consider the development initiative and low-cost mode to produce electricity to enhance economic growth in the region.
Full-text available
The prime objective of this study is to examine the long run relationship between real GDP per capita and electricity consumption for Pakistan over the period 1971 to 2008. The results reveal that there is unidirectional causality from electricity consumption to real GDP per capita. The findings of the study also show that there is a long run relationship between real GDP per capita and electricity consumption. The unidirectional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth indicates that electricity is a limiting factor to economic growth and hence shocks to electricity supply will have a negative impact on economic growth. The implication emerging from this study is that for an electricity-deficient country like Pakistan, where the electricity sector operates at bare capacity margin, there is a need for planning and investment in infrastructure development to fulfill increased electricity demand.
Full-text available
This paper describes the available topologies for electricity generation and its evacuation system in Bangladesh. Usually, electricity is generated in a large power station and it is then sent to the customer end by means of transmission and distribution system. This is an established technology. However, this system proves very costly and the cost increases especially when the service area is remote. In remote areas, local people use kerosene as a fuel for lighting. Also, diesel generators for electrifying local markets and villages are being used. However, these generators run for a few hours of the day and the generation cost becomes very high. Practice of battery charging based electricity system is also found in many places of the remote area. Besides these, Government of Bangladesh (GOB) is trying to electrify the remote areas by means of SHS, which has been being used to replace the traditional kerosene-based lamps from 1998 in Bangladesh. However, with the advancement of technology, the demand of present SHS consumers is increasing considerably. Electricity to all is an essential requirement for the proper development of Bangladesh. Thus, it is essential to supply power with quality and reliability to the present users of the national grid, customers of the SHS and people of the un-electrified region. With this context, possibilities of exploring new topologies of generation and evacuation have also been discussed in this paper.
Full-text available
Bangladesh is currently faced with challenges arising from climate change and inadequate energy. The energy situation is in confront since the major power stations are run on natural gas, whose reserves are now on the verge of depletion; if no new mine fields are identified. To reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and increase the energy access in the rual areas of Bangladesh, renewable energy sources, like solar home systems (SHS) could play a vital role. In this paper, the cost, energy and carbon dioxide emission of solar home systems installed in Bangladesh are analyzed. It has been found that around 1.4 million solar home systems are already installed as at the end of January 2013. 40~85 Wp systems are mostly used in the rural areas. The cost of a 40 Wp system was around 24,000 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT), whereas that for a 85 Wp system costs about 45,000 BDT. The average payback period was found to be 4.2 years and varied between 3.1 and 6.5 years. On the other hand, Net Present Values (NPV) varies between 34,500 BDT to 14800 BDT. The total primary energy requirement for a 50Wp in its total life of 20 years is 4593 MJth. This gives around 253 kg of CO2 emission. A 50 Wp SHS on the other hand supplies around 11773 MJth of Energy in 20 years. Energy payback for the same module was found to be 7.80 years and the total CO2 emission reduction compared to kerosene cosumption of the users’ was 11604 kg in 20 years.
Conference Paper
In the context of the modern energy access challenge, one new pathway towards electrification is to make use of hidden resources already in the field through small microgrids. In particular, this paper analyses the amount of excess energy of medium sized (65 Wp) solar home system (SHS) located in Bangladesh. The SHS is modeled using synthetic load curves and a sophisticated battery model that accounts for battery ageing. The simulation shows that more than 30 % of the electricity potentially generated by the SHS remains unused.
Conference Paper
Sandwip is a self dependent island of Bangladesh, where agricultural products are exported to other parts of the country after local consumption. Because of substantial production of agricultural products and good number of domestic animals available there, the island can set a unique example of harnessing energy from the bio mass sources. As the island is not connected to the national grid and also it has no major power plants in service, so majority of the people have no access to electricity. Presently, a 100 kW solar PV powered mini grid system has been installed under IDCOL finance. However, due to high price of electricity, the number of consumers is small and the plant runs less than 50% of its rated capacity which indirectly increases the per unit energy cost. Solar home systems (SHS) are getting popular there and so far approximately 20,900 SHS units have been installed. The energy cost for the solar home system is also very high which poor households cannot afford. Bio mass sources available in the island may provide electricity to the people at a cheaper rate which may change the overall socio-economic condition of the people living there. Sandwip produces substantial quantity of rice straw, rice husk, coconut and other agro based products which are good bio mass sources. Also good number of households in the island has live stocks which may also be a potential source of energy. This paper focuses on the available renewable sources of the island and the amount of energy that can be harnessed from these sources. Finally, considering all these available sources, a hybrid generating system consisting of solar, bio mass, diesel has been suggested which may reduce the unit electricity price substantially.