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This paper represents the overall electrical energy profile and access in Bangladesh. In the recent past Bangladesh has been experiencing shortage of electricity, and about 42 % of population no access to the electricity. The electricity consumption has rapidly increased over last decade. The demand and consumption will intensify in the remote future as overall development and future growth. To set “vision 2021” of Bangladesh; government of Bangladesh has devoted to ensuring access of affordable and reliable electricity for all by 2021. In the modern time, energy is the vital ingredient for socioeconomic growth in the developing country i.e., alleviating poverty. Along with electricity access in Bangladesh strived to become middle income country by 2021. Bangladesh has experienced that energy consumption inclines to increase rapidly when per capita income researches between US$ 1,000 and US$ 10,000, and a country’s
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TRANSACTIONS ON ENVIRONMENT AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ISSN 2450-5730 Vol 1, No 2 (2016)
© Muhammad Taheruzzaman & Przemyslaw Janik
Abstract This paper represents the overall electrical
energy profile and access in Bangladesh. In the recent past,
Bangladesh has been experiencing the shortage of
electricity, and about 42 % of the population no access to
the electricity. The electricity consumption has rapidly
increased over last decade. The demand and consumption
will intensify in the remote future as overall development
and future growth. To set “vision 2021” of Bangladesh; the
government of Bangladesh has devoted to ensuring access
to affordable and reliable electricity for all by 2021. In the
modern time, energy is the vital ingredient for socio-
economic growth in the developing country i.e., alleviating
poverty. Along with electricity access in Bangladesh strived
to become the middle-income country by 2021. Bangladesh
has experienced that energy consumption inclines to
increase rapidly when per capita income reaches between
US$ 1,000 and US$ 10,000, and a country’s growth
momentum through reliable energy supply and consistent
energy supply ensured by the sustainable energy. As
increasing population in Bangladesh, the electric energy
generation is an important dispute through the sustainable
way.
Index Terms Energy Profile, Energy efficiency, Electric Power
sector, Electricity reformation, Renewable energy access, Solar home
system
I. INTRODUCTION
ccording to report 2012, Bangladesh is the 134th
ranked out of 144 countries on the quality of electricity
supply, which suggests the most problematic obstacles
to the further socioeconomic progress. The IEA estimates
approximately 1.5 billion people have no access to
electricity in 2008 [1], which estimates more than 20 % of
total population. According to UNDP report more than 96.2
million of people which is more than half the total
population in Bangladesh still remains without access to
Muhammad Taheruzzaman (email: muhammad.taheruzzaman@tu-
cottbus.de) Department of Energy Distribution and High Voltage, Brandenburg
Technical University Cottbus, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
electricity city [2], furthermore, the irregular electric power
supply causes load shedding. Electric energy access is the
far-way dream for many families in the rural area in
developing countries, about 80 % of the population are
living in the rural and remote areas in Bangladesh where
only 25 % of electricity available for p eople. Overcoming the
curse of poverty, sustainable economic growth by access
energy is an essential prerequisite and major criterion.
Electricity access with a modern form of energy resources
is promoting social and economic growth. It is also an
indispensable contribution to achieving Millennium
Development Goal (MDG) and vision 2021. In the modern
era, there is no country attained sustained economic growth
without improving access to clean and modern energy; the
modern form of energy delineates with an integration of
locally available renewable energy sources. Rural
electrification ensuring with improved electricity is
fundamental for socio-economic development. Electrical
energy access influences to the life standards, which
affecting agricultural productivity, education, health. The
Government of Bangladesh has set a noble vision to access
electricity for all inhabitants by 2021, to comply the vision
integrating solar PV and biomass sources which are richly
endowed in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, it is common about
4 - 6 h of power outage per day in rural areas, but summer
season the number of hours rises to 6 - 8 h, mostly during
18:00 - 22:00 h irregular power outage causes load
shedding. The demand for electricity increases with
increasing with Population but the generation of electricity
is not increasing to meet the demand. At present, almost 52
% of total people in Bangladesh are connected to the grid
[3], the power supply from the grid is inadequate to meet
both peak and basic demand in Bangladesh. Almost 75 % of
people in rural areas are not connected to the main grid, and
only 15 - 20 % of electric demand comply by the BREB
(Bangladesh rural electrification board) supplied electricity
[4]. Due to life standards and social standards enhances, the
consumption rate increased at 4.53 %, but the generation of
electricity increased only at a rate of 5.37 % that increased
Przemyslaw (e-mail: janik@b-tu.de). Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
Electric Energy Access in Bangladesh
Muhammad Taheruzzaman and Przemyslaw Janik*
Brandenburg Technical University-Cottbus, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
*Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
A
the rate of 6.72 % load shedding per year [5], graphically
present in figure 2-3. According to LEAP (long range energy
alternative planning) project [6], rural households loads
comprises with lighting, mobile charger, ceiling fan, TV, and
refrigerators. In rural areas lighting are the main loads in
the rural households. In 2010 rural households, consumes
300kWh per year for lighting solely satisfied by electricity
supplies. The demand for lighting growing at constant 1.67
% per year to 350 kWh by 2020 [7]. A tropical country like
Bangladesh, where summer seasons comprises almost 9
months requires cooling by the ceiling fan, consumes 250
kWh per year and assume the consumption rate increase up
to 1.9 % to 345 kWh in 2030. Likewise, refrigeration
consumption demand rate increase 0.93 %, the demand
increases from 476 kWh to 565 kWh in 2030. The
percentage of energy consumption has experienced
promptly increasing about 2.69 % from 2012 to 2013, but
still remains lowest per capita consumption. The studies of
EIA, the consumption has increased dramatically over 52 %
within the past decade [8]. If your paper is intended for a
conference, please contact your conference editor
concerning acceptable word processor formats for your
particular conference.
II. GENERAL COUNTRY PROFILE
Bangladesh is moving towards achieving the tag of
Developing country with an annual GDP almost 6 % over
the last past decade [9]. Recently population thriving
dramatically nearly 158 million and annual growth rate of
1.39 % over the past decade [10]. The majority of them are
living in the rural areas, and only 32 % of households have
access to electricity, but the availability of electricity about
22 % [11]. Bangladesh is one of the largest in population at
9th position in the world with 158 million people at the end
of 2014, where total 52 % people have partially electricity
access, while only 10-15 % of rural have the access to
electricity demand mainly meets the light, ceiling fan,
refrigeration, irrigation, productive uses loads. In
Bangladesh, the electricity demand of all sectors including
agriculture, commercial service, industry, and domestic
services. The domestic households and industry sectors are
consuming of electrical power about 43 % and 44 %
respectively in total of about 87 % [12]. The GDP growth
rates significantly depend on the production of a country, as
Bangladesh is an agricultural and small size industrial
production based country, and production always depends
on electricity, the GDP growth and electricity generation
growth present in figure 1. It is estimated that 1 % increase
in per capita energy consumption causes an increase in per
capita GDP by 0.23 %.
Figure 1: GDP Growth Rate with Electricity Access
A. Demand of Electricity vs Climate of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is located between 20° to 26° North and 88°
to 92° east. It is bordered on the west, north and east by
India, on the south-east by Myanmar, and on the south by
the Bay of Bengal. The geographical location of Bangladesh
offers higher solar irradiation [13]. Bangladesh enjoys
generally a sub-tropical monsoon climate while there are
six seasons in a year, with three being more prominent,
namely winter, summer and monsoon season. Winter
begins in November and ends in February. In winter, there
is not much fluctuation in temperature, which ranges from
minimum of 7° - 13 °C to a maximum of 24 °C31 °C. The
maximum temperature recorded in the summer months is
37 °C although in some places this occasionally rises up to
41°C (105°F or more) [13]. As the temperature increases
the demand for electricity has increased due to
refrigeration, cooling, whereas the base load demand is
higher than the electricity generation. Bangladesh has three
main seasons: the monsoon or wet season from late May to
early October; the cold season from mid-November to the
end of January; and the hot season from March to mid-
September [15]; the imbalance between demand and
supply due to high electricity demand for ceiling fan,
refrigeration during March to August in each year.
B. Electric Energy Status and Demand Profile
Electric energy is one of the affable terms of energy which
is the fundamental contingent for socio-economic
development, which alleviate poverty. But, Bangladesh has
the major problem of the energy crisis that persisting
poverty, conventional fossil fuel causes environmental
degradation. Merely, 49 % of the population have the access
electricity that met by 4500 MW while peak demand 6000
MW causes the power outage. Currently, 53 % electricity
produced by public sectors and rest produced by several
private sectors with various form of generation [16]. The
existing available power generation 8,500 MW by October
2014 and vision set to 39,000 MW by 2030 [17]. The (table-
1), represents power generation from different
organization and Bangladesh Power Development Board
(BPDB) transmits and distributes across the country.
Natural gas and coal expected the main source of power
generation in Bangladesh, GOB also attentive on liquid fuel
based power generation. The conventional fuel
consumption to generate electrical power and traditional
power plant influenced to increase CO2 emission, power
generation sector alone contributes 40 % CO2 emission
[18]. The primary energy considered to consumption
estimated 62% of biomass, 25 % of natural gas, 12 %
imported oil, and coal and hydropower contribute 1 %.
Table 1: Daily Power Generation
Company
Demand
(MW)
Evening
peak
(MW)
Power Development
Board
4332.00
2702.00
Electricity generation
company Bangladesh
Ltd
622.00
0.00
Ashuganj Power
Station Co. Ltd
1617.00
896.00
Independent Power
Producer (private)
325.00
283.00
Small size producers
1987.00
1440.00
Rental Power
Producers
825.00
1189.00
Total generation
10390.0
6987
In Bangladesh, power sectors that highly dependent on
conventional fossil fuel including gas and coal. The total
capacity of electricity generation about 8,709 MW, and 62.9
% of electricity generation by natural gas present in figure
2. Besides natural gas, 10 % high-speed diesel, 5 % of coal,
and 3 % of heavy fuel oil used to produces electricity figure
2(a). Besides natural gas, 10 % high speed diesel, 5 % of
coal, and 3 % of heavy fuel oil used to produces electricity
[20], and only 3.3 % of electricity contributes by renewable
sources [21].
Figure 2: Installed electricity capacity (a) fuel type and (b)
plant type [19]
According to (BPDB) report expresses, 55 % of people have
access electricity, and per capita 321 kWh electricity
generation [22], which comparatively lower than other
developing countries. Access to power in Bangladesh is
limited to about 45 %50 % of the population and those
who have access faces severe power shortages. Load
shedding in Dhaka in 2011 and during the summer of 2012
was about 5 hours per day. Power shortages have
constrained the potential economic growth in Bangladesh
and cost of which have been estimated to be about 0.5 % of
GDP. According to “Vision 2021”; the government’s vision
for the power sector is to ensure universal access to grid
electricity by the year 2020, with an interim target to reach
an access level of 68 % by year the 2015. According to
government estimates, about 20,000 megawatts (MW) of
new generation capacity need to be added to the system by
2020, together with matching transmission and
distribution improvements to reach the universal access
[23].
Figure 3: Electrification Rate in Different Regions
The total installed capacity was 5262 MW in FY 200708,
which has increased to 8525 MW in FY 201213 with an
annual increase of 10.34 %. However, the maximum
generation was 4130 MW in FY 200708, which has
increased to 6350 MW in FY 201213 with an annual
increase of 8.96 %. The annual rise in maximum generation
(8.96 %) is lower than that of the installed capacity (10.34
%) between the FY 2007–08 and 201213. This is mainly
due to the less generation capacity of older power plants
and shortage of gas supply.
0,00%
20,00%
40,00%
60,00%
80,00%
100,00%
120,00%
Total Rural Urban
(a)
(b)
Yearly Electricity Demand (Anticipated)
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025 2027 2029
Table 2: Different fuel Consumption
Gas
Diesel
Hydro
Coal
Furnace
4822 MW
186 MW
230 MW
250 MW
335 MW
82.81%
3.19%
3.95%
4.29%
5.75%
Though attribution is difficult, this technical assistance may
have played a role in supporting a ‘balanced development’ of
the power sector, which during the project period (2004-2013)
saw an increase in electricity access from 35 percent to about
62 %; an increase in generation capacity from 3,622 MW in
2004 to 9,500 MW; a reduction of systems losses from about
20.0 percent to 1.3 percent; and a drop in accounts receivable
from 6.45 months to 2.21 months. About 40 % of electricity
generated by private enterprises by April, 2010 while the
number has been increased to 44 % by April 2011. Currently,
rental, quick rental and some others peaking plants were under
taken on a first track based power generation to manage present
power crisis. According to the Power System Master Plan
(PSMP), the peak demand anticipated 10,283 MW in 2015,
whereas total power generated about 12071 MW. The
anticipated peak demand 25199 MW anticipated in 2020 and
33708 MW in 2030 show in figure 5.
C. Infrastructure of Bangladesh Power development
First Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), is the
sole authority to delivered electricity to the national grid
through a common transmission line, to meet the national
demand BPDB produces and purchases electricity from
independent power producers (IPPs). The five authorities
contributes together to produces electricity in Bangladesh:
(i) Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
(ii) Ashuganj Power Station Company Ltd. (APSCL)
(iii) Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh
(EGCB)
(iv) North West Power Generation Company
(v) Independent Power Producers (IPPs)
Table 3: Authorities of Power Generation and Capacities and
Market Share
Name of Authorities
Capacity
(MW)
Market
Share (%)
Bangladesh Power
Development Board
(BPDB)
4442
42.75
Ashuganj Power Station
Company Ltd (APSCL)
682
6.56
Electricity Generation
Company of Bangladesh
622
5.98
North West Power
Generation Company Ltd
375
3.06
Independent Power
Producers (IPPs)
4269
41.08
Total
10390
100
Considering country size and population, Bangladesh
electricity infrastructure are quite smaller than other
countries which is insufficient and poorly managed by
several authorities including BPDB, BPDC, DESCO and REB.
Amongst all these authorities, REB is one of the most
success government company since 1977 in Bangladesh,
40.10 % electricity purchased to electrifying rural areas.
Table 4: Share of electricity distribution by Authorities
Authority
BPDB
DPDC
DESCO
WZPDC
REB
Share (%)
24.64
18.59
10.51
6.17
40.10
Bangladesh power system including transmission system
comprises along with 16 substations capacity of 230/132
kV besides that 103 substations dimensions of 132/33 kV
substations, which total capacity of power contains 7525
MVA and 11892 MVA respectively. The distribution
network comprises 33 kV, 11 kV, and 400 V [27].
III. RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
South Asia accounts for 37 % of the world's population
without access to electricity [28]. Such a situation continues
to exist despite several initiatives and policies to support
rural electrification efforts by the respective country
governments including the use of renewable energy
technologies including PV, wind, and biomass. The pace of
rural electrification over much of the developing world is
excruciatingly slow. In many countries in South Asian and
Sub-Saharan African, it is even lower than rural
electrification growth in Bangladesh. Bringing the socio-
economic development into the development countries like
Bangladesh, the essential elements considers rural
electrification [29], development of underprivileged rural
people [30] [31]. Demand for electricity with an
improvement of living standard, agricultural production,
community development in Bangladesh. Energy access
through rural electrification level still not sufficient enough,
but the impressive SHS growth and off-grid PV system in
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Installed Capacity (MW) Maximum Gemeration (MW)
Figure 4: Installed Capacity and Generation 2007-2013
Bangladesh. Development and implemented by IDCOL
(Infrastructure Development Company Limited).
Figure 3: Electric Energy Access
Electrification rate in rural areas still poor as only 38 % of
households is electrified [11], IDCOL (Bangladesh
Government owned agency) with other 30 partners
Organization (POs) working together for improving the
access of electricity around rural areas. Despite of
continuous efforts from the international community and
governments, the pace of rural electrification still very slow
[34]. The Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (BREP)
clearly expresses which benefit greatly from the
involvement of local communities improve electricity
access in rural areas. According to the vision 2021; GOB
aims at 100 % access to electricity to entire rural areas by
2020, Connecting over 0.7 million consumers and only 3 %
of electricity supplied by the REB, the dedicated
government organization, rest of can be supplied by the
including private company and partner organization (POs).
The process of rural electrification in developing countries,
which depends on various factors;
(1) The result of pre-phase economic and social impact
(2) Development of PBS (local partner)
(3) Technically and financially power system
(4)Available funding from international; community
There is the main process of electrical access in rural areas
centralized approach and decentralized approach;
centralized approached constituted by government and
partner stakeholders. In Bangladesh REB and BPS are the
main organization for rural electrification. The
decentralized approach formulated by both top-down and
bottom-up concept, standalone PV system, SHS, and
renewable integrated hybrid mini-grid the best example in
Bangladesh. The approach follows up and development of
rural electrification in Bangladesh considered;
(1) Extending and intensifying the central grid
(2) Deploying off-grid technologies (off grid mini-grid,
standalone MG, bottom up swarm electrification)
To implement the rural electric cooperative concept in
Bangladesh, a central statutory agency called the Rural
Electrification Board (REB) was formed by the government.
The REB was given the responsibility of organizing the rural
electric cooperatives (Palli Bidyut Samity, PBS); it employed
managers to oversee the financial and administrative activities
of the cooperatives. According to the World Bank manifesto, to
bring most of the people electrifying under project “Rural
Electrification and Renewable Energy Development” which
mainly deployed by PV system [43].
A. Features of Rural Electrification
Before 1977, the government-owned Power Development
Board (PDB) was the sole organization providing electricity
throughout the country, without there being any special
emphasis on rural areas. This actually left rural areas a very
little chance to get access to electricity, and so, given this
situation, the country launched the Rural Electrification
Program (REP), which exclusively targets rural areas. The
features of rural electricity in Bangladesh characterized by
low voltage loads and distributed medium voltage lines. The
power supply is unreliable and about 6 to 8 hours per day
and phase imbalance. Average rural electric loads from 5
kW to 20 kW per village, and load factor around 0.2 to 0.3
(average demand/maximum demand). The load
consumption in the households in rural areas are
predominantly lighting, agricultural pumping, and mobile
charge. The grids in a rural region often weak and high peak
demand during evening lighting and summer agricultural
pump. To implement the rural electric cooperative concept in
Bangladesh, a central statutory agency called the Rural
Electrification Board (REB) was formed by the government.
The REB was given the responsibility of organizing the rural
electric cooperatives PBS (Palli Bidyut Samity); it employed
managers to oversee the financial and administrative activities
of the cooperatives.
Figure 4: Typical Household Load Profile
B. Electric Energy Consumption Profile
In the modern epoch, electricity is the fundamental
infrastructural input for economic development. Electricity
is the flexible form of energy that drives development
factors including industrialization, extensive urbanization,
and intensification of living standards and modernization of
agricultural sector. In Bangladesh Electricity is a major
source of energy to meet the industrial and agricultural
sector, both of these sectors contribute to 50.3 % of
country’s GDP [35]. Historically, Bangladesh is standing at
overwhelmingly electricity generation by natural gas-
based. According to the estimation of IEA, 1,400 MW
electricity generation from 400 million cubic feet of natural
in each day (IEA, 2014). In Bangladesh, natural gas supplied
for consumption from two sources; state owned Petro-
Bangla, which contribute 99.4 % and international oil
companies (IOCs) which account for 0.5 % of total supply.
Customer Category
Unit Price (tk/kWh)*
Category A: residential
Life Line: from 1 to 50 unit
3.33
First Step : From 1 to 75 unit
3.80
Second Step : From 76 to 200
unit
5.14
Third Step : From 201 to 300
unit
5.36
Fifth Step: From 401 to 600
units
8.70
Sixth Step: Above 600 units
9.98
Category B: Agricultural
pumping
3.82
Category-C : Small Industries
Flat Rate
7.66
Off-Peak Time
6.90
Peak time
9.24
Category D: Non-Residential
5.22
Category E: Commercial and
Office
Flat Rate
9.80
Off-Peak Time
8.45
Peak Time
11.98
80 tk= 1 US $
IV. RENEWABLE ENERGY PENETRATION IN BANGLADESH
According to IEA Energy Access to comply the rural
electrification, household having reliable and affordable
electricity to clean cooking facilities, first electricity
connection, and increasing level of electricity consumption
over time as regional average. Bangladesh is the most
potential country for renewable energy, significantly
increases the number projects to meet the electrical energy
throughout the country. The most existing form of
renewable energy experienced in Bangladesh considering
PV based off grid system including SHS, nano-grid, and
mini-grid, where biomass also have high portentous to
integrated significantly. With increasing both life and social
standards urbanization is rapidly growing in developing
countries, as comply urbanization growth electricity
demand also increases promptly in Bangladesh. GOB has
set target about 90 % electricity access across the country
by 2018 [36] , to meet this vision innovative rural
electrification integrated renewable energy is the best
solution followed by the recent experiences, and achieving
the target 2018 by connecting 450,000 households per
months by 66 % SHS, and hybrid power system with
renewable sources.
Although Bangladesh is the seven largest natural gas
producer country among Asia, about 56% of gas
consumption as the primary source of energy. As high
dependency on natural gas, and experiences shortage of gas
supply. The regular peak demands 5500 MW, but only 4000
MW of electricity produced by the conventional power
generation system in 2007 that causes rolling electricity
blackout. Remote areas and rural villages are the major
mechanisms of holistic society; the development of socio-
economy and environmental prominence in Bangladesh
depends on productivity, and the productivity depends on
access to energy. But the true reality is the government of
Bangladesh not frequently involves for rural development
including rural electrification due to some geographical
constraints. In figure 7 represents, the electricity access
increasing rapidly from 2000 to 2015.
Figure 5: Change in Access to Electricity, 1990-2015
Electrifying in rural areas by conventional electrification
system is expensive due to households are situated
scattered and remote, and consumption rate low compare
to urban electrification. Hence, no-electrified remote areas
and poor villages electrifying by the conventional basis not
promoted and focused. Consequently, it is urgent for the
development of social life in Bangladesh by the availability
of a reliable, adequate, and reasonably priced source of
energy that uninterrupted balance of electricity supply.
Many countries and cities have already moved towards low
carbon and clean energy transformations. Such as in
Germany, for instance, is undertaking the ‘Energiewende’,
an economic watershed that aims to produce 80 % of its
electricity from renewable by 2050 [37]. Harnessing clean,
renewable, and more efficient energy solutions will
contribute not only to tackling a country’s or community’s
energy challenges but also to the target of limiting global
temperature rise to two degrees Celsius. As it is, a
significant amount of GHG emissions are generated from
energy production, thus tying sustainable energy directly to
the climate change negotiations. Bangladesh today faces a
different future than it did decades ago when abundant
natural gas seemed to be the key to prosperity. At the same
time as the centralized grid-based electrification has been
the most common approach, decentralized renewable
energy options especially, PV(photovoltaic) systems has
also been adopted, especially for areas where it is techno-
economically not feasible to extend the electricity grid.
These off-grid communities are generally small, consisting
of low-income households with characteristics that may
have been economically unattractive to electricity
distribution companies to extend the grid. Small-scale
renewable energy options, such as a solar home system
(SHS) and biogas plants, have evolved as promising
alternative for providing electricity to these disperse areas
[38]. Other renewable energy options, such as wind energy
and hydropower, have little potential to contribute to rural
electrification in Bangladesh. Among the renewable
technologies, the SHS option has accounted for the major
share (80 %) of off-grid technologies in Bangladesh [39]
[40] [41]. Bangladesh started its intensive rural
electrification program in 1977 when only 10 % of its total
population was connected to a grid. The country adopted a
rural electric cooperative (REC) concept from the National
Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), which had
successfully electrified rural America in the 1930s [42].
According to the World Bank manifesto, to bring most of
people electrifying under project “Rural Electrification and
Renewable Energy Development” which mainly deployed
by PV system [43].
Figure 6: Institutional development for off-grid program
Amongst 49 partners’ organization, IDCOL has developed a
competitive market for Solar PV system without any
geographic constraints by offering solar incentives; SHS
installation, PV system with battery and charge controller
supplies across the country [44]. Achieving quality and
reliability of electricity supply is an important factor for
each region, enhancement of reliability factor in integrating
intermittent renewable energy like solar and the wind no
choice except diesel generators, issues highlighted by
(Foster and Steinbuks, 2009), estimates power system that
generators owned compensated by 6 % of total capacity in
Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income countries up to
20 % [45]. Renewable electrification inspiring by the
institutional framework in Bangladesh present in figure 8.
Since renewable energy emerging in the power system of
Bangladesh, the capacity gained 78 MW until 2012 which
about 95 % of solar energy [46]. To comply the master plan,
targeting 30 million of population electrified by off-grid
system by 2016 which is about 18 % of the total rural
population, whereas the number was about 15 million in
2013.
A. Biomass Potential
It is proved that Bangladesh has significant potential in
biomass and biogas. Bangladesh is a tropical monsoon
region, and agricultural is the main income for people who
are living in the rural areas. Agricultural waste provides an
enormous amount of biomass resources’ assimilate with
animal waste, household waste, and MSW which utilized to
produce a large scale of electricity. Biomass generation
system offers a number of advantages, mainly sources in
low cost but high in energy efficiency compare to other
fossil fuel, which reduces fuel costs. Besides electricity
generation, biomass waste also affords fertilizer
simultaneously. In Bangladesh gas is the main source of
electricity production, according [47] about 88.8 %
electricity generated by domestic gas, and a big part of
electricity generation from imported furnace oil. In
Bangladesh, from agriculture produces rice, wheat, maize,
coconut, vegetables, jute, sugarcane, etc. About 46 %
biomass energy sources from rice, straw, rice, husk, jute
stick, sugarcane [48]. Most of the households in Bangladesh
produces their vegetables and summer and winter
accounted 48.16 % and 51.84 % respectively in the year
2011 [49].
Power generation from biomass gasification is reasonably
novel in Bangladesh and favorable technology. Electricity
generation by biomass gasification can be solved our day to
day problem at an immense scope. Eventually, the purpose
of rural electrification which is the expression of grief need
of Bangladesh. In addition to producing electricity, it is
advantageous to the agricultural and industrial expansion
and production. It is almost impossible without rural
electrification to meet the Bangladesh Government vision of
ensuring access to reliable and affordable electricity for
energy security-2020. Biomass and natural gas are the
major sources of energy in Bangladesh, whereas 70 %
biomass energy consumption of total energy consumption
[39]. Biomass encompasses of agricultural residues in
Bangladesh mainly rice, maize, wheat, coconut, groundnut,
bean, vegetables, jute, and sugarcane etc. About 46 % of
total Biomass energy has produced from agricultural crop
residues. Rice is the main agricultural crop, and 70 % of rice
husk energy is consumed. At present, NGOs are promoting
small scale biomass system for clean cooking and electricity
generation. There are two minor projects which supported
by IDCOL those generating 200-300 kW by using poultry
litter, moreover, the studies also suggested that up to 800
MW electricity by poultry waste litter. At present 15.00 tons
of poultry litter produced each day, and a small fraction
being used recycle. About 47 tons of waste expected, will be
produced in 2025. In Bangladesh another available but
significant raw material for biomass production rice husk,
several search has shown that up to 400 MW of electricity
can be generated single-handedly by rice husk.
B. Photovoltaic Potential
Bangladesh is blessed with enormous solar potential, as
solar insolation. The average solar energy incident from 4
kWh/m2/day to 6.5 kWh/m2/day, with average 10.5 solar
hours and about 300 clear sunny days. By the combination
of a solar cell in PV module, under standard test condition
(STC) module produces DC electricity at range 100 W to 400
W. In (figure 9) shown, clear bright sunlight, except June
and July, average 7 to 9 h operates rest 10 months to
produces solar energy. In figure 2-10, represents monthly
average solar irradiation in different regions in Bangladesh.
Figure 7: Solar Irradiation of different areas in Bangladesh
C. Solar Home System in Bangladesh
Solar sources and SHS has experienced a great success in
Bangladesh, particularly the improvement of rural
electrification. Currently, about 42 % of people have access
electricity and per capita consumption of electricity is about
133 kWh in 2005 [52], which is the lower comparatively
other developing countries. Nevertheless, the imbalance
power supply makes a big difference between demand and
supply, which makes load shedding. Started early 1980, PV
flourished across the country and the success factors focus
on; (i) Rural Areas electrified which are not yet accessible
into the main utility grid. (ii) Remote areas where electricity
access is almost impossible. (iii) Insufficient power supply.
.
Figure 8: IDCOL SHS Program and Growth rate [56]
SHS generated electricity mainly used in rural households’
loads including low power devices, CFL or LED lights, TV,
mobile charger [53]. Bangladesh annual variation of
inclination of the sun, measured from the vertical varies
from 0 to 46 degrees between the summer and the winter.
Summer days are longer, around 14 hours, with average
sunshine more than 6kW-hr/day on clear sunny day.
Although winter days are shorter around 10 h, still there is
more than 4.5kW-hr/day of insolation on a clear sunny day.
Solar Home System (SHS) are stand-alone photovoltaic
systems that offer a cost effective mode of supplying power
for lighting and appliances to remote off-grid households. In
remote areas, which are not connected to the grid; SHS can
be used to meet remote household’s energy demand. In
Bangladesh, SHS usually at a rate of 12 V DC and provide
power for low power DC appliances including lights, TV,
mobile charger, for about four to five hours. In developing
countries like Bangladesh, where the national grid
extension is not economically and technically feasible, an
array of PV cells is used to build SHS. The main components
of SHS include a solar panel, battery and a charge controller
which can be operated with minimum training [54]. Over
the past decade, since the Bangladesh government launched
a rural electrification program supported by World Bank
and other international aid bodies, the number of off-grid
installations in the country has rocketed. In 2002,
installations rates stood at 7000; today the figure has
exploded to nearly 2 million and continues to count, with
average installation rate now topping 80,000 per month
[55].
IDCOL with other partner organization financed by World
Bank 3357609 SHSs established until October 2014, and the
numbers increase intensely present in (figure 2-11). The
capacity achieved by SHS about 150 MW in the year 2013-
2014, and growth rate increases about 185 %from the
previous year. In 2015 the growth rate increases to 300 %
and capacity raised 234 MW electricity generation potential
from SHSs [57]. Generally distance between SHS about 2 to
2.5 meter, where most of the system capacity configured
with 60 WP. As shown in (figure 2-11), SHS program
promoted to increases more than 3.7 million by May 2015
[56], about 98 % of SHS installed through IDCOL [58], and
additional 70,000 SHS being installed every month, and
targeting more than 6 million more SHS by 2016 [59].
V. INNOVATION APPROACH FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
To achieved the Millennium Development Goals (MDG),
electrification across nationwide is one of the main
topology widely believed contribution, renewable sources
deploy to sustainable development which leads to
improvement of environment and fosters of socio-economic
life. In the modern time, only 11 % of people have the access
electricity in the Sub-Saharan countries [60], whereas in
Bangladesh about 40 % of households have the access
electricity [61] and the improvement rate of electricity
through SHS system and bottom-up swarm electrification
successfully experienced in Bangladesh past decades. The
households and communities are far away from the main
grid and grid extension are not always cost effective due to
infrastructure and insufficient power supply.
Figure 11: Word wide electricity access through Rural
Electrification [62]
According to the authors’ of [63] suggested, DC microgrid
configured by several distributed generation such as SHS
and from a local grid that might connect to the main grid. A
mini-grid can be configured by local distributed generation
system and the distributed generation sources’ considering
along with renewable resources such as PV, biomass, wind.
According to swarm electrification concept, neighboring
households are assimilating in an intelligent network where
scheme allows sharing their information about supply,
demand, and battery status within. To achieve this network
by sharing electricity among participants within the
scheme, consequently swarm network have the ability to
integrate with legacy based where participants have the
ability to produce electricity and consumption
simultaneously, in order to propagate without or with
limited number single centralized unit which has the ability
to function independently may be called nano-grid. It is
obverses that a sunny day an SHS in Bangladesh does not
utilized their own capacity respect to their lords connected
within the system, and 30% surplus electricity available for
others [64]. Tier based Swarm concept explain in figure-13
and figure-14, tier-1 represents an SHS configuration and
the loads consumption, self-generated electricity from PV
panel. Tier -2 and tier -3 countenance SHS and BHS
connected and formed a DC cluster, and tier -4 cluster grid
also allow to connect to the grid to sellback surplus
electricity. The major strategies for rural electrification to
access electricity for all, some studies expressed only about
30 % of rural areas electrified by the centralized grid,
whereas 70 % people can be electrified by the small scale
nano-grid or microgrid [65].
Figure 2: Swarm Electrification concept and stepwise
approaches [66]
VI. REFORMS AND POLICIES TOWARDS RENEWABLE ENERGY
Declining the fossil fuel along with natural gas, the
electricity production reduces whereas demand increases
day by day. GOB has restricted and privatized the electricity
generation sector by national Energy policy (NEP) in 1996.
The major target of the policy to increase the power
generation to meet the desires present and future demand
which adopted by following policies:
I. Harnessing solar potential, and dissemination of
RET in both urban and rural areas
II. Enable and encourage facilitate public and private
sector investment towards RE projects
III. Development of sustainable energy system to
substitute non-renewable sources
IV. Facilitating renewable energy at every level of
energy including households to commercial and
industrial
The national Energy Plan (NEP) envisions 5 % pf total
renewable generation from renewable sources, and by
2020 achieved by 10 % energy from renewable.
Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) imposed
the bulk tariff for electricity consumption for distribution
companies including Dhaka Electric Supply Company
(DESCO), Dhaka Electric supply Authority (DESA), West
Zone Power Distribution Company (WZPDC), Dhaka Power
Distribution Company (DPDC), and Rural Electrification
(REB). The distribution companies are working in the urban
areas and REB with 77 rural electric cooperatives Palli
Bidyut Samity (PBS) working for electrification in villages
and remote areas.
VII. CONCLUSION
It is clear that most of the countries including low-income
and developing countries GDP affected by the level of
energy consumption, and per capita 0.23 % GDP increases
by consuming 1 % of per capita energy consumption. The
growth rate of electricity has increased by 5.5 % in the fiscal
year 2006-2007, which rapidly increased to about 13.2 % in
the fiscal year 2012-2013. Likewise, the GDP of Bangladesh
has increased at the rate of 6.8 % in the fiscal year 2012-
2013 from 2006-2007 observed at rate 6.15 %. Bangladesh
is the fast growing developing country, socio-economic,
industrialization, other development booming while
demanding of electricity increases day by day. Currently,
power sector of Bangladesh produces 7,445 MW by 2012,
and 8002 MW by 2016 along with different government
entities and non-government company working together to
meet the electricity demand. Almost 72.42 % of total
electricity generated from natural gas in the fiscal year
2013-2014, and on the other side, the renewable
penetration only about 2.5 % which is the insignificant
comparison to global power generation.
In the present time Bangladesh is one of the market leader
of SHS, and standalone PV system. In Bangladesh average 4
to 6.5 kWh/m2 solar irradiation, and Maximum amount of
solar radiation is available almost each month except
December-January, however, 300 high sunny days
suggested solar generated system like standalone PV
system, and SHS. IDCOL and other 47 partner organizations
(POs), NGO working together to installing 3 million SHS by
2013 and targeting almost 7 million by mid of 2018.
The conventional power system is expensive to configure
and present demand is lagging behind from the continuous
power supply to electrification, especially for electrifying
rural and remote areas. Notwithstanding, the conventional
trends to generates electrical power from the top-down
grid, and author convinced to follow up the concept of
bottom-up swarm electrification would be the best solution
for electrifying rural areas in developing countries. A robust
grid can be formed amongst hybrid power system which
configures with integrating distributed renewable sources
and the backup diesel generator that highly efficient and
reliable in the remote areas.
Currently, about 55.41 % of rural areas electrified by REB
and cooperative organization PBS, whereas 5.05 million
households connected to the grid. Yet 45 % of rural areas
not electrified by REB which government owned company,
but IDCOL and others POs working together to achieve
Millennium Development Goad (MDG) and “Vision 2021”
simultaneously, about 94 % households decreases about
1.7 liters of fuel (kerosene) consumptions compare to those
not connected to the grid, average 90,000 households
connected to the grid. During summer, the number of new
households slightly increased to 300,000, and to achieve
100 % of electrification about 450,000 new households
need to connect to the grid by 2018. By the successful SHS
program along other biomass integration, and enrichment
of electric power generation Bangladesh has achieved
almost 11000 MW electricity by 2014, but still 40 % of
population living without access to electricity.
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... Bangladesh is a developing country in Southeast Asia with a consistent~7% G.D.P. growth rate over the last two decades [1]. Keeping pace with such growth and development, the energy demand is also rising rapidly [2]. In its first Renewable Energy Policy, released in 2014, Bangladesh declared plans to increase its renewable share of electricity to 10% by 2030 [3]. ...
... (1) The rooftop areas of the factory buildings can provide reasonable spaces for installing PV systems, producing green power whilst cutting energy bills and the carbon emissions of the plants. (2) Scarce land can be saved for farming and other indispensable uses delivering a higher rate of return. (3) Solar energy can displace imports from the national grid, and excess energy can be fed back into the grid. ...
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Bangladesh has a rapidly increasing population and coupled with healthy economic growth, is resulting in a rising energy demand. The country also aims to increase its renewable share of electricity to 10% by 2030. However, due to limited wind resources, solar energy seems to be most appropriate to deliver such a target. However, in a land-scarce country, this presents a major challenge, which this work aims to partially address. Being a globally leading producer of commodities, Bangladesh has a considerable number of large manufacturing plants with appropriate roofs that could be used for deploying solar energy conversion systems at scale. A methodology is presented which identified and assessed 6045 such plants, which have roof areas ranging from 100 m2 to 50,000 m2, and modelled the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology that can provide power through site available grid infrastructure. Such deployment takes advantage of net metering regulations to enhance the case for such power generation. A techno-economic assessment was also presented, addressing how such utilisation can support the 10% renewables target of Bangladesh without impacting scarce lands. The results showed that around 7.4 GWp of PV capacity can be achieved on such roofs with a corresponding annual electricity generation of 11 TWh. This represents more than 6% of Bangladesh’s current electricity consumption and more than half of the 2030 target. Furthermore, the deployment will save 13,000 acres of farmland, as well as providing power through site available grid infrastructure saving on investment if the systems are deployed on land. These results are likely to influence policy to support the presented proposition, not only in terms of increasing the renewable energy share in the country’s electricity supply mix but also in conserving much-needed land for agriculture.
... The Government of Bangladesh released a strategic plan for LPG distribution, and it declared a target of 70% for all households to use LPG by 2030. They previously set access to electricity targets for 2021, but these did not cover cooking fuels [45,46] (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS. ZS?locations=BD). ...
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... Presently, access to electricity for all by 2021 is the foremost goal of Bangladesh government. To fulfill the vision and commitment, electricity generation in the country is required to generate 20,000 MW (MW)by the year 2021 [1][2][3][4]. Currently, the government of Bangladesh underpins every possible solution to support the power crisis of the country. ...
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As Bangladesh's economy expands, the country has experienced severe power crises over the decades. With the Government's effective implementation of policies, the country has shown remarkable progress in energy sector recently. Even though various initiatives have been undertaken to improve energy sector, thevision of power sector hasn't yet achieved. To accelerate the progress in energy sector, the country needs to reform the transmission and distribution sector of the country to reduce the distribution losses. The effort should be given to the fuel demand and supply side management, energy efficiency and diversifying program for sustainable development in energy sector. Thus, revisiting the existing reform process in the energy sector is needed to be investigated to meet ever rising energy demand. The paper assesses the major regulatory framework changes commenced by the government in power sector and identifies key issues that led to the passage of the affordable and sustainable energy for all. In addition, fuzzy rule-based GHG emission predicting system is designed in this research which demonstrates how the GHG emission varies with the variables i.e., renewable integration, fossil fuel management, fossil fuel quality and use of modern technology and suggests the effective and efficient GHG emission reduction process from power generating sector. Finally, policy perspective, control and co-ordination issues in energy sector were discussed.
... Looking at the load analysis of Bangladesh, it is easily realized that most of the loads in the country are very basic (such as lights, fans, etc.). These loads constitute around 50% of the total power consumption [15]. On the other hand, the CO 2 emission rate (metric tons per capita) has already increased rapidly from 0.2 for the year 2005 to 0.51 for the year 2016, and it has been increasing ever since [16]. ...
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... Coal-fired power plants generate about 37% of the global electricity ( IEA, 2017 ). Bangladesh generates about 5% of its' total electricity using coal ( Taheruzzaman and Janik, 2016 ). Fly ash accounts 15-30% of total coal waste produced in thermal power stations ( Gupta et al., 2002 ). ...
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... For electricity production, Bangladesh is still mostly reliant on natural gas, coal, and fossil fuels (IEA, 2019). Apart from natural gas usage for household cooking purposes, it also contributes to producing more than 62% of electricity, and only 3.3% are contributed by renewable energy sources (Taheruzzaman and Janik, 2016). Masud et al. (2020) have recommended that the country minimize the gap between electricity supply and demand with electricity production from 4 to 5 kWh/m2 of solar radiation as an average. ...
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This paper describes the available topologies for electricity generation and its evacuation system in Bangladesh. Usually, electricity is generated in a large power station and it is then sent to the customer end by means of transmission and distribution system. This is an established technology. However, this system proves very costly and the cost increases especially when the service area is remote. In remote areas, local people use kerosene as a fuel for lighting. Also, diesel generators for electrifying local markets and villages are being used. However, these generators run for a few hours of the day and the generation cost becomes very high. Practice of battery charging based electricity system is also found in many places of the remote area. Besides these, Government of Bangladesh (GOB) is trying to electrify the remote areas by means of SHS, which has been being used to replace the traditional kerosene-based lamps from 1998 in Bangladesh. However, with the advancement of technology, the demand of present SHS consumers is increasing considerably. Electricity to all is an essential requirement for the proper development of Bangladesh. Thus, it is essential to supply power with quality and reliability to the present users of the national grid, customers of the SHS and people of the un-electrified region. With this context, possibilities of exploring new topologies of generation and evacuation have also been discussed in this paper.
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