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Anthocyanin profile of red fruits and black carrot juices, purees and concentrates by HPLC‐DAD‐ESI/MS‐QTOF

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Abstract

A fast and reliable method for anthocyanin extraction and identification by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS-QTOF was used to analyse the anthocyanin composition of commercial red fruit juices (blackberry, redcurrant and pomegranate), purees (strawberry, cherry and raspberry) and concentrates (elderberry, blueberry and red grape). The anthocyanin profile of black carrot juice is also reported. The extraction and analysis method allowed us to detect and quantify a wide range of individual anthocyanins in a simple and rapid way. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside was detected in redcurrant for the first time and petunidin-3-galactoside quantified for the first time in blueberries. Considering the health benefits that have been associated with anthocyanin consumption, all these fruit and vegetables processed products could appear as a good source of this group of phytochemical compounds for their direct consumption or their use as ingredients for the design of new food product or food supplements.

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... aspect when reporting the total anthocyanin concentrations of foods (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2016;Paun, Botoran, & Niculescu, 2022;Wang et al., 2022). The practice of reporting cya-3-glu equivalents in the literature is common (Hong, Annamalai, Idris, Kamaruddin, & Nadzir, 2022). ...
... The practice of reporting cya-3-glu equivalents in the literature is common (Hong, Annamalai, Idris, Kamaruddin, & Nadzir, 2022). For example, in the case of tree tomatoes, the reported anthocyanin content varies from 1.06 mg to 240.49 mg cya-3-glu/100 g (Viera et al., 2022), while for black carrot juice anthocyanin concentrations, were reported to be much lower in a study by Garcia-Herrera et al. (2016) when compared to other published data (Khandare, Walia, Singh, & Kaur, 2011;Kırca, Ö zkan, & Cemeroglu, 2007;Türkyılmaz, 2013). In addition, Garcia-Herrera et al. (2016) showed that the prevalent anthocyanin subclass differs between cultivars of the same plant, as in the case of redcurrant where pel-3-glu was detected for the first time and pet-3-glu was detected for the first time in blueberries, showing differences in the anthocyanin profile from previous analyses. ...
... For example, in the case of tree tomatoes, the reported anthocyanin content varies from 1.06 mg to 240.49 mg cya-3-glu/100 g (Viera et al., 2022), while for black carrot juice anthocyanin concentrations, were reported to be much lower in a study by Garcia-Herrera et al. (2016) when compared to other published data (Khandare, Walia, Singh, & Kaur, 2011;Kırca, Ö zkan, & Cemeroglu, 2007;Türkyılmaz, 2013). In addition, Garcia-Herrera et al. (2016) showed that the prevalent anthocyanin subclass differs between cultivars of the same plant, as in the case of redcurrant where pel-3-glu was detected for the first time and pet-3-glu was detected for the first time in blueberries, showing differences in the anthocyanin profile from previous analyses. Further, even if the authors attempted to identify the major anthocyanin type in foods, the Ɛ values are often imputed from previously published studies (Sarıdaş, Aǧ, Akbaş, Akyıldiz, & Kargı, 2022) which is problematic considering the variation in Ɛ values between studies and the different solvents being used. ...
Article
Anthocyanins are present in bright colored fruit and vegetables with growing evidence for their health benefits. Several methods exist in the literature to measure the total monomeric anthocyanin content in foods. Although the simplest method uses UV-Vis spectrophotometry, it requires the use of anthocyanin molar absorption coefficients (Ɛ). While commonly reported for some compounds, these values vary substantially between studies. This study collated and compared existing Ɛ values for a range of anthocyanin-3-glucosides, measured new Ɛ values for these compounds and underwent an inter-laboratory validation of spectrometry methods. The Ɛ values used for the determination of anthocyanin content in foods, using Australian blueberries, were shown to greatly affect the estimated total anthocyanin. Significant differences in the Ɛ values were observed when measured at 520 nm, or their absorbance maximum and substantial difference in the estimated total were observed when expressed as equivalent of cya-3-glu or mal-3-glu.
... Most of the identified compounds were phenolic acids, of which the most common were The black carrot was found to Figure 7 and Table 7. Most of the identified compounds were phenolic acids, of which the most common were: 5-caffeoylquinic acid ( The relevant studies considered [43][44][45][46] that our data are consistent with the literature, where no flavonoid was identified. Additionally, no other anthocyanins other than cyanidins were identified. ...
... Additionally, no other anthocyanins other than cyanidins were identified. Additional phenolic compounds were identified in black carrot in a previous study as cyanidin-3xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside, cyanidin-3-xylosyl-sinapoyl-glucosyl-galactoside, cyanidin-3-xylosylferuloyl-glucosyl-galactoside, and cyanidin-3-xylosyl-coumaroyl-glucoside-galactoside [43]. Table 7. Characterization of phenolic compounds in black carrot via positive LC-MS. ...
... Table 7. Characterization of phenolic compounds in black carrot via positive LC-MS. [43][44][45][46] that our data are consistent with the literature, where no flavonoid was identified. Additionally, no other anthocyanins other than cyanidins were identified. ...
Article
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Vegetables comprise a significant portion of our daily diet with their high content in nutrients including fiber, vitamins, minerals, as well as phenolic compounds. Vegetable consumption has been shown to be positively associated with the prevention of several degenerative diseases thanks to their bioactive compounds. Accordingly, five selected vegetables, namely, red chicory, red onion, eggplant, purple sweet potato, and black carrot were thoroughly assessed for their phenolic content in this study. For this purpose, the total phenolic and flavonoid content of these five vegetables and their antioxidant activities that are based on three common methods ABTS radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS), Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), and DPPH scavenging activity assay were determined. Additionally, HPLC-PDA/Electrospray ionization coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/-ESI+-MS)-based identification and quantification of the members belonging to polyphenols present in each vegetable were determined. Statistical correlations between antioxidant activities and the specific type of phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids were further elucidated. Phenolic acids (chlorogenic and syringic acids) were found to be the most abundant compounds that are present in all samples. Among the anthocyanins, cyaniding derivatives were present in all vegetables. In terms of their antioxidant activities, the analyzed vegetables were ranked as red chicory > purple sweet potato > black carrot > eggplant > red onion, in descending order. Superior antioxidant activities exhibited by red chicory and purple sweet potato were attributed to the high content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonols (quercetin-3,4-O-diglucoside) in red chicory and anthocyanins (peonidin-3-caffeoyl p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside) in purple sweet potato.
... A second ion at m/z 595 produced MSMS fragments at m/z 287 and 449 and was identified as cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in accordance with published results [19]. The third ion at m/z 419 produced an MSMS fragmentation at 287 which corresponded with a loss of arabinose (m/z 132) and was identified as Cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside according to our previous results [20]. ...
... RT, retention time.2 Identification was confirmed according to the standard (Std) and/or MSn fragmentation pattern previously described by other authors: (1)[20];(2) [19]; (3)[23]; (4)[24]; (5)[25]. ...
Article
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Recommendations towards increased consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables are well supported by epidemiological and clinical trials. However, in some specific cases, it is difficult to follow these recommendations and the use of nutraceuticals or, in the present work, a freeze-dried fruits mixture can be recommended in order to afford the optimal consumption of dietary polyphenols naturally present in fruits and vegetables. In this work we have carefully characterized a red-berry mixture in terms of polyphenol composition, encountering mainly anthocyanins, which account for a total of 2.8 mg/g as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents. Additionally, we have assayed the red-berry blend in a cell model of neurological damage by differentiating the cells and measuring the effect of red-berry polyphenols on cell viability and redox state by flow cytometry. The berry-fruit extract showed an inhibitory effect on differentiated SH-SY5Y ROS formation at a concentration as low as 250 µg/mL (33% inhibition). The results show the potential of this berry-fruit blend for its nutraceutical use in the prevention of the neurodegeneration associated with age or environmental agents.
... As a result, the first anthocyanin (retention time = 7.993 min) was identified as cyanidin-3-O-galactoside. The third anthocyanin (retention time = 9.923 min; MS + = m/z 595) gave a fragment ion of m/z 287 via the neutral loss of 308 Da (Figure S2c) and was identified as cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside(Gao et al., 2014;Garcia-Herrera et al., 2016). According to the MS data (MS + = m/z 419; MS/MS = m/z 287) (Figure S2d), the fourth anthocyanin (retention time = 9.923 min) was determined as cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside(Gao et al., 2014;Garcia-Herrera et al., 2016). ...
... The third anthocyanin (retention time = 9.923 min; MS + = m/z 595) gave a fragment ion of m/z 287 via the neutral loss of 308 Da (Figure S2c) and was identified as cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside(Gao et al., 2014;Garcia-Herrera et al., 2016). According to the MS data (MS + = m/z 419; MS/MS = m/z 287) (Figure S2d), the fourth anthocyanin (retention time = 9.923 min) was determined as cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside(Gao et al., 2014;Garcia-Herrera et al., 2016). ...
Article
This study aimed to develop a green two-dimensional HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for analysing anthocyanins from Prunus cerasifera var. atropurpurea leaf and improve their stability in energy drinks by the addition of phenolic acids. Ethanol and tartaric acid solutions were used as mobile phases for one-dimensional HPLC-DAD for quantitative analysis of anthocyanins, and the primary anthocyanins were identified as cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside using two-dimensional HPLC-MS. Method validation showed that the developed method was accurate, stable and reliable for the analysis of P. cerasifera anthocyanins. The effects of gallic, ferulic and caffeic acid on the stability of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and total anthocyanins from P. cerasifera leaf in energy drinks were evaluated, and the degradation of P. cerasifera anthocyanins ideally followed a first-order model (R² > 0.98). Gallic acid showed stronger protective effects on P. cerasifera anthocyanins in energy drinks, and adding/increasing ferulic and caffeic acids accelerated the degradation reactions.
... L* indicates lightness, its value ranging from 0 (black) to 100 (white); a* and b* are the chromaticity coordinates. From the CIELAB coordinates, color function chroma (ΔC ab ) and total color change (ΔE) were calculated according to the following equations: Figure 2. Briefly, the method of anthocyanin purification was performed according to García-Herrera et al. 18,19 A hydro-alcoholic extraction was done, and samples were purified by an aqueous extraction followed by an amethanolic one, in which both extracts were mixed and passed though Agilent Tech cartridge ( Figure 2). This extract was used to obtain the anthocyanin profile by HPLC analysis carried out on a liquid chromatography system (Hewlett-Packard Agilent 1200 Series) equipped with a quaternary pump and a photodiode array detector (DAD) (Agilent Technologies). ...
... These two cyanidin compounds were the major anthocyanins in raspberry, reaching 52.3% of total anthocyanin in lyophilized form, in agreement with other authors. 32,18,33 Compared with freeze-drying, only 56% and 25% of those anthocyanins were conserved when drying at 50 and 65°C was applied, respectively, while no anthocyanin was detected in raspberry dehydrated at 130°C. A similar proportion of Cy-3glucoside conservation at intermediate drying temperatures was also detected for that fruit. ...
Article
The aim of the present research was to study the effect of convective drying on color, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of berry fruits and to chemically characterize the polyphenolic composition of raspberry, boysenberry, redcurrants and blackcurrants fruit. Drying berries at 65 ºC provoked the best conservations of color, particularly for boysenberry and blackcurrant. Drying at 65 °C was also the condition that showed higher level of polyphenols, while drying at 50 ºC or 130 ºC showed above % degradation of them due to the long time or high temperature drying. Radical scavenging activity was the predominant antioxidant mechanism in all samples, being 65 °C dried berries the most active ones possibly due to polyphenols depolymerization. The anthocyanin profile showed that delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were the most abundant anthocyanidins with different predominance between berry genera. Degradation of anthocyanins was increased with drying temperature been Cy 3-glucosde and Cy 3-rutinoside the most abundant.
... Berries and red fruits are two of the most important dietary sources of polyphenols such as anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, and benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives (Bermúdez-Soto and Tomás-Barberán 2004), being anthocyanins the responsible for the red color in many fruits and berries (Rein and Heinonen 2004). According to information reported by different authors, malvidin-3-O-glucoside is the main anthocyanin in red grape juice (Tenore et al. 2012;Garcia-Herrera et al. 2016). Besides the anthocyanins, in the red grape juice, the presence of flavonols like rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside) and myricetin has been reported (Tenore et al. 2012;Granato et al. 2015). ...
... According to literature, delphinidin-3-rutinoside is the main anthocyanin in blackcurrant juice (Bermúdez-Soto and Tomás-Barberán 2004), that is an ingredient of four of six samples analyzed. Garcia-Herrera et al. (2016) reported the presence of the following anthocyanins on different fruits: cyanidin-3sophoroside in raspberry and cherry puree, pelagordin-3glucoside in strawberry puree, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside in pomegranate juice. Borges et al. (2010) also emphasizes the presence of ellagic acid and ellagitannins in this kind of juice. ...
Article
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Definition of a standard method for measuring antioxidant capacity is still a necessity for both researchers and food industry. This study is aimed to evaluate if Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) method could be reconsidered as suitable for antioxidant potency comparison purposes in food matrices. F-C and four other common tests for measuring antioxidant capacity (ORAC, TEAC, FRAP, CUPRAC) were applied to mixed fruit-based beverages. An overall antioxidant potency composite index (API composite) was calculated by assigning each test equal weight, in order to establish the ranking of antioxidant capacity in the analyzed samples. In addition, the study provides an evaluation of the compounds related to the antioxidant potential of these beverages (total phenolics, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid) through principal component analysis (PCA). Total phenolics were the principal component influencing the antioxidant capacity of these samples. This is highlighted with the high correlation found between FBBB and all the antioxidants assays performed (P<0.05). API composite and F-C assay were consistent in classifying the antioxidant capacity of these beverages in the following order: Red fruit formulated juices > orange fruit formulated juices > mixed fruit nectars. As a result, the use of F-C for antioxidant potency comparison of fruit-based beverages is encouraged.
... Blueberry extract is a fruit extract with a high number of anthocyanins compared to many other red fruits (Garcia-Herrera, Pérez -Rodríguez, Aguilera -Delgado, Labari-Reyes, Olmedilla-Alonso & Camara, 2016). These fruit extracts contain types of anthocyanins and a comparable number of flavonoids and phenolic acids (Garcia-Herrera, Pérez -Rodríguez, Aguilera-Delgado, Labari-Reyes, Olmedilla-Alonso & Camara, 2016). ...
... Blueberry extract is a fruit extract with a high number of anthocyanins compared to many other red fruits (Garcia-Herrera, Pérez -Rodríguez, Aguilera -Delgado, Labari-Reyes, Olmedilla-Alonso & Camara, 2016). These fruit extracts contain types of anthocyanins and a comparable number of flavonoids and phenolic acids (Garcia-Herrera, Pérez -Rodríguez, Aguilera-Delgado, Labari-Reyes, Olmedilla-Alonso & Camara, 2016). Due to the beneficial effects for health, blueberry extract is introduced into food systems as a health-promotion ingredient (Pereiracaro, ludwing, Clifford & Crozier, 2017). ...
Experiment Findings
Blueberry extract is rich in health-promoted bioactives, especially anthocyanins. There is interest in the interaction of fruit extract and proteins due to their ability to modify the physical functionality of proteins and as the means to deliver polyphenols to the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction between whey protein and blueberry extract at various pH was investigated. Fluorescence quenching experiments showed a strong interaction between the berry extract with whey protein at pH 4.6 and a weak interaction at higher pH (6.8 and 7.5). The complexation of blueberry extract with whey protein altered the thermal denaturation properties of the protein and enhanced the gelling properties. The onset of gel formation (tgel) occurred earlier, but there was little effect on the temperature of gelation (Tgel) for blueberry-whey protein compared to whey protein gels at corresponding pH's. At the end of gelation process, the storage modulus (G) and loss modulus (G) of blueberry-whey protein gels formed at pH 4.6 were the highest, followed by those gels formed at pH 6.5 and 7.5; a trend that was similar for whey protein gels alone. The insights may inform the development of functional foods based on whey protein and plant extracts.
... TOF-MS has better confirmatory ability due to its high mass resolving power, which offers accurate mass measurement (< 5 ppm), thus permitting better capability of identifying unknown chemicals than IT-MS or QQQ-MS (Ferrer et al., 2005). In fact, HPLC-TOF-MS has been successfully used in identifying polyphenols in many food products, such as cucumbers (Abu-Reidah et al., 2012), potatoes (Vallverdú-Queralt et al., 2011), carrots (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2016), pears (Kolniak-Ostek, 2016, and Chinese tea (Li et al., 2017). In addition, several researches have applied TOF instrument for the identification of polyphenols in mulberry. ...
Article
Mulberry, often used both as a medicine and an edible fruit in China, has been found to contain large amounts of polyphenols. Therefore, ten representative mulberry cultivars were chosen to determine their total phenolic contents, which were from 0.67 to 7.70 mg gallic acid/g fresh weight (FW). To identify the inherent polyphenol, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-QTOF-MS) was performed, by which a total of 28 polyphenols were identified. Vanillic acid hexoside, 5-p-O-coumaroylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, luteolin hexoside, luteolin rutinoside, and quercetin rhamnosyl dihexoside were tentatively identified in mulberry fruits for the first time. Among them, luteolin hexoside and luteolin rutinoside showed significant positive (P < 0.01) correlation with DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities together with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Thus mulberries may be an interesting source of natural antioxidants in food applications.
... As anthocyanins and phenolic acids are the predominant polyphenols present in black carrots (Netzel et al. 2007), in the following sections these compounds will be discussed in detail. The major anthocyanins identified in black carrots were cyanidin-based: cyanidin-3-xylosyl-glucosylgalactoside, cyanidin-3-xylosyl-galactoside and the sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids derivatives of cyanidin 3-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside (Wallace and Giusti 2008;Montilla et al. 2011;Garcia-Herrera et al. 2016). Compounds with an acylated structure constitute more than half of total anthocyanins contained in black carrots, whereas the predominant anthocyanin corresponded to cyanidin-3-xylosyl-feruloyl-glucosyl-galactoside. ...
Article
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Black carrots represent a valuable source of polyphenols, in particular anthocyanins and phenolic acids, and has attracted the attention of the scientific community especially due to the unique profile of anthocyanin compounds, which are well distinguished for their role in health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases. Black carrots are often not consumed as such, instead they are processed into other products. In general, processed products of black carrot are stored for long term and the polyphenols are susceptible to degradation during storage. In addition, it is also important to determine how the digestion process affects polyphenols as this will, in turn, affect their bioavailability. Accordingly, the potential health-promoting effects of black carrot polyphenols depend on their processing history and their stability during storage as well as their absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. In this perspective, this review provides an overview of the findings on the effects of processing, storage and digestion on black carrot polyphenols.
... Within the red fruits used for the production of juices, pomegranate, red currant, blood orange, black currant, cherry, red raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, blueberry, elderberry and grape berries are amongst the richest in anthocyanins-water soluble pigments that contribute to the blue, purple, and red color in many fruits and their high antioxidant activity [16]. Numerous studies have shown that anthocyanins present a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-carcinogenic activities [17][18][19]. ...
Article
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Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.
... Among the plants that are used nowadays for production of anthocyanin colorants there are purple (or even black) colored carrot roots [5][6][7][8][9][10]. However, in Russia, this type of carrots was still out of interest, and only recently, seeds of some purple-colored carrots became available in the market for the gardeners, though we could not find information about type of anthocyanins and overall anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of the carrots. ...
... Several precise measurement methods have been used to detect anthocyanin in agricultural products, including mass spectrometry (MS) [12], capillary electrophoresis (CE) [13], highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [14], and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [15]. However, despite their effectiveness and reliability, these methods are expensive, labor-intensive, and generate chemical waste. ...
Article
The content of phytochemical compounds such as anthocyanin in soybeans, yielded from agricultural practices is usually affected by the quality of the mother seed. Therefore, non-destructive technique for intact soybean seed selection based on anthocyanin content is highly demanded for breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques to determine the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and content of different types of anthocyanin, namely cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and delphinidin-3-glucoside (D3G), in single seed state of soybean. FT-NIR and FT-IR spectra from 70 different varieties of soybean seeds were acquired and compared with the chemical components analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The prediction performance of the partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for the FT-NIR spectra indicated R² of 0.88-0.90 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 9.4-19.5% for the chemical components, which were slightly better than R² of 0.86-0.88 and SEP of 9.7-21.8% of FT-IR. The number of variables could be reduced down to 50% using a variable importance in projection (VIP) method without noticeable decrements in prediction performance. The results demonstrated potential of FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques to predict anthocyanin contents in a single seed of soybean nondestructively.
... Total anthocyanin content was calculated as the sum of individual anthocyanins. Analytes were identified by comparing elution order and UV/Vis spectra with those in previous studies [42][43][44][45]. ...
Article
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Berry pomace, rich in polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, accumulates during the production of red juices. Pomace from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Michx.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) represent good sources of coloring foodstuffs. Pomace powders (PP) were prepared by milling the seedless fractions of the three dried berry pomaces (50 °C, 8 h). Techno-functional properties of the powders such as particle size distribution, bulk density, sedimentation velocity, and swelling capacity were determined to evaluate the powders for possible food applications. Total anthocyanin content was quantified by UHPLC-DAD before and during a storage experiment to monitor the degradation of anthocyanins in the PP and in a yogurt model application. The high content of phenolic compounds and the still intact cell structure ensured high stability of anthocyanins over 28 days of storage. In the model application, color saturation was stable over the whole storage time of 14 days. Regarding the techno-functional properties, only a few differences between the three PP were observed. The particle size of elderberry PP was larger, resulting in lowest bulk density (0.45 g/mL), high cold-water solubility (16.42%), and a swelling capacity of 10.16 mL/g dw. Sedimentation velocity of the three PP was fast (0.02 mL/min) due to cluster formation of the particles caused by electrostatic and hydrophobic properties. Compared to other high-intensity coloring foodstuffs, the use of PP, showing acceptable color stability with potential health-promoting effects, represents a wide applicability in different food applications and especially in products with a longer shelf-life.
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Human gut microbiota is critical for human health, as their dysbiosis could lead to various diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome and obesity. Black raspberry (BRB) has been increasingly studied recently for its impact on gut microbiota as a rich source of phytochemicals (e.g., anthocyanin). To investigate the effect of BRB extract on the gut microbiota composition and their metabolism, an in-vitro human colonic model (HCM) was utilized to study the direct interaction between BRB and gut microbiome. Conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, anaerobic environment) in HCM were closely monitored and maintained to simulate the human intestinal system. Fresh fecal samples donated by three young healthy volunteers were used for gut microbiota inoculation in the HCM. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) based metabolomics were performed to study the impact of BRB on gut microbiota characteristics and their metabolism (fatty acids, polar metabolites, and phenolic compounds). Our data suggested that BRB intervention modulated gut microbiota at the genus level in ascending, transverse, and descending colons. Relative abundance of Enterococcus was commonly decreased in all colon sections, while modulations of other bacteria genera were mostly location-dependent. Meanwhile, significant changes in the metabolic profile of gut microbiota related to fatty acids, endogenous polar metabolites, and phenolic compounds were detected, in which arginine and proline metabolism, lysine degradation, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis were mostly regulated. Moreover, we identified several significant associations between altered microbial populations and changes in microbial metabolites. In summary, our study revealed the impact of BRB intervention on gut microbiota composition and metabolism change, which may exert physiological change to host metabolism and host health.
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Anthocyanins determine the color and potential health promoting properties of red fruit juices, but the juices contain remarkably less anthocyanins than the fruits, which is partly caused by the interactions of anthocyanins with the residues of cell wall polysaccharides like pectin. In this study, pectin was modified by ultrasound and enzyme treatments to residues of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides widely differing in their molecular weight. Modifications decreased viscosity and degree of acetylation and methylation and released smooth and hairy region fragments. Native and modified pectin induced different effects on the concentrations of individual anthocyanins after short-term and long-term incubation caused by both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Results indicate that both pectin and anthocyanin structure influence these interactions. Linear polymers generated by ultrasound formed insoluble anthocyanin complexes, whereas oligosaccharides produced by enzymes formed soluble complexes with protective properties. The structure of the anthocyanin aglycone apparently influenced interactions more than the sugar moiety.
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The effect of spray drying on the different polyphenolic compounds present in the root of a purple-fleshed sweet potato variety of Ipomoea batatas native from Peru was performed by HPLC-QTOF-MSMS. Nine anthocyanins, including four peonidin, three cyanidin and two pelargonidin derivatives glycosylated with sophorose and/or glucose and acylated with caffeic, ferulic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified. Twenty nine cinnamoylquinic acids (CiQA), including eight mono-CiQA, fourteen di-CiQA, and five tri-CiQA, were identified on the base of their MS fragmentation profile. Relevant amounts of feruloylquinic acid derivatives were identified. Among them, some di and tri-CiQAs containing feruloyl and caffeoyl moieties in their structures, and di-feruloylquinic acids were reported here, for the first time, in Ipomoea. Spray drying process negatively affected the different phenolic groups, with polyphenol losses representing around 90% of the initial amounts. Mono-CiQAs presenting feruloyl moieties and mono acylated peonidin derivatives with p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the less affected compounds.
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The analysis of pomegranate phenolic compounds belonging to different classes in different fruit parts was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Two different separation methods were optimized for the analysis of anthocyanins and hydrolyzable tannins along with phenolic acids and flavonoids. Two C18 columns, core–shell and fully porous particle stationary phases, were used. The parameters for separation of phenolic compounds were optimized considering chromatographic resolution and analysis time. Thirty-five phenolic compounds were found, and 28 of them were tentatively identified as belonging to four different phenolic compound classes; namely, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids. Quantitative analysis was performed with a mixture of nine phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic compound classes representative of pomegranate. The method was then fully validated in terms of retention time precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity range. Phenolic compounds were analyzed directly in pomegranate juice, and after solvent extraction with a mixture of water and methanol with a small percentage of acid in peel and pulp samples. The accuracy of the extraction method was also assessed, and satisfactory values were obtained. Finally, the method was used to study identified analytes in pomegranate juice, peel, and pulp of six different Italian varieties and one international variety. Differences in phenolic compound profiles among the different pomegranate parts were observed. Pomegranate peel samples showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds, ellagitannins being the most abundant ones, with respect to pulp and juice samples for each variety. With the same samples, total phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated through colorimetric assays, and the results were correlated among them.
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The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. Physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating phenolic composition of grape skins.
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The aim of this study was to describe a phytochemical profile, including phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, colour and sensory quality attributes (colour, aroma, consistency, sweetness intensity and desirability) of a sour cherry puree (SCP) supplemented with different natural sweeteners. Supplementation of SCP with the sweeteners only slightly affected polyphenol content, which was by 9% (SCP with steviol glycosides) to 26% (SCP with erythritol) lower than in pure SCP. Furthermore, the products with natural sweeteners were characterised for the lowest antioxidant activity than the SCP sample, especially in SCP with erythritol and xylitol. In addition to having high content of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity, these products were also attractive to consumers, especially when supplemented with xylitol, palm sugar or sucrose, but not with Luo Han Kuo fruit, which was found unacceptable. The results showed that most of the obtained SCPs had very promising and interesting phytochemical properties and sensory profiles.
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Polyphenol extracts from industrial sour cherry pomaces were characterized on polyphenol composition, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. Extracts of pomace were purified and freeze-dried. Preparations were characterized by high polyphenol contents including anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, selected were characterized by high flavanol content and high antioxidant capacity. The antimicrobial effect of sour cherry polyphenol extracts was tested against Salmonella, Escherichia coil 0157:H7 and Listeria spp. The bacteriostatic effect was tested by growing the strains in a liquid medium containing the extracts, the bactericide effect was assayed by putting the strains in direct contact in an aqueous suspension of the extract, simulating the disinfection process in the fresh-cut industry. Two of the sour cherry extracts tested reduced the growth of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 at concentrations higher than 2500 mu g/mL, and inhibited Listeria spp. growth.
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This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, identify the bioactive compounds and measure the antioxidant activity present in blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, sweet cherry and blueberry fruits produced in the subtropical areas of Brazil and to verify that the chemical properties of these fruit are similar when compared to the temperate production zones. Compared with berries and cherries grown in temperate climates, the centesimal composition and physical chemical characteristics found in the Brazilian berries and cherries are in agreement with data from the literature. For the mineral composition, the analyzed fruits presented lower concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn and higher levels of Fe. The values found for the bioactive compounds generally fit the ranges reported in the literature with minor differences. The greatest difference was found in relation to ascorbic acid, as all fruits analyzed showed levels well above those found in the literature.
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The present work deals with the study of the anthocyanin profile of two different black carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars, associated with Antonina and Purple Haze varieties, from Cuevas Bajas (Málaga, Spain) and some of their antioxidant features. The main anthocyanins detected by LC-–MS were found to correspond to five cyanidin-based anthocyanins: cyanidin 3- xylosylglucosylgalactoside, cyanidin 3-xylosylgalactoside and the sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids derivative of cyanidin 3-xylosylglucosylgalactoside. The anthocyanins present in the black carrots were essentially acylated and their levels were found to correspond to 25% and 50% of the total phenolic content for the Purple Haze and Antonina varieties, respectively. Moreover, the reducing capacity of the two black carrots extracts (86.4 ± 8.0 and 182.0 ± 27 μM TE/100 g fw) and the radical scavenging ability (17.6 ± 9.0 and 240.0 ± 54.0 μM TE/100 g fw) expressed in Trolox equivalents units were determined. The antioxidant features of the black carrot extracts were shown to be significantly higher than those of orange carrots used herein for comparison. Overall, this work highlights the Cuevas Bajas black carrots as rich sources of anthocyanins with significant antioxidant capacities and good nutritional value.
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White and red grape juices (GJs) were subjected to ultraviolet C (UV-C) light as a non-thermal preservation technology using a coiled tube UV-C reactor with nine lamps. The effects of UV-C light on microbial (total aerobic count and yeast and mould count) and some chemical quality characteristics (total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin and polymeric colour, etc.) of white and red GJs were investigated. The results were compared with control (untreated) and heat-treated juice samples. Single-pass UV-C treatment (12.6 J/mL) of white and red GJs resulted in 3.51 and 3.59 log reductions in total aerobic count and, 2.71 and 2.89 log reductions in yeast and mould counts, respectively. The microbial loads of both GJs were completely eliminated after two passes through the reactor (25.2 J/mL). After UV-C and heat treatments, there were no significant changes in antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, titratable acidity, soluble solids and pH of white and red GJs (P > 0.05). The losses in monomeric anthocyanins were 6.1% and 8.7% after UV-C treatment of 12.6 and 25.2 J/mL doses, respectively. However, anthocyanin level of red GJ was significantly affected by the heat treatment with an 11.8% loss (P < 0.05). The percent polymeric colour of the red GJ with heat treatment was significantly higher compared to the colour with the UV-C treatment.
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Epidemiological studies have related the consumption of fruits and vegetables to a lower risk of chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are held responsible for these desired effects; vitamin C and phenolic compounds being the most important ones in strawberries and raspberries. With respect to their role in health, it is valuable to study possible changes of these bioactive compounds during processing of fruits. In the present study, total phenolics, anthocyanins and vitamin C were firstly characterised in strawberries, raspberries and their juices. Thermal and high-pressure processes were screened for their effect on the bioactive compounds by treating strawberries and raspberries at different temperature–pressure combinations for one fixed treatment time (20 min). Thermal processing at atmospheric pressure (50–140 °C) had a degradative effect on anthocyanins and vitamin C. High-pressure processing (400, 600, 700 MPa combined with 20, 50, 80, 110 °C) showed no significant effect on the bioactive compounds in function of pressure. Breakdown of anthocyanins and vitamin C did occur at constant elevated pressure as temperature increased. No clear trends were perceptible for the amount of phenolic substances during processing.
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“Wonderful” pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice, obtained by pressure extraction of the whole fruit, was analyzed for its content in anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic components using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis with positive and negative electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI+/−/MSn) powered by an ion trap. High-throughput identification capacity from the ion trap featuring different MSn experiments (reaching up to MS4 level) led to detection of a total of 151 phenolics, 65 anthocyanin, anthocyanin–flavanol and flavanol–anthocyanin adducts, 25 of them reported for the first time in pomegranate juice, including some unusual cyanidin and pelargonidin trihexosides not previously described in natural extracts. Similarly, a total of 86 non-anthocyanin phenolic components were also identified, 39 of them reported for the first time in this juice.
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Blueberries have drawn growing attention in China for various benefits to health. Nine rabbiteye blueberry cultivars which were introduced into China were systematically assessed based on two aspects of chemical profiles and antioxidant activity. The former was achieved by HPLC fingerprints, and the latter in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity was evaluated with a novel HPLC method. Subsequently, the predominant active anthocyanins were screened from these coloured biological samples by two useful methods, respectively. In method I, the spectrum–effect relationships between HPLC fingerprints and the antioxidant activities of blueberry extracts were investigated, whereas in method II, HPLC analysis followed pre-column reaction of samples with DPPH. The results indicated that Gardenblue and Powderblue showed stronger antioxidant activities among all introduced cultivars, and delphinins and anthocyanidin-3-glucosides were the main contributive components to the antioxidant activities of blueberries. This would be helpful to the quality-oriented cultivation of blueberry in China.
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There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive components of food. The roles of fruit, vegetables and red wine in disease prevention have been attributed, in part, to the antioxidant properties of their constituent polyphenols (vitamins E and C, and the carotenoids). Recent studies have shown that many dietary polyphenolic constituents derived from plants are more effective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E or C, and thus might contribute significantly to the protective effects in vivo. It is now possible to establish the antioxidant activities of plant-derived flavonoids in the aqueous and lipophilic phases, and to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of wine and tea can be accounted for by the activities of individual polyphenols.
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The present work used International Federation of Fruit-Juice Producers (IFU) Method No. 71 with minor modifications for the analysis of anthocyanins, betacyanins, synthetic red pigments, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and catechins present in red fruit and vegetable juices and red-purple soft-drinks. The proposed HPLC method has been implemented with simultaneous UV–Visible and fluorescence detection and offers unambiguous composition results for 9 red fruit and vegetable juices: strawberry, red raspberry, blueberry, European cranberry, blackcurrant, sour cherry, red grape, purple carrot and purple prickly pear. Twenty-eight anthocyanins, 4 betacyanins, 1 natural and 6 synthetic pigments, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids and 2 catechins were determined in a 30-min chromatogram. This method is useful for quality and authentication analyses of red fruit and vegetable juices, and red-purple soft-drinks. The use of a unique analysis method for polyphenol analysis is encouraged as a helpful tool to build up an unambiguous polyphenol composition database of foods.
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Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. In this study, the main phenolic compounds of 12 pomegranate varieties and 5 pomegranate clones were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Two chromatographic methods with a fused-core C18 column and a classical HPLC system were developed. Thirteen anthocyanins and fourteen other phenolic compounds were determined in the pomegranate juices. As far as we are concerned, a new flavonol-glycoside, phellatin or its isomer amurensin, has been tentatively identified for the first time in pomegranate juices. Total phenolic content ranged from 580.8-2551.3 mg/L of pomegranate juice. Anthocyanins varied between 20 to 82% of total phenolic content. Flavonoids were the 1.6-23.6% of total phenolic compounds, while phenolic acids and ellagitannins were in the range of 16.4-65.8%. The five clones reported a phenolic content comparable with the other pomegranate samples.
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Among plant foods, berry fruit shows a high antioxidant capacity. Medical research has pointed out the medicinal properties of certain pigmented polyphenols, such as fl avonoids, anthocyanins, tannins and other phytochemicals, which are mainly found in the skin and seeds of the berries. The aim of this work was to contribute to the study of the nutraceutical features of some berry fruit (currants, gooseberries and strawberries). The different antioxidant compound contents of the fresh fruit of different cultivars and selections of Ribes spp. and Fragaria x ananassa Duch have been analyzed. The fruit of 29 cultivars from 3 different species of Ribes spp. and 5 strawberry cultivars have been analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a UV/Vis detector and a mass detector (MS) to identify and quantify the main antioxidant compounds. As far as the Ribes spp. cultivars are concerned, the presence of a high content of phenolic compounds has been confi rmed, and they represent therefore an important source of antioxidant compounds. Moreover, the results have shown that the considered cultivars and selections of strawberries are good sources of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic substances. The results of this study could contribute to offer new insights into the nutraceutical aspects of the considered berry fruit species.
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Plant productivity and fruit quality in terms of occurrence of mineral elements and metabolites were determined on wild bilberry growing in open and forest stands in a protected area of N-Italy. Plant productivity was significantly higher in open stands (3 ± 2.5 compared with 0.03 ± 0.05 fruits per plant) suggesting that both collections in the wild and semi-wild cultivation should be planned in open habitats. Results obtained by ionomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that high quality fruits can be collected in the analyzed area and their nutritional profile did not differ between open and forest stands. Cyanidin and delphinidin proportion of bilberries from our study area was respectively 23.8% and 43.9% of total antocyanin and it is similar to that previously considered peculiar to bilberry fruits of high latitude regions of Europe and indicative of high quality food properties. A comparison between wild bilberry collected in the protected area and commercial blueberry was also performed and relevant differences between them detected, confirming the concept that wild bilberry has a better nutritional profile than blueberry. Practical Application Bilberry fruits provide relevant nutrients to human diet. However, the scarce availability in the wild is a limiting factor hindering a wider use of this product. In this study we compared plant productivity and nutritional profile of bilberry growing in open and forest sites, demonstrating that they do not differ in terms of mineral and metabolomic contents, whereas plant productivity is by far higher in open sites. This supports the possibility to obtain bilberry fruits by semiwild cultivation maintaining open sites that are also crucial for biodiversity conservation in mountain areas.
Article
The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices.
Article
Black carrot, a potential source of anthocyanin pigment, has high antioxidant activity. The effect of pre-press maceration treatment with different doses of cell wall degrading enzyme pectinase (Aspergillus niger Teigh) on antioxidant composition of black carrot juice was investigated. Enzyme-assisted processing significantly (p < 0.05) improved the antioxidant composition of black carrot juice. There was an overall increase of 33% in juice yield, 27% in total phenolics and 46% in total flavonoids. The total anthocyanin content in black carrot juice was almost doubled. The in vitro total antioxidant activity in black carrot juice extracted through enzyme-assisted processing was 30.0 and 62.0 mu mol TE/mL in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays, respectively. There was 30% increase in total antioxidant activity of black carrot juice extracted with enzyme over straight pressed juice. The results indicate that tailoring of specific enzyme mixtures can yield antioxidant rich juice products. Optimizing a strategy for extraction of phenolic rich juice from black carrots can offer an opportunity for its utilization in developing novel functional beverages with enhanced color appeal and high antioxidant activity.
Article
Our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women is limited, and the impact of diet is largely unknown. Dietary flavonoids exert potential beneficial effects on endothelial function in short-term trials; however, the relationship between habitual intake and risk of MI in women is unknown. We followed up 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid subclasses was calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years using an updated and extended US Department of Agriculture database. During 18 years of follow-up, 405 cases of MI were reported. An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment. The addition of intermediate conditions, including history of hypertension, did not significantly attenuate the relationship (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.97; P=0.03). Combined intake of 2 anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.08) in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid subclasses were not significantly associated with MI risk. A high intake of anthocyanins may reduce MI risk in predominantly young women. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the health impact of increasing intakes of commonly consumed anthocyanin-rich foods.
Article
Phenolic compounds were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp and arils. Extracts and juices were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). In total, 48 compounds were detected, among which 9 anthocyanins, 2 gallotannins, 22 ellagitannins, 2 gallagyl esters, 4 hydroxybenzoic acids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acids and 1 dihydroflavonol were identified based on their UV spectra and fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments. To the best of our knowledge, cyanidin-pentoside-hexoside, valoneic acid bilactone, brevifolin carboxylic acid, vanillic acid 4-glucoside and dihydrokaempferol-hexoside are reported for the first time in pomegranate fruits. Furthermore, punicalagin and pedunculagin I were isolated by preparative HPLC and used for quantification purposes. The ellagitannins were found to be the predominant phenolics in all samples investigated, among them punicalagin ranging from 11 to 20g per kilogram dry matter of mesocarp and peel as well as 4-565mg/L in the juices. The isolated compounds, extracts and juices were also assessed by the TEAC, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealing high correlation (R(2)=0.9995) of the TEAC and FRAP values, but also with total phenolic contents as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and by HPLC. Selection of raw materials, i.e. co-extraction of arils and peel, and pressure, respectively, markedly affected the profiles and contents of phenolics in the pomegranate juices, underlining the necessity to optimise these parameters for obtaining products with well-defined functional properties.
Article
The antioxidant capacities, total polyphenolic content and monomeric anthocyanin content of eleven types of sour cherry juice obtained from different varieties of sour cherries were investigated. Antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic content and monomeric anthocyanin contents of the juices were within the ranges 20.0-37.9mmol/L, 1510-2550 and 350.0-633.5mg/L, respectively. The main anthocyanin compound in sour cherry juice was cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside at concentrations between 140.3 and 320.9mg/L. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside was followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside within a concentration range of 25.5-85.5mg/L. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside contents were relatively low (2.6-21.5 and 2.0-9.9mg/L). Anthocyanin capacity and total polyphenol content were fairly well correlated (r=0.742, p<0.01), whereas the correlation between antioxidant capacity and monomeric anthocyanin content was insignificant (r=0.423, p>0.05). The correlation between antioxidant capacity - cya-3-glucosylrutinoside (r=0.606, p<0.01) and antioxidant capacity - cya-3-rutinoside (r=0.628, p<0.01) was significant.
Article
Pigment composition of 15 black carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) was screened by HPLC-MS. Up to seven cyanidin glycosides, five of which were acylated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified and quantified in the roots by HPLC-DAD. Contents of individual compounds indicated great differences in the potential of anthocyanin accumulation both between different cultivars and carrots of the same cultivar. Total anthocyanin amounts ranged from 45.4mg/kg dry matter to 17.4g/kg dry matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantification of individual anthocyanins in roots of different black carrot cultivars. The determination of color properties in the extracts under various pH conditions proved black carrot anthocyanins to be applicable as natural food colorants also for low-acid food commodities, whereas a considerable loss of color was noted under nearly neutral conditions. Additionally, relatively high saccharide contents were found in almost all cultivars which may be disadvantageous when coloring concentrates are produced from carrot roots.
Article
Inheritance patterns for table grape anthocyanins were investigated on three cross offspring populations during two successive years. Sixteen anthocyanins were detected, and all were monoglucoside derivatives. The proportion of anthocyanins in the maternal parent determined the proportion of anthocyanins in the offspring. But the absolute content of the maternal parent had no significant effect on progenies. Peonidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, not only in the maternal parent but also in the progenies. The presence or absence of anthocyanins in grape skin was inheritance of a quality character controlled by oligogenes, and anthocyanins content was a quantitative character controlled by polygenes. Via principal component (PC) analysis, factors that affected the total content of cross progeny populations were peonidin 3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside. Anthocyanins content was a high broad sense heritability character (H2), and H2 was stable in different cross combinations (ranging from 0.65 to 0.98).
Article
Phenolic profiles of nine red fruit commercial juice concentrates were characterised by means of high -performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry. Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenoids, flavan 3-ols, ellagic acid derivatives, and other phenolic acids, were both identified and quantified in chokeberry, elderberry, blackcurrant and redcurrant, strawberry, red grape, cherry, plum, and raspberry commercial juice concentrates. Once the characterisation was carried out, the antioxidant capacity of each concentrate was assessed in vitro by means of two different methods: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Elderberry, chokeberry and blackcurrant concentrates were the richest in total phenolics and they had the strongest antioxidant capacity; therefore, these three juices may have huge interest as ingredients in the design of functional juices.
Article
The levels of flavonoids in blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were found to increase after illumination with UV-C. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin-3-arabinoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucuronide, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside, petunidin-3-galactoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-arabinoside, malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-arabinoside, and chlorogenic acid as analyzed by HPLC. Significantly higher antioxidant capacity was detected in fruit treated with 2.15, 4.30, or 6.45 kJ m−2 compared to the control fruit. UV-C dosage of 0.43 kJ m−2 also increased phenolics and anthocyanins, but to a lesser extent. The optimum doses of UV-C for enhancing phytochemical content in blueberries were 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m−2. These data suggest that proper use of UV-C illumination is capable of modifying the phytochemical content of blueberries. Time course measurements of the effects of UV-C revealed that the strongest responses of fruit to UV-C treatment occurred instantly after the illumination and the effects diminished with time. Therefore, even though residual effects were evident following UV-C exposure, the best results were obtained immediately after the treatment.
Article
Sugars and organic acids in the fruit of two cultivars and three selections of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.): ‘Haschberg’, ‘Rubini’, ‘Selection 13’, ‘Selection 14’ and ‘Selection 25’ were quantified. The anthocyanin as well as quercetin profiles of this plant material were also established by the use of HPLC/MS. Significant differences in the concentration of sugars and organic acids were detected between the widely spread cultivar ‘Haschberg’ and all other cultivars/selections; ‘Haschberg’ was the richest in organic acids (6.38 g kg−1 FW), and it contained the least sugar (68.5 g kg−1 FW). The following major cyanidin based anthocyanins were identified in the fruit of black elderberry: cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside. The most abundant anthocyanin in elderberry fruit was cyanidin 3-sambubioside, which accounted for more than half of all anthocyanins identified in the berries. The ‘Rubini’ cultivar had the highest amount of the anthocyanins identified (1265 mg/100 g FW) and the lowest amount was measured in berries of the ‘Selection 14’ (603 mg/100 g FW). The ‘Haschberg’ cultivar contained a relatively low amount of anthocyanins in ripe berries (737 mg/100 g FW). From the quercetin group, quercetin, quercetin 3-rutinoside and quercetin 3-glucoside were identified; the latter prevailing in black elderberry fruit. The cultivar with the highest amount of total quercetins was ‘Selection 25’ (73.4 mg/100 g FW), while the ‘Haschberg’ cultivar contained average amounts of quercetins (61.3 mg/100 g FW). The chemical composition of the ‘Haschberg’ cultivar, the most commonly planted, conforms to the standards for sugars, anthocyanins and quercetins and exceeds them in the content levels of organic acids, the most important parameter in fruit processing.
Article
Four varieties of cultivated blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and a wild crop (Vaccinium miyrtillus) originating form the Modena region in Italy (Mirtillo nero dell’Appennino Modenese) and protected by the mark of origin, were examined in order to determine their antioxidant activity as related to their phenolic composition. The antioxidant activity was measured as radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing activity, and by an amperometric method; the total phenolics and total anthocyanins were determined by colorimetric methods; individual anthocyanins were evaluated by HPLC. Results showed that total phenolics and total anthocyanin concentrations were, respectively two fold and three fold higher in the wild fruits, which also had a higher anthocyanin-to-total phenolic ratio. Determination of individual anthocyanins put in evidence some differences between the cultivated and wild varieties, in particular the absence of acylated anthocyanins in wild blueberries. The antioxidant activity was much higher in wild blueberries than in the cultivated ones, and it was more related to the total phenolic rather that to the anthocyanin concentration.
Article
Unlabelled: In the present study the anthocyanin content of commercially available bilberry juices and fresh fruits were quantified by using 15 authentic anthocyanin standards via high performance liquid chromatography with an ultra-violet detector (HPLC-UV/VIS). Delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside, delphinidin-3-O-galactopyranoside, and cyanidin-3-O-arabinopyranoside were the major anthocyanins found in juices, nectar, and fresh bilberries. In contrast, fresh blueberries had higher concentrations of malvidin-3-O-arabinopyranoside and petunidin-3-O-galactopyranoside. Up to 438 mg anthocyanins per 100 g fresh weight (2762 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) were detected in blueberries from various sources, whereas bilberries contained a maximum of 1017 mg anthocyanins per 100 g fresh weight (7465 mg/100 g DW). Commercially available bilberry and blueberry juices (n= 9) as well as nectars (n= 4) were also analyzed. Anthocyanin concentrations of juices (1610 mg/L to 5963 mg/L) and nectar from bilberries (656 mg/L to 1529 mg/L) were higher than those of blueberry juices (417 mg/L) and nectar (258 mg/L to 386 mg/L). We conclude that using several authentic anthocyanin references to quantify anthocyanin contents indicated them to be up to 53% and 64% higher in fresh bilberries and blueberries, respectively, than previously reported using cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. This study has also demonstrated that commercially available juices produced from bilberries contain much higher anthocyanin concentrations than those from blueberries. Practical application: We have investigated the contents of a special class of antioxidants, namely anthocyanins in blueberry and billberry fruits and juices commercially available in Germany. To achieve reliable data we have used authentic standards for the first time. We think that our results are important in the field of nutritional intake of this important class of polyphenols and fruit juice companies get a closer insight in the occurrence of these antioxidants in market samples to be used in food composition databases and for nutritional survey.
Article
Twenty six phenolic compounds in wine grapes were identified and quantified in five winegrape varieties using the complementary information from high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and fluorescence detectors, and mass spectrometry in both positive and negative mode. Fourteen different anthocyanins were identified in these grapes. in all varieties. malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives, mainly p-coumaroyl derivatives, were the major compounds. Seven flavonols were detected, most as quercetin and myricetin derivatives, and few qualitative differences were found among varieties. Total hydroxycinnamic content was rather low in all varieties. Lastly, catechin and epicatechin were detected in both skin and seed; differences in respect of the content in the seeds can be attributed to differences in the number and weight of seed per berry in each variety. The results of the characterisation can be used to select winemaking techniques aimed at improving the quality of the final wine.
Article
This study aimed to identify the pigment composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(glucosyl)galactosides acylated with sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were detected as major anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and with electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analyses. The preparative isolation of these pigments was carried out by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The color activity concept was applied to the isolated anthocyanins at three pH values. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(sinapoylglucosyl)galactoside was found to exhibit a lower visual detection threshold and a higher pH stability than cyanidin 3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl)galactoside and cyanidin 3-xylosyl(coumaroylglucosyl)galactoside. The color parameters of the fresh roots of the four cultivars were described by the CIELab coordinates L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h(ab) (hue angles). Total phenolics varied among the cultivars and ranged from 17.9 to 97.9 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (fw). For the content of monomeric anthocyanins, values between 1.5 and 17.7 mg/100 g fw were determined.
Article
Anthocyanins were systematically identified and characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with diode array detection in common fruits from U.S. food markets and other commercial sources. Of the 25 different fruits that were screened, 14 fruits were found to contain anthocyanins; the number of anthocyanins varied from 2 in peaches and nectarines to 31 in Concord grape. The individual anthocyanins were identified by comparing their mass spectral data and retention times with those of standards and published data. In all of the samples analyzed, only 6 common anthocyanidins, delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin, were found. In addition to the well-known major anthocyanins, a number of minor anthocyanins were identified for the first time. Some possible guidelines that help to identify anthocyanins in foods with complex anthocyanin composition were deduced and discussed. For the first time, this paper presents complete anthocyanin HPLC profiles and MS spectral data of common fruits using the same uniform experimental conditions.
Article
The identification of phenolics from various cultivars of fresh sweet and sour cherries and their protective effects on neuronal cells were comparatively evaluated in this study. Phenolics in cherries of four sweet and four sour cultivars were extracted and analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and their antineurodegenerative activities. Total phenolics in sweet and sour cherries per 100 g ranged from 92.1 to 146.8 and from 146.1 to 312.4 mg gallic acid equivalents, respectively. Total anthocyanins of sweet and sour cherries ranged from 30.2 to 76.6 and from 49.1 to 109.2 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that anthocyanins such as cyanidin and peonidin derivatives were prevalent phenolics. Hydroxycinnamic acids consisted of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid derivatives. Glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were also found. Generally, sour cherries had higher concentrations of total phenolics than sweet cherries, due to a higher concentration of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. A positive linear correlation (r2 = 0.985) was revealed between the total anthocyanins measured by summation of individual peaks from HPLC analysis and the total anthocyanins measured by the pH differential method, indicating that there was in a close agreement with two quantifying methods for measuring anthocyanin contents. Cherry phenolics protected neuronal cells (PC 12) from cell-damaging oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner mainly due to anthocyanins. Overall results showed that cherries are rich in phenolics, especially in anthocyanins, with a strong antineurodegenerative activity and that they can serve as a good source of biofunctional phytochemicals in our diet.
Article
The aim of our studies was to determine the amount of polyphenols reaching the colon after oral intake of apple juice and blueberries. After a polyphenol-free diet healthy ileostomy volunteers consumed a polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice while others consumed anthocyanin-rich blueberries. Ileostomy effluent was collected and polyphenols were identified using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS; quantification was performed with HPLC-DAD. Most of the orally administered apple polyphenols were absorbed from or metabolized in the small intestine. Between 0 and 33% of the oral dose was recovered in the ileostomy bags with a maximum of excretion after 2 h. A higher amount of the blueberry anthocyanins under study (up to 85%, depending on the sugar moiety) were determined in the ileostomy bags and therefore would reach the colon under physiological circumstances. Such structure-related availability has to be considered when polyphenols are used in model systems to study potential preventive effects in colorectal diseases.
Article
Anthocyanins were extracted from a mixture of berries of Vaccinium angustifolium and Vaccinium myrtilloïdes at 7.7 degrees C, 26 degrees C, and 79 degrees C using ethanol alone or ethanol acidified with hydrochloric, citric, tartaric, lactic, or phosphoric acids at a solvent to solid ratio of 10. The effect of these parameters on extracted anthocyanins stability was investigated. The pH-differential and HPLC-DAD methods were used to determine anthocyanin contents. Extracted anthocyanins were purified on a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge and characterized by HPLC/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Anthocyanins were identified according to their HPLC retention times, elution order, and MS fragmentation pattern and by comparison with standards and published data. Anthocyanin extractions gave different yields depending on the type of added acid and the extraction temperature. High yields of monomeric and total anthocyanins (26.3 and 28.9 mg/g of dry matter) were obtained at 79 degrees C using phosphoric acid. Extraction using tartaric acid at 79 degrees C provided the lowest degradation index (1.05). Anthocyanins were stable and browning by polyphenol oxidase was inhibited under these conditions. Of the six common anthocyanindins, five were identified in the extracts, namely, delpinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin; pelargonidin was not found. In addition to well-known major anthocyanins, new anthocyanins were identified for the first time in extracts of wild blueberries from Quebec.