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Ethno-Medicinal Inventory of Khanpur Valley and Some Archeological Sites Reflecting Ancient Gandhara Civilization, District Haripur, Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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An ethnomedicinal inventory was carried out during 2012 ancient Gandhara civilization, District Haripur, Pakistan. Data pertaining to ethnomedicinal uses and folk recipes of local plants was collected through questionnaires and interviews during field visits. For the purpose local people including men, women, children, knowledgeable persons (Hakims/Pansaries/Traditional healers/ Herdsmen) were approached. As a result 61 important medicinal plants species belonging to 43 families including 20 trees, 18 shrubs, 21 herbs, 1 grass and 1 climber, along with folk medicinal recipes were documented. Detailed information pertaining to botanical name, local name, family, part used, active chemical constituent medicinal plants of Khanpur Valley are under severe pressure due to deforestation, over grazing, over exploitation and subsequent fires. As a result valuable medicinal plants are ge were identified, preserved, mounted and voucher was deposited at the Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Haripur, KPK, Pakistan for future references.
Methods of preparation Multiple medicinal uses: Almost all the reported plants of Khanpur Valley have multiple medicinal uses. For example; Adhatoda vasica (blood purification, diabetes, jaundice, pimples, toothache, cough, asthma), Berberis lyceum (constipation, rheumatism,abscesses), Casia fistula (constipation, hepatitis, jaundice, fever) and Celtis australis (stomach problems, diarrhea, dysentery) etc. Mostly remedies consisted of single plant part and more than one method of preparation. For example; 5 gram bulb of Allium sativum are taken with meal for high blood pressure and cholesterol level, oil of bulb for rheumatism, bulb are grinded in vinegar and paste is applied for animal and insect bites. Leaf gel Aloe barbadensis is burnt over the fry pan and taken internally for blood purification, constipation, intestinal worms, poor appetite, phlegm, pneumonia, diabetes and face pimples, gel is applied externally over the wounds, burns and in other skin problems. Twigs of Artemisia vulgaris are powdered and used for hepatitis and fever, twigs are also mixedin olive oil and massage on the body for prevention from harms of mosquitos. Dried leaves of Cannabis sativa are taken for rheumatism; leaves are also bound over the wound. Leaves of Dalbergiasissoo are boiled in water andhairs are washed with this water for shine and strength, leaf tea is used for abdominal worms, fresh leaves are grinded water and drunk for hotness of body. Fruit of Ficus carica is dip in water at night and taken with water in morning for blood production, good skin color, kidney efficacy, constipation, digestive troubles and hemorrhoids, fruit is also eaten with honey as stomachic. Powdered leaves of Menthaarvensis are taken with curd for dysentery; leaf tea is taken for fevers, headaches, digestive disorders, vomiting, nausea and obesity, " Chatni " of leaves is used as blood purifier, carminative, diuretic and stomachic and appetizer. Juice made from fresh leaves of Oxalis corniculata is used for jaundice, powdered leaves are applied as poultice for skin inflammations.
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International Research
Journal of
Vol. 5(7), 68-84, July (2016)
International Science Community
Association
Ethno-
Medicinal Inventory of Khanpur Valley and Some Archeological Sites
Reflecting Ancient Gandhara Civilization, District Haripur,
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Zeeshan Siddique
1*
, Sobia Nisa
1
, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah
1
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Haripur, Haripur, KPK, Pakistan
2
³COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
Available online at:
Received 16
th
Abstract
An
ethnomedicinal inventory was carried out during 2012
ancient Gandhara civilization, District Haripur, Pakistan. Data pertaining to ethnomedicinal uses and folk recipes of local
plants was colle
cted through questionnaires and interviews during field visits. For the purpose local people including men,
women, children, knowledgeable persons (Hakims/Pansaries/Traditional healers/ Herdsmen) were approached. As a result
61 important medicinal plants s
pecies belonging to 43 families including 20 trees, 18 shrubs, 21 herbs, 1 grass and 1
climber, along with folk medicinal recipes were documented. Detailed information pertaining to botanical name, local name,
family, part used, active chemical constituent
medicinal plants of Khanpur Valley are under severe pressure due to deforestation, over grazing, over exploitation and
subsequent fires. As a result valuable medicinal plants are ge
were identified, preserved, mounted and voucher was deposited at the Department of Environmental Sciences, University of
Haripur, KPK, Pakistan for future references.
Keywords: Ethnomedicinal,
Gandhara civilization, Khanpur Valley, Deforestation
Introduction
Man has been utilizing plants since long to fulfill different daily
needs to maintain life processes. Plants provide people with
food,
medicines and fodder for livestock, as well as materials
for construction of houses. The plants are used to make crafts,
agricultural tools, fuel and many other economically important
products
1
. Plant resources provide materials for survival,
medicinal, f
orage values, but also possess and preserve cultural
heritages, biological information and indigenous knowledge
The history of discovery and use of different medicinal plants is
as old as the history of discovery and use of plants for food
Medicinal
plants remained the primary source of medicines
throughout the world. Any plant or part of a plant like root,
stem, leaf, bark, fruit, and seed which contain active chemical
constituents in the tissue that produce a definite physiological
response in the t
reatment of various diseases in human and in
the animals are called medicinal plants
5
. Plants are essential
ingredients for healthier life because they provide us medicines,
which are both effective and safe, without any side effect.
Plants play a vital
role in our lives more than animals mainly
due to their extraordinary array of diverse class of bio
with a variety of biological activities
6,7
.
From the history it is revealed that the ancient people used
medicinal plants for treatment of variou
s diseases
Journal of
Biological Sciences _______________________
____
Association
Medicinal Inventory of Khanpur Valley and Some Archeological Sites
Reflecting Ancient Gandhara Civilization, District Haripur,
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah
2
,
Abdullah Khan
1
and
Muhammad Mohiuddin³
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Haripur, Haripur, KPK, Pakistan
Department of Botany, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK, Pakistan
³COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
zsssbio@gmail.com
Available online at:
www.isca.in, www.isca.me
th
June 2016, revised 24
th
June 2016, accepted 9
th
July 2016
ethnomedicinal inventory was carried out during 2012
-
2013 in Khanpur Valley and some archeological sites reflecting
ancient Gandhara civilization, District Haripur, Pakistan. Data pertaining to ethnomedicinal uses and folk recipes of local
cted through questionnaires and interviews during field visits. For the purpose local people including men,
women, children, knowledgeable persons (Hakims/Pansaries/Traditional healers/ Herdsmen) were approached. As a result
pecies belonging to 43 families including 20 trees, 18 shrubs, 21 herbs, 1 grass and 1
climber, along with folk medicinal recipes were documented. Detailed information pertaining to botanical name, local name,
family, part used, active chemical constituent
and ethno-
medicinal recipes were also tabulated. The study indicated that
medicinal plants of Khanpur Valley are under severe pressure due to deforestation, over grazing, over exploitation and
subsequent fires. As a result valuable medicinal plants are ge
tting depleted with alarming rate. Plant specimens collected
were identified, preserved, mounted and voucher was deposited at the Department of Environmental Sciences, University of
Haripur, KPK, Pakistan for future references.
Gandhara civilization, Khanpur Valley, Deforestation
.
Man has been utilizing plants since long to fulfill different daily
needs to maintain life processes. Plants provide people with
medicines and fodder for livestock, as well as materials
for construction of houses. The plants are used to make crafts,
agricultural tools, fuel and many other economically important
. Plant resources provide materials for survival,
orage values, but also possess and preserve cultural
heritages, biological information and indigenous knowledge
2,3
.
The history of discovery and use of different medicinal plants is
as old as the history of discovery and use of plants for food
4
.
plants remained the primary source of medicines
throughout the world. Any plant or part of a plant like root,
stem, leaf, bark, fruit, and seed which contain active chemical
constituents in the tissue that produce a definite physiological
reatment of various diseases in human and in
. Plants are essential
ingredients for healthier life because they provide us medicines,
which are both effective and safe, without any side effect.
role in our lives more than animals mainly
due to their extraordinary array of diverse class of bio
-chemicals
From the history it is revealed that the ancient people used
s diseases
8
. The use of
medicinal plants and herbs for the medicines is universal
phenomenon and almost every nation and every country of the
world had utilized medicinal plants as traditional medicines due
to their therapeutic property
9
. Our Holy Prophet
Upon Him) also used certain herbs to cure various diseases
Literature regarding the research
were reviewed
the present study was to record medicinal knowledge and folk
recipes of plants used by the local and ethnic communities
living in the Khanpur Valley especially around the various
archeological sites reflecting great ancient Gandhara
civilization.
Study area:
Khanpur valley (also Upper Khanpur or Hilly area
of Khanpur) is the part of Harro Valley situated in District
Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
beautiful large village in Valley and one of the 44 union council
administrative subdivisions of Haripur District.It is located to
the south of the District Capital Haripur at 33°48'53N
72°56'22E, and about 30
km from Islamabad in a beautiful
green hilly place.
It is famous throughout Pakistan for its
Oranges and is also known for the Khanpur Dam.
various archeological sites in the Valley,
ancient Gandhara civili
zation. Major ethnic groups like
Ghakhars, Gujars, Awan (sub sections Kutab Shais, Khokhars,
and Chuhans), Jadoon, Syeds, Qureshi, Abbassi, Karrala,
____
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Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
68
Medicinal Inventory of Khanpur Valley and Some Archeological Sites
Reflecting Ancient Gandhara Civilization, District Haripur,
Khyber
Muhammad Mohiuddin³
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Haripur, Haripur, KPK, Pakistan
2013 in Khanpur Valley and some archeological sites reflecting
ancient Gandhara civilization, District Haripur, Pakistan. Data pertaining to ethnomedicinal uses and folk recipes of local
cted through questionnaires and interviews during field visits. For the purpose local people including men,
women, children, knowledgeable persons (Hakims/Pansaries/Traditional healers/ Herdsmen) were approached. As a result
pecies belonging to 43 families including 20 trees, 18 shrubs, 21 herbs, 1 grass and 1
climber, along with folk medicinal recipes were documented. Detailed information pertaining to botanical name, local name,
medicinal recipes were also tabulated. The study indicated that
medicinal plants of Khanpur Valley are under severe pressure due to deforestation, over grazing, over exploitation and
tting depleted with alarming rate. Plant specimens collected
were identified, preserved, mounted and voucher was deposited at the Department of Environmental Sciences, University of
medicinal plants and herbs for the medicines is universal
phenomenon and almost every nation and every country of the
world had utilized medicinal plants as traditional medicines due
. Our Holy Prophet
(Peace Be
Upon Him) also used certain herbs to cure various diseases
10
.
were reviewed
11-15
. The aim of
the present study was to record medicinal knowledge and folk
recipes of plants used by the local and ethnic communities
living in the Khanpur Valley especially around the various
archeological sites reflecting great ancient Gandhara
Khanpur valley (also Upper Khanpur or Hilly area
of Khanpur) is the part of Harro Valley situated in District
Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Khanpur itself is a
beautiful large village in Valley and one of the 44 union council
administrative subdivisions of Haripur District.It is located to
the south of the District Capital Haripur at 33°48'53N
km from Islamabad in a beautiful
It is famous throughout Pakistan for its
Oranges and is also known for the Khanpur Dam.
There are also
various archeological sites in the Valley,
which reflect great
zation. Major ethnic groups like
Ghakhars, Gujars, Awan (sub sections Kutab Shais, Khokhars,
and Chuhans), Jadoon, Syeds, Qureshi, Abbassi, Karrala,
Research Journal of Biological Sciences _________________________________________________________E- ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 5(7), 68-84, July (2016) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Community Association 69
Dhunds, Tareen are scattered in the area. Pictures of some
important sites of study area were also taken as shown in
Figure-1.
Methodology
Ethnobotanical Survey: Study area was frequently visited
during January 2012 to January 2013. The main target sites in
the study area were Khanpur, Bahmala, Joulian, Choi,
Garmthun, Najafpur, Rajdhani, Khoi Kaman, Dartian, Babotri,
Daboola, Baghpur dehri, Shah Kabul, Nilan Bhoto, Bees ban,
Hali, Desra and Kohala Lassan. Information regarding ethno-
medicinal uses of local plants was collected through well
planned questionnaires and interview method. Questionnaire
method was also helpful in documentation of folk indigenous
knowledge. The interviews were conducted in local community,
to investigate local people and knowledgeable persons (Hakims,
Pansaries, Women and Herdsmen) who are the main user of
medicinal plants. Plant specimens were collected, pressed,
dried, preserved, mounted and identified through the available
literature
16
. The specimens were deposited in the Herbarium,
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Haripur,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Informant Consensus Factor (ICF): Informant consensus
factor (ICF) was also calculated to determine the disease
systems where there was highest consensus on plants used in
treatments. Disease systems with 2 or fewer respondents were
not considered when performing the ICF analysis. The ICF was
calculated by using the following formula
17
.
ICF = N-T/N-1
Where: “N” = Number of respondents mentioning a disease, and
‘T’ = Number of plant species mentioned for the disease.
Results and Discussion
During the present study, data on 61 ethno-medicinally
important plant species belonging to 43 families and distributed
in 56 genera, including 20 trees, 18 shrubs, 21 herbs, 1 grass and
1 climber were collected. The most dominant families of the
study area were Lamiaceae (4 species), Moraceae (4 species),
Apocynaceae (3 species), Solanaceae (3 species),
Amaranthaceae (2 species), Apiaceae (2 species),
Euphorbiaceae (2 species), Fabaceae (2 species), Malvaceae (2
species), Meliaceae (2 species), Mimosaceae (2 species),
Rhamnaceae (2 species). Detailed information about each plant
pertaining to botanical name, local name, family, part used and
ethno-medicinal/folk recipes are listed in Table-1. It was also
explored that almost every plant part is used as medicine in
study area. Pictures of some important plants were also taken as
shown in Figure-1.
Informant consensus factor (ICF) for disease system:
Informant consensus factor (ICF) was also calculated for these
61 medicinal plant species and listed in Table 2, to analyze the
potential and efficacy of these plants. It determines the disease
systems where there was highest consensus on plants used in
treatments as shown in Figure-3. Disease systems with 2 or
fewer respondents were not considered when performing the
ICF analysis. High consensus factor (close to 1) means that
people are confident in the choice of plant. Whereas a low ICF
(close to 0) means that the people are still testing and that the
treatments may not be effective
18
. Only disease where 3 or more
respondents mentioned herbal medicines were described.
Discussions: Man has been dependent on plants for various
needs since time immemorial as all ancient and modern people
have used plants as a source of medicines
19
. In Indo-Pak first
record of plant medicine were compiled in Rig Veda between
4500-1600 BC and Ayurveda, 2500-600 BC. This system traces
its origin to Greek medicine, which was adopted by Arabs and
then spread to India and Europe
20
. Pakistan has about 6,000
species of wild plants of which about 400-600 are considered to
be medicinally important
21
. There is a still great trend of using
plants as medicines in Pakistan especially in rural areas of the
country. About 80% population of the world depends on the
traditional system of health care
20
. These medicines have less
side effects and man can get it easily from nature.
In ancient times, people had knowledge of medicinal plants.
Several hundred species were used as herbal remedies in
indigenous system of medicines that used the whole plant or an
extraction. Local people and practitioners with traditional
knowledge collected these medicinal plants. Most were not
involved in the trade of medicinal plants.
The local people had a little knowledge about the species and
proper time of collection
22
. Our Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon
Him) also used certain herbs to cure various diseases
10
. The
traditional knowledge on the uses of plants as medicines is
mainly passed on verbally from generation to generation.
Remedies for different diseases: Present study revealed 61
plant species which are being utilized medicinally in Khanpur
Valley of District Haripur, Pakistan. One hundred and forty
seven remedies were those that use single plant while 8 use
more than one plant. Local inhabitants use 31 remedies for
digestive system related disorders followed by 21 remedies for
respiratory system related disorders, 30 remedies for skin
related problems, 16 remedies for circulatory system/blood
related disorders, 14 remedies each for diabetes and fever, 13
remedies for jaundice/hepatitis, 10 remedies for mouth/oral
cavity related problems, 11 remedies for rheumatism, 6
remedies each for bleedings and hemorrhoids/piles, 5 remedies
for reproductive system/sex related disorders, 3 remedies each
for headache and animal bites, 2 remedies each for backache
and cooling effect, 1 remedy for typhoid and 8 remedies as tonic
to liver, kidney, stomach and heart. The informant consensus
factor (ICF) also reflected disease systems where there was
highest consensus on plants used in treatments.
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Adhatoda Vasica Nees Berberis lycium Royle Datura stramonium L.
Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. Ficus benghalensis L. Mallotus philippinensis Muell.
Morus nigra L. Nerium indicum L. Otostegia limbata Benth
Pistacia integerrima Punica granatum L. Rubus fruticosus L.
Solanum nigrum L. Vitex negundo L. Zanthoxylum armatum DC
Figure-1
Pictures of some medicinal plants of Khanpur Valley
Research Journal of Biological Sciences _________________________________________________________E- ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 5(7), 68-84, July (2016) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Community Association 71
Table-1
Ethnomedicinally important flora of Khanpur Valley
S.
No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
1.
Acacia modesta
Wall. Phulai Mimosaceae Tree
Ba,
W,
L,
G
,
T
For backache and post-delivery use:
Gum obtained from bark is grinded and
mixed with wheat flour and then fried
in “desi” ghee. This is locally called
Halwa and given in backache,
especially to women after delivery. For
gum bleedings and tooth decay: Twigs
are used as masvak. For mouth boils:
The decoction of bark is gargled, this is
practiced several times a day. For
rheumatism: 1-3 gram powdered wood
is taken with water for few days. For
blood disorders, Abscesses, boils and
adulthood poxes: Half spoon powdered
leaves are taken with water for few
days or leaves are dipped in mud pot
and this water is drunk at night.
2.
Acacia nilotica(L.)
Delile. Kikar Mimosaceae Tree
Fl,
L,
G
For spermatorrhoea, nocturnal
emission,likoria, uterus infections, gum
bleedings, nose bleedings and
hemorrhoids: 1-3 grams powdered
flowers and leaves are taken with water
in morning and evening. For stomach
ulcer: 1-2 gram powdered gum is taken
with milk or water.For jaundice and
hepatitis: 10 grams flowers are grinded
and added in 1 glass of water. 3 cup of
such juice is drunk every day for 40
days. For cough and bronchitis: Wheat
starch is fried in ghee. White sugar and
powdered gum obtained from this plant
is added to this starch. Several tablets
are made by adding a drop of water.
These are stored and one tablet is eaten
10 times a day.
3.
Achyranthes
aspera L
Puth-Kanda,
Lehndi booti Amaranthaceae Herb
T,
R,
L
For chronic cough, throat infection and
asthma: Whole plant or twigs are fried
over the fry pan, honey or sugar in
powdered form is added in same
quantity. 1-2 gram of this is taken 3-4
times a day. For tonsillitis: Fresh root
paste is applied externally twice a day
for 1 week. For pneumonia: 2-3 leaves
are boiled in 500 mL of water. This
water is cooled and 1 spoon is taken
twice a day.
4.
Adhatoda vasica
Nees.
Bhaikur/
Arusa Acanthacea Shrub
L,
Fl,
R
For blood purification, diabetes,
jaundice, pimples, toothache, cough
and asthma: Leaves are crushed in
water and juice so formed is filtered
and taken ½ cup 2 times a day. For
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Vol. 5(7), 68-84, July (2016) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Community Association 72
S.
No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
tuberculosis: 500 grams leaves are
crushed and boiled in 2 liters water, till
it is left to half. It is taken with honey 4
times a day, for15 days. For skin
wounds: Leaves in powdered forms are
applied. For pneumonia, asthma,
cough, phlegm, throat infection: 2 cup
of flower tea is used twice a day or
flowers are grinded, honey is added and
10 grams taken with water. For
diabetes: 1-3 gram roots are taken in
empty stomach with water at morning
and evening.
5.
Ailanthus altissima
(Mill) Swingle Darawa Simarubaceae Tree Ba
For dysentery and diarrhea: ½ cup of
Juice of bark is mixed with same
quantity of milk and taken.
6.
Allium
sativumLinn. Thoom Alliaceae Herb Bu
For toothache: 2 cloves are heated over
the fry pan and chewed. For abdominal
pain: 2 cloves are taken with water
after meal. For high blood pressure and
cholesterol level: 5 gram taken with
meal. For rheumatism: 50 grams is
fried in sweet oil. Then this oil is
filtered and stored. This oil is used in
any sort of rheumatism. For better
result mild heated oil is used. For
animal and insect bites: it is grinded in
vinegar and made into paste, this is
applied.
7.
Aloe barbadensis
Mill.
Kanwar-
ghandal Liliaceae Herb Ge,
L
For blood purification, constipation,
intestinal worms, poor appetite,
phlegm, pneumonia, diabetes and face
pimples: Leaf gel is burnt over the fry
pan and taken 1-3 gram with water at
night. For hair dandruff: Gel of the
leaves is applied for 3-4 hours and then
washed with shampoo, after every
week. For wounds, burns and other skin
problems: Gel of leaves burnt over the
fry pan and applied externally.
8.
Althaea
officinalisLinn. Khatmi Malvaceae Herb
L,
S,
Fl
For chest phlegm and constipation:
Leaves are cooked as vegetable and
eaten. For cough, cold, flu, chest
infection, seasonal fever and tonsils: 1
cup of seed tea or leaf tea is used 3
times a day. For Rectal bleedings: 3-5
gram powdered leaves are taken with
water. For skin burns: Powdered
flowers and leaves are applied.
9.
Amaranthus viridis
Linn. Chulari Amaranthaceae Herb WP
For abdominal troubles, pains and
gases, perennial constipationand
gastritis: Leaves and twigs are cooked
as vegetable and eaten.For dysentery:
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Vol. 5(7), 68-84, July (2016) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
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S.
No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
½ cup of decoction of whole plant is
taken 3-5 times a day. For ripeness of
abscesses and boils: The upper surfaces
of leaves are smeared with mustard oil,
warmed gently and applied.
10.
Artemisia vulgaris
L Afsanteen Asteraceae Herb T
For hepatitis and fever: 3 gram
powdered twigs are taken with water 3
times daily till recovery. For prevention
from harms of mosquitos: It is mixed in
olive oil and massage on the body.
11.
Azadirachta indica
Adr. Juss. Nim Meliaceae Tree
L,
Fr,
S,
Fl
For blood purification, skin pimples,
boils and Abscesses, diabetes and
intestinal worms: Leaves are dipped in
water at night. In morning one spoon of
this water is taken. For Diabetes: 1
spoon of dried powdered fruit is taken
with water every day. For same, fresh
flowers are eaten as much as easily
possible, 3 times a day. For
hemorrhoids and constipation: 1-3
grams powdered seeds are taken with
water.For itching: 2 kg fresh leaves are
boiled in water, cooled and bath taken
with it for 3-4 days. For Hair dandruff:
300 gram fresh fruit is grinded and
made into paste and applied on hair for
3-4 hours, then washed with shampoo,
this is repeated for a week.For feet
smell: Leaves are boiled in water, and
feet are washed with this water.
12.
Bauhinia
variegataLinn.
Kalyarh,
kichnar Caesalpinaceae Tree
P,
R,
Fl
For stomach pain: 1-3 gram young
powdered pods are taken with water
twice a day. For stomach gases and
dyspepsia: Half spoon of decoction of
root is taken. For piles and dysentery:
3-5 grams dried powdered flowers and
buds are taken with water. Young
flowers are also cooked as vegetable.
13.
Berberis lycium
Royle Sumbul Barberidaceae Shrub
Ba,
R,
Fr
For constipation, rheumatism
andabscesses: 10 gram powdered bark
is taken with milk at morning and
evening.For mouth boils, throat pains
and internal wounds: 1-3 gram of dried
powdered root is taken with water. For
dysentery: 3-5 gram powdered bark is
taken with water. For typhoid and
fever: ½ cup of decoction of fruit is
used twice a day.
14.
Calotropis procera
(Ait.) Ait. f. Ak Asclepiadaceae Shrub
L,
Fl,
La
For rheumatism and paralysis: Leaves
are cooked in ¼ liter water and 100
gram sesame oil (til oil) till only the oil
left. This oil is then used. For asthma:
Above prepared oil is mixed with
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Vol. 5(7), 68-84, July (2016) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Community Association 74
S.
No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
turmeric (haldi) and used externally.
This oil also act as antiseptic. For cold,
flu, pneumonia and chest congestion: 1
spoon of powdered flowers is mixed in
5 spoons of honey and taken 3 times a
day.
For stomach pain: 1-3 gram of
powdered flowers is taken after having
meal for once only. Pain will be
relieved. For toothache: Leaves are
burnt and ash is placed on the affected
tooth. Pain will be relieved within 5-10
minutes. For removal of thorn of any
plant: Just 2-3 drops of milk of this
plant is poured 2-3 times a day. The
thorn will come out within a day.
15.
Cannabis sativa L. Pang, bhang Cannabinaceae Sub-shrub L
For rheumatism: 1-3 gram dried leaves
are taken with water. For cooling
effect: Leaves are crushed in water,
then almonds in grinded form are
added. This drink is taken once only.
For wounds: leaves are bound over the
wound. This plant is also mosquito
repellent. (Note: This plant has narcotic
action hence should be administered
carefully).
16.
Caralluma edulis
(Edgew.) Bth ex
HK.f.
Chong Apocynaceae Herb S.S
For diabetes: succulent stem is cooked
as vegetable and eaten or 1 cup of juice
of stem is taken 3 times a day.
17.
Carissa opaca
Stapf ex Haines Grinda Apocynaceae Shrub
R,
L,
Fr
For jaundice: ½ cup of decoction of
root is used twice a day. For diabetes: 1
cup of decoction of leaves is used twice
a day. Fruit is eaten which is tasty.
18.
Casia fistula Linn. Kinjal,
Amaltas Fabaceae Tree
P,
Ba,
R
For constipation: Pulp of pods is mixed
in mild heated milk and taken OR pulp
is boiled in water and drunken 1 glass
daily till recovery. This decoction is
also used for pneumonia. For Hepatitis
and Jaundice: 25-30g of bark is boiled
in 1 liter of water until the color turned
yellowish and cooled. 1 glass drunk
twice a day for 40 days. For fever: 10
gram roots are boiled in water and 1
glass drunken daily for few days.
19.
Celtis
australisauct. non
L.; Brandis
Batkhar Ulmaceae Tree L,
Fr
For stomach problems: 3-5 grams of
powdered fruit is taken with water. For
diarrhea and dysentery: ½ cup of
decoction of both leaves and fruit is
used twice a day.
20.
Centella asiaticaL. Barhami
booti
Apiaceae/Umbellif
erae Herb L
To enhance beauty, eyesight, memory
and sound quality: Leaves are made
into fine powder and taken half spoon
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No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
with water or milk.This also help
thickens semen and
preventspermatorrhea.
21.
Cissampelos
pareiraLinn.
Phalaan
jarhi, Ghora-
sum
Menispermaceae Climb-er L,
R
For itching and wounds: Leaves are
crushed and applied. For dyspepsia and
diarrhea: ½ cup of decoction of root is
used twice a day.
22.
Coriandrum
sativum Linn. Dhania Apiaceae Herb L,
S
For high blood pressure: 5 gram leaves
of Coriandrum sativum and 5 gram
leaves of Mentha arvensis are crushed
and made into “Chatni” and taken.For
brain strength and As appetizer and
antacid: 1-3 grams powdered seeds are
taken with water.
23.
Cynodon
dactylonL. Khabal Poaceae Grass WP
For nose and wound bleedings: Plant is
crushed and made into paste and
applied. For bleeding piles, vomiting
and irritation of urinary organs: 5-10
gram powdered leaves are mixed in
milk and used.
24.
Dalbergiasissoo
Roxb. Ex DC
Taali,
sheesham Papilionaceae Tree L
For strength and shine to hairs and as
anti-dandruff: Leaves are boiled in
water and hairs are washed with this
water. For abdominal worms: ½ cup
leaf tea is used 2 times a day. For
hotness of body: 10-20 g fresh leaves
are grinded in 200-250 mL water, after
filtration 1 cup is taken daily.
25.
Datura stromonium
L. Datura Solanaceae Herb
S,
Fl,
L,
Fr
For strength to heart, brain, stomach
and good sleep: It is not used directly
as it is poisonous plant, but powdered
seeds are taken 1-2 gram only mixed in
3 spoon honey, twice daily for 3 days.
For hemorrhoids: Flowers and leaves
are powdered, and used as ointment.
For earache: One drop of juice of the
flower is used at night. For scalp,
dandruff and hair fall: Juice of the fruit
is applied eternally on hairs then
washed.
26.
Diospyros lotus
Linn. Amlok Ebenaceae Tree Fr
For chest phlegm, muscle strength, to
warmth body and as carminative: Fruit
is eaten which is also tasty.
27.
Dodonaea viscosa
(L.)Jacq. Sanatha Sapindaceae Shrub L,
B
For diabetes: 2-4 gram powdered
leaves are taken with water daily. For
broken bones, skin boils and wounds:
leaves are used as bandage with cloth.
Powdered leaves are also applied over
the wounds. For Hepatitis and
Jaundice: ½ Kg barks is boiled in 2
liters of water till the color turned
yellowish. Water is filtered and, 1
glass is drunk in fasting in every
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No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
morning for 7 days.
28.
Ficus benghalensis
L. Bur Moraceae Tree
Aeri
al,
R,
La
For lowering high blood pressure:
Aerial roots along with Allium sativum
and vinegar are grinded and boiled. 2
spoons of this extract are taken
daily.For Hepatitis and Jaundice: 1 kg
of roots is boiled in 5 liters of water till
the color changes to reddish. After
filtration, 1 glass of this water is drunk
twice a day for 35-40 days. For
rheumatism: Milky juice is applied
externally.For toothache: Aerial roots
are used as “masvak” (tooth brush).
29.
Ficus carica L. Anjeer Moraceae Tree Fr
For blood production, good skin color,
kidney efficacy, constipation, digestive
troubles and hemorrhoids: fruit is dip in
water at night, in morning this fruit (5
in numbers) is eaten as first food. As
stomachic: fruit is eaten with honey. To
pull out spine: Milky latex is also
poured over the wound.
30.
Ficus palmate
Forsk Phagwari Moraceae Tree Fr
For headache, constipation, blood
deficiency, attractive skin color and
stomach gases: Fruit is dip in water at
night, in morning this fruit (5 in
numbers) is eaten as first food.
31.
Grewia optiva J. R.
Drumm. ex Burret Taman Tiliaceae Tree B
For constipation and smooth delivery:
½ cup of extraction of bark is given to
relieve constipation and also to
pregnant women for smooth delivery.
Leaves are fed to cattle for better milk
supply and quantity.
32.
Mallotus
philippensis (Lam.)
Muell. Arg
Kamila Euphorbiaceae Tree Fr,
S
For abdominal worms: ½ cup of
decoction of fruit is taken twice only
OR 1-3 gram powdered seeds are taken
with water. For colic pain: 1 cup of
powdery coat of fruit mixed with water
is used for one week.
33.
Malva
sylvestrisLinn. Khabazi Malvaceae Herb L,
Fl
For cold, flu, throat infection, chest
phlegm and asthma: 2-3 gram dried
powdered leaves are taken with mild
heated water OR 1 cup leaf tea is taken
2-3 times a day.
34.
Melia azedarach L. Daraik Meliaceae Tree L,
Fr
For diabetes, skin pimples, earache and
as anthelmintic: ½ cup of leaves juice is
taken once in a day. F o r el i x ir t o
sto m a ch a n d k i d ne y , l o w e r i n g
hi g h blo o d pr e s su r e an d
ha e m or h o id s : ½ s p o o n of
po w d er e d fruit is taken at night with
water.Fo r bu r ns an d m o ut h w a sh :
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No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
Fr e s h l e a f e x tr a c t i s ap p l ie d
ex t e r na l l y i n b ur n s , a n d a ls o
us e d as mo u t h w a sh .
35.
Menthaarvensis L. Podina Lamiaceae/Labiate
ae Herb L
For dysentery: 10 gram dried powdered
leaves are taken with curd. As blood
purifier, carminative, diuretic and
stomachic and appetizer: “Chatni” is
made by crushing the leaves and eaten
with meal. For fevers, headaches,
digestive disorders, vomiting, nausea
and obesity: Leaf tea is taken several
times a day.
36.
Mentha longifolia
L. Chita podna Lamiaceae/Labiate
ae Herb L
As elixir to liver and kidney,
carminative and antacid: 1-2 spoon
dried powdered leaves are taken with
water for 3 times a day. For fevers,
dysentery, vomiting and nausea: Leaf
tea is taken several times a day.
37.
Morus nigra Linn. Toot Moraceae Tree Fr
For throat infection, tonsillitis, sound
quality, cough, cold and flu: Fruit is
dried and stored. Dried 5-10 gram fruit
is taken into mouth and sucked or eaten
4 times a day.
38.
Myrsine africana
L. khokonr Myricinaceae Shrub Fr,
L
For backache, rheumatism, cough,
improving digestion and as
anthelmintic: Fruit is eaten or made
into fine powder and taken 5 gram with
water or milk 3 times a day. For blood
purification: leaves are cooked as
vegetable and eaten.
39.
Nasturtium
officinale R. Br. Tara meera Cruciferae Herb L
For blood purification, herpes,
psoriasis, skin beauty, constipation,
diuretic and obesity: 3-5 grams dried
powdered leaves are taken with water
daily or leaves are cooked as vegetable
and eaten.
40.
Nerium oleander L. Kundair Apocynaceae Shrub
L,
Fl,
R
For scabies and external swellings:
Decoction of leaves is applied. For
asthma: Flowers dried in sun are
smoked.For scorpion bite: Paste of root
is applied over the wound. Sometime
twigs are used as “masvak” (tooth
brush) to clean the teeth. (It is
poisonous hence may be used
carefully).
41.
Ocimum basilicum
L. Niaz-bo Lamiaceae/Labiate
ae Herb
L,
Fl,
S
For skin care: Leaves are crushed and
applied on skin or leaf juice is applied.
For cough: flowers along with black
peppers are grinded and made into
tablets, 3 tablets are given to children in
a day. For stomach ulcer, acidity and
warmth of hands and feet: 3 gram
powdered seeds are taken with water 3
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No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
times a day. For feverish illnesses
(especially colds and influenza) and
poor digestion: Leaves and flowering
tops are taken internally or locally
chatni” is made and used.
42.
Olea ferruginea
Royle. Kaho Oleaceae Tree
L,
F,
T
For blood purification, herpes, boils,
pimples, hemorrhoids, diabetes and
rheumatism: 5-10 gram of powdered
leaves are taken with water 3 times a
day OR leaf tea is used 1 cup twice a
day. This recipe also has cold effect.
For mouth boils: Young twigs are
chewed under teeth. For throat
problems and toothache: The decoction
of leaves is used as gargle. Soft
branches/twigs are also used as
Masvak” (tooth brush) for toothache.
For diabetes: fruit is often eaten to cure
diabetes.
43.
Otostegia limbata
(Bth.) Boiss
Chita kanda,
bamboli Lamiaceae Shrub WP For wounds: Whole plant is powdered,
mixed in butter and applied.
44.
Oxalis corniculata
Linn. Khat-matra Oxalidaceae Herb L
For jaundice: Fresh leaves are crushed,
mixed in water, sugar is added, and 1
glass of this juice is drunk daily after
filtration. For skin inflammations:
Powdered leaves are applied as
poultice.
45.
Phyllanthus
emblica L. Amla Phyllanthaceae Tree Fr
As appetizer and for fever: Fruit is
cooked in lassi” (yogurt-based drink)
and eaten as meal. For shine, strength
and conditioner to hairs: Hairs are
washed with decoction of fruit, or fruit
oil is applied on hair.
46.
Pinus roxburghii
Sargent Chir Pinaceae Tree W,
Re
For skin complaints, burns, boils,
wounds, hair removal and rheumatic
affections: Resin is applied externally.
47.
Pistacia
integerrima kangur Anacardiaceae Tree Ga,
Ba
For dysentery: Galls are powdered,
fried in ghee, and 1 spoon taken
internally. For jaundice: ½ cup of
decoction of bark is used daily for few
days.
48.
Punica granatum
L. Daruna Punicaceae Shrub or
small tree
Fl,
Fr,
S,
R,
R.B
For blood production, jaundice and
fever: ½ cup of fruit juice is taken
twice daily. For tonic to stomach, liver
and heart: Tea is made from 5 gram
fruit and 1 cup used in a day. As
appetizer: Fruit fresh or dried is used to
make chatni (grounded form with
some other kitchen herbs like mint) and
eaten with meal. For gum bleedings:
Dried powdered flowers are used as
tooth powder.
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No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
49.
Riccinus communis
L. Arand Euphorbiaceae Shrub S
For prolonged constipation: I spoon of
seed oil is mixed in 1 cup of mild
heated milk and drunk twice only OR
1-3 gram powdered seeds are taken
with milk. For rheumatism: seed oil is
applied externally.
50.
Rubus fruticosus L. Garacha Rosaceae Shrub L,
Fr
For diarrhea, cough, and fever and as
diuretic: ½ cup of decoction of old
leaves is taken for few days. As
carminative: Fruit which is edible eaten
as carminative.
51.
Sageretia thea
(Osbeck) M.C Gangeeri Rhamnaceae Shrub Fr
For diabetes, kidney stone, rheumatism,
vomiting and stomach weakness: ½
spoon of dried powdered fruit is taken
with water in evening and morning
daily.
52.
Solanum nigrum L. Kach mach Solanaceae Herb WP
For asthma: Leaves are dried in shade
and used just as green tea, 3-4 cups are
drunk in a day. For wound and boils:
Powdered leaves, stems and roots are
used externally as a poultice.
53.
Solanum surattense
Burm. f. Mohkree Solanaceae Herb WP
For diabetes: 1-3 gram ripe yellow
powdered fruit is taken with water early
in the morning before breakfast. For
chronic fever: 10 gram dried leaves are
boiled in ½ liter of water till the color
changes. ½ cup is taken twice daily.
For skin infection: Whole plant is dried
and made into powder, and applied on
the skin infected area.
54.
Tamarindus indica
L. Imli Fabaceae/Legumin
osae Tree
Fr,
S,
R.B
For hepatitis, jaundice and
Spermatorrhea: One glass of fruit juice
is drunk in fasting every day. For fever
and liver tonic: Juice of pulp is drunk
daily. As appetizer, stomachic and
thickening of semen: 10 gram fruit is
eaten daily.
55.
Tribulus terrestris
L. Gokhru Zygophyllaceae Herb L,
Th
For itching and retention of urine: 5-8
gram thorns are boiled in 1 glass of
water with some sugar for taste. 1 cup
of this water is taken. For male sexual
weakness and “juriyan”: 7-10 gram
leaves are dipped in 1 glass of water for
2 minutes only. This is drunk for 3
times a day.
56.
Trichodesma
indicum (L.) R. Br. Kali booti Boraginaceae Herb R,
L
For Jaundice, fever, liver tonic, and
anti-snake venom: ½ cup of decoction
of leaf is taken twice in a day. Leaf
bandage is also effective in snake bite.
57.
Viola odorata L. Ba-nafsha Violaceae Herb
S,
L,
Fl
For cough, cold, flu, chest phlegm,
constipation, good sleep and tonic to
brain: leaves are grinded into fine
powder and tea is made from it, honey
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No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part
used Ethnomedicinal uses/Folk recipes
is added and drunken 2 to 3 times a
day.
58.
Vitex negundo Linn Marvand Verbenaceae Shrub T,
L
For abdominal discomfort: Leaves
dried in shade are made into powder.
2-3 g of this powder is taken without
water twice a day. For flu: Dried leaves
are taken as normal green tea for 2-3
times a day.For headache: Leaves are
smoked to relieve headache.Branches
are also used as tooth brush (Maswak).
59.
Woodfordia
fruticosa (L.)
S.Kurz.
Taawi,
dhawi Lythraceae Shrub Fl,
L
For Leukorrhea,Spermatorrhea and
uterine tonic: ½ spoon of powdered
flower is taken with water 3 times a
day. For skin diseases: Poultice of
leaves is applied externally.
60.
Zanthoxylum
armatum DC Timber Rutaceae Shrub or
tree S
For stomach problems and to improve
digestion: The seeds are dried and
grinded, mixed with the powdered
leaves of Mentha, and salt is added.
This is taken 3-5 grams daily. For
constipation, blood purification, face
color, obesity and diabetes: 3-5 gram
fruit is taken daily with water or fruit is
used as “chatni”. For jaundice: 1 cup of
juice of both fresh and dried seeds is
taken in morning and evening. As
conditioner for hair: seeds are grinded,
mixed with egg and then women
washed their hairs with this.
61.
Ziziphus
nummulariaBurm. Beri Rhamnaceae Shrub L,
Fr
For wounds: leaves are grinded and
made into paste and applied on
wounds. For mouth and gum bleedings:
Leaves are boiled in water, and gargled
several times a day. For chronic fever:
10 gram roots are boiled in 1 glass of
water till the volume of water reduced
to half, ½ cup of this water is taken
twice a day. For thirst and cooling
effect: Fruit is eaten which is also tasty.
Key: Ba: Bark, Bu: Bulb, Fl: Flowers, Fr: Fruit, G: Gums, Ge: Gel, Ga: Gall, L: Leaves, La: Latex, P: Pods, R: Roots, R.B: Root
bark, Re: Resin, S: Seeds, St: Stem, SS: Succulent stem, T: Twigs, Th: Thorns, W: Wood, WP: Whole plant
Plant parts used: People of the Khanpur Valley use different
parts of the plant as medicine. Among these parts, leaves were
most frequently used (70) for the treatment of various ailments
followed by fruit (29), flowers (17), roots (13), seeds (12), bark
(9), twigs (7), whole plant (4), gum and latex (4) and stem (2).
Methods of preparation: The methods of preparation fall into
6 categories viz. plant parts used as powder and grinded form
used internally or externally (54), decoction/boiled form (33),
directly eaten (16), as tea (11), cooked (8),
paste/ointment/poultice (13). These treatments involves both
internal and external uses.
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Table-2
Informant consensus factor (ICF) for diseases by respondents from Khanpur Valley
S.No Disease I.C.F
1 Digestive system related disorders 0.94
2 Respiratory system related disorders 0.92
3 Skin related problems 0.90
4 Mouth/oral cavity related problems 0.80
5 Rheumatism 0.74
6 Jaundice/hepatitis 0.72
7 Backache 0.70
8 Circulatory system/blood related disorders 0.67
9 Diabetes 0.66
10 Fever 0.65
11 Reproductive system/sex related disorders 0.62
12 Cooling effect 0.58
13 Typhoid 0.54
14 Tonic to liver, kidney, stomach and heart 0.52
15 Hemorrhoids 0.48
16 Headache 0.46
17 Bleedings 0.42
18 Animal bites 0.34
Figure-3
Informant Consensus factor for disease system
0.94 0.92 0.9 0.88
0.74 0.72 0.7 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.62 0.58 0.54 0.52 0.48 0.46 0.42
0.34
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
I.C.F Value
Diseases
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Figure-4
Methods of preparation
Multiple medicinal uses: Almost all the reported plants of
Khanpur Valley have multiple medicinal uses. For example;
Adhatoda vasica (blood purification, diabetes, jaundice,
pimples, toothache, cough, asthma), Berberis lyceum
(constipation, rheumatism,abscesses), Casia fistula
(constipation, hepatitis, jaundice, fever) and Celtis australis
(stomach problems, diarrhea, dysentery) etc. Mostly remedies
consisted of single plant part and more than one method of
preparation. For example; 5 gram bulb of Allium sativum are
taken with meal for high blood pressure and cholesterol level,
oil of bulb for rheumatism, bulb are grinded in vinegar and paste
is applied for animal and insect bites. Leaf gel Aloe barbadensis
is burnt over the fry pan and taken internally for blood
purification, constipation, intestinal worms, poor appetite,
phlegm, pneumonia, diabetes and face pimples, gel is applied
externally over the wounds, burns and in other skin problems.
Twigs of Artemisia vulgaris are powdered and used for
hepatitis and fever, twigs are also mixedin olive oil and massage
on the body for prevention from harms of mosquitos. Dried
leaves of Cannabis sativa are taken for rheumatism; leaves are
also bound over the wound. Leaves of Dalbergiasissoo are
boiled in water andhairs are washed with this water for shine
and strength, leaf tea is used for abdominal worms, fresh leaves
are grinded water and drunk for hotness of body. Fruit of Ficus
carica is dip in water at night and taken with water in morning
for blood production, good skin color, kidney efficacy,
constipation, digestive troubles and hemorrhoids, fruit is also
eaten with honey as stomachic. Powdered leaves of
Menthaarvensis are taken with curd for dysentery; leaf tea is
taken for fevers, headaches, digestive disorders, vomiting,
nausea and obesity, “Chatni” of leaves is used as blood purifier,
carminative, diuretic and stomachic and appetizer. Juice made
from fresh leaves of Oxalis corniculata is used for jaundice,
powdered leaves are applied as poultice for skin inflammations.
Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica is cooked and eaten as appetizer
and for fever, hairs are washed with decoction of fruit for shine
and strength. Powdered seeds of Riccinus communis are taken
with milk for prolonged constipation, seed oil is applied in
rheumatism. Similarly dried seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum are
mixed with powdered leaves of Mentha and taken to improve
digestion, fruit is taken with water for obesity, blood
purification, diabetes and constipation, and grinded seeds
mixed in eggs are useful for hairs.
Comparative analysis with published literature: Comparative
analysis shows that ethnomedicinal uses of plants of Khanpur
Valley may or may not be similar with the other reviewed
ethnobotanical literature reported from various other areas. For
example; present use of Achyranthes aspera in Khanpur Valley
is chronic cough, throat infection, asthma, tonsillitis and
pneumonia while in SoonValley Khushab (Pakistan) it is used
for snake bite
23
. Similarly in Khanpur Valley Berberis lyceum
is used for constipation, rheumatism, mouth boils, throat pains
and typhoid, while in Kotli district of AJK Pakistan, it is used
for dyspepsia, jaundice and liver diseases
24
. Calotropis procera
is used for rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, cold, flu, pneumonia,
chest congestion, stomach pain, toothache and removal of thorn
of any plant, while in Kalat and Khuzdar regions of Baluchistan
it is used for snake and insect bites and constipation
25
. Cynodon
dactylon is used for nose and wound bleedings, bleeding piles
and vomiting etc while in Mahal Kohistan (Khirthar National
Park) it is used for diarrhoea and opthalmia
26
. Datura
stromonium is used for strength to heart, brain, stomach, good
sleep, hemorrhoids, earache, scalp, dandruff and hair fall while
in Haramosh and Bugrote Valleys in Gilgit, Northern Areas of
Pakistan it is used for injuries, wounds, bleedings and pains
27
.
Nerium oleander is used for scabies, asthma and scorpion bite,
while in Hazar Nao forest Malakand District Pakistan, it is used
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Frequency
Categories
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for dental pain and bleeding gums
28
. Riccinus communis is used
for prolonged constipation, while in Lawachara National Park
Bangladesh, it is used for ringworm and abscess
12
. Zanthoxylum
armatum is used for stomach problems, blood purification, face
color, obesity, diabetes, jaundice and as conditioner for hair,
while in southern Himalayan regions of Pakistan it is used for
toothache and cardiac disorders
29
. Similarly Comparing with
other literature
30-38
. It was observed that some species have new
uses and addition in the folk herbal medicinal literature, while
some have same uses.
Threats and major issues: Both the medicinal plants and folk
knowledge are under severe stress. Due to changing socio-
cultural trends folk knowledge is getting limited to elder people
only. Likewise medicinal plants of Valley are under pressure
due to subsequent fires, deforestation, over grazing and over
exploitation.
Conclusion
Plants and people relationship is natural and dates back to very
first day. Plants and people affect each other. Plants are
indispensible for our survival. Ultimately green belts (flora)
regulate the biological and physical environment. Plants seem
weak in front of humans but their phenomenal power is much
stronger than any other thing. Local people of Khanpur Valley
rely on these plants for the treatment of various ailments and
various other daily needs. Elder people have sufficient
knowledge about the medicinal plants. Unfortunately this
important traditional knowledge is getting depleted due to
changing socio-cultural trends in the study area. Beside
vigorous importance, plant resources are being depleted at
alarming rate due to various threats like deforestation, over
grazing, over exploitation and subsequent fires.This requires
much and utmost attention at every level. It is also necessary to
carry out more studies and also put some collective efforts for
the conservation of these important medicinal plants.
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