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Seasonal variation in the proximate body composition of Macrobrachium dayanum (Henderson, 1893) (Decapoda, Caridea) from Gho-Manhasa stream, Jammu, North India

Authors:

Abstract

The present study describes the seasonal fluctuation in the proximate body composition of different size groups of Macrobrachium dayanum and among the sexes MdbI (Size 6.0-20.0 mm), MdbII (Size 21.0-40.0 mm), MdbIII, (Size 41.0-60.0 mm Male) and MdbIV (Size 41.0-60.0 mm Female). The results revealed that average moisture and protein content in muscles of M. dayanum was found to be maximum (79.42±0.59% and
89
Seasonal variation in the proximate body composition of
Macrobrachium
dayanum
(Henderson, 1893) (Decapoda, Caridea) from Gho-Manhasa
stream, Jammu, North India
Yahya Bakhtiyar1*, Seema Langer2
1Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar- 190006, India.
2Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, Jammu- 180006, India.
Corresponding author: yahya.bakhtiyar@gmail.com
Abstract: The present study describes the seasonal fluctuation in the proximate body
composition of different size groups of
Macrobrachium dayanum
and among the sexes MdbI
(Size 6.0-20.0 mm), MdbII (Size 21.0-40.0 mm), MdbIII, (Size 41.0-60.0 mm Male) and
MdbIV (Size 41.0-60.0 mm Female). The results revealed that average moisture and protein
content in muscles of
M. dayanum
was found to be maximum (79.42±0.59% and
16.98±0.51%) in lower size group MdbI (6.0-20.0 mm) and lowest (78.09±0.82% and
16.36±0.72%) in the adult female group. The average lipid and ash content was found to be
highest in adult males MdbIII (1.97±0.72% and 2.63±0.53%). The highest muscle protein
and lipid content were recorded in all the groups of
M. dayanum
during spring and early
winters. In the mature stages, fall in the muscle protein and lipid coincided with their
spawning season when gonads were in advanced stage of maturity. Ash content did not
provide any significant difference among different groups with respect to the season during
the present study.
Keywords:
Macrobrachium dayanum
, Seasonal variation, Size groups, Body composition,
Jammu.
Introduction
The edible crustaceans are considered as delicious food
throughout the world and thus command a market in both
domestic and international markets. In India, there are 18
species of prawns and three species of crabs, which are
commercially important (Jana and Jana, 2003). In recent
years, freshwater prawn viz.
Macrobrachium
has emerged
as an accepted candidate for aquaculture. Out of 125
Macrobrachium
species, only a small number
(
M. rosenbergii
,
M. malcolmsonii
,
M. birmanicum
,
M. choprai
etc.) have been exploited from the culture
point of view. In addition to the above-mentioned species,
M. dayanum
has been rendered as a notable species
withstanding good economic potential (Jhingran, 1982).
The species is recorded to attain a maximum size ranging
from 84 mm (female) to 92 mm (male) (New et al., 2000)
and in Jammu (India) a maximum size up to 65 mm and
60 mm has been reported by Kailoo (1984) and Bakhtiyar
(2008). The palatable size of the prawn though small when
compared to other cultivable species of prawn, the
absolute uniqueness of
M. dayanum
lies in the fact that it
completes whole of its life cycle in freshwater as
compared to its counterparts who have to spend a part of
their life cycle in brackish or sea water thus, making the
culture of
M. dayanum
practically convenient and
economically notable.
As the prawns have become the major sources of
animal protein to low income earners due to its low priced
availability (Adeyeye and Adubiaro, 2004), it has
therefore become necessary that studies of the nutritive
value of prawns or shrimps be carried out. Besides biotic
and abiotic factors, extensive studies have also been
carried out on growth performance during the larval
development of many decapods mainly in terms of
weight, size, moult frequency and development rate time
(Lovett and Felder, 1988; Nurnadia et al., 2011).
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ACTA BIOLOGICA TURCICA 29(3): 89-98, 2016
However, still biochemical composition has been
suggested to be a more relevant indicator of growth during
the larval development when the nutritional values of
different natural or experimental diets are assessed
(Ceccaldi, 1982).
In the case of the present study, nutritional status of the
M. dayanum
from Jammu region is lacking though it is
eaten by the local populace. Thus the objective of this
study is to interpret nutritional status and the variation in
the body composition of different sizes of locally
available freshwater prawn
M. dayanum
from different
seasons of the year from Gho-Manhasa stream of Jammu,
Northern India, which is considered to be one of the good
habitats of local freshwater prawn.
Materials and Methods
Collection and transportation:
For biochemical analysis
live specimens of
M. dayanum
were collected from Gho-
Manhasa stream (32.56°N and 74.95°E) because of easy
access and availability in abundance throughout the year.
Since the stream is located at a short distance (14 to 15
Km), live specimens could be brought safely with less
stress to the laboratory where they were analyzed for their
proximate body composition. This analysis was
performed over a period of one year (January 2004-
December 2004). For the analysis of main body
constituents the
M. dayanum
were divided into four
groups on the basis of their size as:
1. MdbI (Size 6.0-20.0 mm)
2. MdbII (Size 21.0-40.0 mm)
3. MdbIII (Size 41.0-60.0 mm Male)
4. MdbIV (Size 41.0-60.0 mm Female)
Proximate body composition:
The sample of muscles was
accurately weighed (1 gm) and was dried in hot air oven
at 105±1°C to constant weight. The difference between
the initial weight and the final weight was used to
determine the moisture constant (AOAC, 1999). The
protein content of the muscles was estimated following
Lowry et al. (1951). The total lipid content was
determined by the method of Folch et al. (1957). Ash
content was estimated by heating the samples in a muffle
furnace at 550°C for about 3 hours (AOAC, 1999).
Statistical Analysis:
The data was analyzed to test the
level of significance using Microsoft Excel 2003 and
SPSS (12.0 Version, Chicago, USA). The level of
significance was tested by one way ANOVA, Duncan Post
Multiple comparisons (Duncan, 1955).
Results
Proximate analysis of four major components viz.,
moisture, protein, lipid and ash of the muscles of
M. dayanum
during the present study exhibited a well-
marked seasonal variation and the same seems to be
correlated with age and size (Tables 1-4 and Fig. 1).
Moisture:
Seasonal variation in the moisture contents of
the MdbI, MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV during the present
study are depicted in Table 1. MdbI recorded minimum
value (78.48±0.32%) of moisture in the month of April
Months
MdbI
MdbII
MdbIII
January
80.43±0.43a
79.46±0.12a
78.60±0.96abcd
78.53±0.95bc
February
79.87±0.07abc
79.25±0.25ab
78.40±0.56bcd
77.81±0.25cd
March
79.63±0.63bc
79.14±0.22ab
79.17±0.41ab
78.26±0.07c
April
78.48±0.32e
78.23±0.16d
79.32±0.26a
77.54±0.20d
May
78.74±0.26de
78.56±0.13cd
77.85±0.33d
78.46±0.42c
June
79.80±0.30abc
79.48±0.21a
78.23±0.26cd
78.21±0.30cd
July
79.39±0.21bcd
78.91±0.44bc
79.30±0.17a
77.91±0.43cd
August
79.13±0.20cde
79.14±0.14ab
79.14±0.58ab
79.14±0.35ab
September
79.51±0.24bc
79.18±0.09ab
79.33±0.33a
79.42±0.08a
October
79.68±0.63bc
78.89±0.14bc
78.79±0.14abc
78.19±0.20cd
November
79.97±0.36ab
77.84±0.21e
76.43±0.16e
76.79±0.25e
December
79.59±0.59bc
78.43±0.22d
76.47±0.25e
76.89±0.11e
Mean
79.42±0.59
78.87±0.52
78.42±1.06
78.09±0.82
Values having the same super script in a column do not differ significantly (P>0.05)
Table 1. Seasonal variations in the moisture content of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum.
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Bakhtiyar and Langer- Seasonal variation in the proximate body composition of Macrobrachium dayanum
of Cobitis avicennae
and the maximum value (80.43±0.43%) in January. The
data reveals significant variation in the moisture content
of the muscles of wild caught
M. dayanum
throughout the
period of investigation. Although, moisture content was
not observed to follow a sharp regular trend but a decline
in moisture content of MdbI was prominent in April, June
and August, respectively.
The moisture content in the size group MdbII ranged
from 77.84±0.21% to 79.48±0.21% in November and
June, respectively. Moisture content of MdbII decreased
from January to March and from September to November.
While in summers and extreme winters, it showed an
increasing trend. Above and beyond a significant
difference (P<0.05) in moisture content was recorded
between different months throughout the year.
The moisture content in adult males (MdbIII) was
observed to range between 76.43±0.16% to 79.33±0.33%
in the months of November and September, respectively.
The minimum value of moisture content observed in the
month of November did not differ significantly (P>0.05)
with the values observed in the month of December
(76.47±0.25%). Mean values of moisture content
Months
MdbI
MdbII
MdbIII
MdbIV
January
16.82±0.12def
16.20±0.08cd
16.70±0.34c
15.91±0.27c
February
16.53±0.24fg
16.85±0.18b
16.17±0.07d
15.69±0.06c
March
16.67±0.22efg
16.28±0.22c
15.97±0.13de
15.45±0.27c
April
17.89±0.29a
17.42±0.07a
15.65±0.27f
16.72±0.27b
May
17.63±0.24ab
17.56±0.13a
17.01±0.07b
17.21±0.20ab
June
16.56±0.34fg
16.13±0.07cde
16.77±0.13bc
16.86±0.14b
July
16.72±0.13efg
15.92±0.27de
16.59±0.06c
15.61±0.89c
August
16.28±0.06g
15.87±0.17e
15.92±0.25def
15.82±0.20c
September
17.22±0.38bcd
16.06±0.06cde
15.71±0.07ef
16.02±0.06c
October
17.48±0.08abc
16.77±0.23b
16.89±0.15bc
16.84±0.15b
November
17.05±0.14cde
17.61±0.07a
17.78±0.06a
17.51±0.34a
December
16.95±0.41def
17.00±0.22b
17.54±0.08a
16.67±0.11b
Mean
16.98±0.51
16.64±0.64
16.56±0.68
16.36±0.72
Values having the same super script in a column do not differ significantly (P>0.05)
Table 2. Seasonal variations in the protein content of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum.
Months
MdbI
MdbII
MdbIII
MdbIV
January
0.52±0.09g
1.28±0.13f
1.89±0.15cd
1.64±0.07d
February
0.68±0.06ef
1.63±0.11de
1.23±0.19fg
1.51±0.29d
March
0.81±0.14de
1.97±0.08bc
1.11±0.12g
1.62±0.20d
April
1.44±0.21ab
1.90±0.15bcd
1.53±0.20def
2.02±0.21c
May
1.49±0.14a
1.84±0.40bcd
1.66±0.44de
1.09±0.09e
June
1.42±0.06ab
1.80±0.22cd
2.04±0.06c
2.13±0.11c
July
1.11±0.04c
2.16±0.14b
1.86±0.11cd
2.18±0.22c
August
1.02±0.08cd
1.37±0.16ef
1.72±0.04cde
0.92±0.06ef
September
0.85±0.03de
1.72±0.07cd
1.39±0.23efg
0.76±0.10f
October
1.23±0.34bc
2.15±0.10b
2.86±0.09b
2.04±0.06c
November
1.52±0.05a
2.68±0.18a
3.09±0.10ab
3.26±0.25b
December
1.15±0.08c
2.15±0.09b
3.29±0.25a
3.72±0.05a
Mean
1.10±0.34
1.89±0.39
1.97±0.72
1.91±0.86
Values having the same super script in a column do not differ significantly (P>0.05)
Table 3. Seasonal variations in the lipid content of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum.
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ACTA BIOLOGICA TURCICA 29(3): 89-98, 2016
computed for MdbIV (adult females) varied from
76.79±0.25% to 79.42±0.09% during the months of
November and September, respectively. In the present
study, it was observed that moisture content in muscle was
found to decrease with age, however variation in the
moisture content among adult males and females showed
no significant (P>0.05) difference. When moisture
content data was clubbed with each other it was observed
that all groups conferred a mean of 78.70±0.94% moisture
content (Fig. 1).
Protein:
Seasonal variation in the muscle protein contents
of the MdbI, MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV during the present
study are depicted in Table 2. The muscle protein of MdbI
which ranged from 16.28±0.06% (August) to 17.89±
0.29% (April) recorded an increase during spring and post
monsoon (October) followed by a progressive decline in
winter season (January and February) and monsoon (July
and August). The mean protein content of the year was
recorded to be 16.98 ±0.51%.
Mean value of muscle protein in MdbII ranged from
15.87±0.17% (August) to 17.61±0.07% (November). The
protein content exhibited a gradual increase from winter
(January) towards spring and summer (April and May)
and subsequent decrease towards monsoon (August,
September) and winter (January), respectively. Mean
protein content of this size group throughout the year was
recorded to be 16.64±0.64%.
Muscle protein of adult males (MdbIII) ranged from
15.65±0.27% during spawning season (April) and
17.78±0.06% in post spawning and post monsoon
(November). Protein content recorded an increase in May
and from September to November and a decrease from
June to September. However, the annual mean protein
content of this group was recorded to be 16.56±0.68%.
Muscle protein of adult females (MdbIV) of
M. dayanum varied from 15.45±0.27% in March
(spawning period) and 17.51 ± 0.34% in November
(Resting phase). The increase in protein content occurred
in spring and early summer (March to May) and decreased
in monsoon. The annual mean protein content of this
group was recorded to be 16.36±0.72%.
Mean muscle protein content computed in
M. dayanum
(Fig. 1) revealed that muscle protein content ranged from
16.28±0.06% to 17.89±0.29% with a mean of
16.98±0.51% for MdbI, from 15.87±0.17% to 17.61±
0.07% with a mean of 16.64±0.64 in case of MdbII, from
15.65±0.27% to 17.78±0.6% with a mean of 16.56±0.68%
in case of MdbIII and from 15.45±0.27% to 17.51±0.34%
with a mean of 16.36±0.72% in case of MdbIV. The total
mean protein content as determined on wet weight basis
in all the groups was recorded 16.63±0.67% with
significantly (P<0.05) higher protein values in small sizes
which were found to decrease with increase in size (Fig.
1).
Figure 1. Graphical representation of mean values of the body components in four size groups of Macrobrachium dayanum.
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Bakhtiyar and Langer- Seasonal variation in the proximate body composition of Macrobrachium dayanum
of Cobitis avicennae
Lipid: Seasonal variation in the lipid contents of the MdbI,
MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV during the present study are
presented in Table 3. During the present study lipid
content in the muscles of MdbI was observed to vary from
minimum 0.52±0.09% (January) to a maximum 1.52±
0.09% (November) which apparently did not vary
significantly (P>0.05) from the values observed in April
(1.44±0.21%), May (1.49±0.14%) and June (1.42±0.06%)
respectively.
Lipid content of MdbII recorded minima of
1.28±0.13% (January) and maxima of 2.68±0.18%
(November). The lipid content showed a declining trend
towards winter (January) and monsoon (August),
whereas, it marked an increase during spring (March and
April) and post monsoon (March-July and September-
November). The minimum value of lipid recorded in the
month of January (1.28±0.13%) did not differ
significantly (P>0.05) from the value observed in the
month of August (1.37±0.16%).
The lipid content in adult males recorded minimum
(1.11±0.12%) during the March and a maximum of
3.29±0.25% in December. The lipid content of muscles in
adult males was observed to remain low during spawning
season (February-April) whereas higher values were
observed during resting and recoupment phase (October-
December).
Lipid content of muscles of adult females (MdbIV)
recorded 0.76±0.10% (September) which did not differ
significantly (P>0.05) with the value recorded in August
(0.92±0.06) and a crest at 3.72±0.05% in December.
Furthermore, the muscles lipid content recorded an all-
time low value during post monsoon months (August-
September) and maximum during post spawning season
(November-December).
Mean muscle lipid content values (Fig. 1) varied from
0.52±0.09% to 1.52±0.05% with a mean of 1.10±0.34%
in MdbI, from1.28±0.13% to 2.68±0.18% with a mean
1.89±0.39% in MdbII, from 1.11±0.12% to 3.29±0.25%
with a mean of 1.97±0.72% in MdbIII and from
0.76±0.10% to 3.72±0.05% with a mean of 1.91±0.86%
in MdbIV, respectively. The lipid content was found to be
significantly low (P<0.05) in MdbI and thereafter muscle
lipid content increased in MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV with
no significant difference. Finally from the recorded mean
of all the groups it was concluded that
M. dayanum
contain overall lipid content of 1.72±0.71% (Fig. 1)
throughout the year.
Ash:
Seasonal variation in the ash contents of the MdbI,
MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV during the present study are
depicted in Table 4.The ash content of MdbI ranged
between 1.10±0.06% (minima) in November to 2.58±
0.17% (maxima) in August. The minimum value recorded
during the month of November did not differ significantly
(P>0.05) from the value recorded during the month of
October (1.15±0.05%).
In MdbII, the minimum value (1.87±0.13%) was
recorded in the month of November and the maximum
value (2.93±0.43%) was found during the month of
Months
MdbI
MdbII
MdbIII
MdbIV
January
1.83±0.11bc
2.91±0.18a
2.88±0.27abc
2.01±0.10de
February
2.52±0.21a
2.21±0.18cde
2.42±0.39bcde
3.16±0.15a
March
2.41±0.06a
2.76±0.23ab
3.30±0.21a
3.23±0.22a
April
2.02±0.16b
2.32±0.17cd
2.79±0.49abcd
2.25±0.06cd
May
1.82±0.05bc
2.51±0.11abc
2.87±0.49abc
2.77±0.25b
June
1.79±0.11c
2.59±0.15abc
2.14±0.12de
2.19±0.14d
July
1.63±0.07c
2.52±0.10abc
2.14±0.70de
2.53±0.10bc
August
2.58±0.17a
2.93±0.45a
3.04±0.17ab
3.15±0.15a
September
2.45±0.09a
2.76±0.36ab
2.73±0.22abcd
3.17±0.28a
October
1.15±0.05d
1.93±0.12de
3.19±0.19a
1.29±0.14f
November
1.10±0.06d
1.87±0.13e
1.91±0.20e
1.83±0.06e
December
1.79±0.17c
2.39±0.17bc
2.24±0.41cde
2.09±0.15de
Mean
1.92±0.49
2.47±0.38
2.63±0.53
2.47±0.62
Values having the same super script in a column do not differ significantly (P>0.05)
Table 4. Seasonal variations in the ash content of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum.
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ACTA BIOLOGICA TURCICA 29(3): 89-98, 2016
August. Ash content in adult males MdbIII ranged
between 1.91±0.20% (minimum) to 3.30±0.21%
(maximum) in the months of November and March
respectively.
Ash content of MdbIV also varied between
1.29±0.14% (October) and 3.23±0.22% (March). Mean
values of ash content furnished a range varying from
1.10±0.06% to 2.58±0.17% and a mean of 1.92±0.49% in
MdbI, from 1.87±0.13% to 2.93±0.45% giving a mean of
2.47±0.38, from 1.91±0.20 to 3.30±0.21 with a mean of
2.63±0.53 in MdbIII and from 1.29±0.14 to 3.23±0.22
with a mean of 2.47±0.62 in MdbIV, respectively. The ash
content was also found to be significantly low in MdbI and
increased in higher groups with no significant difference
among them. The mean of all recorded data of ash in all
groups revealed that
M. dayanum
contains 2.37±0.58% of
ash content (Fig. 1).
Discussion
From the present study, it emerges that during the winter
season moisture content marks an increase while lipid
content showed a declining trend. This inverse
relationship might be due to low temperature, low feeding
rate, and high energy demand to maintain body
temperature and to cope up with food scarcity in winter.
Similar results have been obtained by Dinakaran et al.
(2009) while working on the proximate composition of
edible palaemonid prawn
Macrobrachium idae
. Thus an
inquisitive study of Tables 1 and 3 pointed out an increase
in the moisture content accompanied by a decrease in lipid
content in all the groups under investigation (MdbI,
MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV).
Overall mean range of moisture of different groups
showed a decrease in the content of moisture with the
growth of organism. Similarly Munz and Morris (1965)
suggested that growth induces a decrease in water content
of
Eptatretus stoutii
. Their results further indicated that
annual variations in the moisture content were more
pronounced in mature specimens than immature.
Watanabe et al. (1992) while working on white
abalone observed high moisture content in its muscles
during the spawning period which thereafter was observed
to decrease to lowest. A similar trend has been recorded
by Zaboukas et al. (2006) wherein water content of
somatic tissues of Atlantic bonito increased with gonadal
maturation and decreased after spawning and was lowest
in immature bonitos.
Fish (Fin fish and shell fish) protein occupies an
important place in human nutrition as it provides for an
alternate source of animal protein. It has high digestibility,
high unsaturated fats, besides biological and growth
promoting value (Nargis, 2006). Seasonal variation in the
protein content of MdbI, MdbII, MdbIII and MdbIV as
evident in table 2 precisely deliberate on the very low
protein content of MdbI and MdbII during the month of
August (monsoon) and the maximum value of protein
during April (MdbI) and November (MdbII). Such
remarkably low protein content in monsoon may be
attributed to inadequate food availability due to heavy
rains, the rise in the level of water, low density of plankton
and organic food. The low protein content in August did
not differ significantly with the values recorded in June
and July.
However, the higher value recorded in the month of
April in the case of MdbI was not observed to differ
significantly from the values observed in October. The
high values of protein content recorded in MdbII in the
month of November did not differ significantly from the
values recorded in the month of May and November. The
variation in protein content in case of immature specimens
may be attributed to two factors viz. food availability and
temperature. Maximum diversity of plankton during the
month of spring and a minimum during monsoon has been
reported by (Collins, 1999; Langer et al., 2007; Langer et
al., 2011). Besides dipteran population also recorded a
declining trend during monsoon (Sawhney, 2004)
although they contribute to the diet of prawns. Therefore,
in the present study higher muscle protein content during
spring season (April-May) to a considerable extent can be
ascribed to food availability in the natural habitat.
However, the protein content of MdbIII and MdbIV
reveals that muscle protein experiences a fall in the
months of February-April and August-September in the
case of MdbIII and a fall in the month of February upto
March and from July to August in case of MdbIV. The
fall in the protein content coincides with their spawning
season when the gonads are in an advanced stage of
maturity. In MdIV, the protein content was observed to
show a remarkable increase during late spring (April),
early summer (May) and from September to November
when gonads were in the initial stages of maturity. These
observations are in conformity with the findings of many
workers (Langer et al., 2008; Samyal et al., 2011; Langer
et al., 2013). The variation in protein content of mature
95
Bakhtiyar and Langer- Seasonal variation in the proximate body composition of Macrobrachium dayanum
of Cobitis avicennae
specimens (MdbIII and MdbIV) may thus be attributed to
gonads maturation and spawning season besides the food
availability and environmental factors, which in one or the
other way affect almost all the physiological features of
any organism.
The quintessence of high muscle protein content
observed in all the studied groups of
M. dayanum
during
spring and early winters happens to be due to active
feeding, optimum temperature regime and maximum
availability of food as algal blooms and plankton during
this period when they acquire maxima. This adequate
influx of energy is not only used for maintenance of
ovarian development but also for other metabolic
activities as well. Rosa and Nunes (2003) have also
reported significant increase in the protein content in
muscle of deep sea decapods,
Aristeus antennatus
during
winter and early spring. Love (1970) documented that the
building up of gonads during gonadal growth is always
accomplished at the expense of body proteins thus
supporting the present observations. The seasonal (intra-
annual) variations in muscle protein content may be
coupled with the changes in the feeding activity as
starvation leads to loss of muscle protein in deep sea
decapod species (Dall, 1981). However, mean annual
protein content in all size groups exhibit a declining trend
when the animal increases in size and a difference
between male and female specimens was visible. The
higher protein content in lower size groups may be due to
increased protein synthesis during active growth phase
and has also been observed by many workers (Sriram and
Reddy, 1977; Achuthankutty and Parulekar, 1984;
Tanuja, 1996; Dinakaran and Sundarapandian, 2009;
Dinakaran et al., 2010; Devi et al., 2015). In case of
M. idae
and
M. Scabriculum
also the greater variation in
protein content with respect to the size group was noticed
and the protein content was found to be higher in younger
groups and in males than females (Sriram, 1978;
Dinakaran et al., 2010). This may be attributed that some
amount of Protein is being spared for the development of
gonadal activity i.e., developing of eggs in berried
females.
In the case of lipid content, MdbI revealed an evident
peak during spring, summer and early winter (April, May
and November) and a decline in monsoon (September)
and winters (January). In MdbII, the lipid content showed
a declining trend towards January and August to
September and an increase during March to July and
September-November. In this context, it seems that
variation in lipid content is totally environment dependent
although food availability does cast its effect on the said
feature. Likewise in mature specimens (MdbIII and
MdbIV), low lipid content was observed during February-
March (Spring) in MdbIII and from January to May in
MdbIV while lipid content recorded higher values during
October to December in MdbIII and MdbIV. Similar
results have been earlier documented by Jonsson and
Jonsson (2005) and Nargis (2006). In mature specimens
low lipid content was recorded during the period when
most of the adults of
M. dayanum
undergo breeding and
show reduced feeding intensity and enhanced metabolic
rate. Reduction in the amount of lipid content in the
muscles for the development and maturation of gonads
has also been well reported by many workers (Dinakaran
and Sundarapandian, 2009; Dinakaran et al., 2010; Langer
et al., 2013; Devi et al., 2015)
The reproduction cycle of
M. dayanum
has been well
discussed by Kailoo (1984) wherein the authors put forth
the biannual spawning behaviour of
M. dayanum
. The
first breeding period is a prolonged one extending from
February-May while other one i.e. second breeding period
is short (August-September). Young specimens have low
lipid content than their adult counterparts and the similar
results on variation in lipid content among mature and
immature specimens have also been reported in past by
Shaikhmahmud and Magar (1957) also obtained higher
lipid content in mature females of
Parapanaeopsis
stylifera
when compared to immature ones. Similar results
were also reported in
M. scabriculum
by Tiwary (2009)
and in
M. idae
by Chandra (2009).
The results of all the groups, when put together,
indicated an increase in ash content with an increase in the
size of prawn. The results reveal that protein and ash
contents behave antagonistically while ash and lipids
behave synergistically. Contrary to this Lupatsch et al.
(1998) reported no change in protein and ash content with
an increase in fish size. The results of present study further
reveal that in immature groups, ash content tends to
increase while as in mature groups, ash content tends to
decrease. While as in immature groups, minima of ash was
recorded in the month of November and maxima in
August, mature specimens recorded a minima in the
month of November and October and maxima in the
month of March. Such variability in ash values could be
attributed due to the differential requirement of minerals
96
ACTA BIOLOGICA TURCICA 29(3): 89-98, 2016
with respect to different seasons.
The values recorded for moisture content (78.70±
0.94%) in
M. dayanum
during the present study were
almost similar to values reported in
M. rosenbergii
(78.29%) and
Scylla serrata
(79.23%) (Gopakumar,
1993).
Chiou et al. (2001) reported average moisture content
i.e. 77.7±1.0% in the muscles of small abalone which
corresponds to the values observed in the muscles of
M. dayanum
in the present work. Moreover, Olsson et al.
(2003) found average water content in the muscles of both
wild and farmed halibut which ranged between 70.6%±
1.0% to 79.2±0.9%, respectively.
Mean of the protein content (16.63±0.67%) as
tabulated on wet weight basis in Figure 1 is very similar
to the earlier reports on the same species reported by
Langer et al. (2008) who found a protein level of 83.89%
(on dry weight basis) and 17.5% (wet weight basis) in the
muscles of
M. dayanum
. Gopakumar (1993) reported high
protein content in the muscle of adult giant fresh-water
prawn,
M. rosenbergii
(22%). Similarly, Perrone et al.
(2003) also reported high protein content in the tissues of
amphipod,
Eurythenes gryllus
(39-53% dry weight).
Similarly Jafri et al. (1964) reported 17.18 % protein
content in the muscles tissues of freshwater fish
Labeo
rohita
, 14.37% in
Puntius sarana
, 15.7% in
Mystus aor
.
Chiou et al. (2001) reported high crude proteins
(18.0±0.7%) in the muscles of small abalone,
Haliotis
diversicolor
. From the above findings it can be asserted
that protein content of
M. dayanum
(16.63±0.67%)
recorded in the present study is in close conformity with
the protein content recorded by many workers in
crustaceans and fishes.
The mean lipid content (1.72±0.71%) in the muscles of
M. dayanum
in the present study matches well with other
crustaceans. A large number of workers estimated lipid
content of muscles in decapod crustaceans (Barclay et al.,
1983; Sureshkumar and Kurup, 1998; Cavalli et al., 2001;
Wouters et al., 2001; Rosa and Nunes, 2003; Langer et al.,
2008). The mean value of ash content (2.37±0.58%) found
in the muscles of
M. dayanum
is higher than the ash values
reported for
M. rosenbergii
(0.37%),
Scylla serrata
(1.39%) (Gopakumar, 1993) and
M. rosenbergii
(1.62-
1.84%) (Reddy et al., 2013).
The differential variation in the biochemical
composition of the muscles might be attributed to many
factors viz. the differences in the sex of prawn,
environmental factors, maturity of gonads/spawning time,
food availability and genetic factors. Similar factors have
also been put forth by other authors especially in fishes
and crustaceans (Love, 1957; Roustainian and
Kamarudin, 2001; Lemos and Phan, 2001; Rosa and
Nunes, 2003; Dinakaran et al., 2009; Langer et al., 2013;
Devi et al., 2015).
From the above findings, it can be aptly concluded that
M. dayanum
is a good source of protein, minerals and
lipid and is highly recommended as an ideal food item of
diet in general besides being a good candidate for
aquaculture.
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to Head of the Department of
Zoology, University of Jammu for providing necessary
facilities to carry out the research work successfully.
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