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The Need to Change Education towards Open Learning

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The need to change education is discussed and Open Learning Concept is presented and adapted for improving school education. Open Learning aims at the balance between learning innovation and quality for modernizing learning, education and training. Learning innovation and learning quality are very often addressed separately and solely. But in fact they are interdependent and have to be reflected both for achieving the best learning quality: This article discusses how to achieve the best appropriate learning quality as the core objective in learning, education and training. Only their mix can ensure to meet the learners' needs and to provide the best and appropriate learning opportunities and learning quality: The presented Open Learning concept aims at modernizing and opening up education for fitting to the given situation and for a long-term and sustainable improvement across all sectors in learning, education and training, all communities, educational and training systems and societies in Europe and worldwide.
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Christian M. Stracke
Tatiana Shamarina-Heidenreich (Eds.)
The Need for Change in Education:
Openness as Default?
Christian M. Stracke,
Tatiana Shamarina-Heidenreich (Eds.)
The Need for Change in Education:
Openness as Default?
Official Proceedings of the
International LINQ Conference 2015
Organized by the TELIT Research Institute of the University of Duisburg-Essen and
by the International Community for Open Research and Open Education (ICORE)
Christian M. Stracke, Tatiana Shamarina-Heidenreich (Eds.)
The Need for Change in Education: Openness as
Default?
Official Proceedings of the International LINQ Conference 2015
held in Brussels, Belgium, on 11th-13th of May 2015.
Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek:
The German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) lists this publication
in the German National Bibliography (Deutsche Nationalbibliografie);
detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at <http:// dnb.d-nb.de> .
ISBN: 978-3-8325-3960-3
Cover photo: © Sabine Dertinger, Bonn (Germany)
Published by Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
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Internet: <http://www.logos-verlag.de>
A digital copy of this publication is online available under Creative Commons license BY-NC-SA 3.0 at:
<http://www.learning-innovations.eu >
Contact:
Dr. Christian M. Stracke
Managing Director TELIT Research Institute, University of Duisburg-Essen
Associate Professor for Open Education and Innovation, Open University of the Netherlands
christian.stracke@ou.nl
Information about LINQ 2015 online at: <http://www.learning-innovations.eu>.
A digital copy of this publication is online available at: <http://2015.learning-innovations.eu>,
<http://www.uni-due.de/ub>, <http://duepublico.uni-due.de>, and at: <http://dnb.d-nb.de>.
This book is published under the Creative Commons licence "BY-NC-ND 3.0" (Attribution Non-
Commercial No Derivate 3.0). The full licence (legal code) can be read online here:
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You are free to share the work, i.e. to copy, distribute, and transmit the work under the following
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© Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
© Christian M. Stracke, eLC / UDE 2015
Table of Content
The Need for Change in Education - An Introduction ..................................................... 7
Christian M. Stracke and Tatiana Shamarina-Heidenreich
The Need to Change Education towards Open Learning .............................................. 11
Christian M. Stracke
Asserting rights-based approaches in globalized learning ............................................ 24
Alan Bruce
Issues for Quality Assurance of Metadata in Learning Object Repositories: The
Case of Photodentro ............................................................................................. 32
Nikos Palavitsinis, Elina Megalou
Open Innovation Transforming the Landscape of Indian Higher Education: A case
of Amity University, India ..................................................................................... 40
Puja Singhal, Alok Kumar Goel
Modelling quality of higher education: use of system dynamics approach for
performance measurement (the case of Kazakhstan) ....................................... 49
Gulnara Sarsenbayeva
Project Presentations....................................................................................................... 57
ACT: Agricultural Alliance for Competence and Skills based Training .......................... 59
BYOD4L: Bring Your Own Device for Learning ............................................................... 60
CAMEI: Coordination Actions in the scientific era of Medical Education
Informatics for fostering IT skills for healthcare workforce in the EU & USA .. 61
DIGI FEM: Digital skills and tools for Young Female Entrepreneurs Erasmus Plus ... 62
EBE-EUSMOSI: Evidence-Based Education European Strategic Model for School
Inclusion................................................................................................................. 64
ECVET-STEP: ECVET for Strengthening Training to Employment Pathways ................ 65
eMundus: Exploring successful patterns of HE collaboration enhanced by open
education ............................................................................................................... 67
FOSTER: Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research............................... 68
H2Opath: AquaPath ......................................................................................................... 69
ICORE - The International Community for Open Research and Education .................. 70
ISOLearn: Innovation and social learning in HEI ............................................................ 71
LangOER: Teaching and learning of less used languages through Open Educational
Resources (OER) and Practices (OEP) .................................................................. 72
Learning design for a successful sustainable employability [Compass Lab] ................ 73
LoCloud: Local Content in a Europeana Cloud ............................................................... 74
ODS: Open Discovery Space ............................................................................................ 75
PURE-H2O: Implementation of ECVET for Qualifications in the water sector............. 76
QEIPS: Quality Education Improvement Program through Science ............................. 77
Q-LET: Quality in Learning, Education and Training ...................................................... 78
QUALES: QUALity assurance in the financial services sector vEt Systems ................... 79
TELL US Awards ................................................................................................................ 80
The Constellation Leo ...................................................................................................... 81
UDLnet: Universal Design for Learning - A Framework for Addressing Learner
Variability............................................................................................................... 82
Workshop Presentations .................................................................................................. 83
A Teacher Cohort Model for Supporting Literacy Across Disciplines ............................ 85
Guiding Holistic Education Transformation: A Framework for Leaders ....................... 86
Interacting with the draft UNESCO Guidelines on the inclusion of students with
disabilities in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) using Open Solutions ........... 88
Strengthening Training to Employment Pathways (ACT and ECVET-STEP) .................. 89
Teacher Competences Fostering Universal Design for Learning and Inclusion ........... 90
The Open Discovery Space (ODS) platform: “I have a dream keeping Ithaca always
in my mind“ ............................................................................................................ 91
Webinars for effective collaboration .............................................................................. 93
Author Index 2015 ............................................................................................................ 95
Author Index...................................................................................................................... 97
LINQ 2015 Scientific Programme Committee ...............................................................103
LINQ 2015 Keynote Speakers .........................................................................................104
LINQ 2015 Conference Committee................................................................................105
The Need to Change Education towards Open Learning
Christian M. Stracke
Associate Professor Open Education & Innovation at Open University of the Netherlands
Managing Director of the TELIT Research Institute at the University of Duisburg-Essen
Adjunct Professor at the Korea National Open University (KNOU) in Seoul, Korea
Advisory Professor at the East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai, China
Christian.Stracke@ou.nl
Abstract: The need to change education is discussed and Open
Learning Concept is presented and adapted for improving school
education. Open Learning aims at the balance between learning innovation
and quality for modernizing learning, education and training. Learning
innovation and learning quality are very often addressed separately and
solely. But in fact they are interdependent and have to be reflected both
for achieving the best learning quality: This article discusses how to
achieve the best appropriate learning quality as the core objective in
learning, education and training. Only their mix can ensure to meet the
learners' needs and to provide the best and appropriate learning
opportunities and learning quality: The presented Open Learning concept
aims at modernizing and opening up education for fitting to the given
situation and for a long-term and sustainable improvement across all
sectors in learning, education and training, all communities, educational
and training systems and societies in Europe and worldwide.
Keywords: Open Learning, change, quality, innovations, learning
history, quality development, school education, lifelong learning, digital
age, ICORE.
1 Introduction: Why Open Learning?
In this article discusses the need to change education and the opportunities
provided by Open Education: The concept of Open Learning will be introduced
and adapted to school education.
The Open Learning theory answers the question how to improve the quality
in learning, education and training to address the need for change in education
due to the digital age and revolution. Open Learning is the theoretical and
generic framework and long-term vision for the modernization of Learning,
12 The Need for Change in Education: Openness as Default?
Education and Training (LET) and for the required changes in all educational
sectors, from kindergarten to lifelong learning. Open Learning combines learning
innovations and learning quality to achieve a balanced and appropriate solution
adapted to the given learning objectives, needs and situations.
An innovative and structural change in particular within the school education
is required due to the general and global challenges by the digital age: As an
example the adaptation of Open Learning to school education will present how
to integrate learning innovation for modernizing education in schools.
2 Challenges by the Digital Age
Learning innovations and learning quality are important and reflected topics for a
very long time from the beginning of discussions and theories about learning
processes: In Europe, Plato's Allegory of the Cave is one of the earliest examples.
Their debate continued during the introduction of the first universities in the
Middle Age and of the school systems in the 18th century. During the last years
and the upcoming so called "digital age", many discussions took place (also in the
fields of school and higher education, learning for work and at workplaces as well
as non-formal and informal learning) due to the two main changes covering all
sectors, branches and levels of the society: first, globalisation and second,
establishment of the worldwide internet.
These two factors are leading to global markets, worldwide networking,
communication and competition, as well as to the digitalisation of services and
systems with the introduction of internet-based services, hardware and software
within all parts of our lifes. They were and are still changing all societies and in
particular the learning, education and training in schools, universities, at work
and online.
International and European policies are already addressing these challenges
such as the OER Paris Declaration by UNESCO (2012) and the Opening Up
Education policy be the European Commission (2013).
3 Discussions and Myths of Learning Innovations
In international discussions about the need to change education and about
future learning, education and training from theory, research and politics but
also from press, individuals and social communities, the main focus is currently
Open Learning: The Concept for Modernizing School Education and Lifelong Learning 13
______
on the technological innovations and their new opportunities. That is valid for
learning opportunities and in particular for lifelong learning.
Theories and experts are claiming brand new and extraordinary chances,
sometimes promising new learning eras and paradigms (Stracke 2014): e. g., the
theories of connectivism by Siemens (2005) or of Social Learning by Hart (2011).
Even the arrival of fundamental new ways of learning are promised under the
label of learning 2.0 / 3.0 in analogy to the terms web 2.0 / 3.0 (Downes 2005,
Karrer 2007, and for an overview Redecker 2009). Finally new concepts and
descriptions of our world as a 'flat world' are leading to predictions that 'to learn
how to learn' will become the most important asset for all workers due to all the
changes and faster innovation (Friedman 2006). It is claimed that is this a new
movement and progress however it has been clear and evident in pedagogy for
several hundreds of years (if not longer) that 'to learn how to learn' is most
important for learning processes and progress and for the development of
personality and competences (Dewey 1966, Piaget 1953, Rousseau 1968
[originally published 1762], Vygotsky 1988).
We call this discussion the (learning) innovation strand: From this special
perspective, it seems that learning innovations are the only path and road map
for a better future education and training. The underlying (and often hidden)
argument is that through them we are earning many new chances to learn, and
without them we are not matching the changing times of globalisation and
worldwide internet as well as the new digital generation, the so labelled "digital
natives" (Prensky 2001, cf. for a general criticism of this term Schulmeister 2008).
On the other hand, there has been a long-term discussion with a
longstanding tradition (since the beginning of our culture) about learning quality
covering a broad range of topics, like the quality of learning design, objectives,
materials, input as well as learning processes, outcomes and the achieved
knowledge, skills and built competences.
We call this debate the (learning) history strand: In the past, many theories
were developed dealing directly or implicitly with the question how to ensure or
to improve learning quality (cf. for an overview Stracke 2006a). Many theories
were developed in the past of the educational (learning) history whereas some of
the topics like quality management for education and training are less than 100
years old.
Surprisingly, both discussion strands, the new innovation and the old history,
were not interconnected and did not reflect each other (Stracke 2014). It seems
that the supporters of learning innovations do not want to refer to theories of
the past and that vice versa the authors of learning history do not want to
14 The Need for Change in Education: Openness as Default?
recognise global changes. That led us to an important question that requires
urgent attention and an answer in our changing times: What is the relation
between learning innovations and learning quality?
Our answer is based on three hypotheses of the current learning situation
(for their detailed discussion and arguments cf. Stracke 2013):
1. Learning history should not be ignored: Modern innovation theories
cannot ignore the treasure of expertise from history without losing
a well-proven foundation for basing their argumentation.
2. Learning innovations are mainly technology-driven: They cannot be
successful by themselves, they require an appropriate learning
design and setting with an attractive and motivating learning
environment.
3. Learning is not completely changing: The new modes and types of
access and interactions in learning processes through new
technologies do not change completely the way how people learn.
Therefore we direct our focus on the learning quality beyond new
technologies: Learning quality was, is and will be the key for learning success and
outcomes (Stracke 2012). Learning opportunities have to meet the needs of the
learners and to provide the appropriate quality to fulfill their requirements. In
this sense, learning history and learning innovations are two different
approaches and points of view that are interdependent and cannot be reflected
upon alone but have to be analysed in conjunction for achieving the best and
appropriate learning opportunity and success.
Therefore only the mix of learning innovations and history based on learning
experiences and theories from the past is promising and convincing to meet the
need to change and improve education. Thus, we can say: Quality development is
the crucial task for learning, education and training.
The question is now: How can quality development be addressed and
improved in learning, education and training in our times of the digital age? The
concept of Open Learning tries to provide a theoretical framework for the
improvement of the learning quality through the integration of learning
innovations leading to opening up the education.
Open Learning: The Concept for Modernizing School Education and Lifelong Learning 15
______
4 The Theory of Open Learning
Open Learning tries to provide an answer on the given challenges of globalization
for the modernization of learning, education and training. Open Learning
combines the two major dimensions to meet the current requirements and the
right balance between learning innovations and tradition achieving high quality in
learning:
1. Suitable and open learning styles and designs
2. Suitable and open learning scenarios and environment
Open Learning introduces the open movement into all educational sectors:
Under the umbrella of the term "Open Education" many different approaches are
currently summarized. The use of Open Educational Resources (OER) and the
design of Open Educational Practices (OEP) are often promoted for all
educational sectors based on the definition by UNESCO (2002). As a theoretical
and generic framework and long-term vision for the modernization of Learning,
Education and Training (LET) and for the required changes in all educational
sectors, from kindergarten to lifelong learning, Open Learning has alsways to be
adapted to the specific situation, target group, learning objectives and needs.
Technology-enhanced learning can play a key role in the future improvement
of learning quality in education: Not only formal, but also non-formal and
informal learning can be facilitated by technology-enhanced learning, e. g.,
through social learning for working smarter and social workplaces (Hart 2011 and
Cross 2010, for general criticism cf. Davenport 2005). In addition the support and
tracking options offered by the used technologies can provide substantial basis
for data collections, measurements and evaluations of all learning and working
activities to assess changes in the performance and assigned competences.
5 Open Learning in Practice
In the following we will provide a first adaptation of Open Learning for the school
education as well as an introduction into the key European Initiative Open
Discovery Space.
16 The Need for Change in Education: Openness as Default?
5.1 Adaptation of Open Learning for school education
Open Learning can be adapted as Open School Learning for the school sector as
the combination of:
1. Open Education (innovative education with technologies)
2. Creative Classrooms (collaboration with moderation)
Open School Learning introduces the concept of Open Education within
schools by improving the variety of learning styles, amongst others through the
use of e-Learning and Open Educational Resources. Open School Learning
establishes the vision of Creative Classrooms where teachers are continuously
changing their roles according to the scenarios and students are cooperating,
amongst others through developing a network of communities across Europe.
Currently, two major projects funded by the European Commission is focusing
such a broad and sustainable introduction of Open School Learning and
technology-enhanced and competence-based learning within school education
across whole Europe.
5.2 Open Discovery Space for Open Learning in schools
Open Discovery Space (ODS: www.opendiscoveryspace.eu) with its focus on the
school sector and teachers as main target group addresses more than 3,000
schools and offering training for over 10,000 teachers in all 27 EU member states:
ODS introduces innovative learning designs and scenarios into K-12 schools
through the support by technology enhanced learning and social communities.
Based on its ODS Innovation Model, the initiative focuses on the required
modernisation of school education, based on the combination of Open Education
and Creative Classrooms through the concept of Open School Learning. Open
School Learning introduces and uses innovative scenarios, open educational
practices and resources and can be realized through de-centralized and
technology-enhanced communities. ODS cooperates since 2012 in a first of its
kind effort with all school stakeholders to create a pan-European e-learning
environment to promote more flexible and creative ways of learning. The project
follows a unique approach to learning at school: supporting the development of
self‐esteem, an increased "sense of belonging", and an improved perception of
Open Learning: The Concept for Modernizing School Education and Lifelong Learning 17
______
one’s own capacity to solve problems. In this approach, ODS addresses teachers
as main target group and develops regional hubs, instruments and online
services, which facilitate and improve Open School Learning and contribute to
the "construction of the surrounding community" (Stracke et al. 2013).
The ODS project has established de-centralized regional communities through
the introduction of technology-enhanced learning within the national European
school systems including the provision of a portal for Open Educational
Resources and the development of learning scenarios and services for the long -
term improvement of school education by innovative pedagogical planning and
learning. The Inspiring Science Education (ISE: www.inspiringscience.eu) project
will benefit from these developments and transfer all achieved results in the
fields of science education for further support and innovations for and by
teachers.
6 The Future of Learning
The introduction of Open Learning requires a complete change and paradigm
shift of learning in the future: The paradigm shift from input to outcome
orientation in learning is moving the focus from knowledge (as learning input),
which can more and more quickly become outdated, to competences (as learning
outcomes), including abilities to transfer and act successfully in an unknown
situation. Today we have to learn during our entire lifetimes to fulfil lifelong
learning in order to be prepared for future jobs and tasks that do not yet exist,
which are still unknown and cannot even be thought about (Davenport 2005,
Friedman 2006, Keeley 2007).
Figure 1: Paradigm shift in learning
18 The Need for Change in Education: Openness as Default?
However the term "competence" is defined in many different ways: The
historical development lines of the term competence” in different science
disciplines demonstrate the variety and complexity of meanings and views on the
term. In psychology, White (1959) has used the term “competence” very early
(already in the year 1959) to designate skills developed by self-organization and
required for performance. In semantics and only a few years later in 1962,
Chomsky (1962) defined competence as the self-organized ability to construct
and understand a potentially unlimited amount of sentences using a limited set
of vocabulary and thus, to manage speech acts as a competent speaker. And
based on these concepts, two different schools of thought were developed in
different directions: the first line continued the Chomsky’s ideas by broadening
them to a human being's acting in general; the second line used the term for
societal criticism and combined it along with “coping”, in particular with the
generation of social situations.
Today, the concept of competence (which is traditionally combined with
successful acting in unknown situations in the Central European tradition) offers
a theoretical basis for the development of strategies, methods and means for
solving the current tasks (Weinert 2001). In addition, the needs for personal and
organizational development have to be identified, and training and change
management methods have to be introduced (Keeley 2007).
Thus, initiatives are taking place at the European (European Commission
(2010), European Parliament/ European Council (2006) and European
Parliament/ European Council (2008) and international level (Stracke 2011 and
ISO/IEC 20006-1:2012) to harmonize the whole competence field on the basis of
the requirements from all stakeholders, educational systems and societies. This
paradigm shift towards competence-oriented learning, education and training is
not only needed for facing current and future challenges but also for the broad
introduction of Open Learning.
7 The Vision of Open Learning
Efforts towards Open Learning through innovations like online cooperation,
MOOCs and technology-enhanced learning have achieved broad awareness and
agreement through the support of new policies such as Opening up Education
launched by the European Commission. Nevertheless, investment in education
and training is decreasing in many countries despite general recognition of its
importance. Innovation and e-Learning can foster new ways of learning, however
many contributions currently focus exclusively on technological opportunities.
Open Learning: The Concept for Modernizing School Education and Lifelong Learning 19
______
But it is evident that educational change through Open Learning and refined
pedagogies is extremely important to achieve the highest learning quality
possible.
ICORE, the International Community for Open Research and Open Education
(www.ICORE-online.org) was established with this objective in 2013 and
launched at the international LINQ Conference in Rome in order to promote
open education and its connections with open research. ICORE is collaborating
with leading European and international organizations motivated by a common
vision, joining efforts for future strategies and activities which facilitate
innovative learning in schools, universities, societies and at work.
ICORE promotes, supports and enhances Open Research and Open
Education worldwide. Main objectives of ICORE are the recognition, progress and
application of Open Research and Open Education: ICORE wants to bridge both
worlds of Open Research and Open Education. The goal is the mutual re-usage of
their results and outcomes, e. g. through the usage of digital resources from
Open Research in Open Education.
Hopefully ICORE and all other stakeholders joining and interested in opening
up learning, education and training will facilitate the required changes and realize
Open Learning for improving school education, lifelong learning and societal
impact. A first step was the discussion and approval of the "Declaration of Crete"
(ICORE 2014) that is requesting the re-establishment of openness as default what
could facilitate and improve the introduction of Open Learning worldwide.
8 Conclusions
Learning innovation and learning quality are very often addressed separately and
solely. But in fact they are interdependent and have to be reflected both for
achieving the best learning quality: The best appropriate learning quality remains
the core objective in learning, education and training and can be achieved by
combining the three dimensions learning history, learning innovations and
learning standards. Learning innovations can increase the learning quality but
require a basis provided by the learning experiences and theories from the past.
On the other hand learning traditions have to be enriched by innovations, in
particular facing the current worldwide challenges of globalisation and
worldwide internet establishment. Together with the third dimension, the
learning standards, learning history and learning innovations are building the
20 The Need for Change in Education: Openness as Default?
basis and potential inputs for planning and design learning opportunities. A
suitable mix of history from learning experiences and theories and current
innovations combined with international consensus on learning standards is
required.
The Open Learning concept was introduced to fulfil these challenges and
requirements: It has been roughly adapted to the school education as Open
School Learning. In general Open Learning can ensure to meet the learners'
needs and to provide the best and appropriate learning opportunities and
learning quality fitting to the given situation and for a long-term and sustainable
improvement. In the future it has to be demonstrated that Open Learning can
also be adapted across all sectors in learning, education and training, all
communities, educational and training systems and societies in Europe and
worldwide.
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LINQ 2015 Scientific Programme Committee
Members of the LINQ Scientific Programme Committee:
Breivik, June (Norway) Nascimbeni, Fabio (Belgium)
Bruce, Alan (Ireland) Ossiannilsson, Ebba (Sweden)
Burgi, Pierre-Yves (Switzerland) Øverby, Erlend (Norway)
Creelman, Alastair (Sweden) Palavitsinis, Nikos (Greece)
Doran, Rosa (Portugal) Pawlowski, Jan (Finland)
Ferreira, Giselle (Brazil) Pilv, Mihkel (Estonia)
Hoel, Tore (Norway) Sampson, Demetrios (Greece)
Hofhues, Sandra (Germany) Sgouropoulou, Cleo (Greece)
Jahnke, Isa (Sweden) Smith, David (Australia)
Junge, Kerstin (United Kingdom) Soboleva, Erika (Russian Federation)
Kupres, Dragana (Hungary) Specht, Marcus (The Netherlands)
Lane, Andy (United Kingdom) Teixeira, António (Portugal)
Lazonder, Ard (The Netherlands) Wolpers, Martin (Germany)
Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi (Japan) Zhiting, Zhu (China)
http://2015.learning-innovations.eu/linq-2015/programme-committee/
LINQ 2015 Keynote Speakers
Professor Dr. Grainne Conole (Bath Spa University, UK)
Professor Dr. Alexander Khoroshilov (Officer-in-Charge for UNESCO IITE)
Bodo Richter (Deputy Head of Unit Innovation in Education, European Institute
of Innovation and Technology and Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions, European
Commission)
Dr. Yves Punie (Senior Researcher at the European Commission Institute for
Prospective Technological Studies (JRC IPTS), leading its research and policy
activities on “ICT for Learning, Skills and Open Education”)
http://www.learning-innovations.eu
http://2015.learning-innovations.eu/category/linq-2015-speakers/
LINQ 2015 Conference Committee
The programme committee of the International LINQ Conference 2015 is
composed of the following experts:
Conference Chairs
Christian M. Stracke (LINQ, University of
Duisburg Essen; Germany)
Conference Managers
Tatiana Shamarina-Heidenreich (University of
Duisburg Essen; Germany), responsible for the
paper, project, and workshop submissions
Natalja Nillmaier (University of Duisburg
Essen; Germany)
Conference Communication
Sebastian Engel-Vermette (University of
Duisburg Essen; Germany)
Technical Support
Markus Ortel (University of Duisburg Essen;
Germany)
http://2015.learning-innovations.eu/linq-2015/programme-committee/
... All these societal, educational and personal changes have led to the growth of Open (Online) Education that has experienced a major increase of raising awareness amongst all levels and stakeholders (European Commission, 2011, Stracke, 2015. Global grass-root movements, events, communities and associations and international policies and implementations in national and regional educational systems were successfully created and sustained. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Societal, educational and personal changes are shaking economies, working and living conditions as well as the whole world. The raise of the world-wide internet and social media including online communities is affecting societies and people’s lives as well as personal learning. Open (Online) Education has experienced a major development raising awareness amongst all actors including global grass-root movements, events, communities and associations as well as international policies and implementations in national and regional educational systems. During the last years Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) became very popular: Since the year 2008 with the first MOOC the number of MOOCs is constantly increasing. The year 2012 was considered as the "Year of the MOOCs" leading to a global debate about their quality as an educational tool that is increasing since then. To address the quality issues, MOOQ, the European Alliance for the Quality of MOOCs was initiated. Based on a literature review and analysis of existing quality approaches and indicators for MOOCs, the first Global MOOC Survey was designed and conducted for three target groups (MOOC learners, designers and facilitators) with the support by the leading international associations and institutions. Afterwards the results from the survey were complemented by qualitative and semi-structured interviews with MOOC designers, facilitators and providers to gain more in-depth details and insights. The final objective is the development of the Quality Reference Framework (QRF) with quality indicators and tools in close collaboration with all interested stakeholders worldwide. This paper presents the first QRF draft for further discussion.
... All these societal, educational and personal changes have led to the growth of Open (Online) Education that has experienced a major increase of raising awareness amongst all levels and stakeholders (European Commission, 2011, Stracke, 2015. Global grass-root movements, events, communities and associations and international policies and implementations in national and regional educational systems were successfully created and sustained. ...
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Institutions of learning at all levels are challenged by a fast and accelerating pace of change in the development of communications technology. Conferences around the world address the issue. Research journals in a wide range of scholarly fields are placing the challenge of understanding "Education’s Digital Future" on their agenda. The World Learning Summit and LINQ Conference 2017 proceedings take this as a point of origin. Noting how the future also has a past: Emergent uses of communications technologies in learning are of course neither new nor unfamiliar. What may be less familiar is the notion of "disruption", found in many of the conferences and journal entries currently. Is the disruption of education and learning as transformative as in the case of the film industry, the music industry, journalism, and health? If so, clearly the challenge of understanding future learning and education goes to the core of institutions and organizations as much as pedagogy and practice in the classroom. One approach to the pursuit of a critical debate is the concept of Smart Universities educational institutions that adopt to the realities of digital online media in an encompassing manner: How can we as smarter universities and societies build sustainable learning eco systems for coming generations, where technologies serve learning and not the other way around? Perhaps that is the key question of our time, reflecting concerns and challenges in a variety of scholarly fields and disciplines? These proceedings present the results from an engaging event that took place from 7th to 9th of June 2017 in Kristiansand, Norway.
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This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature review on the quality of massive open online courses (MOOCs). The main research question was “How can the quality criteria for MOOCs identified in the analysed studies from the systematic literature review be best organised in a categorisation scheme?” The systematic literature review was conducted using the PRISMA procedures. After conducting the screening and eligibility analysis according the pre-defined criteria, 103 studies were finally selected. The analysis was done in iterative cycles for continuous improvements of the assignments and clustering of the quality criteria. The final version was validated in consensus through the categorisation and assignment of all 103 studies in a consistent way to four dimensions (pedagogical, organisational, technological, and social) and their sub-categories. This quality framework can be re-used in future MOOC research and the discussion of the analysed studies provides a current literature overview on the quality of MOOCs.
Conference Paper
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Learning innovation and learning quality are very often addressed separately and solely. But in fact they are interdependent and have to be reflected both for achieving the best learning quality: This article discusses how to achieve the best appropriate learning quality as the core objective in learning, education and training by combining the three dimensions learning history, learning innovations and learning standards. Only their mix can ensure to meet the learners' needs and to provide the best and appropriate learning opportunities and learning quality: The Open Learning Concept is presented as combination of suitable open learning styles and open learning scenarios and adapted for school education and lifelong learning in the world of work. Open Learning aims at the right balance between learning innovation and quality for modernizing school education and lifelong learning fitting to the given situation and for a long-term and sustainable improvement across all sectors in learning, education and training, all communities, educational and training systems and societies in Europe and worldwide.
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MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are the educational buzzword of 2012. Media frenzy surrounds them and commercial interests have moved in. Sober analysis is overwhelmed by apocalyptic predictions that ignore the history of earlier educational technology fads. The paper describes the short history of MOOCs and sets them in the wider context of the evolution of educational technology and open/distance learning. While the hype about MOOCs presaging a revolution in higher education has focussed on their scale, the real revolution is that universities with scarcity at the heart of their business models are embracing openness. We explore the paradoxes that permeate the MOOCs movement and explode some myths enlisted in its support. The competition inherent in the gadarene rush to offer MOOCs will create a sea change by obliging participating institutions to revisit their missions and focus on teaching quality and students as never before. It could also create a welcome deflationary trend in the costs of higher education. Explanatory Note During my time as a Fellow at the Korea National Open University (KNOU) in September 2012 media and web coverage of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) was intense. Since one of the requirements of the fellowship was a research paper, exploring the phenomenon of MOOCs seemed an appropriate topic. This essay had to be submitted to KNOU on 25 September 2012 but the MOOCs story is still evolving rapidly. I shall continue to follow it. 'What is new is not true, and what is true is not new'. Hans Eysenck on Freudianism This paper is published by JIME following its first release as a paper produced as part of a fellowship at the Korea National Open University (KNOU). Both the original and this republication are available non-exclusively under Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY). Apart from this note and minor editorial adjustments the paper is unchanged. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE
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This study is part of a collaboration project between the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC-IPTS) and its Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC). The objective is to investigate the innovative and inclusive potential of social computing applications in formal education by reviewing current practice. The report identifies, structures and analyses existing Learning 2.0 practice in Europe with a view to generating evidence on the impact of social computing for learning and its potential in promoting innovation and inclusion. It combines a review of research on Learning 2.0 with the collection of experience and good practice from a broad variety of cases.
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Part 2 of Prensky’s paper exploring the differences between “digital natives” and “digital immigrants”. In this second part the author presents evidence to support these differences from neurology, social psychology and from studies done on children using games for learning.
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Discusses the concept of competence, mentioning specific competencies including: economic, technological, technical, and methodological competencies; social competencies; creativity and innovation skills; and mobility and flexibility combined with persistence, reliability, and precision. The variety of meanings given to the concept of competence is seen not only in its many uses, but also in the construction of terminology to express competence, such as media competence, business competence, traffic competence, age competence, and also cognitive, social, motivational, personal, an other competencies. This chapter contains 7 different ways in which competence has been defined, described, or interpreted theoretically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)