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A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Coriandrum sativum

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Abstract

The phytochemical screening of Coriandrum sativum showed that it contained essential oil, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acids, sterols and glycosides. It also contained high nutritional values including proteins, oils, arbohydrates, fibers and wide range of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that it possessed anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, anticonvulsant, memory enhancement, improvement of orofacial dyskinesia, neuroprotective, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antioxidant, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, mutagenic, antimutagenic, anticancer, gastrointestinal, deodorizing, dermatological, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective, detoxification and many other pharmacological effects. The current review was designed to give an overview on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Coriandrum sativum.
IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy www.iosrphr.org
(e)-ISSN: 2250-3013, (p)-ISSN: 2319-4219
Volume 6, Issue 7 Version. 3 (July 2016), PP. 17-42
17
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
of Coriandrum sativum
Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thi qar University, Iraq
Abstract:-The phytochemical screening of Coriandrum sativum showed that it contained essential oil, tannins,
terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acids, sterols and glycosides. It also
contained high nutritional values including proteins, oils, carbohydrates, fibers and wide range of minerals, trace
elements and vitamins. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that it possessed anxiolytic,
antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, anticonvulsant, memory enhancement, improvement of orofacial
dyskinesia, neuroprotective, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antioxidant, cardiovascular,
hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, mutagenic, antimutagenic, anticancer,
gastrointestinal, deodorizing, dermatological, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective, detoxification and many
other pharmacological effects. The current review was designed to give an overview on the chemical constituents
and pharmacological effects of Coriandrum sativum.
Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Coriandrum sativum.
I. INTRODUCTION
Herbal medicine is the oldest form of medicine known to mankind. It was the mainstay of many early
civilizations and still the most widely practiced form of medicine in the world today. Plants generally produce
many secondary metabolites which are bio-synthetically derived from primary metabolites and constitute an
important source of many pharmaceutical drugs [1-30]. The phytochemical screening of Coriandrum sativum
showed that it contained essential oil, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty
acids, sterols and glycosides. It also contained high nutritional values including proteins, oils, carbohydrates,
fibers and wide range of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The previous pharmacological studies revealed
that it possessed anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, anticonvulsant, memory enhancement,
improvement of orofacial dyskinesia, neuroprotective, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal,
antioxidant, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, mutagenic,
antimutagenic, anticancer, gastrointestinal, deodorizing, dermatological, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective,
detoxification and many other pharmacological effects. The current review gives an overview on the chemical
constituents and pharmacological effects of Coriandrum sativum.
Plant profile: II. SYNONYMS
Bifora loureiroi Kostel., Coriandropsis syriaca H. Wolff, Coriandrum globosum Salisb., Coriandrum majus
Gouan, Selinum coriandrum Krause [31].
III- TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom: Plantae; Subkingdom: Tracheobionta; Superdivision: Spermatophyta; Division: Magnoliophyta;
Class: Magnoliopsida; Subclass: Rosidae; Order: Apiales; Family: Apiaceae; Genus: Coriandrum L.; Species:
Coriandrum sativum L [32-33].
IV. COMMON NAMES
Arabic: kuzbara, kuzbura; Chinese: yuan sui, hu sui; English: coriander, cilantro, collender, Chinese parsley;
French: coriander, coriandre cultivé; German: Koriander, Wanzendill, Schwindelkorn; Greek: koriannon,
korion; Hindi: dhania, dhanya; Italian: coriandolo, coriandro; Japanese: koendoro; Portuguese: coentro,
coriandro; Sanskrit: dhanayaka, kusthumbari; Spanish: coriandro, cilantro, cilandrio, cilantro; Swedish:
coriander [34-35]. V. DISTRIBUTION
Coriandrum sativum probably originated from Eastern Mediterranean and it was spread as a spice
plant to India, China, Russia, Central Europe, and Morocco, and has been cultivated since human antiquity [36].
However, now it was distributed in Europe (Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, UK, Austria,
Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia,
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
18
Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania, Yugoslavia, France, Portugal and
Spain), Northern Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Ethiopia), Asia (Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Palestine,
Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, India and Pakistan) [35, 37].
VI. DESCRIPTION
It is an upright and short-lived herbaceous plant usually growing 1-2 m. Stems and leaves: The
branched stems are hairless (i.e. glabrous), mostly hollow, and have fine lengthwise (i.e. longitudinal) grooves.
They are pale green in colour but covered in distinctive purplish or pinkish blotches. The alternately
arranged leaves are borne on long hollow leaf stalks (i.e. petioles) that tend to sheath the stem at their bases.
They are deeply divided (i.e. bi-pinnatisect), with toothed (serrate) segments, and are ferny in appearance. These
leaves (up to 50 cm long and 40 cm wide, but more commonly 12-25 cm long) are hairless ( glabrous). The
upper leaf surfaces are dark green in colour, while their undersides are a paler green or greyish-green. The stems
and leaves give off a strong odour when crushed or damaged. Flowers and Fruit: The white flowers are borne in
large numbers in dense flat-topped clusters at the tips of the branches (in terminal compound umbels). Individual
flowers are small (2-4 mm across), have five incurved petals and five stamens, and are borne on stalks (pedicels)
up to 5 cm long. Many (about 15) of these stalks (pedicels) radiate from the same point and form a small cluster
of flowers (an umbel), with several (6-20) of these smaller clusters (often called rays) being grouped together
into a much larger cluster (a compound umbel) that is subtended by several small leafy bracts (about 5 mm long).
Flowering occurs mostly during spring and summer. The fruit turns from green to greyish-brown in colour as it
matures and resembles a capsule. It actually consists of two one-seeded structures (mericarps) that readily
split apart when the fruit is fully mature. Each of these (seeds), 2-4 mm long, hairless ( glabrous), but has five
prominent yellowish-coloured ribs. There are many varieties of Coriandrum sativum which differ in the fruit
size and oil yield [36-39].
VII. TRADITIONAL USES:
The use of coriander dated back to around 1550 BC, and it was one of the oldest spice crops in the
world. Medicinally, it was used as stimulant, aromatic and carminative. The powdered fruit, fluid extract and oil
are chiefly used medicinally as flavouring to disguise the taste of active purgatives and correct their griping
tendencies. The whole or ground seed (fruit) was an ingredient of pickling spices, also used to flavor various
commercial foods, particularly, to prepare some instant soups and dishes, in many cakes, breads and other
pastries, alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, and puddings. The fruit essential oil was a common
ingredient in creams, detergents, surfactants, emulsifiers, lotions, and perfumes [40].
However, seeds were applied locally to alleviate swelling and pains. Paste of green coriander were used
for headache. Externally, powdered green coriander was used to alleviate burning sensation and pain in diseases
like inflammation caused by erysipelas and lymphadenopathy. Decoction of green coriander was used in
stomatitis. Nasal drops of green coriander act as a haemostat and thus stop bleeding in epistaxis. Juice or
decoction of green coriander was used in conjunctivitis. The seeds were included in many prescriptions as
carminative and for the treatment of fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and indigestion. Coriander was used internally
as tonics. It was also used for syncope and memory loss. Fresh juice of leaves was used as gargle in sore throat
and stomatitis. Paste of leaves were locally applied for swellings and boils and were applied over forehead and
temples for headache [41-44].
Parts used: Fruit and fresh leaves [40-44].
Physicochemical characteristics:
Total ash: not more than 6 per cent, acid insoluble ash: not more than 1.5 per cent, water-soluble extractive: not
more than 19 per cent, alcohol soluble extractive: not more than 10 per cent and volatile oil: not less than 0.3%
v/w [45]. VIII. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:
kcal, protein 21.93 and 12.37 g, total lipid (fat) 4.78 and 17.77 g, carbohydrate 52.10 and 54.99 g,
fiber 10.40 and 41.9 g, calcium 1246 and 709 mg, iron 42.46 and 16.32 mg, phosphorus 481 and 409 mg,
magnesium 694 and 330 mg, potassium 4466 and 1267mg, sodium 211 and 35 mg, zinc 4.72 and 4.70 mg,
vitamin C 566.7 and 21 mg, thiamin 1.252 and 0.239 mg, riboflavin 1.500 and 0.290 mg, niacin 10.707 and
2.130 mg, vitamin B-120.00 and 0.00 μg, vitamin A, RAE 293 and 0.00 μg, vitamin A, IU 5850 IU and 0 IU
and vitamin D (D2 + D3) 0.00 and 0.00 μg, respectively [40, 46-47].
The phytochemical screening of plant showed the presence of essential oil, tannins, terpenoids, reducing
sugars, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acids, sterols and glycosides [48-50].
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
19
The most important constituents of coriander fruits were the essential oil and fatty oil. The essential oil content
of dried coriander fruits varies between 0.03 and 2.6%, while the fatty oil content varies between 9.9 and 27.7%
[40].
The variations in the oil constituents of Coriandrum sativum leaves and seeds could be attributed to the
variations in the cultivar and not due to geographic divergence and ecological conditions. However, the
compounds isolated from Coriander essential oil were included: Monoterpene hydrocarbons (p-cymene,
camphene, Δ-3-carene, limonene (dipentene), myrcene, cis- and trans-ocimene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene,
α- pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, α-thujene); Monoterpene oxides and
Carbonyls (Camphor, 1,8- cineole, linalol oxide, carvone, geranial); Monoterpene alcohols (Borneol, citronellol,
geraniol, linalool, nerol, α-terpineol, 4-terpinenol); Monoterpene Esters (Bornyl acetate, geranyl acetate, linalyl
acetate, α-terpinyl acetate); Sesquiterpenes -Caryophyllene, caryophellene oxide, elemol, nerolidol); Phenols
(Anethole, myristicin, thymol); Aliphatic hydrocarbons (Heptadecane, octadecane); Aliphatic alcohols (Decanol,
dodecanol); Aliphatic aldehydes (Octanal, nonanal, decanal, undecanal, dodecanal, tridecanal, tetradecanal, 3-
octenal, 2-decenal, 5-decenal, 8-methyl-2-nonenal, 8- methyl-5-nonenal, 6-undecenal, 2-dodecenal, 7-
dodecenal, 2-tridecenal, 8- tridecenal, 9-tetradecenal, 10-pentadecenal, 3,6-undecadienal, 5,8-tridecadienal) and
Miscellaneous compounds: Acetic acid, α-pdimethyl styrene) [51-52].
The analysis of the essential oil conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, revealed 33 components,
representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components were linalool (55.09%),
α-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-
methanol, α,α,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-α-pinene (2.39%),
citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%) [53-54].
Sudanese Coriandrum sativum oils contained seventy eight compounds with sabinene (17.63%), camphor
(15.5%), cis-beta-ocimene (10.11%), trans-beta-ocimene (5.64%), alpha pinene (4.69%) and norboreneolacetate
(4.09%) as the main constituents [55].
The essential oils obtained from the coriander fruits, from Iran, by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-
assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The results indicated that the
HD and MAHD isolated essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate
and γ-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool, its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and
66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons isolated by HD was differ significantly
with the amount isolated by MAHD (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %) [56].
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds, from Germany, were extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v)
and the amount of total lipid was 28.4% of seed weight. The major fatty acid was petroselinic acid (65.7% of the
total fatty acid methyl esters) followed by linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, arachidicacid, γ -linolenic acid,
linolenic acid, gadoleic acid, cetoleic acid and docosahexanoic acid. Chromatographic analysis yielded 93.0%
neutral lipids, 4.14% glycolipids, and 1.57% phospholipids. Six triacylglycerol molecularspecies were detected
but one component (C54:3) corresponding to tripetroselinin, and/or dipetroselinoyloleoyl glycerol comprised
more than 50% of the totaltriacylglycerols. Sterol content was estimated to be at ahigh level (5186 µg /g oil).
Stigmasterol, β -sitosterol, ∆ 5-avenasterol, and campesterol were found to be the sterol markers. The major
phospholipid subclasses were phosphatidylcholine followed by phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidy-linositol
and phosphatidylserine [57].
The leaves and stems of Korean Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition were
studied. Thirty-nine components representing 99.62% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major
components were cyclododecanol (23.11%), tetradecanal (17.86%), 2-dodecenal (9.93%), 1-decanol (7.24%),
13-tetradecenal (6.85%), 1-dodecanol (6.54%), dodecanal (5.16%), 1-undecanol (2.28%), and decanal (2.33%).
On the other hand, thirty-eight components representing 98.46% of the total oil were identified from the stems of
the coriander. The major components were phytol (61.86%), 15- ethyltricyclo[6.5.2(13,14),0(7,15)]-pentadeca-
1,3,5,7,9,11,13-heptene (7.01%), dodecanal (3.18%), and 1-dodecanol (2.47%) [58].
The leaf oil of Coriandrum sativum from Bangladesh contained 44 compounds mostly of aromatic
acids, the major were 2-decenoic acid (30.82%), E-11-tetradecenoic acid (13.4%), capric acid (12.7%), undecyl
alcohol (6.4%) and tridecanoic acid (5.5%). Other major constituents in the leaf oil were undecanoic acid
(2.13%), 2-dodecanal (1.32%), 2-undecenal (3.87%), cyclododecane (2.45%), decamethylene glycol (1.15%),
decanal (1.35%) and dodecanoic acid (2.63%). The seed oil contains 53 compounds of which the major
compounds are linalool (37.65%), geranyl acetate (17.57%) and γ-terpinene (14.42%). Other major compounds
in the fruit oil are β- pinene (1.82%), m-cymene (1.27%), citronellal (1.96%), citronellol (1.31%), citral (1.36%),
geraniol (1.87%), citronellyl acetate (1.36%), α-cedrene (3.87%), and α- farnesene (1.22%) and β-sesquiphell-
andrene (1.56%). The seed oil contained 53 compounds, the major compounds were linalool (37.7%), geranyl
acetate (17.6%) and γ-terpinene (14.4%). However, the components isolated from seeds oil and their percentage
were: γ-Terpinene 14.42, Camphene 0.14, E-Verbenol 0.27, Sabinene 0.23, β-Pinene 1.82, 2-
Oxabicyclo[2.2.2]0ctan-6-l,1,2,3-trimethyl 0.02, β-Myrcene 0.55, Cyclooctanol 0.02, α-Thujene 0.04, m-
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
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Cymene 1.27, Limonene 0.40, E-Ocimene 0.05, Z-Ocimene 0.04, Lilac alcohol 0.11, α-Terpinene 0.04, Z-
Verbenol 0.11, Linalool 37.65, Isothujol 0.04, α-Campholenal 0.22, Citronellal 1.96, Umbellulone 0.11,
Borneol 0.32, 4-Terpineol 0.06, Terpinyl acetate 0.31, Decanal 0.14, Z-verbenone 0.10, Citronellol 1.31,
Citral 1.36, Geraniol 1.87, Eugenol 0.90, Carveol 0.15, Undecanal 0.58, Methyl geranate 0.17, Myrtenyl
acetate 0.43, Citronellyl acetate 1.36, Geranyl acetate 17.57, Z-myrtenyl acetate 0.10, β-Elemene 0.06,
Dodecenal 0.15, Caryophyllene 0.33, β-Farnesene 0.07, 2-Dodecenal 0.18, Curcumene 0.98, α-Cubebene
0.13, α-Cedrene 3.87, α-Farnesene 1.22, β-Bisabolene 0.80, β-Sesquiphellandrene 1.56, E-Nerolidol 0.13,
Artumerone 0.04, 8-Hexadecenal, 14-methyl-, (Z) 0.22, α-Bisabolol 0.15 and n-Hexadecanoic acid 0.08 [59].
Many isocoumarins were isolated from the aerial parts of Coriandrum sativum, including coriandrone A,
coriandrone B, isocoumarins, coriandrin and dihydrocoriandrin [60].
Caffeic acid, protocatechinic acid, and glycitin were characterized as the major polyphenolics of
coriander aerial parts [61]. However, Rajeshwari and Andallu found that the ethanolic extract of coriander
seeds contained many flavonoids including caffeic acid, chlorogenic, quercetin and rutin [62]. However, the
total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total
flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g [63].
The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was
133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg of the hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum leaves [64].
IX.PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Central nervous effects:
Anxiolytic effect:
The anxiolytic effect of aqueous extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, ip) was examined in male albino mice
using elevated plus- maze as an animal model of anxiety. In the elevated plus-maze, aqueous extract at 200
mg/kg showed an anxiolytic effect by increasing the time spent on open arms and the percentage of open arm
entries, compared to control group [65].
The anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract was evaluated in mice. The
antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM). In EPM, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of CS were
significantly (P<0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open
arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly [66].
The anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum was studied using different
animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in
mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as astandard drug and hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum
fruit was used in dose of (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) to study the antianxiety effect. Results revealed that the
extract of Coriandrum sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to
diazepam, while, at 50 mg/kg dose, it did not produce anti-anxiety activity in all models [67].
The anxiolytic effect of the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed and its effect on
spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination were evaluated in mice. The anxiolytic effect of aqueous
extract (10, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg, ip) was examined in male albino mice using elevated plus-maze as an animal
model of anxiety. The effects of the extract on spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination were
assessed using Animex Activity Meter and rotarod. In the elevated plus-maze, 100 mg/kg of the aqueous extract
showed an anxiolytic effect by increasing the time spent on open arms and the percentage of open arm entries,
compared to control group. Aqueous extract at 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced spontaneous activity
and neuromuscular coordination, compared to control group [68-69].
The effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum leaves on the exploratory behaviour
pattern and locomotor activity was investigated in mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT)
were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the extracts. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) was used as standard anxiolytic
agent. The 200 and 400 mg / kg body weight of the crude dried extract and diazepam produced highly significant
(P<0.01) anxiolytic effects, in a dose-dependent manner, by increasing the time spent on, and the number of
entries into the open arms of the EPM and by an increase in the locomotion by mice in the OFT. However, in
lower doses the extract did not affect the locomotor activity [70].
The effects of fresh Coriandrum sativum leaves (CSL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol
levels and brain cholinesterase activity was investigated in mice. CSL (5, 10 and 15% w/w of diet) was fed
orally with a specially prepared diet, for 45 days consecutively to mice. Elevated plus-maze and passive
avoidance apparatus were used as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam,
scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia were used as the interoceptive behavioral models. CSL (5, 10 and
15% w/w of diet) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young as well as aged mice.
CSL also reversed successfully the memory deficits induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) and diazepam (1
mg/kg, ip). Brain cholinesterase activity and serum total cholesterol levels were considerably reduced by CSL
administration in daily diets for 45 days [71-72].
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
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Antidepressant effect:
Diethyl ether extract of seeds of Coriandrum sativum showed more significant antidepressant effect than that of
aqueous extract through interaction with adrenergic, dopamine-ergic and GABA-ergic system [73].
Sedative-hypnotic effects:
The aqueous, hydroalcoholic extracts and essential oil of coriander seeds possessed sedative-hypnotic
activity. The aqueous, hydroalcoholic extracts and essential oil of coriander seeds (100, 200, 400 and 600
mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to male albino mice, 30 minutes before pentobarbital injection (40
mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. Aqueous extract prolonged pentobarbital-induced
sleeping time at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg. Hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg increased
pentobarbital induced sleeping time compared to saline-treated group. The essential oil increased pentobarbital-
induced sleeping time only at 600 mg/kg [74].
The sleep-prolonging effect of Coriandrum sativum was investigated in mice. The hydroalcoholic
extract (HAE) and its three fractions, water (WF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and N-butanol (NBF) were prepared from
Coriandrum sativum aerial parts and administrated to mice. The HAE, EAF and NBF significantly prolonged
sleep duration. Only the NBF was significantly decreased sleep latency. No decrease in the neuronal surviving
was observed either by HAE or by its fractions. The data indicated that Coriandrum sativum exerted sleep-
prolonging action without major neurotoxic effect [75].
Anticonvulsant effect:
The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) on brain
tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. The
extract significantly increased the MCS (latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures) and GTCS (latencies to the
first generalized tonic-clonic seizures) (P<0.01, P<0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The
malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher
than those of the control animals (P<0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels
(P<0.010 - P<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in
both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P<0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a
significant decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P<0.010). Accordingly, the
hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Coriandrum sativum possessed significant antioxidant and
anticonvulsant activities [75].
Intraperitoneal injection of decoction and maceration extracts increased the latency of the convulsions induced
by PTZ in albino mice, but failed to produce complete protection against mortality. The anticonvulsant activities
of high dose extracts were similar to that of phenobarbital at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the PTZ test. In the maximal
electroshock seizures, the aqueous extracts of seeds (at a dose of 0.5 g/kg) and the ethanolic extract (at doses of
3.5 and 5 g/kg) decreased the duration of tonic seizures by 22.30%, 30.43% and 36.96%, respectively [76-77].
Effect on memory:
The effects of inhaled coriander volatile oil (1% and 3%, daily, for 21days) on spatial memory
performance were assessed in an Aβ(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The Aβ(1-42)-treated rats exhibited
the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working
memory errors, reference memory errors and time taken to consume all five baits within radial arm maze task.
Exposure to coriander volatile oil significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on spatial
memory formation. Assessments of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampal tissue of Aβ(1-42)-treated rats
showed a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and a decrease of
glutathione peroxidase (GPX) specific activities along with an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level.
Coriander volatile oil significantly decreased SOD and LDH specific activities, increased GPX specific activity
and attenuated the increased MDA level. Also, DNA cleavage patterns were absent in the coriander rats, thus
suggesting antiapoptotic activity of the volatile oil. Accordingly, the exposure to coriander volatile oil
ameliorated Aβ(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat
hippocampus [78].
The effect of Coriandrum sativum seed extract on learning was studied in second-generation mice. Ethanolic
extract (2%) of coriander was dissolved in sunflower oil as a vehicle and injected (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) to
mother mice during breastfeeding for 25 days at 5-day intervals. After feeding the newborn mice, their learning
was evaluated using a step-through passive avoidance task with 0.4 mA electric shock for 2 or 4 seconds. While
coriander extract showed a negative effect in the short term (1 hour) after the training session, it potentiated the
mice's learning in later assessments (24 hours post-training [P = 0.022] and 1 week post-training [P = 0.002] by a
4-second shock). Low-dose caffeine (25 mg/kg ip after training) improved the learning after 1 hour (P = 0.024).
No modification in the pain threshold was elicited by electric stimuli both in coriander and control groups [79].
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
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Effect on orofacial dyskinesia:
The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine
induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing
movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for
locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Subchronic administration of Coriandrum sativum seed extract
(E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, po, for 15 days significantly (P<0.05) decreased the tacrine induced VCM, TP and OB;
and also significantly (P<0.05), increased locomotion and cognition compared to the tacrine treated group.
Biochemical analysis revealed that tacrine administration significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) levels and also significantly (P<0.05)
increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress, whereas subchronic administration of E-CS
significantly (P<0.05) improved the antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, and GSH) levels and also significantly
(P<0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO). The results have demonstrated the protective role of ethanolic
extract of Coriandrum sativum against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia [80].
Neuroprotective effect
The neuroprotective effect of Coriandrum sativum was evaluated against ischemic-reperfusion insult in
brain. The global cerebral ischemia in albino rats was induced by blocking common carotid arteries for 30 mins
followed by 45 mins of reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion period, histological changes, levels of lipid
peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathion, calcium and total protein were measured. Bilateral
common carotid artery occlusion produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation, calcium levels and infarct
size, and decrease in endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathion, superoxide dismutase and catalase
levels. Pretreatment with methanolic extract of leaves of Coriandrum sativum (200 mg/kg, po) for 15 days
increased endogenous enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathion, catalase and total protein levels, and
reduces cerebral infarct size, lipid peroxidation and calcium levels. It also attenuated reactive changes in brain
histology like gliosis, lymphocytic infilteration and cellular edema. Accordingly, Coriandrum sativum possessed
protective effect in ischemic-reperfusion injury and cerebrovascular insufficiency states [81].
The neuroprotective effect of Coriandrum sativum against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD)-induced
cytotoxicity was studied in vitro. The PC12 cells were cultivated for 24 h in standard media (high-glucose
DMEM containing Fetal Bovine Serum) or for 6 h in GSD condition (glucose-free DMEM, without serum) in the
absence or presence of various concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/ml) of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE),
water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) or N-butanol fraction (NBF) of Coriandrum sativum. At the
end of the treatments, the cell viability was determined using MTT assay. With the exception of 1.6 mg/ml of
EAF or NBF which decreased cell survival, the HAE and its fractions exhibited no cytotoxicity under standard
condition. Exposure of the cells to GSD condition showed 52% decrease in the viability. Accordingly, the HAE,
EAF and NBF not only failed to increase cell viability but also increased the toxicity. On the other hand, WF at
0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/ml significantly attenuated the GSD-induced decrease in cell survival. The study revealed
that Coriandrum sativum bearing water-soluble compound(s) could induce neuroprotective activity, while, some
constituents from this plant may serve as cytotoxic agents under stressful conditions like hypoglycemia [82].
Antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic and insecticidal effects:
The antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different coriander parts was studied
against nine different pathogenic bacteria isolated from urine, blood, stool and cerebraspinal fluid of different
patients (Burkhella capacia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Gamella morbillorum, α-Haemolytic
streptococci, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Salmonella typhi). Cold
aqueous extract of coriander seeds had inhibitory effect against some tested bacteria. On the other hand,
ethanolic extracts of seeds, leaves and stems showed wide range of antibacterial activity and the highest values
for inhibition zone was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis [83].
Essential oils from commercial samples of coriander were assayed for their antibacterial and antifungal
activities. Twenty-five genera of bacteria and one fungal species (Aspergillus niger) were used as test organisms.
The essential oils showed a high degree of inhibition against all the tested microorganisms [84].
The antimicrobial activity of ethanol, methanol, acetone, chloroform, hexane and petroleum ether extracts of
Coriandrum sativum was investigated against infectious pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia; and many fungi including Aspergillus niger,
Candida albicans, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis using agar well diffusion method. The methanol
extract of Coriandrum sativum showed more antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (zone of
diameter 12.17±0.29mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia zone (12.17±0.15mm), while, it showed more antifungal
activity against Candida albicans (zone of diameter 14.20±0.20mm) and Aspergillus niger (10.10±0.10mm). It
appeared that methanol extract showed a varying degree of antibacterial and antifungal effects more than
ethanol, acetone, chloroform, hexane and petroleum ether extracts [85].
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
23
The antibacterial potential of the leaf essential oil, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol
extracts of the leaves of Coriandrum sativum were studied against human pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus,
Enterobacter faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens) by agar well diffusion method. Leaf
essential oil as well as leaf ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts of Coriandrum sativum exhibited
pronounced activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their activity was quite comparable
with the standard antibiotics such as tobramycin, gentamicin sulphate, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin screened
under similar conditions [86].
The antibacterial effect of Coriandrum sativum essential oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative
bacteria was evaluated using classical microbiological techniques concomitantly with the use of flow cytometry
for the evaluation of cellular physiology. The results showed that coriander oil has an effective antimicrobial
activity against all tested bacteria. Propidium iodide incorporation and concomitant loss of all other cellular
functions such as efflux activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential seem to suggest that the primary
mechanism of action of coriander oil was membrane damage, resulted in cell death [87].
Aliphatic (2E)-alkenals and alkanals isolated from the fresh leaves of the Coriandrum sativum were found to
possess bactericidal activity against Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. choleraesuis ATCC 35640. (2E)-Dodecenal
(C12) was the most effective against this food-borne bacterium with the minimum bactericidal concentration
(MBC) of 6.25 microg/ml (34 microM), followed by (2E)-undecenal (C11) with an MBC of 12.5 microg/ml (74
microM). The time-kill curve study showed that these alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes were bactericidal
against S. choleraesuis at any growth stage and that their bactericidal action came in part from the ability to act
as nonionic surfactants [88-89].
Twelve essential oils were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activities against several strains of
Campylobacter jejuni, a pathogen causing food-borne diseases worldwide. Coriander oil exhibited the strong
antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. In evaluating the antimicrobial potency of coriander oil against C.
jejuni on beef and chicken meat at 4 degrees C and 32 degrees C, it reduced the bacterial cell load in a dose-
dependent manner. The type of meat and temperature did not influence the antimicrobial activity of the oil [90].
Antimicrobial effect of essential oils from the seeds of Coriandrum sativum was studied against gram-positive
bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Essential oil appeared effective against Listeria
monocytogenes [91].
The antibacterial potential of two commercial essential oils (EOs) from Coriandrum sativum was
studied against vaginal clinical strains of bacteria and yeast. Antimicrobial activities were determined using
macro-diffusion (disc, well) and micro-dilution method against twelve clinical strains of bacteria: Escherichia
coli, Proteus mirabilis, S. aureus and Enterococcus sp., S. aureus ATCC 25923, ATCC 6538 and Escherichia
coli 25922 and two clinical Candida albicans ATTC 10231 strains. An antimicrobial effect of EOs was strain
specific. Bactericidal activity was higher for coriander EO (MICs 0.4 45.4 μl/ml) against almost all tested
bacteria, except multiple resistant strains of Eneterococcus sp. and Proteus sp. It showed low fungicidal activity
[92].
Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The essential oils of
Coriandrum sativum fruits obtained by hydrodistillation (HD EO) showed greater activity against
Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than that obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation
(MAHD EO). Moreover, their activities against E. coli and P. aeruginosa were the same with minimum
inhibitory concentration, MIC 0.781 and 6.25 μl/ml, for HD EO and MAHD EO respectively [56].
The antibacterial activity of essential coriander oil (ECO) on bacteria with dermatological relevance
and skin tolerance of antimicrobial effective ECO concentrations were investigated. Essential coriander oil
showed good antibacterial activity towards the majority of the bacterial strains tested, including Streptococcus
pyogenes (Lancefield group A) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with mean minimal
inhibitory concentrations of 0.04% v/v and 0.25% v/v, respectively. The skin tolerance of a cream and a lotion
containing 0.5% and 1.0% ECO was assessed in 40 healthy volunteers using the occlusive patch test. No skin
irritation could be observed by sensitive photometric assessment in any of the volunteers. The authors suggested
that, because of its activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, with excellent
skin tolerance, ECO might be useful as an antiseptic for the prevention and treatment of skin infections with
Gram-positive bacteria [93].
A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of cilantro oil (the essential oil of
Coriandrum sativium) to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum-packed ham. The in vitro
minimal inhibitory concentration for five strains of L. monocytogenes was found to vary from 0.074% to
0.018% depending on strain. Cilantro oil treatments were then tested on ham disks inoculated with a cocktail of
the five L. monocytogenes strains. The concentrations studied were 0.1%, 0.5%, and 6% cilantro oil diluted in
sterile canola oil or incorporated into a gelatin gel in which lecithin was used to enhance incorporation of the
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
24
cilantro oil. Gelatin gel treatments were also conducted with 1.4% monolaurin with or without 6% cilantro oil to
determine if an interaction between the antimicrobials could increase inhibition of L. monocytogenes. Treated
ham was then vacuum-packed and stored at 10 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The only cilantro oil treatment
which inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes on the ham samples was 6% cilantro oil gel. Samples receiving this
treatment had populations of L. monocytogenes 1.3 log CFU/ml lower than controls at week 1 of storage, there
was no difference between treatments from week 2 onward. It appears that immobilization of the antimicrobial in
a gel enhanced the effect of treatments [94].
The hydroalcoholic extract of the crude Coriandrum sativum was screened for antibacterial activity
against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B.
cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Coriandrum sativum was effective only against
Bacillus cereus [95].
The synergistic antibacterial effect between Coriandrum sativum essential oil and six different
antibacterial drugs (cefoperazone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and piperacillin) was
investigated. The antibacterial activity of coriander oil was assessed using microdilution susceptibility testing
and synergistic interaction by checkerboard assays. The association of coriander essential oil with
chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline against Acinetobacter baumannii showed in vitro
effectiveness, which was an indicator of a possible synergistic interaction against two reference strains of A.
baumannii (LMG 1025 and LMG 1041, FIC index from 0.047 to 0.375). However, when tested the involvement
between coriander essential oil and piperacillin or cefoperazone, the isobolograms and FIC index showed an
additive interaction. The in vitro interaction could improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of ciprofloxacin,
gentamicin and tetracycline and may contribute to resensitize A. baumannii to the action of chloramphenicol
[96].
T he antifungal activity of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum fruits was evaluated against
Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth
microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5mm for M.
canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150
to 1.250 μg/ml, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1.250 μg/ml,
respectively [97].
The antifungal activity of coriander essential oil was studied on germ tube formation, and the potential synergism
with amphotericin B were also studied. Coriander essential oil has a fungicidal activity against the Candida
strains tested, with MLC values equal to the MIC value and ranging from 0.05 to 0.4% (v/v). Flow cytometric
evaluation of BOX, PI and DRAQ5 staining indicated that the fungicidal effect was a result of cytoplasmic
membrane damage and subsequent leakage of intracellular components such as DNA. Also, concentrations
bellow the MIC value caused a marked reduction in the percentage of germ tube formation for C. albicans
strains. A synergetic effect between coriander oil and amphotericin B was also recorded against C. albicans
strains, while for C. tropicalis strain only an additive effect was observed [98].
The antifungal activity and mode of action of the essential oils (EO) from Coriandrum sativum leaves were
evaluated against Candida spp. In addition, the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human
cells was also studied. The EO showed anticandidal effects. Coriandrum sativum EO may bind to membrane
ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it did not act
on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene
substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at the minimum
inhibitory concentration. In addition, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells
[99]. Coriandrum sativum essential oil possessed antifungal activity against Candida species isolates from the
oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane were determined as
the active constituents in the oil [100].
The efficacy and tolerability of 6% coriander oil was tested in unguentum leniens in the treatment of interdigital
tinea pedis. The study was performed on 40 participants. 6% coriander oil showed highly significant
improvement of the clinical signs in unguentum leniens (p < 0.0001) during the entire observation period. The
number of positive fungal cultures also decreased (p = 0.0654). The tolerability of the tested substances was
good [101].Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the
pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The best nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was
achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) [102].In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude
aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum were investigated on the egg and adult
nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for
in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extracts of Coriandrum sativum
inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED50 of aqueous extract of
Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydroalcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
25
statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydroalcoholic
extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, sheep
were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was given
at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count
reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose
of Coriandrum sativum (p<0.05) and albendazole (p<0.001). Significant (p<0.05) TWCR was detected only for
higher dose of Coriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than
female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals to improve or
maintain their PCV, while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05) [103].
The antiparastic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum essential oils was studied by two in vitro assays on
Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT). Coriandrum sativum
essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2% of H. contortus larvae hatching, at
a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching was 0.63 mg/ml.
In LDT, Coriandrum sativum at concentration of 10 mg/ml inhibited 97.8% of H. contortus larval development
[104].
The in vitro effect of fractions from Coriandrum sativum (coriander) on promastigotes and amastigotes
of L. infantum was studied in addition to its toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. All
fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control
pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the Coriandrum sativum methanol fraction, was the most effective against
amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05) [105].
The biological activity of essential oil of Coriandrum sativum seeds was tested against adult Tribolium
confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in a
series of laboratory experiments. The mortality of 1-7 day old adults of the insect pests increased with
concentration from 43 to 357 μl/l air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values
showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μl/l air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μl/l air) to
seed essential oil of Coriandrum sativum [106].
The essential oil (EO) of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum was evaluated for its larvicidal and repellent
activities against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). Coriandrum sativum EO exerted toxic activity
against A. albopictus larvae: LC50 was 421 ppm, while LC90 was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that
Coriandrum sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, RD50 was 0.0001565 μl/cm2 of skin, while
RD90 was 0.002004 μl/cm2. At the highest dosage (0.2 μl/cm2 of skin), the protection time achieved with
Coriandrum sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min [107].
The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC₅₀ value of
26.93 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 37.69 ppm, and the stem oil has toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti
with an LC₅₀ value of 29.39 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 39.95 ppm [58].
The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC50 value of 21.55 ppm and
LC90 value of 38.79 ppm. The major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as
immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti [53].
Antioxidant effect:
Coriandrum sativum has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating
activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid
peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content [61, 108-110].
The fresh juice exhibited high antioxidant activities, evidenced by its ability to scavenge hydroxyl- and
superoxide-radicals, high reducing power, and protection against biological macromolecular oxidative damage
and by increasing the level of glutathione [111].
Among the leaf essential oil and leaf petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of
Coriandrum sativum studied, methanol extract and leaf essential oil showed potent scavenging activity on 1, 1-
diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical [86].
The in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum leaves was determined
qualitatively. Enzymatic antioxidant analysis in the extract of Coriandrum sativum: Catalase (μ/moles of H2O2
decomposed/min/g protein, 1 unit = μ/moles of H2O2 decomposed/min/g protein ) = 3.135; peroxidase (Unit/mg
protein, 1 unit = mg of GSH utilized / min)= 2.508×103; ascorbate oxidase (μ mole/ml, 1 unit = 0.01 O.D
change/min)= 100.262 [48].
The amount of the total phenolic contents (TPC) in the aqueous extract of Sudanese Coriandrum
sativum was 1654 ± 3.4 mg GAE/L. The results of the in vitro antioxidant activity by β -carotene/linoleic acid
assay, showed that Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract had strong antioxidant activity (84.6% at 400ug/ml),
when compared with the standard reference Tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) (99.5% at the same
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
26
concentrations). The aqueous extract showed strong DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (88.5% at 400ug/ml),
compared with the standard reference (TBHQ) (99.73% at the same concentration) [55].
The pre-feeding of rats with coriander seed powder (CSP) at 10% level was found to reduce the experimentally-
induced (HCH-induced) rise in conjugated dienes, hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the
liver [112].
The antiperoxidative effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) was studied in rats administered
high fat diet. Significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, free fatty acids and glutathione were observed
when compared to control group whereas the activity of antioxidant enzymes was increase [113].
Phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated in the coriander leaves and seeds. The results revealed
that serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
activities were significantly increased in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity groups compared to the
normal control. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant rise in nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid
reactive substance (TBARS) levels and myloperoxidase (MPO) activities in the liver tissues, in induction group
compared with the control. Rats fed with coriander leaves and seeds showed a decrease in the serum ALT, AST
and ALP activities and in the liver NO and TBARS levels as compared to the induction group. Histopathological
study revealed that coriander feeding attenuated TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats [114].
The production of antioxidants in vegetative parts (leaves and stems) of in vivo and in vitro grown
coriander samples was studied and compared. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging
activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The in vivo sample showed the highest antioxidant
activity, which appeared proportional to levels of hydrophilic compounds. Otherwise, in vitro samples, gave the
highest concentration of lipophilic compounds but a different profile when compared to the in vivo sample [115].
The antioxidant and free radical scavenging property of seeds were evaluated in addition to investigation
whether the administration of seeds affected the oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic
rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of
insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney.
Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly
reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The seeds also showed scavenging
activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-
scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed was observed at a concentration of 50
microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also
reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder [63].
The hydroalcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum leaves at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a
series of in vitro assays (2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing
power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging) in order to study its antioxidant efficacy. The amount of
flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid
equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 value of
368.12 μg/ml, whereas that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-
ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml, whereas that of standard ascorbic acid
was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at
the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection;
however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid.
The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 value of
589.6 μg/ml, whereas that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. The results also showed significant ferric reducing
power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract [64].
Hypolipidemic effect:
The antilipidemic activity of fresh leaves of Coriandrum sativum was studied against salbutamol
induced cardiac injury in rabbits. Salbutamol administered rabbits (50mg/kg) showed elevated level of serum
lipids (LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride) and decreased level of HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes (SOD,
CAT). Both the pre- and post treatment of plant extract (100mg/kg) for three weeks exerted significant
antilipidemic effect against salbutamol-induced myocardial infarction by lowering the level of serum LDL-
cholesterol, triglycerides and peroxidase and increasing the level of HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes
[116].
The hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of Coriandrum sativum were investigated in cholesterol-fed
rabbits. Cholesterol feeding (500 mg/ kg bw/day) for 120 days caused a significant increase in serum total
cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol levels, whereas HDL ratio was
decreased significantly when compared with control group. The changes in the antioxidant parameters were
accompanied by an increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione (GSH) and catalase
activity. The level of lipid peroxidation was reduced whereas GSH content and catalase activity were elevated
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
27
after the treatment with 70% methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum at a dose of 500 mg/kg bw/day.
Reduced serum lipid profile and elevated HDL ratio was observed after administration of Coriandrum sativum.
Coriandrum sativum extract feeding increased the faecal excretion of cholesterol and phospholipids. Histological
studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of high cholesterol diet animals given Coriandrum sativum
compared to the high cholesterol diet untreated animals [117].
In the biphasic model of triton-induced hyperlipidemia, Coriandrum sativum at a dose of 1g/kg body
weight reduced cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both synthesis and excretory phases in rats. The results
revealed that coriander decreases the uptake and enhances the breakdown of lipids [118].
The antiperoxidative effect of coriander seeds was studied in rats administered high fat diet. Significant decrease
in the levels of lipid peroxides, free fatty acids and glutathione was observed when compared to control group
whereas the activity of antioxidant enzymes were increased [119].
Coriandrum sativum seeds were incorporated into diet, and the effect of the of coriander seeds on the
metabolism of lipids was studied in rats fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant
hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides
increased significantly. There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and
plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low
density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol were decreased, while that of
high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was increased compared to the control group [120-121].
The potential effects of dietary supplementation of coriander seed (as a lipolytic and antioxidant) was
investigated on carcass lipid composition of quails. Dietary supplementation of coriander seed affected the lipid
composition of carcass greatly by decreasing saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents (palmitic and stearic acids) and
by increasing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and PUFA) in comparison with the
control group (p<0.01). The highest dosage of coriander seed (4% added to the ration) systematically induced the
greatest effects on fatty acid composition. Some of the acids present in coriander viz. linoleic acid, oleic acid,
palmitic acid, stearic acid and ascorbic acid were very effective in reducing the cholesterol level in the blood.
They also reduced the cholesterol deposition in the inner walls of the arteries and veins [122].
The efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (CS) in preventing in vitro low density lipoprotein (LDL)
oxidation mediated macrophage modification was studied in rats. The efficacy of CS seed extract in alleviating
pathophysiological alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis was also investigated in rats. High
cholesterol fed atherogenic rats showed elevated lipid indices, evidences of LDL oxidation, plaque formation in
thoracic aorta. The same was further validated with immune-staining of cell adhesion molecules and hematoxylin
and eosin (HXE) staining. However, co-supplementation of CS to atherogenic rats recorded significant lowering
these parameters, CS extract was also prevented onset and progression of atherosclerosis [123].
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects:
The anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activities of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract
(CSHE) was studied in experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of CSHE was evaluated using
carrageenan-induced paw edema model and the anti-granuloma activity of CSHE was evaluated using the
subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation-induced granuloma formation and stimulation of peritoneal macrophages
with complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1 β levels, and peritoneal
macrophage expression of TNF-R1 were evaluated as markers of global inflammation. CSHE at the highest dose
(32 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (p<0.05) in paw edema after carrageenan administration. CSHE
treatment also reduced dry granuloma weight in all treated animals. Serum IL-6 and IL-1 β levels were
significantly (p<0.05) lower in the CSHE (32 mg/kg)-treated group as compared to control. Although there was
an increase in serum TNF-α level in the CSHE-treated group as compared to control, but TNF-R1 expression on
peritoneal macrophages was reduced [124].
The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Coriandrum sativum seeds were evaluatedin animal
model. Carrageenan test was used for evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect, while, writhing and formalin tests
were used for evaluation of analgesic effects. The results showed that coriander had no anti-inflammatory effect
in carrageenan test. In writhing test, only the essential oil (4ml/100g, po) had a significant effect (p<0.01). Total
extract, polyphenolic extract and essential oil of coriander, had significant effect in both phases of formalin test
[125].
The role of opiate system in the antinociceptive effects of Coriandrum sativum (CS) was studied in acute and
chronic pain in mice using hot plate (HP), tail flick (TF) and formalin (FT) tests, and its effects were compared
with dexamethasone (DEX) and stress (ST). CS (125 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg IP), DEX (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/Kg
IP), vehicle (VEH) or swim stress were used 30 min before the pain evaluation tests. Acute and chronic pain was
assessed by HP, TF and FT models. In addition, Naloxone (NAL, 2 mg/Kg, IP) was injected 15 min before the
CS extract administration in order to assess the role of opiate system in the antinociception of CS. Results
indicated that CS, DEX and ST have analgesic effects (p<0.01) in comparison with the control group and higher
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
28
dose of CS was more effective (p<0.001). Pretreatment with NAL modulated the antinociceptive effects of CS in
all models (p<0.001). The findings showed an interaction between antinociceptive effects of CS and opiate
system [126].The analgesic effects of the extract were assessed using hot plate method. Aqueous extract at 50,
100 and 200 mg/kg significantly produce analgesic activity compared to control group [65].
The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum was studied using carrageenan
induced paw edema in albino rats. Ethanolic leaf extract of Coriandrum sativum was used as 200 and 400mg/kg.
Oral administration of Coriandrum sativum ethanolic leaf extract of 400mg/kg/ip was more effective anti-
inflammatory than 200mg/kg/ip [127].The antiarthritic activity of Coriandrum sativum seed hydroalcoholic
extract (CSHE) was evaluated in adult rats by using two experimental models (formaldehyde and complete
Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis). The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (predominantly
contributed by macrophages) was also evaluated. TNF- α level was estimated in serum. TNF-R1, IL-1 β and IL-6
expression were also analysed in the synovium. CSHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling as
compared to control animals in both formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. Although there was a dose
dependent increase in serum TNF-α levels in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control, the synovial
expression of macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor was found to be lower in the
CSHE treated groups as compared to control [128]. The protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic
acid-induced colitis was investigated in rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract
(250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and
continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue,
histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colon weight was decreased in
the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group.
Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, the results indicated that the
treatment with extract and essential oil induced meaningful alleviation of colitis [129].
A polyherbal ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of ayurveda was evaluated
for its activity against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different
drugs viz., Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak (Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala
(Vetiveria zinzanioids). The formulation has been tried in clinical practice and was found to be useful in certain
number of cases of IBD. Accordingly, the same form , decoction (aqueous extract) was evaluated in
experimental animals. The formulation was tried on two different experimental animal models of inflammatory
bowel disease (acetic acid-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats). Prednisolone
was used as the standard drug for comparison. The formulation showed significant inhibitory activity against
inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. The activity was comparable with the
standard drug prednisolone. The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against
inflammatory bowel diseases [130].
The anti-inflammatory ability of the aerial parts (stem and leaf) of Coriandrum sativum was
investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The molecular mechanism
underlying the pharmacological properties of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated. Ethanolic extracts
from both stem and leaf of Coriandrum sativum (CSEE) significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide and
prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-interleukin-
1beta expression. Moreover, LPS-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and nuclear p65 protein expression as
well as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear protein-DNA binding affinity and reporter gene activity
were dramatically inhibited by aerial parts of CSEE. Exogenous addition of CSEE stem and leaf significantly
reduced LPS-induced expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The authors
concluded that CSEE had a strong anti-inflammatory property which inhibited pro-inflammatory mediator
expression by suppressing NF-kappaB activation and MAPK signal transduction pathway in LPS-induced
macrophages [131].
The anti-inflammatory potency of coriander oil was investigated in the ultraviolet (UV) erythema test
in vivo. 40 volunteers were enrolled in this monocentric, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. The
test areas on the back were irradiated with the 1.5 fold minimal erythema dose UV-B. Subsequently, the test
areas were treated under occlusion for 47 hours with a lipolotion containing 0.5% or 1.0% essential coriander oil.
Hydrocortisone (1.0%) and betamethasone valerate (0.1%) in the vehicle were used as positive controls. The
vehicle was used as placebo. The effect of the test substances on the UV-induced erythema was measured
photometrically after 48 hours. Additionally, the skin tolerance of the test preparations was assessed on non-
irradiated skin. Compared to placebo, the lipolotion with 0.5% coriander oil significantly reduced the UV-
induced erythema, but it was not as effective as hydrocortisone. The skin tolerance of both coriander oil
concentrations was excellent [132].
A randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 40 healthy subjects to determine the anti-
inflammatory effects of many plants. Test areas on the upper back were irradiated with the 1.5 fold UV-B
minimal erythema dose (MED). Formulations of Aloe vera, Chamomilla recutita, Hamamelis virginiana, Melissa
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
29
officinalis, Mentha arvensis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Coriandrum sativum, as well as 1% hydrocortisone acetate
and 0.1% betamethasone valerate as positive controls and unguentum leniens as vehicle control were applied
under occlusion on the irradiated areas and on non-irradiated area on the contralateral side. Photometric
assessment of the erythema was performed before the application of the substances, at 24 h and at 48 h. Aloe
vera, Chamomilla recutita, Melissa officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Coriandrum sativum showed an
antiinflammatory effect compared to UV-control and unguentum leniens [133].
Antidiabetic effect:
Administration of coriander seeds (5g/day) to NIDDM patients for 60 days significantly decreased
lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, decreased activity of erythrocyte catalase (CAT), increased serum β
carotene, vitamin A, E and C in NIDDM diabetics. The treatment was also increased the activity of erythrocyte
antioxidant enzyme i.e. glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione content (GSH) in the treated
diabetics [134].
The hypoglycemic effect of Coriandrum sativum was studied clinically in patients with type-2 diabetes
mellitus. After assaying fasting plasma and urinary glucose, 10 patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus with no
previous medication, 10 patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus taking oral hypoglycemic agents with history of
inadequate control and six control subjects were given low (2.5 g tid) and high (4.5 g tid) doses of aqueous and
alcoholic extracts of Coriandrum sativum for 14 days. On 15th day, blood and urine samples were taken for
glucose estimation. Coriandrum sativum has significant hypoglycemic activity in high dose and can be
successfully combined with oral hypoglycemic agents in type-2 diabetic patients whose diabetes was not
controlled by oral hypoglycemic drug alone [135-136].
The hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Coriandrum sativum was evaluated in
rats. The methanolic extract showed significant dose dependant decrease in blood glucose level at a dose of 200
and 400 mg/kg. It also decreased the lipid parameters such as total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL and TG when
compared with diabetic control. SGOT and SGPT were reduced dose dependently [137].
Coriander incorporated into the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/l, prepared by 15 min
decoction) reduced hyperglycaemia of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. An aqueous extract of coriander (1 mg/ml)
increased 2-deoxyglucose transport (1.6-fold), glucose oxidation (1.4-fold) and incorporation of glucose into
glycogen of isolated murine abdominal muscle (1.7-fold) comparable with 10-8 M-insulin. In acute 20 min tests,
0.25-10 mg/ml aqueous extract of coriander evoked a stepwise 1.3-5.7-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from
a clonal B-cell line. This effect was abolished by 0.5 mM-diazoxide. The effect of extract was potentiated by
16.7 mM-glucose and 10 mM-L-alanine but not by 1 mM-3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Insulin secretion by
hyperpolarized B-cells (16.7 mM-glucose, 25 mM-KCl) was further enhanced by the presence of extract.
Activity of the extract was found to be heat stable, acetone soluble and unaltered by overnight exposure to acid
(0.1 M-HCl) or dialysis to remove components with molecular mass<2000 Da. Activity was reduced by
overnight exposure to alkali (0.1 M-NaOH). Sequential extraction with solvents revealed insulin-releasing
activity in hexane and water fractions indicating a possible cumulative effect of more than one extract constituent
[138].
Coriandrum sativum (CS) supplementation (1% and 3% w/w) to high fat diet (HFD) mice (for 12
weeks) significantly prevented HFD induced increment in body weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency, fasting
blood glucose, plasma insulin, fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), plasma and hepatic triglyceride (TG), total
cholesterol (TC), plasma free fatty acid (FFA), adipocyte diameter and surface area along with decrement in
adipocyte number. These set of changes were comparable to the rosiglitazone (0.05%) supplemented HFD fed
mice [139].
The ethanol extract of Coriandrum sativum seeds was investigated for its effects on insulin release from
the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pancreatic sections of 5 microm were processed
for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry method. The results showed that
administration of the ethanol extract (200 and 250 mg/kg, ip) exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose.
On the other hand, administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory
activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the coriander seed extract (200 mg/kg) increased
significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats [140].
The potential hypoglycemic activity of Coriandrum sativum (CS)-extract was investigated after a single oral
dose and after daily dosing for 30 days (sub-chronic study) in normal and obese-hyperglycemic-hyperlipidemic
(OHH) rats. A single dose of CS-extract or GLB suppressed hyperglycemia in OHH rats, and normoglycemia
was achieved at 6h post dose; there was no effect on lipids, TG or insulin, but insulin resistance (IR) decreased
significantly. The hypoglycemic effect was lower in normal rats. In the subchronic study in OHH rats, the effect
of (CS-extract> glibenclamide) regarding reducing plasma glucose ( causing normoglycemia on day 21),
increasing insulin and decreasing IR, TC, LDL-cholesterol, and TG. Atherosclerotic index was decreased, while
cardioprotective indices were increased by CS-extract, with no effect on body weight, urea or creatinine [141].
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30
The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum
sativum were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on
oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three
tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition [142].
The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Coriandrum sativum (CS) were studied in alloxan-induced diabetic
rats. The extracts of CS in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were found to significantly lower blood glucose levels.
Antidiabetic activity of the CS extracts was comparable with the clinically available drug glibenclamide. The
levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in the extract-
treated group and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher than the diabetic control rats. The extracts of
CS exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical and inhibited lipid
peroxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of the extracts was comparable with that of the reference
antioxidants. Furthermore, it also showed an improved antioxidant potential as evidenced by decreased lipid
peroxidation and a significant increase in the activity of various antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide
dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver of diabetic rats [50].
Mutagenic and antimutagenic effect:
The mutagenic effects of Coriandrum sativum extract were evaluated by Ames test. Mutagenicity was
present when the Coriandrum sativum extract caused mutagenicity when used in high concentrations in both
Salmonella typhimurium TA97 and TA102 strains. Coriandrum sativum extract also reduced the cell survival of
human cell lines (WRL-68 and 293Q cells) by inducing apoptosis and necrosis in high concentration. The
Coriandrum sativum extract altered the cell cycle; it increased the G1 phase of hepatic cells and reduced the G2
and M phase in both cell lines in a dose-response manner. The results showed correlation with a reduction in the
mitotic index. The extract also induced severe malformations during embryonic development. Exposure of
chicken embryos to the Coriandrum sativum extract resulted in a dose-dependent increase of anomalies. The
results show that Coriandrum sativum extract reduced the axial skeleton and affected the neural tube, the
cardiovascular structures, and the eye [143].
The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-
phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion
mutagenicity assay (his- to his+) with the S. typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. The plant
cell/microbe coincubation assay was used as the activating system for aromatic transformation and plant extract
interaction. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic
amines (AA) in the following order: 2-AF (92.43%) > m-PDA (87.14%) > NOP (83.21%). The chlorophyll
content in vegetable juice was monitored and its concentration showed a positive correlation with the detected
antimutagenic effect. The concentration of coriander juice (50-1000 microl/coincubation flask) was neither toxic
nor mutagenic. The similar shape of the antimutagenic response curves obtained with coriander juice and
chlorophyllin (used as a subrogate molecule of chlorophyll) indicated that comparable mechanisms of mutagenic
inhibition could be involved [144].
The biochemical effects of coriander seeds on lipid parameters in 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-
induced colon cancer were studied in rats. The results showed that the concentrations of cholesterol and
cholesterol to phospholipid ratio decreased while the level of phospholipid was increased significantly in the
DMH control group compared to the spice administered group. Fecal dry weight, fecal neutral sterols and bile
acids showed a sharp increase in the coriander-fed group compared with the DMH administered group [145-
146].
Anticancer effect:
Brine shrimp lethality bioassay revealed that coriander LC50 was 2.25 mg/ml [92]. The anticancer activities of
Coriandrum sativum root, leaf and stem, as well as its effect on cancer cell migration, and its protection against
DNA damage, with special focus on the roots was evaluated. The ethyl acetate extract of Coriandrum sativum
roots showed the highest antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 200.0 ± 2.6 μg/ml), had the highest
phenolic content and FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities among the extracts. Ethyl acetate extract of
Coriandrum sativum root inhibited DNA damage and prevented MCF-7 cell migration induced by H2O2,
suggesting its potential in cancer prevention and metastasis inhibition. The extract exhibited anticancer activity
in MCF-7 cells by affecting antioxidant enzymes possibly leading to H2O2 accumulation, cell cycle arrest at the
G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death by the death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways [147].
The antitumor and immunomodulating activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Coriandrum sativum (leaf
and seed) was investigated in vitro. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum (leaf), caused significant
(P<0.05) 24, 39 percent L5178Y-R lymphoma cells toxicity at 31.2 µg/ml (MIC), whereas the methanol extract
of Coriandrum sativum (seed and leaf) caused 40 and 31 percent cytotoxicity at 7.8, 62.5 µg/ml (MICs),
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
31
respectively. In addition, Coriandrum sativum leaf aqueous extract stimulated significant (P<0.01) 14 to 45
percent splenic cells lymphoproliferation at 7.8 to 125 µg/ml respectively. The methanol extracts of Coriandrum
sativum leaf extract caused significant (P<0.01) 43 to 59 percent lymphoproliferation at the tested concentrations.
Furthermore, Coriandrum sativum aqueous extracts were significantly (P<0.01) reduce up to 100% nitric oxide
production by LPS-stimulated macrophages [148].
Three different cell lines BMK (kidney), KHOS-2405 (bone), and WRL-68 (liver) were used to determine
cytotoxicity. Cells were treated with different Coriandrum sativum (Cilantro) concentrations (0.125%, 0.25%,
0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%), for 24 hours. After this time, cytotoxic studies were performed. An embryo-
toxicity study was done using fertile chicken eggs (Gallus gallus) inoculating with Coriandrum sativum
concentrations (0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%); incubated for 48 hours and observe them using
an electronic microscope to check the effects. The three lines showed decreased proliferation and number of
cells proportional to the concentrations. The cell cycle analysis showed that Coriandrum sativum arrested the
WRL-68 cells in the (S) phase; the BMK cells were arrested in the G2 and M phase, and the KHOS cells in the
G1 phase. Coriandrum sativum produced important morphologic effects on chicken embryos. The use of
Coriandrum sativum produces toxicological effects on the embryos only in high doses [149].
Cardiovascular effects:
Coriander crude extract (1-30 mg/ml) caused fall in arterial blood pressure of anesthetized animals which
partially blocked by atropine. Coriander crude extract produced vasodilatation against phenylephrine and K+ (80
mM)-induced contractions in rabbit aorta and caused cardio-depressant effect in guinea-pig atria. Bioassay-
directed fractionation revealed the separation of spasmogenic and spasmolytic components in the aqueous and
organic fractions respectively. Furthermore, Coriander crude extract produced diuresis in rats at 1-10mg/kg
[150].
Aqueous extracts of coriander seeds inhibited the electrically- evoked contractions of spiral strips and tubular
segments of isolated central ear artery of rabbit [151]. The water extract of coriander seed had hypotensive
effects in rats [152]. The preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) on cardiac damage was evaluated by
isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity model in male rats. Rats were pretreated with methanolic extract of CS
seeds at a dose of 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg orally for 30 days and they were subsequently administered (sc) with
isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. Isoproterenol treated rats showed increased LPO,
decreased levels of endogenous antioxidants and ATPases in the cardiac tissue together with increased plasma
lipids and markers of cardiac damage. TTC staining showed increased infarct areas while HXE staining showed
myofibrillar hypertrophy and disruption. CS (200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment significantly
prevented or resisted all these changes. The results showed that methanolic extract of CS is able to prevent
myocardial infarction by inhibiting myofibrillar damage. It is also postulated that, the rich polyphenolic content
of CS extract was responsible for preventing oxidative damage by effectively scavenging the isoproterenol
generated ROS [153].
Gastrointestinal effects:
In a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial, performed in Isfahan dental school in 2012, a new herbal
medicament containing combined extracts from Q. brantii and Coriandrum sativum was formulated in the gel
form for subgingival application. Following scaling and root planing (SRP), both herbal and placebo gels were
delivered at the experimental and control sites, respectively. Periodontal pocket depth, clinical attachment level,
papilla bleeding index, and plaque index were measured at baseline, 1 month and 3 months later. Both groups
indicated statistically significant improvements in the periodontal indices (p<0.05) [154].
The effect of coriander pretreatment on gastric mucosal injuries caused by NaCl, NaOH, ethanol,
indomethacin and pylorus ligation accumulated gastric acid secretions was investigated in rats. Pretreatment at
oral doses of 250 and 500mg/kg, was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the (i) ulcerogenic
effects of different necrotizing agents; (ii) ethanol-induced histopathological lesions; (iii) pylorus ligated
accumulation of gastric acid secretions and ethanol related decrease of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH).
Results of gastric mucus and indomethacin-induced ulcers demonstrated that the gastro protective activity of
Coriander might not be mediated by gastric mucus and/or endogenous stimulation of prostaglandins. The authors
suggested that the protective effect against ethanol-induced damage of the gastric tissue might be related to the
free-radical scavenging property of different antioxidant constituents (linanool, flavonoids, coumarins, catechins,
terpenes and polyphenolic compounds) present in coriander. The inhibition of ulcers might be due to formation
of a protective layer of either one or more of these compounds by hydrophobic interactions [155].
The effect of selected indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan was evaluated on the secretion of interleukin-8
(IL-8) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to rationalize their medicinal use and to examine the
anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects in gastric epithelial cells. AGS cells and clinically isolated
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
32
Helicobacter pylori strain (193C) were employed for co-culture experiments. Coriandrum sativum,
demonstrated significant suppression of ROS from Helicobacter pylori-infected cells (p<0.01) [156].
The efficacy of Coriandrum sativum on gut modulation was studied, coriander crude extract was evaluated
through in vitro and in vivo techniques. Coriander crude extract caused atropine sensitive stimulatory effect in
isolated guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum preparations (0.1-10 mg/ml). It exhibited relaxation against both
spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions as well as shifted the Ca2+ concentration-response
curves to right, similar to that caused by verapamil. Bioassay-directed fractionation revealed the separation of
spasmogenic and spasmolytic components in the aqueous and organic fractions, respectively [150].
The effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract was investigated on food intake in rats. It was given
as 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg for 7 days. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 days.
The amount of energy intake of each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in
energy intake was calculated, and compared between groups. There was no significant change in energy intake
between control and vehicle groups. The change in energy intake after treatment by 100 and 150 mg/kg of the
extract was significantly higher than other groups [157].
Hepatoprotective effect:
The radio protective ability of Coriandrum sativum seeds against whole body gamma irradiation was
studied in rats. Coriander aqueous extract group (CE) rats received the aqueous extract 300 mg/ kg bw/ day for
42 days. Irradiated group: rats were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at dose of 4 Gy delivered as a
single exposure dose. In combined treatment group, rats received orally CE (300 mg/ kg bw/ day) for 42 days, at
day 35 of CE treatment, the rats were irradiated at dose level of 4 Gy. The animals exposed to gamma radiation
showed a significant increase in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase,
lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and
tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Gamma irradiation caused significant decrease in serum total
protein, albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. A decrease of liver and kidney reduced glutathione
content, superoxides dismutase and catalase activities were reported. Treatment of rats with CE significantly
reduced the radiation-induced serum biochemical disorders which was associated with significant amelioration in
the oxidant antioxidant status of liver and kidney tissues [158]. The administration of paracetamol caused a
significant increase in plasma alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphates,
gamma glutamyl transferase, bilirubin, urea and creatinine with significant decrease in plasma total proteins,
albumin and some antioxidant biomarkers (plasma total antioxidant capacity, catalase and glutathione
peroxidase) compared to normal rates. Statistical analysis indicated that rats which supplemented with aqueous
extract of Coriandrum sativum and then administrated paracetamol showed significant improvement in all
biochemical parameters, which become near to control, the results were confirmed by histopathological
examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals [55].
The antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum was evaluated in CCl4 treated oxidative stress in rats.
CCl4 injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes and thiobarbituric acid
reactive substances (TBARS) along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes. In serum, the activities of
enzymes, ALP, ACP and protein and bilirubin were evaluated. Pretreatment of rats with different doses of plant
extract (100 and 200mg/kg) significantly lowered SGOT, SGPT and TBARS levels against CCl4 treated rats.
Hepatic enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx were significantly increased by treatment with plant extract against CCl4
treated rats. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive
hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion, and sinusoidal dilatation in CCl4
trated rats. Oral administration of the leaf extract at a dose of 200mg/kg bw significantly reduced the histological
effects induced by CCl4. The activity of leaf extract at the dose of 200mg/kg was comparable to the standard
drug, silymarin [159].
The hepatoprotective activity of Coriandrum sativum against carbon tetrachloride was studied, with
estimation of serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase, serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase, alkaine
phosphatase and bilirubin. Coriandrum sativum possessed hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight,
activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. These results were
confermied be histological effects, administration of Coriandrum sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in
disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis [49].
Essential oils of Coriandrum sativum were assayed for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity and
hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride damage. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated as a
free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), measured as scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals and effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) in two systems of induction. Liver
biochemical parameters were determined in animals pretreated with essential oils and later intoxicated with CCl4
to assess in vivo hepatoprotective effect. The essential oils were able to reduce the stable DPPH in a dose-
dependent manner and to neutralize H2O2, with IC50 values of 4.05 microl/ml [160].
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33
The effect of coriander seed powder (CSP) on dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced oxidative stress and
toxicity in rats was investigated. Rats were maintained on the treatments for 12 weeks. The results revealed that
DMH administration lead to an increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in levels of
glutathione (GSH), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
The coadministration of CSP 10% and DMH diminished the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly as
compared to DMH-alone administered rats. The intake of coriander seeds at 10% level also enhanced the hepatic
GSH-redox system by elevating GSH-Px, GSSGR, and GST activities. The DMH-induced decline in SOD and
catalase activities was brought to normal by 10% CSP. The coadministration of CSP and the DMH produced a
significant reduction in MDA and enhancement in catalase activity as compared to control. Coriander powder at
5% and 10% levels produced a significant rise in colonic catalase and GSH-Px. The coriander seeds produced
significant beneficial effects by reducing the DMH-induced oxidative stress and enhancing the tissue levels of
antioxidant/detoxification agent in tissues [161].
Deodorizing effect
The leaves of Coriandrum sativum exhibited a strong deodorizing effect against porcine internal organs (large
intestine). The effective deodorizing compounds of coriander were identified by separating the volatile
component of coriander, testing the effectiveness of each fraction against the offensive odor of porcine large
intestine, and then identifying the compounds by GC-MS. The volatile component of coriander was first
separated into six fractions (A-F) by preparative gas chromatography, and the deodorizing activity of each of
these fractions against the offensive odor was measured. Fraction D, which showed the strongest deodorizing
effect, was then separated into 12 subfractions by preparative GC. The deodorant activity of each subfraction was
evaluated, and the deodorant compounds were identified by GC-MS. (E,E)-2,4-undecadienal was the most
effective deodorizing compound. The deodorizing activity of (E,E)-2,4-undecadienal on the porcine large
intestine increased with concentration, reaching almost complete deodorizing ability at 10 ppb [162].
Detoxification effect
The preventive effect of ethanol extract of Coriandrum sativum on lead deposition was investigated in
male ICR mice given lead (1000 ppm) as lead acetate trihydrate in drinking water for 32 days. Administration of
Coriandrum sativum to mice by gastric intubation was performed for 25 days from day 7 after the start of lead
exposure up to the end of the experiment. The mice were then sacrificed for comparison of lead distribution. The
lead reached its highest concentration in the femur but localized lead deposition in the femur was significantly
decreased by meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a chelating agent used as a positive control to validate
the experimental model. Administration of Coriandrum sativum also significantly decreased lead deposition in
the femur and severe lead-induced injury in the kidneys. In addition, urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic
acid (ALA) which was known to increase with lead intake was significantly decreased after administration of
Coriandrum sativum. The MeOH extract of Coriandrum sativum also reduced lead-induced inhibition of delta-
aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in vitro [163].
The protective effect of Coriandrum sativum in lead intoxication was studied mice. Oxidative stress
was induced in mice by a daily dose of lead nitrate (40 mg/kg bw by oral gavage) for seven days. From day
eight, experimental animals received an oral dose of coriander extracts (aqueous extract 300 and 600 mg/ kg bw;
ethanolic extract 250 and 500 mg/ kg bw) along with lead nitrate daily for 40 days. The coriander
supplementation to intoxicated mice, protected the weights of experimental animals as compared to lead nitrate
exposed untreated animals. Ingestion of Pb (NO3)2 was significantly decreased RBC count, WBC count, Hb level
and serum total protein contents in the lead nitrate treated mice. But, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate
aminotransferase, creatinine and cholesterol level were significantly increased after implication of this metal.
However, oral administration of Coriandrum sativum to lead treated mice led to marked improvement in both
hematological and serum biochemical changes. A decrease in viability of neutrophiles, phagocytic index,
immunoglobulin level and plaque count were the salient features observed in lead exposed animals. Oral
administration of coriander extracts to Pb (NO3)2 treated groups attenuated the deranged parameters to some
extent [164].
The efficacy of Coriandrum sativum in reducing lead-induced changes in testis was evaluated in mice.
Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, and total protein
levels. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and
cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared
with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of Coriandrum
sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the
testis, while the treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture [165].
The protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative
stress was studied in rats. Male rats were given 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks, Coriandrum sativum
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
34
treatment was given as 250 and 500 mg/kg bw/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure.
A significant (p<0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation products, and total protein carbonyl
content levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase showed a
decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum
sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead [166].
The effect of Coriandrum sativum was studied against lead nitrate induced toxicity in mice. Oxidative
stress was induced in mice by a daily dose of lead nitrate (40 mg/kg bw by oral gavage) for seven days. From
day eight, after lead nitrate treatment, experimental animals received an oral dose of coriander extracts (aqueous
extract 300 mg/kg body weight and 600 mg/kg bw, ethanolic extract 250 and 500 mg/kg bw) daily. The effect
of these treatments in influencing the lead induced changes on hepatic and renal oxidative stress and biochemical
changes along with histopathological alterations in soft tissues were studied. The results showed significant
increase in liver and kidney LPO levels in animals treated with lead nitrate while the effect was attenuated by the
plant extracts. Also, lead caused a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity and this effect was
reversed in groups treated with plant extract. Treatment with coriander significantly reduced the adverse effects
related to biochemical parameters altered in animals treated with lead and to hepatic and renal oxidative stress.
Oral administration of coriander to lead treated mice attenuated the deranged histopathological changes to some
extent [167].
Diuretic effect:
The acute diuretic activity of aqueous extract of the seed of Coriandrum sativum was evaluated in
rats. The aqueous extract of coriander seed was administered by continuous intravenous infusion (120 min) at
two doses (40 and 100mg/kg) to anesthetized Wistar rats. Furosemide (10mg/kg), a standard diuretic was used as
the reference drug. Excretion of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride) in urine, and glomerular
filtration rate (equal to creatinine clearance) were determined. The crude aqueous extract of coriander seeds
increased diuresis, excretion of electrolytes, and glomerular filtration rate in a dose-dependent way. Furosemide
was more potent as a diuretic and saluretic. The authors concluded that the mechanism of action of the plant
extract appears to be similar to that of furosemide [168].
Dermatological effect:
Coriandrum sativum ethanol extract (CSE) showed a protective effects against UVB-induced skin
photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and in the skin of hairless mice in vivo. The
cellular levels of procollagen type I and MMP-1 were determined using ELISA in NHDF cells after UVB
irradiation. NHDF cells that were treated with CSE after UVB irradiation exhibited higher procollagen type I
production and lower levels of MMP-1 than untreated cells. The activity of transcription factor activator protein-
1 (AP-1) was also inhibited by CSE treatment. CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal
collagen fibers than untreated mice. On a molecular level, it was further confirmed that CSE-treated mice had
lower MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than untreated mice [169].
The protective effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like
skin lesions was studied in mice. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of
CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis
factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased
the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS inhibited the development of CD-like
skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact
diseases [170].
The protective effect of a standardized coriander (CS) leaf extract was studied against oxidative stress in
human HaCaT keratinocytes. CS significantly and dose-dependently protected cells against reduced cell viability
caused by H2O2-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide
assay. Other assays demonstrated that CS protected HaCaT cells by increasing the levels of glutathione and
activities of oxidative defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. Moreover, it increased the
expression of activated Nrf2, which plays a crucial role in protecting skin cells against oxidative stress [171].
Effect on fertility:
Effect of the aqueous extract of fresh coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds has been studied on female fertility
in rats including the effects on oestrus cycle, implantation, foetal loss, abortion, teratogenicity and serum
progesterone levels on days 5, 12 and 20 of the pregnancy. The extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg orally
produced a dose-dependent significant anti-implantation effect, but did not produce complete infertility.
Treatment of animals during day-8 to day-12 and day-12 to day-20 of the pregnancy did not produce any
significant abortifacient activity. There was no significant change in the weight and length of the foetuses
delivered by rats treated with the extract and no abnormalities were seen in the organs of the offsprings. The
A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities
35
extracts produced a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels on day-5 of pregnancy which may be
responsible for its anti-implantation effect [172].
Contra-indications and side effects
The median lethal dose (LD50) of Coriandrum sativum essential oil was determined as 2.257 ml/kgin mice [173].
The maximum non-fatal dose of the decoction and maceration extracts was 0.5 g/kg and 5 g/kg, and the LD50
values of the decoction and maceration extracts were 0.78 g/kg and 8.11 g/kg, respectively [77].
Acute toxicity studies performed on ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum leaves did not show any signs and
symptoms of toxicity and mortality up to 2000 mg/kg dose, except centrally induced depression evidenced by
alertness, motor activity and increased urination and defecation [49].
X. CONCLUSION
This review discusses the chemical constituent, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Coriandrum
sativum. According to the wide range of pharmacological activities, Coriandrum sativum should be considered
as a promising source of many drugs because of its safety and effectiveness.
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... All parts of this plant such as seeds, leaves, and stems can be consumed. The C. sativum contains essential oil, fatty acids, sugars, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, sterols, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements (Ali 2016). The C. sativum has long been consumed as a flavoring agent in food products and a traditional remedy for treating various disorders such as diabetes, rheumatism, gastrointestinal problems, cough, bronchitis, dyspnea, and insomnia (Yuan et al. 2020). ...
... The C. sativum has long been consumed as a flavoring agent in food products and a traditional remedy for treating various disorders such as diabetes, rheumatism, gastrointestinal problems, cough, bronchitis, dyspnea, and insomnia (Yuan et al. 2020). The C. sativum has been reported to possess different activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancer, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, and hepatoprotective effects (Ali 2016). The anti-inflammatory effect of C. sativum has been investigated in different models (Yuan et al. 2020;Trifan et al. 2021;Koppula et al. 2021;Raveau et al. 2021;Nan et al. 2019;Jung et al. 2018;Ishida et al. 2017;Wu et al. 2010;Mueller et al. 2010;Jia et al. 2021;Kükner et al. 2021;Dahliatul et al. 2021;Kajal et al. 2020;Deepa et al. 2020;Ahmed et al. 2020;Ouyang et al. 2019;Safari et al. 2019;Abdi et al. 2018;Abd El-Salam et al. 2017;El-Sayed et al. 2017;Attia et al. 2016;Park et al. 2014;Nair et al. 2013;Nair et al. 2012). ...
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... Hence, its special decoction is advised by experts or herbal industry to treat inflammatory ailments such as nasal bleeding 36 or menorrhagia in India 21 and even abroad. [22][23]37 Dub/ doorva (both vernacular names in northern India)/ Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) 38,39 and Satavar (Asparagus racemosus L.) [40][41] are other similar Ayurvedic herbs used as anti-hemorrhagic and are cultivated/ common in the wild so can be promoted. Dub is a common garden grass/ weed and offered in prayers to God Ganesha and can be an option to Seeta Ashoka. ...
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... The results showed that methanolic extract of CS is able to prevent myocardial infarction by inhibiting myofibrillar damage. It is also postulated that, the rich polyphenolic content of CS extract was responsible for preventing oxidative damage by effectively scavenging the isoproterenol generated ROS (58)(59) . ...
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... There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activities were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol were decreased, while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was increased compared to the control group (106)(107)(108) . ...