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... The development of risk-based valuations of ecosystem-based flood protection has been limited by the lack of high-resolution data on bathymetry, topography, ecosystems and economic assets and the difficulty in modelling complex hydrodynamic processes across large regions. For these reasons, previous studies do not model flooding directly 31,32 or rely on global-scale data and simplified physics-based modelling approaches 17,33 . Yet, recent technological and data advances now make it possible to quantify and directly assess flood losses and the benefits of coastal ecosystems for reducing them with unprecedented rigour and spatial definition. ...
... Previous assessments of the risk reduction provided by ecosystems had been limited by several factors: the resolution of global data and model simplifications 32,78 ; lack of precision in local coastal processes, such as nonlinear interaction between waves, sea levels and coral reefs 39,40 ; low resolution topography and asset distribution; and passive flooding models such as bathtub approaches 17,18 that do not accurately reproduce dynamic coastal flooding. Recent research on hydrodynamics of reef environments have developed fully nonlinear models of wave-driven flooding 39,79,80 . ...
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Habitats, such as coral reefs, can mitigate increasing flood damages through coastal protection services. We provide a fine-scale, national valuation of the flood risk reduction benefits of coral habitats to people, property, economies and infrastructure. Across 3,100 km of US coastline, the top-most 1 m of coral reefs prevents the 100-yr flood from growing by 23% (113 km²), avoiding flooding to 53,800 (62%) people, US$2.7 billion (90%) damage to buildings and US$2.6 billion (49%) in indirect economic effects. We estimate the hazard risk reduction benefits of US coral reefs to exceed US$1.8 billion annually. Many highly developed coastlines in Florida and Hawaii receive annual benefits of over US$10 million km–1, whereas US reefs critically reduce flooding of vulnerable populations. This quantification of spatial risk reduction can help to prioritize joint actions in flood management and environmental conservation, opening new opportunities to support reef management with hazard mitigation funding.
... Their economic value has been estimated in recent studies through the ecosystem services theory developed by Samonte et al. [3], Seenprachawong [4] and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment's classification [5]. Within the context of provisioning and cultural services, coral reefs provide an important protein source and a basin for livelihoods for fisheries in addition to scenic beauty for recreational tourism [6]. Regarding regulating services, coral reefs provide coastal protection by dissipating the waves energy [7] and contribute to the regulation of the coastal line erosion and sedimentation [6]. ...
... Within the context of provisioning and cultural services, coral reefs provide an important protein source and a basin for livelihoods for fisheries in addition to scenic beauty for recreational tourism [6]. Regarding regulating services, coral reefs provide coastal protection by dissipating the waves energy [7] and contribute to the regulation of the coastal line erosion and sedimentation [6]. The benefits of coral reefs are therefore vast and varied. ...
Article
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Coral reefs play a key role in coastal protection and habitat provision. They are also well known for their recreational value. Attempts to protect these ecosystems have not successfully stopped large-scale degradation. Significant efforts have been made by government and research organizations to ensure that coral reefs are monitored systematically to gain a deeper understanding of the causes, the effects and the extent of threats affecting coral reefs. However, further research is needed to fully understand the importance that sampling design has on coral reef characterization and assessment. This study examines the effect that sampling design has on the estimation of seascape metrics when coupling semi-autonomous underwater vehicles, structure-from-motion photogrammetry techniques and high resolution (0.4 cm) underwater imagery. For this purpose, we use FRAGSTATS v4 to estimate key seascape metrics that enable quantification of the area, density, edge, shape, contagion, interspersion and diversity of sessile organisms for a range of sampling scales (0.5 m × 0.5 m, 2 m × 2 m, 5 m × 5 m, 7 m × 7 m), quadrat densities (from 1–100 quadrats) and sampling strategies (nested vs. random) within a 1655 m2 case study area in Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve (Mozambique). Results show that the benthic community is rather disaggregated within a rocky matrix; the embedded patches frequently have a small size and a regular shape; and the population is highly represented by soft corals. The genus Acropora is the more frequent and shows bigger colonies in the group of hard corals. Each of the seascape metrics has specific requirements of the sampling scale and quadrat density for robust estimation. Overall, the majority of the metrics were accurately identified by sampling scales equal to or coarser than 5 m × 5 m and quadrat densities equal to or larger than 30. The study indicates that special attention needs to be dedicated to the design of coral reef monitoring programmes, with decisions being based on the seascape metrics and statistics being determined. The results presented here are representative of the eastern South Africa coral reefs and are expected to be transferable to coral reefs with similar characteristics. The work presented here is limited to one study site and further research is required to confirm the findings.
... The coastal areas potentially at risk from wave damage were identified, then the contribution of reefs and mangroves to the protection of vulnerable areas was estimated and finally the potential impacts on residential buildings and infrastructure were quantified and monetized, using the expected likelihood of a damaging event. Quantification of ES values utilised a bio-physical model developed for the valuation of ES in low-data availability situations (Burke et al., 2008, Pascal et al., 2016. The model allows us to define the coastal protection index (lowmedium-high) of each segment of coastline with seven physical characteristics: coastal geomorphology, exposure of the coast, wave energy (usually the maximum wave height), frequency of storms, characteristics of coral reefs, coastal vegetation (man- The synthetic fishing pressure index was developed to compare the fishery effort potential between MPA sites and the control sites. ...
... The determination of the contribution of the MPA to the production of ES3 must take into account that the ES is more dependent on physical than biological factors (Pascal et al., 2016). As MPAs strengthened mainly the biological factors, with little evidence of influence on the physical factors driving the production of the ES (Halpern, 2003) and without any supporting literature, a low factor (5%) of the value of the ES, was proposed. ...
Article
MPAs enhance some of the Ecosystem Services (ES) provided by coral reefs and clear, robust valuations of these impacts may help to improve stakeholder support and better inform decision-makers. Pursuant to this goal, Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) of MPAs in 2 different contexts were analysed: a community based MPA with low tourism pressure in Vanuatu, and a government managed MPA with relatively high tourism pressure, in Saint Martin. Assessments were made on six ES: fish biomass, scenic beauty, protection against coastal erosion, bequest and existence values, social capital and CO 2 sequestration, which were quantified via different approaches that included experimental fishery, surveys and benefit transfer. Total operating costs for each MPA were collected and the benefit-cost ratio and return on investment based on 25-year discounted projections computed. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on MPA impacts, and discount rates (5%, 7% and 10%). The investment indicators all showed positive results with the impact on the tourism ES being the largest estimated for all MPAs, highlighting the importance of this relationship. The study also demonstrated a relatively high sensitivity of the results to different levels of impacts on ES, which highlights the need for reducing scientific knowledge gaps.
... Regulating services, which represent benefits provided when ecosystems are left intact such as flood 2 and erosion reduction, have rarely been rigorously valued globally using process-based models, although there is work towards this end 33,34 . Better valuations of the protection services from coastal habitats could inform decisions to meet multiple objectives in risk reduction and environmental management [35][36][37][38] . One important pathway through which these services may be considered is in national economic accounts 35 . ...
... To estimate the role of coral reefs in coastal protection, we built on prior work that examines the effects of flooding on people and built capital across large regions 3 . To assess benefits, we follow the expected damage function (also known as the damage cost avoided) approach, which is commonly used in engineering and insurance sectors and recommended for the assessment of coastal protection services from habitats 12,38,40 . The benefits provided by reefs are assessed by their avoided flood damages. ...
Article
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Coral reefs can provide significant coastal protection benefits to people and property. Here we show that the annual expected damages from flooding would double, and costs from frequent storms would triple without reefs. For 100-year storm events, flood damages would increase by 91% to $US 272 billion without reefs. The countries with the most to gain from reef management are Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Mexico, and Cuba; annual expected flood savings exceed $400 M for each of these nations. Sea-level rise will increase flood risk, but substantial impacts could happen from reef loss alone without better near-term management. We provide a global, process-based valuation of an ecosystem service across an entire marine biome at (sub)national levels. These spatially explicit benefits inform critical risk and environmental management decisions, and the expected benefits can be directly considered by governments (e.g., national accounts, recovery plans) and businesses (e.g., insurance).
... To understand how ecosystems, such as mangroves, protect the coast from flooding, risk assessment methods should be used. In the case of coastal flood risk protection by mangroves, we used a global analytical framework similar to others (Pascal et al., 2016;van Zanten et al., 2014). In this, we established the role of ecosystems in reducing the impacts of flooding within a classic risk approach (IPCC, 2014) of hazard, exposure and vulnerability (Fig. 1). ...
... (4) Analyzing human and property damages and benefits: We do not only value tangible damages (e.g. residential and industrial stock) as other flood protection service valuations do (Pascal et al., 2016), but also human savings that may be relevant to poor regions protected by mangroves. (5) Using Annual Expected functions: We use Expected Annual Damage functions to evaluate protection service because annualized consequences are terms-familiar to stakeholders and promote specific and immediate reactions of decision-makers for policy planning (Tammi et al., 2017). ...
Article
In this work we pilot a methodology to value the annual coastal protection benefits provided by mangroves in the Philippines and identify where these natural coastal defenses deliver the greatest protection. This is the first rigorous, engineering-based, nationwide evaluation of the effectiveness of mangrove habitats as natural defenses. By comparing flood damages for scenarios with and without mangroves, the study estimates the socioeconomic benefits for protecting people and property, to inform conservation and disaster risk reduction policies. Without mangroves, flooding and damages to people, property and infrastructure in the Philippines would increase annually around 25%. These habitats reduce flooding to 613,500 people/year, 23% of whom live below the poverty line. They also avert damages to 1 billion US$/year in residential and industrial property. If mangroves were restored to their 1950 distribution, there would be additional benefits to 267,000 people annually, including 61,500 people below poverty and an additional 453 mill. US$ in avoided damages. Currently, mangroves prevent more than 1.7 billion US$ in damages for extreme events (1-in-50-year). Ultimately, rigorous economic estimates of critical ecosystem services like this will help the national government to integrate the value of mangroves to people, into their national accounting systems.
... La segunda consideración es que ellos consideran que este valor estimado es bajo porque no considera los precios de mercado, no mencionado que para que este producto se encuentre a disposición del comprador del mercado hay que trasladar el producto y por lo tanto habría costos que descontar. Pascal et al (2016) valoran los servicios de protección de los corales sosteniendo que esta es relevante tanto para la protección de vidas humanas y actividades económicas asociadas a las playas por lo que la VE de la protección costera proporcionada por los arrecifes de coral es útil para resaltar la importancia de este servicio para los tomadores de decisiones mediante el método de daños evitados. En este sentido se propone una metodología relativamente sencilla que permite evaluar el valor de la protección costera que brindan los arrecifes coralinos en un medio ambiente escaso. ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta el desarrollo que se está dando en la valoración económica de los servicios ecosistémicos y cómo la misma se relaciona como una herramienta para tomar decisiones sobre la conservación del ambiente. Para ello en primer lugar se revisa la legislación nacional al respecto, se presenta una breve descripción de la concepción teórica de la valoración económica, se definen los servicios ecosistémicos y a partir de ello se analizan algunos casos de valoración por tipos de servicios ecosistémicos.
... Noting the recent world-wide coral reef decline triggered by recurrent mass bleaching events (Eakin et al., 2019;Hughes et al., 2018), recreational tourism mediated reef degradation will severely hinder the reef recovery processes (Giglio et al., 2020). Declining of reef ecosystem may have a wide range of possible effects on coastal human communities, including reduced food, income, and longer-term effects such as increased vulnerability to extreme weather events (Anthony, 2016;Pascal et al., 2016). ...
Article
Globally, coral reefs have drastically declined due to local and global environmental stressors. Concurrently, coral reef tourism is rapidly growing in developing economies, which is one of many anthropogenic stressors impacting reefs. At the Malvan Marine Sanctuary, a Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the West coast of India, we investigate the impact of recreational diving on the reef from 2016 to 2019. To evaluate the diver’s underwater behavior, a novel approach was used, wherein the video-log broadcasting website www.youtube.com was perused. Evidential proof substantiates heavy physical damage to corals because of recreational diving activity, which may lead to the collapse of coral habitat if it continues unabated. This resource depletion ironically elevates the economy of dependents averting consequences due to lost corals, thus making this a ‘tragedy’ for corals which are not meant to be ‘commons’. The study asserts need for proactive conservation efforts with stringent implementation and restoration initiatives in this MPA.
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ applied in coral reefs ecosystems 34 and commonly used in engineering and insurance sectors 51,52 . We examine the role of mangroves in reducing flood risks by measuring the impacts of flooding on people and property under two different scenarios: with and without mangroves. ...
Article
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Coastal flood risks are rising rapidly. We provide high resolution estimates of the economic value of mangroves forests for flood risk reduction every 20 km worldwide. We develop a probabilistic, process-based valuation of the effects of mangroves on averting damages to people and property. We couple spatially-explicit 2-D hydrodynamic analyses with economic models, and find that mangroves provide flood protection benefits exceeding $US 65 billion per year. If mangroves were lost, 15 million more people would be flooded annually across the world. Some of the nations that receive the greatest economic benefits include the USA, China, India and Mexico. Vietnam, India and Bangladesh receive the greatest benefits in terms of people protected. Many (>45) 20-km coastal stretches particularly those near cities receive more than $US 250 million annually in flood protection benefits from mangroves. These results demonstrate the value of mangroves as natural coastal defenses at global, national and local scales, which can inform incentives for mangrove conservation and restoration in development, climate adaptation, disaster risk reduction and insurance.
... Significant progress was also made on measuring coastal protection values (Barbier et al., 2011;Russi et al., 2016) for seagrass, mangrove, saltmarsh, and reef habitats inside MPAs, which can be estimated using estimates of the value of avoided damages or re placement cost for the function (e.g., Burke, Greenhalgh, Prager, & Cooper, 2008;Pascal et al. (2016). Such values have been demonstrated to be large (e.g., Beaumont, Austen, Mangi, & Townsend, 2008;Burke, Selig, & Spalding, 2002;Fletcher et al., 2012;Ruiten beek & Cartier, 1999). ...
Chapter
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) remain one of the principal strategies for marine conser­ vation globally. MPAs are highly heterogeneous in terms of physical features such as size and shape, habitats included, management bodies undertaking management, goals, level of funding, and extent of enforcement. Economic research related to MPAs initially mea­ sured financial, gross, and net values generated by the habitats, most commonly fish­ eries, tourism, coastal protection, and non-use values. Bioeconomic modeling also gener­ ated important insights into the complexities of fisheries-related outcomes at MPAs. MPAs require a significant investment in public funds for design, designation, and ongo­ ing management, which have associated opportunity costs. Therefore cost-benefit analy­ sis has been increasingly required to justify this investment and demonstrate their bene­ fits over time. The true economic value of MPAs is the value of protection, not the re­ source being protected. There is substantial evidence that MPAs should increase recre­ ational values due to improvements in biodiversity and habitat quality, but assumptions that MPAs will generate such improvements may not be justified. Indeed, there remains no equivocal demonstration of spillover in fisheries adjacent to MPAs, due in part to the variability inherent in ecological and socioeconomic processes and limited evidence of tourism benefits that are biologically or socio-cultural sustainable. There is a need for carefully designed valuation studies that compare values for areas within MPAs compared the same areas without management (the counterfactual sce­ nario). The ecosystem service framework has become widely adopted as a way of charac­ terizing goods and services that contribute directly or indirectly to human welfare. Quan­ titative analyses of the marginal changes to ecosystem services due to MPAs remains rare due to the requirements of large amounts of fine-grained data, relatively undeveloped bio-physical models for the majority of services, and the complexities of incorporating ecological non-linearities and threshold effects. In addition while some services are syner­ gistic (so that double counting is difficult to avoid), others are traded off. Such marginal ecosystem service values are highly context specific, which limits the accuracy associated with benefits transfer. A number of studies published since 2000 have made advances in this area, and this is a rapidly developing field of research. While MPAs have been promoted as a sustainable development tool, there is evidence of significant distributive impacts of MPAs over time, over different time scales and between different stakeholders, including unintended costs to local stakeholders. Research sug­ gests that support and compliance is predicated on the costs and benefits generated lo­ cally, which is a major determinant of MPA performance. Better understanding of socioeconomic impacts will help to align incentives with MPA objectives. Further research is needed to value supporting and regulating services and to elucidate how ecosystem ser­ vice provision is affected by MPAs in different conditions and contexts, over time and compared to unmanaged areas, to guide adaptive management.
... Coral reefs are among the most diverse of global marine ecosystems. Home to numerous species, they provide a wide range of ecological services to coastal communities (Moberg and Folke 1999;Solan et al. 2004), including protection from coastal erosion and the provision of food (Foale et al. 2013;Pascal et al. 2016). They also generate substantial income as tourist attractions and a range of other economic activities (Leal et al. 2013;Dee et al. 2014;Rhyne et al. 2014). ...
Article
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In a previous study, we identified host species that housed high and low diversity prokaryotic communities. In the present study, we expand on this and assessed the prokaryotic communities associated with seawater, sediment and 11 host species from 7 different phyla in a Taiwanese coral reef setting. The host taxa sampled included hard, octo- and black corals, molluscs, bryozoans, flatworms, fish and sea urchins. There were highly significant differences in composition among host species and all host species housed distinct communities from those found in seawater and sediment. In a hierarchical clustering analysis, samples from all host species, with the exception of the coral Galaxea astreata, formed significantly supported clusters. In addition to this, the coral G. astreata and the bryozoan Triphyllozoon inornatum on the one hand and the coral Tubastraea coccinea, the hermit crab Calcinus laevimanus and the flatworm Thysanozoon nigropapillosum on the other formed significantly supported clusters. In addition to composition, there were highly pronounced differences in richness and evenness among host species from the most diverse species, the bryozoan T. inornatum at 2518 ± 240 OTUs per 10,000 sequences to the least diverse species, the octocoral Cladiella sp. at 142 ± 14 OTUs per 10,000 sequences. In line with the differences in composition, there were significant differences in predicted metagenomic gene counts among host species. Furthermore, there were pronounced compositional and predicted functional differences between high diversity hosts (Liolophura japonica, G. astreata, T. coccinea, C. laevimanus, T. inornatum) and low diversity hosts (Antipathes sp., Pomacentrus coelestis, Modiolus auriculatus, T. nigropapillosum, Cladiella sp. and Diadema savigny). In particular, we found that all tested low diversity hosts were predicted to be enriched for the phosphotransferase system compared to high diversity hosts.
... The overwhelming amount of literature, including within Ecosystem Services, deploys standard economic tools to articulate, elicit or derive the values associated with these services and/or management practices (TEEB, 2010). Common approaches include: (a) contingent valuation method (CVM) (Blignaut et al., 2016;Stefanski and Villasante, 2015;Barrena et al., 2014); (b) choice experiments (Norton and Hynes, 2014;Christie et al., 2015); (c) travel cost method (Zhang et al., 2015;Chae et al., 2012); (d) avoided damages (Pascal et al., 2016); (e) market values and opportunity costs Adekola et al., 2015); and (f) value transfer (Ghermandi et al., 2016;Crespin and Simonetti, 2016). A relatively large amount of studies utilises standardized tools such as InVest (Berg et al., 2016;Guerry et al., 2012) or combinations and hybrids of the above economic valuation techniques (e.g. ...
... Reef restoration has been shown to be cost effective in comparison to the development of artificial submerged breakwaters [5,58]. Active coral-reef restoration measures may include biological restoration, physical restoration, and artificial reefs [22,59]. ...
Article
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This study evaluated the status of coral communities at the fringing reefs in the northern South China Sea, and their potential role in maintaining nearby coastline stability of northeastern Hainan Island (Puqian Bay, Hainan Bay). Thirty-nine coral species were recorded with mean coral cover of 5.3%, and are dominated by massive Galaxea, Platygyra and Porites. The coral communities were clustered into two groups (Clu-HNB and Clu-PQB) corresponding to different stable coastal conditions. Coral communities at the Hainan Bay with higher diversity and greater cover corresponded to relatively stable coastline, whereas those at the southern Puqian Bay (with the lowest coral diversity and spatial coverage) corresponded to severe coastline erosion. This work provides some direct evidence that declined coral reefs would weaken their functions to maintain a stable coastline, resulting in severe coastal erosion. It is also useful to help coastal managers and local people pay more attention to the importance of coral reefs in coastal protection and encourage them to change their ways to get sustainable use of coral reef resources. It may be beneficial to inspire or initiate coastal engineering to manage coasts with natural coral reef solution.
... Over 64% of the world's coral reefs are located in developing countries with near shore dense populations (Pascal et al., 2016). While shores of the Red Sea are still not densely populated, the population is growing rapidly and being a narrow body of water, it exposes Red Sea fringing reefs to land-based disturbances in addition to the global threats (warming and acidification). ...
Article
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The Red Sea is a unique body of water, hosting some of the most productive and diverse coral reefs. Human populations along coasts of the Red Sea were initially sparse due to the hot and arid climate surrounding it, but this is changing with improved desalination techniques, accessible energy, and increased economic interest in coastal areas. In addition to increasing pressure on reefs from coastal development, global drivers, primarily ocean acidification and seawater warming, are threatening coral reefs of the region. While reefs in southern sections of the Red Sea live near or above their maximum temperature tolerance and have experienced bleaching events in the recent past, coral reefs in northern sections are considered a coral reef refugia from global warming and acidification, at least for the coming decades. Such differential sensitivities along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea require differential solutions and management. In an effort to identify the appropriate solutions to conserve and maintain resilience of these reefs along a latitudinal gradient, we used a SWOT analysis (strengths/weaknesses/opportunities/threats) to frame the present situation and to propose policy solutions as useful planning procedures. We highlight the need for immediate action to secure the northern sections of the Red Sea as a coral reef climate change refuge by management and removal of local stressors. There is a need to strengthen the scientific knowledge base for proper management and to encourage regional collaboration on environmental issues. Based on scientific data, solutions such as marine protected areas, fishing regulation, and reef restoration approaches were ranked for five distinct latitudinal sections in the Red Sea and levels of interventions are recommended.
... Coral reefs are very im portant for humankind. While estimating the value of coral reefs is a difficult undertaking [3], the production of fish biomass, the recrea tional/tourism value, and coastal protection are the most obvious ecosystem service values produced by coral reefs [4]. Indeed, they are considered the most valuable marine ecosystem per area on the planet [5], and are estimated to support the livelihood of 500 million people [6]. ...
Article
Coral reefs are subject to multiple stressors. Global stressors include climate change and ocean acidification, while local stressors include overfishing and eutrophication. Some stressors stem from land-based activities, like intensive agriculture or sewage production, while others are sea-based, like fishing or diving. Processes that aim to tackle coral degradation are transpiring on different levels. These include the UNDP's Sustainable Development Goal 14, and the Coral Triangle Initiative, which foresees the installation of marine protected areas and conservation planning. This paper uses Evolutionary Governance Theory (EGT) to understand the current processes of changes in governance influencing coral reef health. EGT sees the change of governance as an evolutionary process. It emphasises that discourses play a crucial role in understanding governance evolution. Power, in particular power-knowledge in the Foucaultian sense, plays a crucial role as a driving factor. Governance does not change in a vacuum, but according to EGT is shaped by path, inter- and goal dependencies. Of late, the role of materiality - ecological and technological conditions - has been stressed as an important driver of governance change. The paper considers the main threats to corals identified in the literature and analyses how those factors mentioned by EGT help us to understand the observed governance changes. The case of coral reefs was chosen as it represents an example of extremely diverse processes of institutional changes. Therefore, it is well suited to learn if EGT helps in understanding governance changes observed in the marine sector.
... Of course, this is not a situation typical of Benin as it is well known that coastal areas and beaches in many developing countries receive high numbers of visitors and different groups of users (Pascal et al., 2016). This can create congestion, but also other forms of externalities as some users and visitors may misuse and/or even alter and degrade beaches, which in turn might compromise their use for tourism and recreation (Halkos & Matsiori, 2018). ...
Article
The economic valuation of recreation services provided by ecosystems is attracting increased research attention. This is also the case in developing countries and in Benin in particular. This study focuses on beach recreation and intends to inform public policies regarding the government’s seaside tourism development strategy and coastal regeneration programme. Based on a sample of 213 local, national and international visitors of Fidjrossè beach, the study provides the first estimation of consumer surplus for beach recreation services. It applies the Individual Travel Cost Method (ITCM), tests several count models, and adopts a negative binomial regression which best fits the data. The results highlight that beach recreation is preferred over other leisure activities by a majority of respondents, reflecting its worth as a recreational setting. The number of visits to the beach per year is determined by a variety of variables, including travel costs, visitors’ education level and sex. The estimated visitor surplus (XOF 512.69; USD 0.87 USD for the total expenses per visitor per visit) is fairly low and is discussed with regard to the methodological limitations of the study, methodological issues that still need further investigation and the structural specificities of tourism in Benin.
... A number of studies have quantified the economic value of coral reefs (Cesar, 2000;Brander et al., 2007;Griffen and Drake, 2008;Laurans et al., 2013) however, most of studies focus on a handful of coral reef ecosystems services such as provisioning services (Christina et al., 2014;Joelle et al., 2015), regulating services (coastal protection) (Zanten et al., 2014;Nalini et al., 2015;Pascal et al., 2016), cultural services (tourism and recreation) (van Beukering et al., 2015;Diane et al., 2017;Mark et al., 2017;Subade and Francisco, 2014), and the management aspect (Johnson and Saunders, 2014;Kelly, 2015;Ngoc, 2017Ngoc, , 2018. Only a limited number evaluate the impacts of climate change on coral reefs. ...
Article
Coral reef ecosystems provide many important services to society. Their importance is not only proved by their beauty but also because they provide food and livelihood for millions of people in communities around the world, especially in developing countries. This paper estimates the economic value of coral ecosystems and potential impacts of climate change and fishing activities on the loss of coral reefs in Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam. Economic valuation and bioeconomic approaches are applied to combine socioeconomic data and projections of coral reef cover based on the quantitative scenarios of sea surface temperature and fishing activity to articulate the potential economic consequences of future change in the coral reef. The loss in economic value of coral under climate change and fishing effort scenarios is estimated which ranges from US$27.78 to US$31.72 million annually. This result is useful for policy makers to draw conclusions for climate policy, biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, and priorities for further work.
... Regulating services, which represent benefits provided when ecosystems are left intact such as flood 2 and erosion reduction, have rarely been rigorously valued globally using process-based models, although there is work towards this end 33,34 . Better valuations of the protection services from coastal habitats could inform decisions to meet multiple objectives in risk reduction and environmental management [35][36][37][38] . One important pathway through which these services may be considered is in national economic accounts 35 . ...
... Increasing evidence indicates that coastal habitats protect coastal communities and could serve as effective adaptation and risk reduction strategies while also providing other valuable services (Cheong et al., 2013;Spalding et al., 2014;Temmerman et al., 2013). Coral reefs in particular constitute a first line of defense from erosion and flooding through wave attenuation and the production and retention of sand (Elliff and Silva, 2017;Ferrario et al., 2014;Pascal et al., 2016). Fringing natural reef crests function much like low crested breakwaters , dissipating wave energy and protecting the shoreline (Gallop et al., 2014;Rogers et al., 2013;Sheppard et al., 2005). ...
Article
Coastal communities in tropical environments are at increasing risk from both environmental degradation and climate change and require urgent local adaptation action. Evidences show coral reefs play a critical role in wave attenuation but relatively little direct connection has been drawn between these effects and impacts on shorelines. Reefs are rarely assessed for their coastal protection service and thus not managed for their infrastructure benefits, while widespread damage and degradation continues. This paper presents a systematic approach to assess the protective role of coral reefs and to examine solutions based on the reef's influence on wave propagation patterns. Portions of the shoreline of Grenville Bay, Grenada, have seen acute shoreline erosion and coastal flooding. This paper (i) analyzes the historical changes in the shoreline and the local marine, (ii) assess the role of coral reefs in shoreline positioning through a shoreline equilibrium model first applied to coral reef environments, and (iii) design and begin implementation of a reef-based solution to reduce erosion and flooding. Coastline changes in the bay over the past 6 decades are analyzed from bathymetry and benthic surveys, historical imagery, historical wave and sea level data and modeling of wave dynamics. The analysis shows that, at present, the healthy and well-developed coral reefs system in the southern bay keeps the shoreline in equilibrium and stable, whereas reef degradation in the northern bay is linked with severe coastal erosion. A comparison of wave energy modeling for past bathymetry indicates that degradation of the coral reefs better explains erosion than changes in climate and historical sea level rise. Using this knowledge on how reefs affect the hydrodynamics, a reef restoration solution is designed and studied to ameliorate the coastal erosion and flooding. A characteristic design provides a modular design that can meet specific engineering, ecological and implementation criteria. Four pilot units were implemented in 2015 and are currently being field-tested. This paper presents one of the few existing examples available to date of a reef restoration project designed and engineered to deliver risk reduction benefits. The case study shows how engineering and ecology can work together in community-based adaptation. Our findings are particularly important for Small Island States on the front lines of climate change, who have the most to gain from protecting and managing coral reefs as coastal infrastructure.
... The loss of reefs and their protection services will continue unless their economic value is accurately quantified and mainstreamed into policy and management decisions. Although there have been attempts to determine the influence of coral reefs in coastal hazard risk reduction (van Zanten et al., 2014;Yee et al., 2014;Pascal et al., 2016), these efforts have made broad generalizations of coral coverage and reef morphology and their resulting influence on waves and wave-driven water levels that define the coastal hazard. These studies mainly provide a limited, index-based approach to quantifying the hazard rather than physics-based hydrodynamic model results that account for all of the interactions between the intrinsic properties of the reef (coral coverage and morphology) and extrinsic forcing (wave heights and periods). ...
Conference Paper
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The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by exposing communities to flooding hazards. The protective services of these natural defenses are not assessed in the same rigorous, economic terms as artificial defenses such as seawalls, and therefore often not considered in decision-making. Here we present a new methodology that combines economic, ecological, and engineering tools to provide a rigorous financial valuation of the coastal protection benefits of coral reefs off Maui, Hawaii, USA. We follow risk-based valuation guidelines to quantitatively estimate the risk reduction benefits from coral reefs in terms of annual expected benefits in economic terms. Our ultimate goal is to identify how, where, and when coral reefs provide the most flood reduction benefits under current and future climates to inform reef conservation and management priorities.
... Service value will not be the same for all people and can be measured for different dimensions of value. For example, the value of coastal protection could be assessed based on property value along the coast or based on the number of people impacted by storm surge, which could yield very different assessments of value (Arkema et al., 2013;Pascal et al., 2016). Collectively, these diverse dimensions of ecosystem services, which couple the social and ecological components of the system, can create rich spatial patterns that could inform restoration priorities across space. ...
Article
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Coastal and marine ecosystems characterized by foundation species, such as seagrass beds, coral reefs, salt marshes, oyster reefs, and mangrove forests, are rich in biodiversity and support a range of ecosystem services including coastal protection, food provisioning, water filtration, carbon sequestration, recreational opportunities, cultural value, among others. These ecosystems have experienced degradation and a net loss of total area in regions around the world due to a host of anthropogenic stressors, resulting in declines in the associated ecosystem services they provide. Because of the extensive degradation in many locations, increasing attention has turned to ecosystem restoration of these marine habitats. Restoration techniques for marine and coastal ecosystems are generally more expensive when compared to terrestrial ecosystems, highlighting the importance of carefully selecting locations that will provide the largest return on investment, not only for the probability and magnitude of restoration success, but also for ecosystem service outcomes. However, site selection and spatial planning for marine ecosystem restoration receive relatively little attention in the scientific literature, suggesting a need to better study how spatial planning tools could be incorporated into restoration practice. To the degree that site selection has been formally evaluated in the literature, the criteria have tended to focus more on environmental conditions beneficial for the restored habitat, and less on ecosystem service outcomes once the habitat is restored, which may vary considerably from site to site, or with more complex landscape dynamics and spatial patterns of connectivity. Here we (1) review recent (2015–2019) scientific peer-reviewed literature for several marine ecosystems (seagrass beds, salt marshes, and mangrove forests) to investigate how commonly site selection or spatial planning principles are applied or investigated in scholarly research about marine ecosystem restoration at different spatial scales, (2) provide a conceptual overview of the rationale for applying spatial planning principles to marine ecosystem restoration, and (3) highlight promising analytical approaches from the marine spatial planning and conservation planning literatures that could help improve restoration outcomes. We argue that strategic site selection and spatial planning for marine ecosystem restoration, particularly applied at larger spatial scales and accounting for ecosystem service outcomes, can help support more effective restoration.
... Coral reefs rank among the most productive and biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet, supporting a quarter of all known marine species (Reaka-Kudla et al., 1996;van Oppen and Lough, 2018;Woodhead et al., 2019). Occurring in over 100 countries and territories, including more than 80 developing countries (Spalding et al., 2001(Spalding et al., , 2017, coral reefs are also among the most economically valuable ecosystems (Barton, 1994;Pascal et al., 2016;Spalding et al., 2017;Spurgeon, 2019). They contribute social, economic and environmental benefits to millions of people through a range of services, such as the provision of livelihoods and food security through fisheries, revenue from tourism, as well as shoreline erosion prevention and protection from extreme weather events (Moberg and Folke, 1999). ...
Article
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The coasts and islands that flank Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates (UAE)'s largest emirate, host the country's most significant coastal and marine habitats including coral reefs. These reefs, although subject to a variety of pressures from urban and industrial encroachment and climate change, exhibit the highest thresholds for coral bleaching and mortality in the world. By reviewing and benchmarking global, regional and local coral reef conservation efforts, this study highlights the ecological importance and economic uniqueness of the UAE corals in light of the changing climate. The analysis provides a set of recommendations for coral reef management that includes an adapted institutional framework bringing together stakeholders, scientists, and managers. These recommendations are provided to guide coral reef conservation efforts regionally and in jurisdictions with comparable environmental challenges.
... Furthermore, the monetary value should be considered within the local environmental context (ecological and social). For instance, the service of coastal protection and its value could also be calculated with the damage avoided cost (Pascal et al., 2016). Although some habitats do not protect human infrastructure and hence should have a lower monetary value, their natural importance to protect terrestrial habitats, for instance, breeding colonies of seabirds at risk of flooding on low elevated islands in Mauritania (Veen et al., 2018), should nonetheless be recognized. ...
Article
The African coastline is bordered by highly valuable marine ecosystems, but the environmental degradation due to anthropogenic pressure alter the benefits that they render to people. Our paper aims at assessing the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs, and kelp forests present in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) of Africa. After the mapping of coastal marine habitats, our valuation relies on the transfer of value of all ecosystem services from reference monetary unit values, extracted from the literature. A habitat function-ality index based on the assumption that a higher population density and a higher demographic growth rate lead to a decrease in the functionality and services of marine habitats was then defined and incorporated into the valuation. The surveyed coastal habitats cover about 117,000 km2, with seagrass beds being by far the most extensive habitat. Present all along the coasts of Africa, their surface area represents about 62% of surveyed coastal habitats, followed by the mangroves (23%), coral reefs (15%). Kelp forests are only present in the southern Benguela Current LME. We estimated the annual value of the LME’s coastal ecosystem services at 814 billion USD. Coral reefs have the highest value (588 billion USD/year), followed by seagrass beds (135 billion USD/year), mangroves (91 billion USD/year), and kelp forests (0.4 billion USD/ year). The results show that ecosystem services from the four coastal habitat types had the highest value in the Agulhas Current LME, representing 38% of the total value, followed by the Red Sea LME (28%) and the Somali Coastal Current LME (10%). The three LMEs of the Atlantic side represent 15% of the total estimated value. Our paper highlighted many gaps that remain to be filled in terms of mapping and ecosystem services assessment in Africa. Nonetheless, our esti-mated values can facilitate dialogue between decision-makers and managers, and between countries sharing the same habitats and marine resources, toward better management of these ecosystems.
... Countries around the word are faced with tensions between environmental sustainability and development (Romeo et al 2013). Coral reefs have many biological, ecological and economic functions, including the provision of food, as fishing grounds, serving as spawning grounds, nursery grounds, feeding grounds and providing shelter for a wide variety of marine organisms including species with high economic values (Nybakken & Eidman 1988;Moberg & Folke 1999;Pascal et al 2016;Nikijuluw 2017;Cabral & Geronimo 2018). Global warming, human activities, coastal development and pollution can damage coral reef ecosystems (Westmacott et al 2000;Cinner et al 2012Cinner et al , 2018Pendleton et al 2016;Giyanto et al 2017) and the ecosystem services they provide (Woodhead et al 2019). ...
Preprint
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Currently, the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii is the species most commonly cultivated by seaweed farmers in the tropical Indo-Pacific. Seaweed farming over coral reefs is thought to have a negative impact on scleractinian corals. This study aims to determine the effect of K. alvarezii aquaculture over coral reefs on the recruitment of scleractinian corals. The study site was in Laikang Bay, Jeneponto Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This study used a grouped two level factorial design. The two factors were seaweed seed/clump spacing with 3 treatments (10, 20 and 30 cm) and controls with no seaweed; and substrate depth, with 2 levels (2 and 5 m). Grouping was based on planting period with replicates at 3 stations. The K. alvarezii cultivation media were bamboo rafts (2m x 2m) with polyethylene planting ropes. The rafts were moored at each site in the coral reef ecosystem for two planting periods. The 20 x 20 cm collector plates for coral settlement (total 72 per period) were placed on the substrate (sea bed) under the seaweed farming units and in the control areas (3 per raft or control area). The results showed that recruitment differed with substrate depth, seaweed spacing and planting period. The results indicate that at 30 cm spacing the seaweed farming did not have a significant effect on coral recruitment
... The fact is, around 64% of the world's coral reefs are located in developing countries that have not prioritized marine scientific research for a myriad of socioeconomic, political, and cultural reasons (Pascal et al., 2016). Together, they home a significant, but poorly known, portion of the evolutionary and functional diversity of corals, which includes defense strategies against pathogenic agents and evolutionary potential for adaptation to environmental changes. ...
Article
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Although knowledge on the diseases affecting corals has been accumulating exponentially since the 2000s, even more effort is required to summarize and guide further investigation. Here, we used the Web of Science database to review 226 studies published, between 2000 and 2020, to identify the major geographic and taxonomic gaps in the literature, and propose future directions for the study of coral diseases. We classified the studies according to the ocean, ecoregion, coral species, disease types, approach (e.g., observational or experimental), and depth. In total, 22 types of diseases were reported for 165 coral species. Acropora spp. was the most studied taxa with 12 types of diseases and 8.2% of the records. Black band, white plague, white syndromes, skeletal eroding, dark spot, and yellow band were the six most common diseases, accounting together for 76.8% of the records. As expected, most studies were conducted in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific (34.0% and 28.7%, respectively), but only in 44 of the 141 global ecoregions that harbour corals. Observational approaches were the most frequent (75.6% of the records), while experimental approaches accounted for 19.9% and were mainly done on Acropora. The vast majority of studies (∼98%) were performed in shallow waters (<30 m depth). We conclude that over the past two decades, coral diseases have been assessed on a very small fraction of coral species, in very few locations around the globe, and at a limited range of their depth distribution. While monitoring bleaching is mandatory for reef ecology and conservation, the ecoepidemiology of coral diseases deserves more space in the research agenda of reef ecosystems.
... Methods, both high [21,29] and low tech [30] exist for calculating value, often in terms of avoided damages and replacement costs [8]. Valuation can be used for a variety of reasons, and in this case, advocacy to convince stakeholders of the monetary significance of coastal protection and the need to improve reef health is valid [31]. Protecting beaches is expensive, with the United States of America spending USD$1.8 billion on the effort [21], followed by Cuba's USD$400 million spend [29] and over USD$24 million spent by the Government of Barbados in tackling eroding beaches during 2002-2010 [32]. ...
Article
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Coastal protection, an important coral reef ecosystem service, is threatened by increasing coral mortality, exacerbated by global climate change. Nature-based solutions in the form of coral restoration, while not perfect, can assist in rebuilding reef structure and improving the flow of the service for some sites. With a financing gap existing between what is required for conservation and what is being accessed, private investors should be playing a larger role in such restoration activities. Especially so as coastal hoteliers in particular, benefit from stable beaches and also have additional income generating potential with healthy reefs. Blended finance solutions in particular, are especially suited to restoration that incorporates substrate addition, while payments for ecosystem services are more suited to coral gardening. Conservation and finance practitioners must engage further and understand each other’s worlds, in order for these private sources to be effectively sourced and utilized.
... The benefits generated by different ES can be identified and combined [21,22]. This approach has been applied, among others, to marine biodiversity [11], coastal and marine habitats [70], coral reefs [51,69] and the GBR [28,99]. ...
Article
Coastal and marine resources often require to be valued to assess management options and encourage sustainable policy-making. While numerous non-market valuation techniques are available, the complexity of biodiversity makes applications challenging. Typically, a small number of proxy assets (e.g. coral reefs) are used to represent more complex natural assets and processes in valuation exercises. While using proxies simplifies the assessment process, it can be challenging to interpret what values represent. We conduct a comprehensive review of the use of proxies to represent coral reef biodiversity in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, spanning four decades (1983–2020) of literature. Studies are categorized based on the Total Economic Value and Ecosystem Services components they refer to, and the different approaches to the use of proxies. We identify that value estimates are sensitive to the type of proxy, and recommend habitat- or process-focused proxies over species-focused proxies as being more holistic and accurate. The most adequate proxies may, however, be considered on a case by case basis, depending on the policy question being addressed.
... Hagedoorn et al., 2020) and coral reefs (e.g. Pascal et al., 2016). However, only few studies investigate differences in economic effects across engineering and nature-based solutions (Duijndam et al., 2020;Narayan et al., 2016;King et al., 2016;Frihy et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Coastal areas in developing countries are very vulnerable to the effects of sea-level rise. Adaptation to sea-level rise through protection measures can include both engineering and nature-based solutions. However, comparative economic analyses across both types of solutions are sparse. Moreover, stated preference studies in developing countries that are commonly applied to estimate the benefits of adaptation projects increasingly include time payments as an alternative to money payments. The implications of this payment mode on policy recommendations remains unclear. In this study, we conduct cost-benefit analyses (CBA) that incorporate the results of discrete choice experiments with money as well as time payments for both an engineering (groynes) and a nature-based (beach nourishment) solution. We provide a range of sensitivity analyses regarding discount rates, effectiveness of the measures, cost estimates and different projections in the benefit calculations. These quantitative CBAs are complemented by qualitative insights from focus group discussions. We find overall negative net present values of both engineering and nature-based erosion solutions when money payments are applied, but positive values when time payments are applied. Qualitative insights describe the disruptive effects of erosion on local livelihoods. The qualitative results combined with previous studies' results provide support for the use of the time payment results. Furthermore, our results indicate that nourishment has a larger positive effect on welfare than groynes. These results provide relevant insights for decision-makers regarding coastal adaptation and stated preference practitioners in developing countries regarding the use of time payments.
... Methods for rigorously quantifying flood risk reduction benefits by reefs have been developed using models and approximations developed by engineers and are fully consistent with the approaches utilized for assessing alternatives for coastal protection. For example, methods for the valuation of flood risk reduction benefits from coral reef NNBF projects have utilized index-based approaches and generalized areal coverage Yee, Dittmar, and Oliver 2014;Pascal et al. 2016). More recently, more rigorous methods that incorporate hydrodynamic, geospatial, and economic models have been developed to quantify the coastal protection benefits of coral reefs adjacent to populated U.S. coastlines Reguero et al. 2021; see "Model Application to Quantify Flood Risk Benefits of Conserving Existing Reefs in the United States for Flood Projection"). ...
Chapter
Islands in estuaries, major river deltas, and open-coast environments reduce the severity of hazards, including erosion and flooding from wind-driven waves and extreme water levels, on the nearby habitats and shorelines. Islands may also provide critical ecosystem function for threatened and endangered species and migratory birds while providing access to recreational opportunities and navigation co-benefits. This chapter (Chapter 11) of the International Guidelines on Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) for Flood Risk Management focusses on islands as NNBFs that support coastal resilience. Three types of islands are discussed—barrier islands, deltaic islands (including spits), and in-bay or in-lake islands. These islands may be new construction or, as in most cases, the restoration of island remnants. The degradation and loss of islands through combined processes such as sea-level rise, subsidence, and inadequate sediment input (e.g., upstream impoundments, navigation channels, evolving natural processes) are reducing the coastal resilience benefits of these features.
... To date PES has not been extensively considered for coral reef coastal protection. Only 4 peer reviewed articles were found, in which PES for coastal protection was considered, and in none of these was a PES scheme actually developed (Lau, 2013;Castaño-Isaza et al., 2015;Pascal et al., 2016;Elliff and Silva, 2017). One report was identified in which a PES scheme for coastal protection in San Andres, Colombia was considered (Lau, 2012), however this never came to fruition due to the departure of one of the key local stakeholders (T. ...
Article
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an emerging tool intended to solve a range of ecosystem management inefficiencies, by linking conservation action to payment. Such schemes have not been tested to our knowledge, for coral reef derived coastal protection, which is a key Ecosystem Service (ES) for many nations bordered by tropical coral reefs. Coral health is deteriorating globally, as are their ES and inadequate finance is identified as a cross cutting factor stymieing management action. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of PES for coastal protection, with a focus on the scientific requirements. Key PES elements related solely to ecological processes were isolated, the role of coral reefs in protecting beaches reviewed and priority management options for improving reef health synthesized. Outputs indicate that there is adequate scientific knowledge to satisfy a PES. While there is limited ability to prove and quantify causality between management actions and ES delivery, PES criteria can be satisfied with the substitution of a management proxy, rather than payments being conditional on ES measurements. Management, both passive and active, would focus on aintaining reefs that already have a protective function and front stable beaches, above a functioning threshold.
... We acknowledge that preferences based on money may be beneficial when considering aspects of some situations; however, this is not universally the case [9]. Complete reliance on monetary valuation in the case study of pesticide use to enhance banana production in Costa Rica [10] may be problematic rather than the opposite as Calow [1] suggests. ...
... Identified beneficiaries include dive shops benefitting from coral reef aesthetics and/or the presence of emblematic species such as groupers or sharks (Rudd and Tupper, 2002;Clua and Pascal, 2014;Berrios, 2017). Other beneficiaries include coastal real estate owners benefitting from beach protection ecosystem service (Barbier et al., 2008;Van Zanten et al., 2014;Pascal et al., 2016Pascal et al., , 2018a. According to Lau (2013) all the elements are present for PES to be tested in the marine environment and the marine community is "keen" for further guidance. ...
Article
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are promising examples of Nature-Based Solutions that can protect diversity while delivering ecosystem services. However insufficient funding for effective management and expansion of MPAs remains a challenge and one that particularly affects developing countries. During the last ten years, a community of investors seeking positive social and environmental impacts alongside financial returns, have stepped in to help fill this marine conservation financing gap. An innovative collaborative management approach has been recently implemented in the Dominican Republic for one of the largest MPAs in the Caribbean. Blended finance solutions mixing catalytic, development and impact finance have been used to cover the up-front capital needs. MPA revenues are being generated for MPA management and investor returns, via a range of sustainable finance tools including fees paid by visitors. The solution offers interesting outcomes that uses catalytic and development finance to mobilise commercial impact finance into MPAs. From a Government point of view, the approach provides empirical evidence of how non-public funding can become part of the financing options for a country’s MPA network, reducing the financial burden on Public Budgets. Scalability of the approach seems limited by the number of MPAs with tangible business models.
... Coral Reefs act as a first line of defence from erosion and flooding through wave reduction ( Figure 12) and the production and retention of sand (Pascal et al., 2016). Fringing natural reef crests function much like low crested breakwaters, dissipating wave energy and protecting the shoreline (Reguero et al., 2018). ...
Technical Report
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The aim of this document is to critically analyse and document hydro-meteorological hazards, their negative consequences and good practice examples of NBS to manage the associated risks in OPERANDUM OALs. The outcomes of this deliverable serve as a foundation for the various tasks in other WPs of OPERANDUM. For instance, the evidence summarised from Section 3 to Section 7, feeds into WP2 to WP7 for design/co-design and implementation of NBS for flooding, droughts, salt intrusion, landslides, coastal erosion and storm surge, nutrients and sediment loading across OPERANDUM OALs. Overall, the reviewed documents showed that hydro-meteorological risks occur more regularly with a strong increase in intensity to cause significant loss of life and economic damage in OPERANDUM OAL countries and these hazards are projected to increase in severity and duration under future climate change scenarios. In response to this, in OPERANDUM OALs, different types of NBS such as green, blue and hybrid approaches were used and are under implementation
... Although it is recognized as a useful and powerful instrument (Costanza et al. 1997, Martín-López et al. 2009), it can fail to apprehend the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system in some contexts. Indeed, the service of coastal protection is often assessed using the replacement and avoided damages cost methods (Samonte-Tan et al. 2007, Pascal et al. 2016). On the one hand, the replacement cost approach implies the possibility of implementing artificial coastal defenses, which often has adverse impacts on the environment and society, and is therefore not always a desirable option, especially in a marine protected area (Stamsky 2005, Cooper et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Marine coastal ecosystems are crucial to human populations in reducing disaster risk. Least Developed Countries are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as sea-level rise and storm surges. The Mauritanian coast, West Africa, ranks among the most vulnerable worldwide to sea-level rise, and coastal communities in the National Park of Banc d'Arguin (PNBA) are particularly at risk. Here, we assessed the service of coastal protection in PNBA by (1) mapping the coastal marine ecosystems with Sentinel-2 imagery and determining their spatial wave height attenuation rates; (2) assessing the vulnerability of villages and natural habitats to coastal hazard risk; and (3) assessing the applicability of coastal protection measures in the PNBA. We found that a total of 83% of the populated coastline presents a moderate to high risk of flooding and erosion, with Iwik and R'Gueiba being the most threatened villages in the PNBA. As for the ecological risk, two low-elevated islands, which support breeding colonies of birds, are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise. However, in other areas, the rupture in the dune cord created new lagoons that present valuable ecological and economic interests like the Lagoon of Bellaat. Improving the comprehension of wave attenuation provided by coastal habitats, combined with identifying the vulnerability and applicability of coastal protection measures, is essential for achieving the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction goals. In the PNBA, relocation of identified villages at risk is probably the best cost-effective solution with the least disturbance to both breeding and wintering birds. Protection of coastal ecosystems will also ensure a continued provision of other ecosystem services, including food supply for sea dependent populations, and contribute to achieving the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals.
... Au-delà des pertes économiques directes (diminution de la pêche, des activités touristiques aquatiques par exemple), la disparition des coraux affaiblirait l'une des défenses naturelles du trait de côte en limitant, voire en annulant, leur potentiel de développement vertical (quelques mm/an en moyenne) qui ne pourrait plus s'adapter à la montée de la mer, augmentant de facto l'effet destructeur de l'hydrodynamisme marin associé à l'impact des aléas naturels décrits plus avant. On considère que le service écosystémique de protection des zones littorales (PASCAL et al., 2016) rendu par la présence des récifs est souvent supérieur à 50% de la VET (Valeur économique totale). C'est, par exemple, le cas en Nouvelle-Calédonie où cette contribution est estimée à 67 %, soir 222 000 M Euros/an dont les 2/3 pour la conurbation nouméenne. ...
... These services were linked to the inflow of the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by the coral reef stock, while the water quality improvement plans, capital works and efficiency of supervision and customary stewardship simulate the monetary expenditure associated with different human action scenarios over time. The monetary value of coral reefs for the tourism industry was estimated based on the reported surveys and studies by the Government of Vanuatu (2017) and Buckwell et al. (2019), whereas the economic value of coral reefs for coastal protection was formulated based on Pascal et al. (2016) as the significant inflow component. In addition, the temporal provision of ecosystem services was calculated based on economic data and valuation calculated and reported by Buckwell et al. (2019) and Mackey et al. (2017). ...
Article
Coral reef ecosystems provide a broad spectrum of essential ecological, economic and cultural services for Small Island Developing State (SIDS) communities. However, coral reef communities are increasingly threatened by the adverse impacts of human activities at both global and local scales. This study aims to develop an integrated dynamic assessment framework to evaluate coral reef conditions under different adaptation and climate change scenarios, and their consequential economic impacts in the small island community of Port Resolution on Tanna Island in Vanuatu. Our assessment framework follows a sequential multilayered modelling approach that uses System Dynamics (SD) coupled with Bayesian Network (BN) modelling to deal with the complexity and dynamicity of socioeconomic and environmental systems, and impacts from trans-discipline variables. The BN incorporated existing data and expert knowledge to project the future conditions of coral reefs under different scenario settings, and to parametrise and quantify the SD model where the existing data and information was insufficient. The SD was then used to simulate the dynamic relationship between coral reef condition and the economic benefits derived from its ecosystem services under different climate change (i.e. RCPs) and management scenarios through to 2070. Our findings show that sustainable community-based conservation management strategies are key to preserving the flow of coral reef ecosystem services under RCP 2.6 and 6.0. Importantly, we demonstrate that the implementation of an integrated portfolio of management strategies better protects ecosystem services provided by coral reefs and maximises the total economic benefits achieved over the long-term despite a temporary and short-term economic loss due to high initial capital investments and income reduction due to fishing and tourism restrictions.
Article
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The coral‐algal symbiosis is the biological engine that drives one of the most spectacular structures on Earth: the coral reef. Here, living coral microhabitats are engineered using 3D bioprinting, as biomimetic model system of the coral‐algal symbiosis. Various bioinks for the encapsulation of coral photosymbiotic microalgae (Breviolum psygmophilum) are developed and coral mass transfer phenomena are mimicked by 3D bioprinting coral tissue and skeleton microscale features. At the tissue–seawater interface, the biomimetic coral polyp and connective tissue structures successfully replicate the natural build‐up of the O2 diffusive boundary layer. Inside the bioprinted construct, coral‐like microscale gastric cavities are engineered using a multi‐material bioprinting process. Underneath the tissue, the constructs mimic the porous architecture of the coral aragonite skeleton at the micrometer scale, which can be manipulated to assess the effects of skeletal architecture on stress‐related hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. The bioprinted living coral microhabitats replicate the diffusion‐related phenomena that underlie the functioning and breakdown of the coral‐algal symbiosis and can be exploited for the additive manufacturing of synthetic designer corals. Biomimetic living coral microhabitats are manufactured using 3D bioprinting. The biomimetic corals use a symbiont bioink and mimic mass transfer phenomena central to the functioning of the coral‐algal photosymbiosis. Such novel symbiotic biomaterials can be exploited for the engineering of synthetic microbial consortia and as a biomimetic model system for the coral‐algal symbiosis.
Article
Ecosystem service valuation (ESV) can inform land-use change policy and adaptation responses to climate change in Pacific Small Island Developing States. Despite Small Island Developing States communities relying acutely and directly on ecosystem service (ES) flows, methodologies must contend with limited valuation data and challenges. We undertake ESV to generate coefficients we then apply to mapped habitat extents for Vanuatu. We find the contribution of ESs to the people of Vanuatu is considerable and significantly larger than its gross domestic product. Therefore, policies that support ecologically sustainable exploitation of ESs are paramount in promoting community well-being. We also identify and discuss context-specific methodological challenges, which, if not addressed, risk distorting valuations, supporting perverse policy responses, and eroding confidence in ESV. We make recommendations to address the challenges of accounting for ecosystem condition, data gaps, and consideration of customary benefits, provide context to the interpretation of our results, and suggest where further research can ameliorate risks.
Article
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Coral reefs represent an efficient natural mechanical coastal defense against ocean waves. The focus of this study is La Saline fringing coral reef, located in the microtidal West of La Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean, frequently exposed to Southern Ocean swell and cyclonic events. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the reef's coastal defense characteristics for several Southern Ocean swell events. Pressure sensors were placed across the reef to measure water level fluctuations and to study wave transformation. A numerical model (XBeach surfbeat), validated using field observations, was used to deepen understanding of wave transformation, wave setup and runup. Field measurements and model outputs show that as gravity waves dissipate over the reef, and frequency‐dependent dissipation of infragravity waves by bottom‐friction occurs, the reef acts as a low‐pass filter. Wave‐induced setup is found to be the dominant hydrodynamic component. Setup and runup are each 98% and 79% driven by the offshore significant wave height, and 2% and 21% driven by the tide. The modulation of the water level by setup is the main contributor to runup in the fringing reef. At semidiurnal timescales, setup and runup are in antiphase with tidal variations as lower water levels result in higher gravity wave energy dissipation, setup and runup. Simple‐to‐use transfer functions relating incident wave characteristics to these hydrodynamic components are proposed. The effects of bottom friction and water level on the defensive capacity of the coral reef highlight future implications of structural damage and sea level rise.
Article
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Due to climate change and human activities, coral reef ecosystems are facing a crisis of degradation globally. Some coral reefs in the northern part of Wuzhizhou Island (Southeastern Hainan Island, the South China Sea) have been fragmented because of continuous disturbance, and we systematically conducted in-situ restoration experiments to accelerate the ecological restoration in this area. In September 2019, 40 reefs with hollow structures were placed in the experimental area, and a control area was selected at the same depth. Twenty of the 40 reefs were covered by a cylindrical grid with a diameter of 0.5 cm (GFn group), and the remaining 20 were covered by a flat grid with a width of 1 cm (BFn group). A total of 1140 coral colonies, composed of Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora microphthalma, Acropora florida, Montipora truncata, and Porites lutea, were transplanted in this experiment, with an overall survival rate of 94.27% due to the coral transplant base of the carrying reefs being of sufficient weight, hollow structure, and dense grid. The survival rate and annual growth rate of Acropora in the GFn group with a narrow but large mesh and cylindrical design were significantly higher, and the fastest growth rate was found in A. hyacinthus, growing at 27.33 ± 10.37 cm²·month⁻¹. Montipora truncata and P. lutea in the BFn group with a wide mesh and flat structure had higher survival rates and significantly greater growth rates. In the ecology of the coral community, coral coverage in the GFn group was significantly higher compared with the BFn group, which was mainly attributed to the difference in the growth of Acropora. Compared with the reef fragmentation area, the three-dimensional structure of the hollow reef and its radiation effect significantly attracted the accumulation of large invertebrates and reef fishes. Sea cucumbers and sea urchins gathered faster, forming a stable community structure. The dominant fish species gradually transformed from the large algae-eating fish Siganus fuscessens to the territorial algae-eating fish Dascyllus reticulatus due to changes in the three-dimensional structure of the grid surface caused by coral growth. Studies have shown that the three-dimensional structure of a reef can significantly affect the aggregation of benthic organisms. Among the selected corals, Acropora grew more rapidly, which established more complex three-dimensional structures to achieve a better ecological restoration effect in the reef area. The combination of tiled Montipora and lumpy Porites could increase the base coverage and reduce the impact of algae on the corals. Our results suggest that when transplanting different types of corals, we should consider the use of multiple comprehensive factors such as the type of the reef, the structure of the grid, the characteristics of the transplanted corals, and the influence of environmental factors.
Article
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Coral reefs feed millions of people worldwide, provide coastal protection and generate billions of dollars annually in tourism revenue. The underlying architecture of a reef is a biogenic carbonate structure that accretes over many years of active biomineralization by calcifying organisms, including corals and algae. Ocean acidification poses a chronic threat to coral reefs by reducing the saturation state of the aragonite mineral of which coral skeletons are primarily composed, and lowering the concentration of carbonate ions required to maintain the carbonate reef. Reduced calcification, coupled with increased bioerosion and dissolution, may drive reefs into a state of net loss this century. Our ability to predict changes in ecosystem function and associated services ultimately hinges on our understanding of community- and ecosystem-scale responses. Past research has primarily focused on the responses of individual species rather than evaluating more complex, community-level responses. Here we use an in situ carbon dioxide enrichment experiment to quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to acidification. We present an estimate of community-scale calcification sensitivity to ocean acidification that is, to our knowledge, the first to be based on a controlled experiment in the natural environment. This estimate provides evidence that near-future reductions in the aragonite saturation state will compromise the ecosystem function of coral reefs.
Article
Coral reefs provide exceptional biodiversity and ecosystem services for local economies. Well marketed, vibrant marine biodiversity has been demonstrated to generate substantial economic benefits for local populations through revenues from visitors and businesses. However, around one fifth of the world’s coral reefs have already been lost, and more than 60% are reported to be under immediate and direct threat. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs - marine zones with specific regulations for different uses) are among the most effective tools in the scientific literature used in the protection of threatened reefs. To be successful though, MPAs (and other forms of marine conservation) require financing and management resources that can exceed public budget priorities. During the last five years, a community of investors seeking positive social and environmental returns in addition to financial returns have stepped in to fill the marine conservation financing gap. These Impact Investors have invested over US$8 billion since 2004 in food and agriculture, forestry, habitat protection, clean water initiatives, and other conservation projects. With respect to marine biodiversity, a small but positive track record of impact investments has confirmed the feasibility of achieving environmental, social and financial returns in tandem. Recent reports also revealed that at least US$3.1 billion in committed capital is sitting on the sidelines, awaiting attractive deals. Blue finance, is a novel approach piloted by the United Nations Environment Program, which seeks to provide a diversified portfolio of investments through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for the management of MPAs. In addition to generating financial returns through sound business models, PPPs can have positive social and environmental impacts, playing roles in restoring marine biodiversity, improving tourism and creating significant job opportunities in the tourism and fishery sectors. © 2018 Nicholas Pascal, Angelique Brathwaite, Tanya Bryan, Maxime Philip, & Melissa Walsh.
Technical Report
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NAVIGATING OCEAN RISK 2 COLOPHON WWF and Metabolic are working in partnership to explore the potential of system dynamics modelling in informing financial advocacy in the blue economy, with the ultimate goal of supporting sustainable practices that drive positive economic and environmental outcomes in marine sectors.
Chapter
Simultaneous with the increases in global sea surface temperature, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is driving changes in the chemistry of the oceans—a process known as ocean acidification. Over the last two decades, reef-related ocean acidification research has focused primarily on the consequences of elevated CO2 on calcification. The impacts of ocean acidification on other critical processes such as coral-algal symbioses and bleaching thresholds are less well known. In this chapter, I review the available literature on the impacts of ocean acidification on coral bleaching. I begin by providing context for ocean acidification and its impacts on coral reefs. I focus primarily on primary literature investigating the effects of CO2 on photophysiology, coral–algal symbioses, and bleaching responses while shedding light on information needs and unresolved issues. I also briefly touch on environmental factors other than temperature and ocean acidification that have the potential to influence coral bleaching responses (e.g., nutrients).
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The rapid loss of estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) in recent years has raised concerns over their role in protecting coastal communities from storms that damage property, cause deaths, and inflict injuries. This paper reviews valuation studies of the protective service of ECEs in terms of reducing flood damages. Although the number of studies have grown significantly, there is still a need for a greater range of studies in more locations and for a wider variety of ecosystems. This review also examines, from an economic perspective, the issues and challenges surrounding estimating the protective benefits of ECEs, as exemplified by some of the recent valuation studies. Recent developments in valuation methods are summarized and critically reviewed. Important challenges remain in valuing coastal ecosystems as a defense against flood damages. The review discusses two of them, such as how protective benefits are subject to spatial variability and dependent on connectivity across “seascapes.” These challenges, along with analyzing the multiple benefits of estuarine and coastal ecosystems, are important areas of future research priority.
Article
Coral reefs provide a multitude of goods and services, some of which are difficult to value due to their intangible nature and the absence of markets to ascribe their relative worth. The coral reefs of Sodwana Bay on the northeast coast of South Africa provide several ecological goods and services, of which only two are considered here: namely, sediment generation and sediment entrapment. Both are deemed essential to the functioning of the Sodwana Bay economy. The replacement-cost method was used to estimate the annual financial cost of sediment provided to the study area if it were replaced by dredging. Sediment generation by the coral reefs was valued at R2.6–R4.8 million, and sediment entrapment valued at R71.8–R84.6 million, totalling between R74.4 million and R89.4 million (≈$5.6–$6.7 million, at R13.38/US$1) per year.
Technical Report
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The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by increasing the exposure of coastal communities to flooding hazards. The protective services of these natural defenses are not assessed in the same rigorous economic terms as artificial defenses, such as seawalls, and therefore often are not considered in decision making. Here we combine engineering, ecologic, geospatial, social, and economic tools to provide a rigorous valuation of the coastal protection benefits of all populated U.S. coral reefs in the States of Hawaii and Florida, the Territories of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We follow risk-based valuation approaches to map flood zones at 10-square-meter resolution along all 3,100+ kilometers of U.S. reef-lined shorelines for different storm probabilities that account for the effect of coral reefs in reducing coastal flooding. We quantify the coastal flood risk reduction benefits provided by coral reefs using the latest information from the U.S. Census Bureau, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Bureau of Economic Analysis for return-interval storm events and in terms of their annual expected benefits, a measure of the annual protection provided by coral reefs. Based on these results, the annual protection provided by U.S. coral reefs is estimated in: • Avoided flooding to more than 18,180 people, • Avoided direct damages of more than $825 million to more than 5,694 buildings, • Avoided flooding to more than 33 critical infrastructure facilities, including essential facilities, utility systems, and transportation systems, and • Avoided indirect damages of more than $699 million in economic activity of individuals and more than $272 million in avoided business interruption annually. Thus, the annual value of flood risk reduction provided by U.S. coral reefs is more than 18,000 lives and $1.805 billion in 2010 U.S. dollars. These data provide stakeholders and decision makers with spatially explicit, rigorous valuation of how, where, and when U.S. coral reefs provide critical coastal storm flood reduction benefits. The overall goal is to ultimately reduce the risk to, and increase the resiliency of, U.S. coastal communities.
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In outlining how “valuing the environment as input” could be applied to a number of contexts in low and middle-income countries, Karl-Göran Mäler laid the foundation for many additional applications of the production function approach as reported (Mäler in Valuing environmental benefits in developing countries. Special Report 29, Michigan State University, pp 11–32. 1991). The following review traces how his contribution has helped spawn a large literature on valuing ecosystem services as applied in low and middle-income countries. We examine a number of case studies illustrating such approaches. We also note growing interest in two important applications in low and middle-income countries: the hydrological function of forested watersheds and the storm protection provided by estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Using the example of storm protection by mangroves, we further explore the role of spatial characteristics in influencing the value attributed to this benefit.
Article
Illegal fishing may trigger structural disruption of the food chain and even damage the entire marine ecosystem. This paper proposes a new method for quantifying the value of eco-environment damage caused by illegal fishing; as an example, we used an illegal fishing case of anchovies in the vicinity of the Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve. Based on the data from the field investigation and literature, we estimated the number and age distribution of illegally harvested anchovies. Additionally, the potential number of the offspring was calculated according to the potential number and survival rate of anchovy eggs. Due to the unavailability of commercial anchovy fries, “alternative stock enhancement” was recommended to restore the damaged eco-environment. Notably, the alternative species should have similar economic value, status in the food chain, and living areas to anchovies. Eventually, we selected Liza haematocheilus as the alternative species and calculated the total eco-environment recovery cost.
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The need to generate wider interest in coastal management, and to identify new funds flows that can support costly coastal planning, management, and enforcement of regulations, is great. Innovative financing mechanisms are being borrowed from the terrestrial world, adapted for special use in the marine and coastal environment, where property rights are limited and where common pool resources necessitate continued access. Applying innovative financing instruments in the Pacific region holds promise, but examples of success are rare. This report reviews innovative financing mechanisms for marine and coastal conservation used around the world, assesses the processes that have led to use of innovative financing in the few cases that exist in the Pacific region, and makes recommendations for greater use of these powerful financing schemes to boost coastal management in the region. Financing instruments for use in bolstering conservation and management occur in a wide array of forms, covering a range of temporal and spatial scales. No widely-accepted typology of innovative financing exists. In this report, we classify instruments as of one of two types: 1) innovative financing to support conventional coastal management (i.e. management handled by competent government authorities, including local government where that is a long-established jurisdiction); and 2) financing to support best practices, often undertaken as a part of unconventional management. In the first case, we discuss conservation trust funds and endowments, public-private partnerships, user fees and rights-based fisheries revenues that channel monies into government-led management, eco-certification and eco-revenues that similarly funnel money back into government fisheries and coastal management, and biodiversity or carbon offsets. Innovative financing that supports innovative (unconventional) best practice or management (typically by user groups, communities, or trade associations) include payments for ecosystem services (PES), investments in watershed services (IWS), marine conservation agreements, and responsible investing (including impact investing). Admittedly the segregation of these instruments into two groups is artificial, and many tools can cross the line (for instance PES can be used to support government-led planning and management), however assessing innovative financing across this wide spectrum of schemes allows the greatest possible ability to learn and apply lessons from other parts of the world to the Pacific region. In the Pacific region, innovative financing examples can be lumped more broadly into end- user or beneficiary financing of management (usually a one-off donation, user fees or tax), private sector investment through sustained or periodic payment for ecosystem services, and foundation or multilateral/ bilateral donor financing. Impact investing and biodiversity banking was also investigated, however information about these instruments in the region is lacking. Overall, innovative financing seems to be recognized as holding promise for improved coastal management, however scheme development is nascent and progress seems to be impeded by a lack of recognition about the value (and marketability of ecosystem services), as well as appropriate models for developing and launching innovative financing schemes from other parts of the world. A discussion of the possible expansion of innovative financing in the Pacific includes a review of the following: marine/coastal conservation agreements; trust funds; tourism user fees; tourism concessions (PPPs); taxes; PES for coastal protection; PES to maintain scenic beauty; PES to enhance production (biomass) or water quality; entrepreneurial MPA tourism and aquaculture; coastal and pelagic fishing licensing; and biodiversity offsets / biobanking. We selected instruments to consider based on the following 3 criteria: i. Volumes of cash flow generation adapted to the specific Pacific ICZM budget needs; ii. Funding stakeholders (business sector, end users, investors, ODA) already present or with a potential to be present in the Pacific. iii. Operational and legal pre-feasibility in the Pacific context. Innovative financial mechanisms for coastal management in the Pacific - Report, November 2014 Page 2 of 53 Based on expert opinion, an additional and specific analysis for RESCCUE sites was performed on the 12 selected instruments. A preliminary assessment of the level of complexity (low-medium-high level) for the development of the proposed instrument in the context of each country was described. Complexity is based on a mix of (i) existing track record of success (influencing the difficulty to convince funding stakeholders), (ii) the environmental friendly profile of the industries and (iii) the legal framework (not adapted, easily adapted, ready) of each country. In the same way, the expected time span for implementation: short term (<2 years), medium (3<x<5 years) and long term (>6 years) was detailed. We conclude with recommendations and possible next steps catalyzed or mediated by RESCCUE. These include: 1) Establish a forum for South Pacific innovative financing, based on the model put forward by the East African Forum for Payment for Ecosystem Services (www.eafpes.org), in order to build awareness of and capacity for PES projects. 2) Conduct demonstration sites on a short list of selected instruments in the RESCCUE sites. Ideally a tourism user fee scheme, a conservation agreement and a PES mechanism should be represented in the whole project. The main limiting factors in the Pacific will be the legal framework (especially in French overseas territories) and the payment capacities of financing stakeholders. Therefore, creative thinking will be a key factor of success. 3) Conduct a thorough feasibility study for the Regional Trust Fund. The fundraising potential must be assessed as one of the main priorities. In the same way, conducting a fundraising campaign in the early stage will be crucial. The model of the Caribbean Biodiversity Fund (CBF) covering 8 countries and counting with US$40M in endowment fund from KFW, GEF and TNC could be used as a model. 4) Build capacity for Pacific nations to conduct feasibility assessments in order to determine whether innovative financing is both appropriate and achievable. Using the criteria developed by Forest Trends (described in the annex), rapid assessment of enabling conditions can help quickly pinpoint what areas need further investigation in order to conduct robust feasibility assessments, and plan effective innovative financing schemes. Finally, we present a list of considerations that planners, project developers, and investors might consider before attempting an innovative financing scheme. An extensive reference list provides additional background.
Book
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Money speaks louder than words. Putting a monetary value on environmental and social impacts usually increases the chance of these impacts being taken into account in decision making. This toolkit provides clear guidance on how the value of the environment in small islands can be estimated and incorporated into planning and development decisions. It explains why you would undertake a study, who should be involved, how to implement the study and how to use the results. It also contains guidance on how to hire external consultants if expertise is not available in-house. It has been designed primarily for government officials and NGOs, although it is also useful for others wanting to estimate the value of ecosystems and ecosystem services. This toolkit is part of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee’s ‘Environmental Economics with the Overseas Territories in the Caribbean’ (EEWOC) project. The project aims to build capacity in UK Overseas Territories in the Caribbean in using economic tools to help make policies and decisions more sustainable. The development of this toolkit was jointly funded by the Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP) and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). OTEP is a joint programme of the UK Government Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for International Development to support the implementation of the Environment Charters and environmental management more generally in the UK Overseas Territories. JNCC is the statutory adviser to the UK Government on UK and international nature conservation, including in the UK Overseas Territories.
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Over 1.3 billion people live on tropical coasts, primarily in developing countries. Many depend on adjacent coastal seas for food, and livelihoods. We show how trends in demography and in several local and global anthropogenic stressors are progressively degrading capacity of coastal waters to sustain these people. Far more effective approaches to environmental management are needed if the loss in provision of ecosystem goods and services is to be stemmed. We propose expanded use of marine spatial planning as a framework for more effective, pragmatic management based on ocean zones to accommodate conflicting uses. This would force the holistic, regional-scale reconciliation of food security, livelihoods, and conservation that is needed. Transforming how countries manage coastal resources will require major change in policy and politics, implemented with sufficient flexibility to accommodate societal variations. Achieving this change is a major challenge - one that affects the lives of one fifth of humanity.
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The world's coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence.
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Field measurements of wave height and speed from 7-m depth shoreward are described. The experiment plan consisted of a shore-normal transect of closely spaced (compared to a dominant wave length) velocity, pressure, and elevation sensors on an almost plane profile having an inshore slope of 1:50. As the waves shoal and begin to break, the dominant dissipative mechanism is due to turbulence generated at the crest, and wave heights become increasingly depth controlled as they progress across the surf zone. Wave heights in the inner surf zone are strongly depth independent: the envelope of the wave heights is described by H/sub rms/ = 0.42 h. The depth dependence of the breaking wave height is shown to be related to the kinematic instability criterion. Celerity spectra were measured by using phase spectra calculated between pairs of adjacent sensors. Inshore of 4-m depth, the celerity was found distant over the energetic region of the spectrum. A 'mean' celerity was compared with linear theory and was within +20% and -10%, showing good agreement for such a nonlinear, dissipative region.
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KENCH, P.S., and BRANDER, R.W., 2006. Wave processes on coral reef flats: implications for reef geomorphology using Australian case studies. Journal of Coastal Research, 22(1), 209-223. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749- 0208. Australian reef flats on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands atoll, Indian Ocean; Warraber Reef, Torres Strait; and Lady Elliot Island, Great Barrier Reef vary greatly in morphology (width, elevation) and hydrodynamic setting (wave and tidal regime). This study describes results from detailed wave and current measurements, under nonstorm conditions, along five reef flat transects on these reef systems and examines implications for surface geomorphic processes. Results show that wave frequency and transformation varies between reefs in a consistent manner dependent on tidal ele- vation, reef elevation, and reef width. A nondimensional reef energy window index (C) is developed that incorporates these critical factors (water depth at spring high tide and reef width). A statistically significant relation (95% confi- dence interval) between C and the proportion of time that wave energy propagates across reefs illustrates the index ability to characterise the wave process regime of reef flats and provide a physically meaningful descriptor of the efficacy of geomorphic processes on reefs. High values of C indicate narrow and low-elevation reef flats, which are exposed to high wave energy and are geomorphically active. Low values reflect wide and high-elevation reef flats associated with less active wave and geomorphic processes. Results show that while incident energy is undoubtedly an important factor for reef geomorphology, the nature of wave modification across reef flats is equally important in governing levels of geomorphic activity that control development of surface geomorphic features on reef platforms. ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS: Coral reefs, coastal morphodynamics, wave processes, reef flats, reef energy window index
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Ocean wave attenuation on coral reefs is discussed using data obtained from a preliminary field experiment and from the Seasat altimeter. Marked attenuation of the waves is observed, the rate being consistent with existing theories of bottom friction and wave breaking decay. In addition, there is a significant broadening of the spectrum during propagation across reefs. Three-dimensional effects, such as refraction and defraction, can also lead to substantial wave height reduction for significant distances adjacent to coral reefs. As a result, a matrix of such reefs provides significantly more wave attenuation than may initially be expected.
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This article provides results on the net benefits generated from the natural resources in the Bohol Marine Triangle (BMT) in the Philippines. The BMT spans over 112,000 ha and its coastal ecosystems are rich in biodiversity and provide economic opportunities to the coastal communities. With a 10% discount rate, the accumulated total net benefits for the BMT resources over a 10-year period is US$11.54 million. Tourism and the municipal fisheries are the most important direct use values of the coastal and marine resources of the BMT accounting for 44% and 39% of the total net benefits. Annual revenues attributed to ecosystems were as follows: coral reefs, US$1.26 million; beach/intertidal area, US$1.12 million; marine waters, US$646,501; mangrove, US$239,561; and seagrass, US$105,990. The large market values indicate the dependence of the local community on the BMT coastal and marine resources. In the same way, non-market values show the important life-support functions of coastal and marine ecosystems. The net benefits reflect the magnitude of potential losses due to improper management of coastal and marine resources in the BMT. This valuation highlights the importance of the coastal services to the BMT economy and draws attention to the benefits the local stakeholders derive from BMT coastal resources. Policy measures can now take into account these values to justify a sufficient investment in coastal management efforts to sustain the flow of coastal services in the interest of current and future generations.
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a b s t r a c t This paper examines the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves. It presents a meta-analysis of the economic valuation literature and applies the estimated value function to assess the value of mangroves in Southeast Asia. We construct a database containing 130 value estimates, largely for mangroves in Southeast Asia. Values are standardised to US$ per hectare per year in 2007 prices. The mean and median values are found to be 4185 and 239 US$/ha/year respectively. The values of mangrove ecosystem services are highly variable across study sites due to, amongst other factors, the bio-physical characteristics of the site and the socio-economic characteristics of the beneficiaries of ecosystem services. We include explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on estimated mangrove values. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to quantify potentially important spatial variables, including the abundance of mangroves, the population of beneficiaries, and the density of roads in the vicinity of each study site. The meta-analytic value function is used to estimate the change in value of mangrove ecosystem services in Southeast Asia under a baseline scenario of mangrove loss for the period 2000–2050. The estimated foregone annual benefits in 2050 are US$ 2.2 billion, with a prediction interval of US$ 1.6–2.8 billion. & 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) is affecting a number of critical benefits, or ecosystem services. We review the main ecological services across a variety of ECEs, including marshes, mangroves, nearshore coral reefs, seagrass beds, and sand beaches and dunes. Where possible, we indicate estimates of the key economic values arising from these services, and discuss how the natural variability of ECEs impacts their benefits, the synergistic relationships of ECEs across seascapes, and management implications. Although reliable valuation estimates are beginning to emerge for the key services of some ECEs, such as coral reefs, salt marshes, and mangroves, many of the important benefits of seagrass beds and sand dunes and beaches have not been assessed properly. Even for coral reefs, marshes, and mangroves, important ecological services have yet to be valued reliably, such as cross-ecosystem nutrient transfer (coral reefs), erosion control (marshes), and pollution control (mangroves). An important issue for valuing certain ECE services, such as coastal protection and habitat–fishery linkages, is that the ecological functions underlying these services vary spatially and temporally. Allowing for the connectivity between ECE habitats also may have important implications for assessing the ecological functions underlying key ecosystems services, such coastal protection, control of erosion, and habitat–fishery linkages. Finally, we conclude by suggesting an action plan for protecting and/or enhancing the immediate and longer-term values of ECE services. Because the connectivity of ECEs across land–sea gradients also influences the provision of certain ecosystem services, management of the entire seascape will be necessary to preserve such synergistic effects. Other key elements of an action plan include further ecological and economic collaborative research on valuing ECE services, improving institutional and legal frameworks for management, controlling and regulating destructive economic activities, and developing ecological restoration options.
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Since the late 1960s, the valuation of ecosystem services has received ample attention in scientific literature. However, to date, there has been relatively little elaboration of the various spatial and temporal scales at which ecosystem services are supplied. This paper analyzes the spatial scales of ecosystem services, and it examines how stakeholders at different spatial scales attach different values to ecosystem services. The paper first establishes an enhanced framework for the valuation of ecosystem services, with specific attention for stakeholders. The framework includes a procedure to assess the value of regulation services that avoids double counting of these services. Subsequently, the paper analyses the spatial scales of ecosystem services: the ecological scales at which ecosystem services are generated, and the institutional scales at which stakeholders benefit from ecosystem services. On the basis of the proposed valuation framework, we value four selected ecosystem services supplied by the De Wieden wetlands in The Netherlands, and we analyze how these services accrue to stakeholders at different institutional scales. These services are the provision of reed for cutting, the provision of fish, recreation, and nature conservation. In the De Wieden wetland, reed cutting and fisheries are only important at the municipal scale, recreation is most relevant at the municipal and provincial scale, and nature conservation is important in particular at the national and international level. Our analysis shows that stakeholders at different spatial scales can have very different interests in ecosystem services, and we argue that it is highly important to consider the scales of ecosystem services when valuation of services is applied to support the formulation or implementation of ecosystem management plans.
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Several recent models suggest that the frequency of Atlantic tropical cyclones could decrease as the climate warms. However, these models are unable to reproduce storms of category 3 or higher intensity. We explored the influence of future global warming on Atlantic hurricanes with a downscaling strategy by using an operational hurricane-prediction model that produces a realistic distribution of intense hurricane activity for present-day conditions. The model projects nearly a doubling of the frequency of category 4 and 5 storms by the end of the 21st century, despite a decrease in the overall frequency of tropical cyclones, when the downscaling is based on the ensemble mean of 18 global climate-change projections. The largest increase is projected to occur in the Western Atlantic, north of 20 degrees N.
Article
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Protection against coastal disasters has been identified as an important service of mangrove ecosystems. Empirical studies on this service have been criticized, however, for using small samples and inadequately controlling for confounding factors. We used data on several hundred villages to test the impact of mangroves on human deaths during a 1999 super cyclone that struck Orissa, India. We found that villages with wider mangroves between them and the coast experienced significantly fewer deaths than ones with narrower or no mangroves. This finding was robust to the inclusion of a wide range of other variables to our statistical model, including controls for the historical extent of mangroves. Although mangroves evidently saved fewer lives than an early warning issued by the government, the retention of remaining mangroves in Orissa is economically justified even without considering the many benefits they provide to human society besides storm-protection services.
Article
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In this study, we employ a choice-based conjoint survey design to elicit individual choices of beach erosion control programs that can potentially cause multiple effects on beach environment. Two empirical choice models, which incorporate individual heterogeneity, are used to analyze and compare the elicited individual choices of erosion control programs. Our results show that to a typical individual, both the positive and negative impacts of the programs affect his/her choices. We find that the economic benefit of an erosion control program to preserve a stretch of sand beach can be grossly exaggerated if potential negative impacts on the coastal environment from the same program are not considered. This study demonstrates feasible comparisons of beach erosion control programs that account for their multiple effects, as well as the demographics of program locations.
Article
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A common assumption is that ecosystem services respond linearly to changes in habitat size. This assumption leads frequently to an "all or none" choice of either preserving coastal habitats or converting them to human use. However, our survey of wave attenuation data from field studies of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, nearshore coral reefs, and sand dunes reveals that these relationships are rarely linear. By incorporating nonlinear wave attenuation in estimating coastal protection values of mangroves in Thailand, we show that the optimal land use option may instead be the integration of development and conservation consistent with ecosystem-based management goals. This result suggests that reconciling competing demands on coastal habitats should not always result in stark preservation-versus-conversion choices.
Article
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Payments for environmental services (PES) have attracted increasing interest as a mechanism to translate external, non-market values of the environment into real financial incentives for local actors to provide environmental services (ES). In this introductory paper, we set the stage for the rest of this Special Issue of Ecological Economics by reviewing the main issues arising in PES design and implementation and discussing these in the light of environmental economics. We start with a discussion of PES definition and scope. We proceed to review some of the principal dimensions and design characteristics of PES programs and then analyze how PES compares to alternative policy instruments. Finally, we examine in detail two important aspects of PES programs: their effectiveness and their distributional implications. PES is not a silver bullet that can be used to address any environmental problem, but a tool tailored to address a specific set of problems: those in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of ecosystem managers. PES is based on the beneficiary-pays rather than the polluter-pays principle, and as such is attractive in settings where ES providers are poor, marginalized landholders or powerful groups of actors. An important distinction within PES is between user-financed PES in which the buyers are the users of the ES, and government-financed PES in which the buyers are others (typically the government) acting on behalf of ES users. In practice, PES programs differ in the type and scale of ES demand, the payment source, the type of activity paid for, the performance measure used, as well as the payment mode and amount. The effectiveness and efficiency of PES depends crucially on program design.
Conference Paper
The wave climate along the northeastern tropical coastline of Australia is controlled by The Great Barrier Reef (GBR). However, the processes by which the GBR attenuates and transforms waves are little understood. As the first part of an on-going study of the interaction between waves and coral reefs, a field experiment was conducted to study the processes that occur as waves break on an offshore reef and proceed across the reef flat into the lagoon. Eighteen wave, water level, and current measuring instruments were deployed and data for a wide range of tide and wave conditions were collected. Preliminary results for wave attenuation are presented. Results for wave attenuation across the reef show that wave heights on the reef flat and in its lagoon are controlled by the depth of water over the windward reef flat. As the waves travel across the reef flat, the ratio of significant wave height to water depth reduces to a value of 0.40, and the ratio of maximum wave height to water depth reduces to a value of 0.6 to 0.8. In the deeper water in the middle of the reef lagoon both the ratios of significant wave height to the depth over the reef flat and maximum wave height to the depth over the reef flat remain in the above ranges. However, at the mid-lagoon position these results are less general as wave heights inside a lagoon are also dependant on wind speed, direction, and fetch length inside the lagoon.
Article
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) controls the wave climate along much of the Queensland coast. However, the processes by which the GBR attenuates and transforms waves are little understood. As the first part of a three year study of the interaction between waves and coral reefs, a field experiment was conducted at John Brewer Reef located off Townsville. This field experiment was designed to study the processes that occur as waves break on the reef edge and proceed across the reef flat into the lagoon. Eighteen wave, water level, and current measuring instruments were deployed for the experiment. The instruments were in operation during September and October 1988 and experienced a wide range of tide and wave conditions. Results for wave attenuation across the reef show that wave heights on the reef and in its lagoon are controlled by tide level and that the ratio of significant wave height to water depth tends to a constant value of 0.35 to 0.40.
Article
This paper considers the hydrodynamics of wave-driven flow across a coral reef and the resultant flushing of its lagoon. Current depth coefficients are introduced that describe the fractional change of across-reef and lagoonal current with change in the relative local sea level, i.e., the depth of water over the reef flat. The coefficients are derived from an analytical hydrodynamic model and compared with data from two reefs. The first is Ningaloo Reef in northwest Australia, which is a typical barrier reef with a narrow coastal lagoon, and the second is Kaneohe Bay in Oahu, Hawaii, where the reef is both unusually deep and wide. The current depth coefficients are shown to be sensitive to the form of the frictional law on the reef flat and can be deduced from measurements of the astronomical tidal currents in the lagoon. Both quadratic and linear friction laws are considered for the reef flat and good agreement obtained with a linear law based on the high-frequency motion due to surface gravity waves.
Article
services they provide to humans (see Box 1). This article defended the idea that every ecosystem can be divided up into its various components and services, each of whose value can be estimated on the basis of the data provided by the many different studies that describe and quantify biological functions, before shifting over to the economic domain. These values, divided on the basis of "use values" and "non-use values", range from the most tangible such as the price that can be gained from selling all or part of a natural asset to the most abstract such as the value attributed to the continued existence of that asset for the enjoyment of future generations (herit-age or bequest value). The cumulative sum of all those values leads to the concept of "total economic value" (TEV), which obviously can be applied to sharks (Fig. 1). This TEV concept is far from perfect conceptually (see Box 2), but it has the merit of making it possible to grasp the diverse range of values that can be attached to a nat-ural asset. That is, how to differentiate from among the direct use values, those that are "consumptive" and those that are not. Consumptive direct-use values are mainly based on fishing, which provides a profit from shark catches by selling products such as their meat, but more particularly their fins, which gives rise to a very profit-able business. However, this use is consumptive because it contributes to the disappearance of sharks from their habitat with some well-known adverse effects, particu-larly through cascading effects on ecosystems (Myers et al. 2007). Such uses, therefore, appear less sustain-able than non-consumptive direct uses, which keep the animals in their ecosystems. The best example of a non-consumptive direct-use value is nature tourism or eco-tourism (Fig. 1). Economic value of shark-watching ecotourism Shark ecotourism first developed in the late 20 th cen-tury but mainly involved whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, a plankton-eating animal that is more like whales in ecology and behaviour than carnivorous sharks. Eco-nomic analyses of the dividends drawn from observ-ing this animal were done in Australia, which is still the top site in the world for this industry, which began in 1989. In 2006, each tourist in the Ningaloo Reef region
Article
Coral reefs are highly productive ecosystems that provide various valuable ecosystem services. The worldwide decline in coral cover and the expected increase of hurricane frequencies and sea level rise have raised the attention to one ecosystem service in particular. This is the coastal protection service of coral reefs, which is based on the principle that reefs dissipate wave energy by wave breaking or friction by reef structures and thus protecting coastal assets against floods. There have been several regional and local studies on economic value of coastal protection of coral reefs, each of which adopted simplifying assumptions on critical parameters such as reef and wave characteristics, climate and coastal development. The main objective of this paper is to develop a comprehensive analytical framework for spatial assessment and valuation of coastal protection services by coral reefs. The analytical framework is tested in the context of the United States Virgin Islands. The study is innovative because several aspects are explicitly integrated in the conceptual framework such as flood insurance rate maps (FIRMs), reef typology, a wave model and the depth-damage model. The coastal protection value of coral reef ecosystems in the USVI is estimated at an annual value of 1.2 M USD attributed to friction of coral structures.
Article
A key challenge in evaluating coastal and watershed management decisions is that monitoring efforts are largely focused on reef condition, yet stakeholder concerns may be more appropriately quantified by social and economic metrics. There is an urgent need for predictive models to quantitatively link ecological condition of coral reefs to provisioning of reef ecosystem goods and services. We investigated and compared a number of existing methods for quantifying ecological integrity, shoreline protection, recreational opportunities, fisheries production, and the potential for natural products discovery from reefs. Methods were applied to mapping potential ecosystem services production around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Overall, we found that a number of different methods produced similar predictions. Furthermore, areas predicted to be high in ecological integrity also tended to be high in other ecosystem services, including the potential for recreation, natural products discovery, and fisheries production, but this result depended on the method by which ecosystem services supply was calculated. Quantitative methods linking reef condition to ecosystem goods and services can aid in highlighting the social and economic relevance of reefs, and provide essential information to more completely characterize, model, and map the trade-offs inherent in decision options.