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Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Authors:
  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
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Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated
Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique
Mahendra Kumar T1, Alice B1, Dahryn T1, Gopal N1, Parthasarathi P2 and Snehasis J2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author: Snehasis J, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026,
Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: 917556660006, E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received date: Apr 28, 2016; Accepted date: May 13, 2016; Published date: May 16, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Mahendra Kumar T et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract
The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity,
biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the
synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was
designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or
2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry
(GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered
as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy
transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted
by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield
energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and
biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for
C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the
fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control
sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the
isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by
1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic
abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%,
and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to
m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were
significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit
altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy,
and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as
intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical
properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing
extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
Keywords: Bioeld energy treatment; e Trivedi Eect®; Resorcinol;
Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry; Isotopic abundance ratio;
Isotope eects
Abbreviations
A: Element; GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; M:
Mass of the parent molecule;
m/z
: Mass-to-charge ratio; n: Number of
the element; PM: e relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion
[M+]; PM+1: e relative peak intensity of isotopic molecular ion [(M
+1)+]); PM+2: e relative peak intensity of isotopic molecular ion [(M
+2)+]); Rt: Retention time
Introduction
Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis (SIRA) is the analysis of natural
abundance variations in stable isotopes include 2H, 13C, 15N, 18O, 34S,
37Cl, etc. which have dierent atomic masses due to the variation in
number of neutrons in the nucleus and is a powerful technique for the
measurement of the ow of materials and energy both within and
among organisms [1-3]. is technique is widely applied in various
scientic elds such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry,
metabolism, medical research, forensic chemistry, military, sports,
environmental pollution, earth and planetary sciences, archaeology,
etc. [2-6]. e change in isotopic abundance ratio between the isotopic
forms of the molecule causes isotope eects i.e. the alterations in
physical and chemical properties of the molecule because of their tiny
mass dierences [5,6]. e isotopic composition of the isotopic
molecules is considered through isotope amount ratios or isotope
amount fractions [7]. It has been found from the literature that change
in isotopic composition of the molecule has an eect on its chemical
reactions (reaction rate and bond strength), physicochemical
properties, thermal motion, molecular spectra, chemical equilibria, etc.
[5-9]. SIRA is applied in pharmaceutical industry for the
determination of the pharmacokinetic prole or mode of action of a
drug substance, bioavailability of the drug products, the release prole
for the drug delivery systems and also used for the assessment in
relation to patient-specic drug treatment [4]. Mass spectrometry
(MS) technique is the major choice for the isotope ratio analysis,
although other techniques such as infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta Mahendra, Pharm Anal Acta 2016, 7:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2153-2435.1000481
Research Article Open Access
Pharm Anal Acta
ISSN:2153-2435 PAA an open access journal Volume 7 • Issue 5 • 1000481
magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and neutron activation
analysis (NAA) can be used [7,10]. e measurement of the ratio of
natural isotopic abundances in the molecules having molar isotope
enrichments at below 0.1% is usually performed on a specialized
instruments like isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS), multiple
collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Various
interfaces such as elemental analyzers (EA-IRMS), gas chromatographs
(GC-IRMS) and liquid chromatographs (LC-IRMS) are commonly
applied to introduce samples into the IRMS [2,4,10]. If the molar
isotope enrichment levels of the molecule are above 0.1%, conventional
scanning mass spectrometer such as GCMS, LCMS, HRMS, etc. is able
to perform isotope ratio measurement at low micromolar
concentration levels with sucient precision. e peak height (i.e.
relative intensity) in the mass spectra is directly proportional to the
relative isotopic abundance of the sample [11-14].
Resorcinol is one of the most diversied chemical compounds in
organic chemistry and backbone of the several pharmaceuticals. It is a
white crystalline dihydric phenolic compound (Figure 1) having a
molecular formula C6H6O2 and molecular weight of 110.11. Literature
reported that the two hydroxyl groups at 1,3-position in the benzene
ring are principally responsible for the high reactivity of resorcinol.
Besides, the hydrogen atoms at carbon atoms 2,4 and 6, which are
located near to the hydroxyl groups are also reactive [15,16].
Resorcinol and its derivatives have wide application in several areas
such as pharmaceuticals, food additives, veterinary products, dyes,
agrochemicals, rubber products, ame retardants, UV stabilisers, wood
adhesives, polymers, etc. [15-17]. As resorcinol has antibacterial,
antifungal and keratolytic activity, it is used for the treatment of
various dermatological disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis,
psoriasis, corns, warts, and eczema [17,18].
Figure 1: Structure of resorcinol.
Bioeld energy treatment (also known as e Trivedi Eect®) is
now-a-days increased its scientic attention for its astounding
capability to transform the physical, structural, and thermal properties
of several pharmaceuticals [19,20], nutraceuticals [21], organic
compounds [22-24], metals and ceramic in materials science [25,26],
and improve the overall productivity of crops [27,28] as well as to
modulate the ecacy of the various living cells [29-34]. On the other
hand, it has been found from the literatures that bioeld energy
treatment has notable capacity for altering the isotopic abundance
ratio of the organic compounds [35-38]. Recently, spectroscopic and
thermal analysis in resorcinol revealed that the physicochemical and
thermal properties of resorcinol was signicantly altered due to the
bioeld energy treatment. Consequently, the observed ndings
suggested that bioeld treated resorcinol that had reduced
volatilization temperature might be useful to increase the rate of those
reactions where resorcinol is used as synthetic intermediate [18]. By
considering all these aspects, stable isotope ratio analysis of the both
control and bioeld treated resorcinol using GC-MS was performed
here to investigate the eect of the bioeld energy treatment on the
isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and
18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol.
Materials and Methods
Chemicals and reagents
Resorcinol was obtained from Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., India. All the
other chemicals used in this experiment were analytical grade
purchased from local vendors.
Bioeld energy treatment
Resorcinol was divided into two portions: one was denoted as
untreated or control and other part was considered as bioeld energy
treated sample. e sample for the treatment was handed over to Mr.
Trivedi in a sealed condition. e bioeld energy treatment was
provided by Mr. Trivedi (also known as e Trivedi Eect®) through
his unique energy transmission process to the test product in a sealed
pack under laboratory conditions for 5 minutes without touching the
sample.
e control and bioeld energy treated samples were characterized
by Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aer
treatment, the bioeld treated sample was stored at standard
laboratory condition and analyzed by GC-MS in dierent time
intervals referred as T1, T2, T3, and T4.
Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
GC-MS analysis was conducted on Perkin Elmer/Auto system XL
with Turbo mass, USA. e GC-MS was performed in a silica capillary
column. It was equipped with a quadrupole detector with pre-lter,
one of the fastest, widest mass ranges available for any GC-MS. e
mass spectrometer was operated in an electron ionization (EI)
positive/negative, and chemical ionization mode at the electron
ionization energy of 70 eV. Mass range: 10-650 Daltons (amu),
stability: ± 0.1 m/z mass accuracy over 48 hours. e analytes were
characterized by retention time and by a comparison of the mass
spectra of identied substances with references [42].
Method for the calculation of isotopic abundance ratio from
the GC-MS spectra
e isotopic abundances of the elements are basically categorized
into three types: A elements having only one natural isotope in
appreciable abundance; A + 1 elements (For e.g. C, N and H)
containing two isotopes – one isotope is one nominal mass unit
heavier than the most abundant isotope, and A + 2 elements (For e.g.
O, Cl, S, Si, and Br) having an isotope that has two mass unit heavier
than the most abundant isotope.
e natural abundance of each isotope can be predicted from the
comparison of the height of the isotope peak with respect to the base
peak, i.e. relative intensity in the mass spectra [11-14]. e value of the
natural isotopic abundance of the some elements are obtained from
several literatures and presented in the Table 1 [4,11,12,39,40].
Citation: Mahendra Kumar T, Alice B, Dahryn T, Gopal N, Parthasarathi P, Snehasis J (2016) Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in
Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique. Pharm Anal Acta 7: 481. doi:
10.4172/2153-2435.1000481
Page 2 of 7
Pharm Anal Acta
ISSN:2153-2435 PAA an open access journal Volume 7 • Issue 5 • 1000481
Element Symbol Mass % Natural
Abundance
A+1
Factor
A+2
Factor
Hydrogen 1H 1 99.9885
2H 2 0.0115 0.015 nH
Carbon 12C 12 98.892
13C 13 1.108 1.1 nC
Oxygen 16O 16 99.762
17O 17 0.038 0.04nO
18O 18 0.200 0.20 nO
Nitrogen 14N 14 99.60
15N 15 0.40 0.40 nN
Chlorine 35Cl 35 75.78
37Cl 37 24.22 32.50 nCl
Table 1: e isotopic composition (i.e. the natural isotopic abundance)
of the elements. A represents element, n represents the number of the
element (i.e. C, H. O, N, etc.)
Based on the ndings from the literatures [11-13], the following
method was used for calculating the isotopic abundance ratio in the
current study:
PM stands for the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion
[M+] expressed in percentage. In other way, it indicates the probability
to have A elements (for e.g. 12C, 1H, 16O, 14N, etc.) contributions to the
mass of the parent molecular ion [M+]. PM+1 represents the relative
peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+] expressed in
percentage = (no. of 13C x 1.1%) + (no. of 15N x 0.40%) + (no. of 2H x
0.015%) + (no. of 17O x 0.04%) i.e. the probability to have A + 1
elements (for e.g. 13C, 2H, 15N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the
isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+]. PM+2 represents the relative peak
intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)+] expressed in the
percentage = (no. of 18O x 0.20%) + (no. of 37Cl x 32.50%) i.e. the
probability to have A + 2 elements (for e.g. 16O, 37Cl, 34S, etc.)
contributions to the mass of isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)+]
Isotopic abundance ratio for A + 1 elements = PM + 1/PM
Similarly, isotopic abundance ratio for A + 2 elements = PM+2/PM
Percentage (%) change in isotopic abundance ratio = [(IARTreated
IARControl)/ IARControl) x 100], Where, IARTreated = isotopic abundance
ratio in the treated sample and IARControl = isotopic abundance ratio in
the control sample.
Results and Discussion
GC-MS analysis
e GC-MS spectra of the control and bioeld treated samples at
T1, T2, T3 and T4 are presented in the Figures 2-4. e GC-MS
spectrum of the control resorcinol (Figure 2) indicated the presence of
molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2)
along with ve major fragmented peaks in lower m/z region at the
retention time of 12.43 min.
is fragmentation pattern was well matched with the literature
[41]. e peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39 might be due to C6H10,
C6H9+, C5H9+, C4H5+ and C3H3+ ions, respectively as shown in Figure
2. e GC-MS spectra of the bioeld treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3,
and T4 as shown in Figures 3 and 4 exhibited molecular ion peak [M+]
at
m/z
110 at the retention time of 12.35, 12.42, 12.39 and 12.41 min
respectively, along with same pattern of fragmentation as shown in the
control sample. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented
ions for the bioeld treated resorcinol at T1, T3 and T4 was slightly
changed whether in case of T2, the relative peak intensity of the
fragmented ions was signicantly altered as compared with the control
sample.
Analysis of isotopic abundance ratio
Resorcinol has the molecular formula of C6H6O2 and the molecular
ion [M+] peak showed 100% relative intensity. PM+1 and PM+2 can be
calculated theoretically according to the method described in the
materials and method.
Figure 2: GC-MS spectrum and possible fragmentation of the
control resorcinol.
Figure 3: GC-MS spectra of the bioeld energy treated resorcinol at
T1 and T2.
Citation: Mahendra Kumar T, Alice B, Dahryn T, Gopal N, Parthasarathi P, Snehasis J (2016) Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in
Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique. Pharm Anal Acta 7: 481. doi:
10.4172/2153-2435.1000481
Page 3 of 7
Pharm Anal Acta
ISSN:2153-2435 PAA an open access journal Volume 7 • Issue 5 • 1000481
Figure 4: GC-MS spectra of the bioeld energy treated resorcinol at
T3 and T4.
P (13C) = [(6 x 1.1%) x 100% (the actual size of the M+ peak)] /
100% = 6.6%
P (2H) = [(6 x 0.015%) x 100%] / 100%= 0.09%
P (17O) = [(2 x 0.04%) x 100%] / 100% = 0.08%
PM+1 i.e. 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to
m/z
111 =
6.77%
From the above calculation, it has been found that 13C has major
contribution to
m/z
111.
In the similar way, PM+2 can be calculated as follow:
P (18O) = [(2 x 0.20%) x 100%] / 100% = 0.40%
So, PM+2 i.e. 18O contribution from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 112 = 0.40%.
Figure 5: Percent change of isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM
and PM+2/PM in the bioeld energy treated resorcinol as compared
to the control sample.
PM, PM+1, PM+2 for the control and bioeld energy treated resorcinol
at
m/z
110, 111 and 112, respectively were obtained from the observed
relative peak intensities of [M+], [(M+1)+], and [(M+2)+] peaks in the
GC-MS spectra respectively and are presented in the Table 2. From the
Table 2, it has been found that the PM+1 at
m/z
111 for the control
resorcinol was remarkably matched with the calculated value. e
percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratios (PM+1/PM and PM
+2/PM) in the bioeld treated sample with respect to the control
resorcinol is shown in Table 2 and Figure 5. e isotopic abundance
ratios of PM+1/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (bioeld treated resorcinol)
were increased by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with
respect to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in
the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+2/PM was increased at T2, T3,
and T4 (bioeld treated resorcinol) by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%,
respectively with respect to the control sample. Briey, 13C, 2H, 17O
contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from
(C6H6O2)+ to
m/z
112 for the bioeld treated resorcinol, particularly at
T2 and T4 were signicantly altered as compared to the control
sample.
Parameter Control
Resorcinol
Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol
T1 T2 T3 T4
PM at m/z 110
(%)
100 100 100 100 100
PM+1 at m/z 111
(%)
6.77 6.89 17.99 6.82 7.23
PM+1/PM0.0677 0.0689 0.1799 0.0682 0.0723
% Change of
isotopic
abundance
ratio (PM+1/PM)
1.77 165.73 0.74 6.79
PM+2 at m/z
112 (%)
0.65 0.65 1.76 0.67 0.73
PM+2/PM0.0065 0.0065 0.0176 0.0067 0.0073
% Change of
isotopic
abundance
ratio (PM+2/PM)
0 170.77 3.08 12.31
T1, T2, T3, and T4: Biofield energy treated sample analyzed at different time
intervals; PM = the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+]; PM + 1
= the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+]; PM + 2 = the
relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)+] and M = mass of
the parent molecule.
Table 2: Isotopic abundance analysis result of the control and bioeld
energy treated resorcinol.
From the results, it has been found that aer certain day’s storage in
laboratory conditions aer received bioeld energy treatment, the
isotopic abundance ratio in resorcinol was signicantly increased as in
case of T2 with respect to the control sample. But, when it was stored
for long time, as in case of T3 and T4, the isotopic abundance ratio in
resorcinol was fall down. is result indicated that the bioeld energy
treatment might be eective for alteration of the isotopic abundance
ratio in resorcinol for a certain period of time aer receiving the
treatment. Bioplasmic energy eld is constituted of ions, free protons
and free electrons.
e bioplasmic particles are always reintroduced by chemical
processes in the cells and are in constant motion. us, the human
body exists in surround a dynamic electromagnetic eld. is is called
as bioeld. e energy can freely ow between human and
environment that leads to the continuous movement or matter of
energy [42-44]. e bioeld energy can be harnessed from the earth,
the “universal energy eld” and can be used through by healing
practitioner in order to achieve the signicant eects. is process is
Citation: Mahendra Kumar T, Alice B, Dahryn T, Gopal N, Parthasarathi P, Snehasis J (2016) Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in
Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique. Pharm Anal Acta 7: 481. doi:
10.4172/2153-2435.1000481
Page 4 of 7
Pharm Anal Acta
ISSN:2153-2435 PAA an open access journal Volume 7 • Issue 5 • 1000481
known as bioeld energy treatment [45,46]. Mr. Trivedi is one of the
renowned healing practitioner and has outstanding capability to
modify the characteristic properties of the living and non-living
substance [18-38]. Neutrinos are produced through the nuclear
reactions in sun, cosmic rays, and collapsing stars/ supernovae and can
induce ssion reactions within heavy nuclei and aect the natural
abundance of isotopes [47,48]. Neutrinos are the most probable carrier
of the hidden mass in the Universe. ese particles blast through the
space and are part of all living systems. Without aecting the human
body, trillions of neutrinos are passing through the body at any given
time [49,50]. As neutrinos are electrically neutral particles, these are
not aected by the electromagnetic forces and are able to pass through
great distances in matter without being aected by the latter. Due to
this, the neutrinos have the ability to interact with protons and
neutrons in the nucleus. Recently, it has been found from the literature
that bioeld energy might have eect on the variations of isotopic
composition in water molecule [51]. It is assumed that Trivedi’s unique
bioeld energy might have capability to modify the behavior at atomic
and molecular level by changing the neutron to proton ratio in the
nucleus possibly through the introducing neutrino ux inside the
compound. Based on this hypothesis, it is presumed that neutrinos
particles introduction through the bioeld energy treatment might
play a role in the alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM
and PM+2/PM) in bioeld treated resorcinol.
e energy of a compound is the amount of the electronic,
vibration, rotational and translation energies. Replacement of the
isotopic composition of the molecule does not aect electronic,
translational and rotational energies of the molecule, but signicantly
alters the vibrational energy [7,9]. e vibrational energy is depend on
the reduced mass (µ) for a diatomic molecule as shown in the below
[7,9]:
0 =
4
Where E0 = the vibrational energy of a harmonic oscillator at
absolute zero or zero point energy
f = force constant
µ = reduced mass =
+
, ma and mb are the masses of the
constituent atoms.
e possible isotopic bond formation in the resorcinol molecule and
their eect on the vibrational energy of resorcinol are presented in the
Table 3. e chance of the both carbons containing 13C forming bond
is very rare, statistically nearly 1 in 10,000 [52]. Besides, the chances
for the formation of isotopic bond containing two heavy isotope are
impossible. From the Table 3, it has been observed that alteration of
12C with 13C for C-C bond, 1H with 2H for C-H and O-H bond, 16O
with 18O for C-O bond have much eect on the vibrational energy of
the molecule. e isotope eect is principally due to the ground state
vibrational energies as shown in the Table 3. e isotopic abundance
ratio analysis clearly indicated that the isotopic abundance ratios of
13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in bioeld
treated resorcinol (particularly at T2 and T4) was signicantly
increased as compared to the control resorcinol. Hence, bioeld treated
resorcinol might display altered isotope eects than the control sample.
Literature described that the heavier isotopic molecules have lower
diusion velocity, mobility, evaporation rate and reaction rate, but
having higher binding energy than lighter molecules [13]. Several
literatures reported that isotope eects play a vital role in the thermal
decomposition of the molecules [53,54]. Literature demonstrated that
the stability of the proteins seems to be mostly unaected due to the
entropic compensation for the decrease in enthalpy that is attributed to
the alteration in hydration of proteins in D2O compared to H2O [55].
So, changes in the isotopic abundance ratio in the molecule might have
an eect on the thermal properties of the molecule. us, bioeld
treated resorcinol (particularly at T2 and T4) might have dierent
physicochemical properties like lower volatilization rate, reaction rate
and thermal properties than control resorcinol. e various
spectroscopic techniques like XRD, particle size, UV-visible, FT-IR
spectroscopy and thermal like TGA and DSC analysis revealed that
bioeld treated resorcinol had dierent physicochemical and thermal
properties as compared to the control resorcinol. us, current
ndings are well correlated with the previous results [18]. Alteration in
the rate of a chemical reaction occurred due to the isotopic
substitution of one of the atoms in the reactants is known as kinetic
isotope eect (KIE). KIE is a very powerful tool for the study of the
reaction mechanism, and also for understanding the enzymatic
transition state and all aspects of enzyme mechanisms. It might be
useful to stabilize the transition state of the rate-determining step of
the reaction, enhance the reaction rate and selectivity and for
designing extremely eective and specic inhibitors [7,9,56-58]. In
short, bioeld treated resorcinol might have altered physicochemical
and thermal properties, dierent reaction rate, selectivity and binding
energy.
Entry No. Probable
isotopic bond
Isotope
type
Reduced
mass (µ)
Zero point
vibrational
energy (E0)
112C-12C Lighter 6.00 Higher
213C-12C Heavier 6.26 Smaller
31H-12C Lighter 0.92 Higher
42H-12C Heavier 1.04 Smaller
512C-16O Lighter 6.86 Higher
613C-16O Heavier 7.17 Smaller
712C-17O Heavier 7.03 Smaller
812C-18O Heavier 7.2 Smaller
916O-1H Lighter 0.94 Higher
10 16O-2H Heavier 1.78 Smaller
Table 3: Possible isotopic bond and their eect in the vibrational
energy in resorcinol molecule.
Conclusions
e current analysis inferred that bioeld energy treatment had
outstanding capability for altering the isotopic abundance ratio in
resorcinol. e GC-MS spectra of the control and bioeld treated
resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at
m/z
110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with similar pattern of
fragmentation. Among of the bioeld treated resorcinol, the relative
peak intensity of the fragmented ions in T2 was signicantly altered as
compared with the control sample. e isotopic abundance ratio
analysis in resorcinol exhibited that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM
Citation: Mahendra Kumar T, Alice B, Dahryn T, Gopal N, Parthasarathi P, Snehasis J (2016) Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in
Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique. Pharm Anal Acta 7: 481. doi:
10.4172/2153-2435.1000481
Page 5 of 7
Pharm Anal Acta
ISSN:2153-2435 PAA an open access journal Volume 7 • Issue 5 • 1000481
+1/PM in the bioeld treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 were
increased by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with
respect to the control sample. e percentage change of the isotopic
abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was enhanced in the bioeld treated
resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%,
respectively as compared to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H,
17O contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 111 and 18O contribution
from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 112 for bioeld treated resorcinol at T2 and T4
were remarkably changed as compared to the control sample. Due to
the increased isotopic abundance ratio in bioeld treated resorcinol, it
might show altered isotope eects from the control resorcinol. Bioeld
treated resorcinol could be advantageous in pharmaceutical and
chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of
pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its
physicochemical and thermal properties, the reaction rate and
selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and assisting in
designing potent enzyme inhibitors.
Acknowledgement
e authors would like to acknowledge the Sophisticated
Instrumentation Centre for Applied Research and Testing - SICART,
Gujarat, India for providing the instrumental facility. We are very
grateful for the support from Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness
and Trivedi Testimonials in this research work.
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Citation: Mahendra Kumar T, Alice B, Dahryn T, Gopal N, Parthasarathi P, Snehasis J (2016) Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in
Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique. Pharm Anal Acta 7: 481. doi:
10.4172/2153-2435.1000481
Page 7 of 7
Pharm Anal Acta
ISSN:2153-2435 PAA an open access journal Volume 7 • Issue 5 • 1000481
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Silver sulfadiazine is a topical antibiotic used on burnt tissues to prevent infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of silver sulfadiazine using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Silver sulfadiazine sample was divided into two parts. One part was considered as a control sample, which did not receive the Biofield Energy Treatment. The second part received the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton, termed as the treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the peak intensities of the treated silver sulfadiazine were significantly decreased from 14.5% to 54.5% compared with the control sample. The crystallite sizes of the treated sample were significantly altered from -48.9% to 6.4% compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was found to be decreased by 13.99% as compared to the control sample. The particle sizes of the treated silver sulfadiazine were decreased significantly by 6.64% at d10 followed by d50 (-1.37%), d90 (-0.55%) and D(4,3) (-2.44%) compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated silver sulfadiazine was increased profoundly 11.23% compared to the control sample. The total weight loss was increased by 10.73%; whereas, the residue amount was decreased by 16.49% in the treated silver sulfadiazine compared with the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of silver sulfadiazine which would be more soluble, and bioavailable compared with the untreated sample. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treated silver sulfadiazine would be very useful to design more efficacious pharmaceutical formulations which might offer a better therapeutic response on the derma against bacteria and superficial and partial thickness burn injuries.
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Sulfamethoxazole is the sulfonamide class of antibiotic that acts as a bacteriostatic agent against various bacteria. The current study was aimed to analyze the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) on various properties of sulfamethoxazole by using different modern analytical techniques. For this, the sample was first divided into two parts, followed by considering one part as a control sample (no treatment was given). The second part was named as the Biofield Energy Treated sample that was remotely given the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Gopal Nayak. The particle size values were reduced by 14.35%(d10), 8.93%(d50), 7.84%(d90), and 9.24%{D(4,3)}; therefore, the specific surface area was increased by 9.68% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -68.71% to 40.38% and -31.58% to 169.60%, respectively; however, the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 9.49% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The residue weight and maximum thermal degradation temperature were increased by 2.12% and 3.25%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The decomposition temperature, latent heat of fusion, and latent heat of decomposition were significantly increased by 11.44%, 48.27%, and 22.59%, respectively in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treated sulfamethoxazole might have formed a new polymorph with reduced particle size and improved surface area and thermal stability. Hence, the use of the treated sulfamethoxazole might be more beneficial in terms of improved solubility, absorption, bioavailability, stability and also for designing the more efficacious pharmaceutical formulations for the treatment and prevention of various bacterial diseases, i.e., ear infections, urinary tract infections, shigellosis, traveler’s diarrhea, bronchitis, and pneumocystis-type of pneumonia, etc.
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Resorcinol chemistry has been providing valuable properties and products in the development of advanced technologies in the areas of pharmaceuticals, rubber compounds, wood composites and plastics. Notable technologies include steel belted radial tires, resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex adhesives (RFL), a weather proof polycarbonate (Sollx), a super heat resistant polymer (PEN-RTM), the world's strongest fiber (Zylon), sun screens (UV absorbers), Intal (an asthma drug), Ostivone (an osteoporosis drug), Throat Plus (lozenges), Centron and Saheli (oral contraceptive pills), and many more. This new resorcinol book contains information on the chemistry and technologies developed for the usefulness of human needs. Scientists and researchers around the world working in the areas of pharmaceuticals, rubber compounds (tires, hoses, belts), polymers, polymer additives (UV absorbers, flame retardants), composites (polymers and wood), photoresists, or just simply organic chemistry will benefit from this key resorcinol reference.
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1 Introduction.- 2 Phonon Spectra of Solids: Indicator of Their Isotope Purity.- 2.1 Theory of Lattice Dynamics.- 2.2 Elastic Properties.- 2.2.1 Theoretical Background of Elastic Constant Measurements.- 2.2.2 Experimental Results and Interpretation.- 2.3 Vibrational Properties.- 2.3.1 Phonon Dispersion and Density of Phonon States.- 2.3.2 Low Concentrations: Localized, Resonant, and Gap Modes.- 2.3.3 Phonon Spectra of Isotopically Mixed Crystals.- 2.3.4 Isotopically Induced Disorder Effects in Vibrational Spectra.- 3 Thermal Properties.- 3.1 Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity on the Isotopic Composition.- 3.1.1 Theoretical Models.- 3.1.2 Experimental Results.- 3.1.3 High Thermal Conductivity Silicon.- 3.2 Lattice Constant Dependence on Temperature and Isotopic Composition.- 4 Isotopic Renormalization of the Electronic Excitation Energy Spectrum.- 4.1 Exciton States.- 4.2 Exciton-Phonon Interaction.- 4.3 Giant Isotopic Effect in the Energy Spectrum of Wannier-Mott Exciton in LiH Crystals.- 4.4 Nonlinear Dependence of Band-Gap Energy on the Isotopic Effect.- 4.5 Renormalization of Binding Energy of Wannier-Mott Excitons by Isotopic Effect.- 4.6 Nonlinear Dependence of Binding Energy on Isotopic Concentration.- 4.7 Isotopic Effect in the Luminescence Spectrum.- 5 Process of Self-Diffusion in Isotopically Pure Materials and Heterostructures.- 5.1 General Remarks.- 5.2 The Relation of Diffusion Experiments to the Mathematics of Diffusion.- 5.3 The Self-Diffusion Process.- 5.4 The SIMS-Technique.- 5.5 Self-Diffusion of Li and H in LiH Crystals.- 5.6 Self-Diffusion in Intrinsic Ge.- 5.7 Self- and Interdiffusion of Ga and Al in Isotopically Pure and Doped Heterostructures.- 6 Neutron Transmutative Doping.- 6.1 The NTD Process: A New Reactor Technology.- 6.2 Reactor Facilities for Transmutative Doping.- 6.3 Nuclear Reaction Under the Influence of Charged Particles.- 6.4 Nuclear Reaction Under the Action of the ?-Rays.- 6.5 Nuclear Reactions Under the Influence of Neutrons.- 6.6 The Influence of Dopants.- 6.7 Atomic Displacement Effects in NTD.- 6.8 Experimental Results.- 6.8.1 Ge.- 6.8.2 Silicon.- 6.8.3 Other Compounds.- 7 Optical Fiber.- 7.1 Optical Communication.- 7.2 Maxwell's Equations.- 7.2.1 Planar Geometry.- 7.2.2 Cylindrical Geometry.- 7.2.3 The Electromagnetic Wave Equation.- 7.3 Geometric Optics of Fibers.- 7.4 Waveguide Mode Propagation.- 7.5 Pulse Spreading.- 7.6 Materials for Optical Fibers.- 7.6.1 Absorptive Losses in Glasses.- 7.6.2 Rayleigh Scattering.- 7.7 Fiber Preparation.- 7.8 Isotopes in Fibers.- 8 Laser Materials.- 8.1 Some General Remarks.- 8.2 Absorption and Induced Emission.- 8.3 Semiconductor Lasers.- 8.3.1 Heterojunction La.- 8.3.2 Study of Excitons Lasing.- 8.4 Nonlinear Properties of Excitons in Isotopically Mixed Crystals.- 9 Other Unexplored Applications of Isotopic Engineering.- 9.1 Isotopic Information Storage.- 9.2 Isotopic Structuring for Fundamental Studies.- 9.3 Other Possibilities.- 10 Conclusion.- References.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided in three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for aniline and four parts named as T1, T2, T3, and T4 for 4-bromoaniline. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in aniline was increased from -40.82%, 30.17% and 73.12% in T1, T2 and T3 samples respectively. However in treated samples of 4-bromoaniline the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased exponentially from -4.36 % (T1) to 368.3% (T4) as compared to the control. A slight decreasing trend of the isotopic ratio of (PM+2)/ PM in 4-bromoaniline was observed after biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment has significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 15N in the treated aniline and 4-bromoaniline, while slight decreased the isotopic abundance of 81Br in treated 4-bromoaniline as compared to their respective control.
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Eggplant and watermelon, as one of the important vegetative crops have grown worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two inbreed crops varieties after the biofield energy treatment. The plots were selected for the study, and divided into two parts, control and treated. The control plots were left as untreated, while the treated plots were exposed with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both the crops were cultivated in different fields and were analyzed for the growth contributing parameters as compared with their respective control. To study the genetic variability in both plants after biofield energy treatment, DNA fingerprinting was performed using RAPD method. The eggplants were reported to have uniform colored, glossy, and greener leaves, which are bigger in size. The canopy of the eggplant was larger with early fruiting, while the fruits have uniform shape and the texture as compared with the control. However, the watermelon plants after the biofield treatment showed higher survival rate, with larger canopy, bright and dark green leaves compared with the untreated plants. The percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of eggplant and watermelon seed samples were an average value of 18% and 17%, respectively. Overall, the data suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate, and can be utilized in better way as compared with the existing agricultural crop improvement techniques to improve the overall crop yield.
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Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UVVis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FTIR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
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Indium has gained significant attention in the semiconductor industries due to its unique thermal and optical properties. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of the biofield energy treatment on the atomic, physical and thermal properties of the indium. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated indium samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD diffractogram showed the shifting of peaks toward higher Bragg’s angles in the treated indium sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size of treated indium sample were substantially changed from -80% to 150.2% after biofield energy treatment, as compared to control. In addition, the biofield energy treatment has altered the lattice parameter (-0.56%), unit cell volume (-0.23%), density (0.23%), atomic weight (-0.23), and nuclear charge per unit volume (1.69%) of the treated indium sample with respect to the control. The DSC showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion up to 3.23% in the treated indium sample with respect to control. Overall, results suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of treated indium powder. Therefore, the treated indium could be utilized in thermal interface material in semiconductor industries.
Article
Stainless steel (SS) has gained extensive attention due to its high corrosion resistance, low maintenance, familiar lustre, and superior mechanical properties. In SS, the mechanical properties are closely related with crystal structure, crystallite size, and lattice strain. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural, physical and mechanical properties of SS powder. SS (Grade-SUS316L) powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. The treatment part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated SS samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Result showed that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the particle size d10, d50, d90, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particles were present, respectively) of SS powder up to 7.42, 12.93, 30.23, and 41.38% respectively, as compared to control. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume of SS was altered after biofield treatment. Moreover, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 70% in treated SS as compared to control. The yield strength calculated using Hall-Petch equation, was significantly increased upto 216.5% in treated SS, as compared to control. This could be due to significant reduction of crystallite size in treated SS after biofield treatment. In FT-IR spectra, intensity of the absorption peak at wavenumber 1107 cm-1 (control) attributing to Fe-O-H bond was diminished in case of treated SS. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural, physical and mechanical properties of treated SS powder.
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"Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO-) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control."
Article
Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. paratyphi A. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. paratyphi A were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while lyophilized treated cells assessed on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. paratyphi A showed significant (60%) alteration in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of S. paratyphi A also showed significant (53.12%) alteration in Gr. II and on day 10 while, no alteration was found in Gr. on day 5 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 18.18% biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (53001040, S. paratyphi A), on day 10 (57101050, Citrobacter freundii complex) as compared to control (53001000, S. paratyphi A). Besides, biotype number was also changed in Gr. III (53001040, S. paratyphi A) as compared to control. The overall result suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. paratyphi A in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biotype number.