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Conflict Resolution from an Islamic Perspective from Conflict Resolution to Diversity Management

Journal Sharia and Law Journal Sharia and Law
Volume 2015
Number 62
Year 29, Issue No. 62 April 2015
Article 9
April 2015
Con=ict Resolution from an Islamic Perspective: From Con=ict Con=ict Resolution from an Islamic Perspective: From Con=ict
Resolution to Diversity Management Resolution to Diversity Management
Moh'd Naim Yassien
University of Jordan, College of Sharia
Eman Yassien
University of Islamic Studies, PMP, ITM, WISE University
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Yassien, Moh'd Naim and Yassien, Eman (2015) "Con=ict Resolution from an Islamic Perspective: From
Con=ict Resolution to Diversity Management,"
Journal Sharia and Law
: Vol. 2015 : No. 62 , Article 9.
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Con=ict Resolution from an Islamic Perspective: From Con=ict Resolution to Con=ict Resolution from an Islamic Perspective: From Con=ict Resolution to
Diversity Management Diversity Management
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Prof. Moh'd Naim Yassien, University of Jordan, College of Sharia Ms. Eman Yassien,
Lecturer, College of Information & Technology, University of Islamic Studies, PMP, ITM, WISE University
This article is available in Journal Sharia and Law:
[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
[College of Law UAE University]
Conflict Resolution from an Islamic
Perspective From Conflict
Resolution to Diversity Management
Prof Moh'd Naim Yassien,
University of Jordan
Eman Yassien ,
PMP, ITM, WISE University
The paper discusses conflict resolution and management concepts
provided earlier in literature. Then, using Islamic concepts and Guidance
provided by the Quran, the paper shifts the perspective of conflict into a new
dimension, considering diversity as the main root for our model. Diversity can
be managed well to create synergy(Good outcome), or, if not managed
properly, would drive to conflict which the author considers as the bad
outcome of diversity , that is why the Quran regards conflict as the cause of
failure. Finally the paper introduces a new model for conflict management
process based on Islamic concepts and the Quran.
Keywords: Conflict management, Conflict resolution, Diversity,
Management, Islam, Synergy
1.0 Introduction
When a man said to the Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him):
“Counsel me.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Do not get angry.” The
man repeated his request many times, but the Prophet (peace be upon him) kept
saying: “Do not get angry.”
The best given advice by the Prophet clearly contradicts Frued's theory that
considers emotional venting during conflict is the best healing technique
(Breuer and Freud, 1957). Some researchers agree with Frued as Lee (1995), the
conflict management experts Fisher and Shapiro(2005), Lewicki et al(1999) and
Ury, (1993).
When other scientists researched for evidences to support the idea that
venting releases anger, they found totally opposite results (e.g. Bushman et al.,
1999; Geen and Quanty, 1977; Parlamis et al., 2010). They found that venting
1 This Hadith is referenced from the Arabic book “Fath Albari in sharah Sahih Al Bukhari” –
Al-Adab book author Ahmad ben Hajr Al- Asqlani Hadith number 5765
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did not release anger and in many cases produced greater anger (Berkowitz et
al., 1962; Bohart, 1980; Buss, 1966; Geen et al., 1975; Hornberger,
1959; Murray and Feshbach, 1978; Wheeler and Caggiula, 1966; Berkowitz,
1970; Geen and Quanty, 1977)
Different types of negative consequences are also proved as follows:
revenge (Bushman, 2002; Bushman et al., 1999), lower self-esteem and
increased negativity (Litman and Lunsford, 2009), negative impressions of a
negotiator (Van Beest et al., 2008), worse organizational, individual, and
interpersonal outcomes when expression is intense (Gibson and Callister,
2010; Gibson et al., 2009).
So the earliest theory that recommends venting for recovery could not stand
in the face of research and evidence. Negative emotions in conflict are not the
only part of a heated situation, but rather just a small part and fortunately one
which can be avoided. Avoiding such a bad outcome can be accomplished
through an effective management process for the whole conflict issue starting
from not getting angry, advice that was given by Prophet Mohammad (Peace be
upon him) as a first step. The effective process is to be stemmed from an
effective, comprehensive and realistic perceptive.
Not to allow anger to take place is surely one of the Islamic practices that
form with others a total Islamic perception for conflict. Proceeding from this
point the author presents the whole concept of conflict from an Islamic point of
view, starting by defining the concept of conflict in literature in section 1, then
the concept of diversity is presented as a starting point to suggest a new model
that digs deeper than regular conflict sources and to begin with diversity as the
main reason of conflict. The new model is presented in section 5. Section 6
contains the Islamic application of the new model, followed by conclusion.
2.0 Setting the Stage
2.1 Definition of Conflict
Conflict is considered a very interesting subject for study in the fields of
sociology, management and psychology (Nair, 2007).One of the main reasons
for this attention is the contradictory and highly effective outcomes that may be
widely devastating or highly productive (Robbins, 2002), conflict is also a
complex and forked subject involving lots of issues, and great amount of
positive and/or negative feelings. (Olson-Buchanan, J.B., & Boswell, W.R.
(2008)) This was reflected by the number of studies that looked into the subject
carrying different views and, consequently, a different number of definitions.
Earlier traditional views of conflict (1930s 1940s) showed it as an
undesirable event (Robbins, 2002) with dysfunctional outcome that would
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minimize performance and cause malfunctioning; so it had to be avoided.
(Kreitner and Kinicki, 2012)
As human resource management evolved to give more consideration to
human behaviors in the behavioral school(1940s-1970s), the whole perception
towards conflict took a new dimension by accepting conflict, perceiving it as an
inevitable event, and required in some cases.(Robbins, 2002)(Kreitner and
Kinicki, 2012)
Recently a new daring view was reflected by the interactionist. They
consider conflict as a productive issue if it is managed properly, but rather their
contribution is to keep an ongoing minimal level of conflict in the organization
to keep the group alive and creative.(Kreitner and Kinicki, 2012)
Meanwhile, the concept of conflict took three main dimensions formed in
three types of definitions: process-oriented, descriptive and conditional(Nair,
Some definitions were process-oriented. For example Walton (1966, p.411)
defined it as “opposition processes in any of several forms competition, status,
rivalry, bargaining, sabotage, verbal abuse, etc.”
Descriptive definitions focused on what happens at the time of conflict such
as perceptions and behavior. (Nair, 2007)
For example Boulding(1962, p.4) defined it as:“The situation of
competition in which parties are aware of the incompatibility of potential future
positions and in which each party wishes to occupy a position that is
incompatible with the wishes of the other.”
Finally, the conditional approach depends on when conflict is likely to
occur, such as incompatible goals, means or activities leading to conflict. For
example Kolb and Putnam(1992) defined conflict as when there are real or
perceived differences that arise in specific organizational circumstances and that
engender emotion as a consequence (Condition: antecedents and consequences)
(Nair, 2007).
Most researchers nowadays use Wall & Callister’s (1995) definition. Their
definition sees conflict as the process in which one party perceives that its
interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.
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2.2 Conflict Process
Figure 1: Conflict Process. Robbins(2002)
The most adopted process for
conflict is Robbin’s (2002)
model as shown in Figure
(1).The model starts with the
potential opposition. Opposing
interest may include
communication, structure and
personal variables as specified
by Robbins, but Christopher
Moore divides them into what
he calls the circle of conflict
which is divided into five main
causes of conflict as shown in
figure 2 and detailed in the
following Table.(Moore, 2003)
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[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
[College of Law UAE University]
Figure 2 : Circle of Conflict
Robbins continues that if conflict is not managed well then the potential of
disagreement becomes realized in the second stage and most importantly aware
by one of the two parties. Cognition is not transformed into conflict until feeling
is articulated, which by its turn leads to the third stage: conflict itself. Finally
Robbins, S. (2002) clarifies that outcomes may be either functional or
3.0 Diversity:
Diversity is another concept which is used in this research as the starting
point of new conflict model presented by the author. A widely accepted
definition of diversity is introduced by Diversity Task Force (2001). It defines is
as “all characteristics and experiences that define each of us as individuals”
Diversity has been an important issue that is continuously researched, and
became a major social and political as well as a management research
Bogaert &Vloeberghs (2005) list a number of authors who acknowledged
the value of diversity, such as van Poeltje and van Silfhout who ensure that it
leads to economic or competitive advantage. According to Bogaert
&Vloeberghs (2005), Riel (1999) also presents the importance of increasing
productivity and profitability through customer satisfaction, which cannot be
accomplished without fulfilling their diverse needs. First consideration to fulfill
diverse customer satisfaction is to maintain diversity among employees.
According to Bogaert &Vloeberghs (2005), Benschop (1999) also emphasizes
the importance of appointing employees with different backgrounds to bring
new ideas and viewpoints; or in other words new blood to bring life for the
organization. The “vigorous exchange of ideas” sentence expresses Peterson’s
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(1999, p.19) opinion regarding diversity. Bhasin and Low (2002) also see that
diversity can provide a particular country the cutting edge. As it is discussed
above, diversity is mostly valued and empowered by researchers. (Fine, 1996;
Litvin, 2006). Managing diversity is a new field of study emerged in an attempt
to capture the benefits of diversity as clarified in the next section.
3.1 Managing Diversity
Since the early 1990s, several U.S. scholars have promoted the concept of
managing diversity, also called ‘‘diversity management’’ (Cox, 1994) as
diversity is seen as an asset.
Thomas (1990), presents managing diversity is a way to obtain from a
heterogeneous workforce the same productivity, commitment, quality and profit
which companies obtain from their homogeneous workforces.
According to Bogaert & Vloeberghs (2005), Glastra (1999) distinguishes
four approaches for managing diversity. Two of these approaches (deficit and
discriminatory) look at creating diverse organizations to acquire all the
previously mentioned benefits of diversity. Creating diversity within
organizations is out of the scope of this research.
The other two approaches defined by Glastra(1999): individualization and
culturalization focus on achieving a stimulating environment in order to manage
The first approach, individualization, focuses on considering differences
between individuals to motivate individual innovation by applying many tools
for diversity management such as labor flexibility, part-time employment, and
the stimulation of work-family balance to allow for individualized and
diversified personnel management.
The other approach, culturalization, cares about different attitudes, and
perceptions within different cultures. It cares about cultural difficulty, and ways
to drive different people with different backgrounds to reach integration within
cultural differences instead of conflicts especially when these cultures clashes in
deep believes , central values and priorities, which might be extremely difficult
(Bogaret, S. and vloeberghs, D., 2005)
These last two approaches are assumed and adopted by the author as
classification for diversity. They are discussed in the latter sections.
4.0 Diversity & Conflict in the Quran:
Diversity of people is clearly recognized in the Quran and introduced as a
clear concept whereas the Quran points to it in Surat al-Roum:22 in terms of
colors and languages:
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[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
[College of Law UAE University]
(And of His signs is ….. and the diversity of your languages and your
colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge.)
Human general diversity is mentioned in Surat Yunus:19 (And mankind
was not but one community [united in religion], but [then] they differed.
Quran also indicates the fact of diversity in Surat Hud: 118(And if your
Lord had willed, He could have made mankind one community; but they will
not cease to differ.)
Surat al-Ma’ida:48 refers to the fact that God has the power to unit humans
in one nation, but it is of His wisdom not to: (……., He would have made you
one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has
given you; …..)
The Quran refers to the purpose of diversity in al-Hujurat: 13: “O mankind,
indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and
tribes that you may know one another. ….”
As discussed above diversity is valued in the Quran, on the other hand
conflict is rejected.
While the word “conflict” (Niza’a) is mentioned in the Quran seven times
in different contexts, it is associated with failure (which is also mentioned four
times in the whole Quran) in three contexts of this seven.
According to Surat Anfal:46,God says (and do not dispute then you will
loseand your strength will fade away, …..)
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This aya clearly describes failure (loss) as a definite consequence for
conflict, which is why it is considered an undesirable event.
As Islam considers conflict unsolicited, the author sees that conflict is only
one of the two extremely opposing results of human diversity knowing that (as
mentioned earlier in this research) diversity is a nature of human being. It is
inclusive and it is part of our everyday reality(Kapoor,2011).
The author believes that diversity is just as any gift of God, if managed
correctly would bring positive results (Cutting Edge, Bhasin and Low, 2002),
otherwise it would bring a bad outcome; which is conflict.
Not valuing diversity and a lack of understanding of people who are
‘‘different’’ (Thomas, 1991) would bring undesirable behaviors (such as
expressions of racism, discrimination and exclusion). These behaviors are the
foundation of conflict. Because it is a common sense fact that no individual can
be perfect, and each person has his own limitations. Thus if diversity is really
valued and respected, it can build on strength and compensate to weakness, it
would bring synergy (Covey, 2009).
Synergy is recognized in this research as the other outcome of diversity,
which if achieved it could bring a new dimension that never exist. Synergy is a
Greek word synergia συνεργία from synergos, συνεργός, meaning "working
together (Segal-Horn, 2004).Covey (2009) also defines it as working together
of two things to produce a result greater than the sum of their individual
This is why it has been recorded as a good practice for employees to face
their differences and seeks synergetic resolution to raise communication,
commitment and nurture loyalty (Bogaert & Vloeberghs, 2005).
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Figure 3 : New Model (Diversity Management Model)
If synergy is the good result of diversity when it is valued and managed well,
then conflict would be the other side of the coin; means the bad outcome of
diversity if it is mistreated. And surely it would lead to failure as mentioned
earlier in the research.
5.0 New Synergy/Conflict Model Process
As mentioned earlier, conflict or synergy are the two contradictory outcomes
of diversity. This result highly depends on how the whole process of diversity is
managed. Diversity also represents the conditions which might create
opportunities for conflicts or synergy. Thus conflict and diversity cannot be
separated, and managing conflict must start by managing diversity. Figure ()
shows the suggested model.
Conflict Process
gender, physical
ability and race
values believes
attitudes personality
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The author agrees with Robbins (2002) that potential opposition may cause
conflict in some stage, but disagrees with him about considering
communication, structure and personal values as main sources of conflict;
instead values are the main root for most of the conflicts, if Pareto’s rule is
considered. Pareto’s Rule (80/20,common rule of thumb) summarizes a
universal law which predicts the relationship of input to output, whereas
Vilfredo Pareto the nineteenth-century economist and sociology mentioned the
relevance of the rule as applied to quality control and some applications in
marketing and found that, for many events, about 80% of the effects come from
20% of the cause. The rule is now considered in many areas such as:80% of
your profits come from 20% of your customers (Kruger, 2008) and the paper
adds:80%of conflicts are triggered by 20% of the causes.
Communication, structure, data and all other issues are not main factors; they
are only avenues that unload the main unhidden drivers.
The author believes that diversity in values is the main driver for conflict.
The paper adopts the categorization of diversity from both Kreitner and
Kinicki (2012) and Glastra (1999).
Kreitner and Kinicki (2012) show that diversity may appear on either a
surface level(age, gender, physical ability and race) or a deep level (values,
attitudes, beliefs and personalities). But the author believes that diversity is
better categorized based on Glastra’s approaches which are presented in Bogaert
&Vloebergh’s 2005 paper for diversity, being: individual and cultural aspects.
And then (based on Kreitner and Kinicki, 2012) individual diversity considers
individual differences which can be superficial (age, gender, physical ability
and race) or profound (attitudes and personality). On the other hand cultural
diversity differs in values and beliefs. Keeping in mind that, although values
and believes are usually shared among the community members who gathered
them in the first place to form a community, sometimes these issues can be
unique to some individuals when they depart from the group.
Diversity itself should not be the problem. The problem arises when diversity
is neither understood nor managed well by personal or cultural values. Lack of
understanding for individuals leads to undesirable behaviors such as racism,
discrimination, disrespect for opinions and so on (Omanovic, 2012).
Undesirable behaviors could range from subtle and indirect forms of
interference to violent, direct and controlled struggle. These behaviors form the
foundation for conflicts.
Good diversity management leads to synergy. Synergy can lead to a new
creative dimension. It means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts,
and the synergetic outcome is better than individual.
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[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
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Synergy is also found in everything, even in nature, when certain plants are
planted near each other’s, roots commingle and improve the quality of the soil
so that both plants will grow better than if they were separated, such as planting
garlic besides the roots of apple trees. Companion planting is described by lots
of authors as an ancient practice of planting different plants in close proximity
so that they can help one another in some way. (Mayer,2012; Druse, 2012)
Synergy is recognized in this research as the other side of the coin and the
good outcome of diversity as clarified in the model, because strength lies in
differences not in similarities that would be void and dull.
On the other hand, as stated above, if diversity is not managed well, that
would be the starting point of conflict whereas different parties start to see
themselves in opposing places and conflict is perceived. But that would not lead
to conflict until it is personalized and feeling emerges, which is when people
become emotionally involved. This involvement drives bad feelings, negativity,
anxiety, tension and frustration (Robbins, 2002; Kreitner &Kinicki,2012),
which would all be as fire under ashes that could explode any moment and in
any form. Bad feelings (even if the conflict is resolved) will eventually harm
people’s deep perceptions or the interdependent relation on the long-run
(Covey, 2009).This justifies the reason for the Quran to consider conflict as a
cause for failure. The explosion of the bad feelings leads to the next stage in
conflict in which members might end up engaging in actions that frustrate the
attainment of another’s goals or prevent the furthering of the other’s interests
(Robbins, 2002).
The author adds a new process to the model which is executed automatically
by each person or group to evaluate their own behaviors and update them
according to their filtering values. Each time the evaluation is performed the
person may move forward or backward in the diagram, which means to progress
to the conflict stage or return to any of the previous stages.
6.0 Applying the Islamic Perspective to the New Model
Islam does not only value diversity, but also provides a full management
strategy for it in order to obtain synergy. The process starts proactively for
preventing conflict, by building a full culture that smoothes the ground for
synergy, then for each stage in the process several guidelines are provided to
hinder the process of reaching conflict.
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6.1 First stage: managing diversity
The process prepares the community through building a unified culture. The
provided culture is based on Islamic concepts of human well-being and good
life which stress brotherhood/sisterhood and socioeconomic justice and require
a balanced satisfaction of both the material and spiritual needs of all humans
(Chapra, 1992; Yassien, 2011).
These cultural guidelines undermine the value of superficial differences and
emphasize the worth of deep differences such as values, perspectives,
intentions, attitudes and behaviors.
The first precaution in the cultural dimension seeks to build shared values
and perceptions that provide moral filtering to help people evaluate their
decisions and behaviors accordingly.
These cultural guidelines are provided in two interrelated forms: unity of
values and perceptions, and providing sets of appropriate practices. Although
the provided guidelines are extensive, comprehensive and well built, at the same
time empty spaces (without certain guidelines) are available in order to keep a
pace for diversity to collaborate and innovate in order to achieve innovative
individualism and creative synergy.
6.1.1 Unity of Values
Unity of values and perceptions is derived from the interrelated Islamic
ruling foundations of unity (Taw hid), God’s Governance, equity,
accountability, justice and trusteeship and others.
The key concept of Islam lies in a person’s relationship with God. Islam goes
beyond the concept of human surrender to the will of God to the concept that all
life is essentially a unity because it also provides the practical way to pattern all
facets of human life in accordance with God’s will, Who is the main governance
of the world(Rice, 1999; Yassien, 2011).
Numerous verses are found in the Quran which emphasize these concepts,
such as:
"……The decision is only for Allah ; …….." Yusuf: 67, a good example
for God’s Governance.
In this sense, unity implies that God is the sole creator of the universe and
people are equal partners (brothers or sisters). That means cooperation and
equality of effort and opportunity (Rice,1999).
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[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
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One of the last words delivered by Prophet Muhammad in his last sermon
before his death on the ninth day of the month Thul-Hijjah was:“All mankind is
from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-
Arab any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black
nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety (taqwa) and good
That also means responsibility and accountability because each person only
receives what he/she earns, according to his/her work as presented in the last
Muslims believe that because people are accountable to God, and their
success on judgment day depends on their performance in this life on earth, this
adds a new responsible dimension to human perception of things and their
behaviors in this life(Rice, 1999).
The Quran also teaches that the greatest possible individualism is that“. . . no
bearer of burdens can bear the burdens of another; . . . man can have nothing but
what he strives for . . .” (Quran 53:38–9).Everyone is responsible for his/her
own actions in life and thereafter.
The concept of trusteeship is another pillar of Islamic culture. Trusteeship
means that the whole world is owned by God (….. Lord of the Two Worlds –al-
Fatiha -2), and people are viewed as trustees of the Earth on behalf of God. The
Earth’s protection is a must for each Muslim even in the cruelest form of
conflict which is war. Abu Bakr, the first ruler of the Islamic state after
Muhammad, sent someone on a war assignment: he warned him not to kill
indiscriminately or to destroy trees, plants or animals, even in war and in enemy
Trusteeship facilitates sustainable development and social responsibility of
ethics (Rice, 1999). Models of sustainable development do not regard natural
resources as a free good, to be spoiled at the free will of any nation, any
generation or any individual (UNDP, 1994).
Lots of values, perspectives and priorities form the ground for Islam’s
followers, because Islam is a comprehensive system include all aspects of
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life(Yassien, 2011; Al-Akaila, 2013).Before leaving this area, a related
perspective must be retouched. The previous section introduces the concept of
conflict as cause of failure. We can add to that another perspective mentioned
several times in Quran, which is that conciliation is the best choice as stated, for
example, in Surat al-Nisa:128 as follows:
“And if a woman fears from her husband contempt or evasion, there is no sin
upon them if they make terms of settlement between them - and settlement is
best. And present in [human] souls is stinginess. But if you do good and fear
Allah - then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, acquainted.”
When these values are shared among the community, bases for reconciliation
are built to prepare people to tend towards synergy rather than conflict as is
mentioned in the next sections.
6.1.2 Practices
Culture is not only built by creating united values. Provision of a set of
practices that help to achieve interdependency between individuals is another
form. A good example for these practices lies in the S.N.T model (Ahmad,
2007). The “S” stands for a key principle in the Islamic religion which is
‘Shura’, or consultation, referring to consulting others before implementing any
change. This is a valuable approach to minimize disagreement between
individuals and gain loyalty by involving others. The second principle is
‘Naseeha’ (“N”) which means advice. Sincere advice and viewpoint exchange
between parties foster common understanding of causes and consequences.
Even advice in Islam follows certain practices in order to achieve its positive
implication on others.
Advice should be by balancing consideration, respect and empathy (not
sympathy) as a first step with courage to state the adopted opinion as the second
step, without leaning towards whims. This is clear in God’s speech to his
messengers as in Surat Aal-Imran:159 and Surat Taha:44
“So by mercy from Allah , [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them.
And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have
disbanded from about you……….”
God also directed the messenger Mousa, and his brother to worn Feron
gently in Surat Taha: 44:
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[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
[College of Law UAE University]
“And speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or
fear [ Allah ].”
The last element ‘Ta’awun’, denoted by “T”, indicates cooperation which is
essential to achieve the required synergy, to promote healthy communication,
reduce change to opponents, and eliminate the hostile workplace environment
(Ahmed, 2007).
6.2 Second stage: conflict occurs
The unity of culture and practicing guidelines provided by the Quran can
minimize the potential of conflict. But practices are not always well applied,
sometimes sincere intentions are not fully formed, sometimes even when the
community shares values and interests some people may drift away with their
special agendas and their own values and interests, and sometimes clashes of
different opinions happen due to the empty space left without clear guidelines
for the sake of flexibility and innovation, so ultimately some conflicts will arise
here and there.
The Quran provides several remedies in order to minimize the negative
impacts of conflict and to recover the best possible results as follows:
1. Provision of a unified perception towards conflict and conciliation as
previously mentioned. These shared perceptions (conflict is the cause of
failure and conciliation is the best option) motivate the desire for
cooperation and collaboration as a first step in order to form habits of
continuously seeking reconciliation to reach synergy rather than conflict.
2. Specification of main references. This means that when a conflict
occurs, resolution is not taken for the favor of any party even if one
party has a potential place or authority in the community. Instead it
refers to first to the Quran (Word of God) and Sunna, as stated in Surat
al-Nisa: 59,Surat al-Shu‘ara: 10 and al-Nisa: 83,as follows:
“……. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the
Messenger, ……..”
“And in anything over which you disagree - its ruling is [to be referred] to
Allah . [Say], ……..."
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“….. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority
among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would
have known about it. ……..”
3. “To err is human.” All humans are sinners, and the best sinners are
there penitents as Prophet Muhammed says. This is a natural issue, so it
is human for an individual to make decisions or perform actions which
he/she regrets. In particular, when negative emotions are high at conflict
moments, cognition may not be fully available. When feelings are cool,
individuals usually reevaluate the situation to readjust their actions.
Islam is aware of this complex psychology of individuals, and the
different factors that affect their decisions and behaviors. Islam provides
a clear and consistent roadmap to help them get back to the track.
The author adopts the Islamic evaluation system provided by
Alakila(2013) as in Figure 3.
4. Surat al-Hojorat: 9 gives a clear and detailed description for the conflict
treatment as follows:
“And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement
between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the
one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns,
Journal Sharia and Law, Vol. 2015, No. 62 [2015], Art. 9
[Prof. Moh’d Naim Yassien & Eman Yassien]
[College of Law UAE University]
then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves
those who act justly.”
This verse explains that if previous personal remedies do not work, conflict
may escalate and lead to the worst results. This is when intervention from
external parties must take place in order to stop the situation from escalating.
The interference works gradually by starting firstly a reconciliation process
using referential or charismatic power to smooth the situation between the
conflicted parties, then to relieve the congestion and motivate for better
communication until reconciliation might be achieved. Earlier shared
perceptions surely contribute to the calming process and push towards
We should keep in mind that any oppressive reconciliation is not accepted in
Islam, as the same verse indicates: “make settlement between them in justice
and act justly.” Rconciliation that does not refer to the main Islamic bases is
also not accepted.
If intervention does not work, and one party is unfairly overwhelmed by the
other, the aggressive party must be forced coercively to retreat from their
aggression. Forcing the aggressive party to retreat is not the final step because
hard feelings, emotional scars and negative attitudes may be buried, and may
come again in the future in worse forms. This is why the Quran directs us to
attach this stage to another reconciliation stage in order to spread understanding
and to emphasize the results which might be reached.
The intervention stage is very important and has a powerful impact. It keeps
feelings of trust, safety and justice in the community. These feelings support the
whole system’s existence.
7.0 Conclusion
Although the modern view tends to encourage a certain level of conflict,
based on Islamic concepts the author sees that this modern view is drifting away
from the right course of action. This paper agrees more with the traditional view
that considers conflict as an undesirable behavior.
It is indeed true that eventually some conflicts may arise, but conversely it is
essential to build a culture which rejects it rather than encouraging it in order to
push towards a fair reconciliation.
This model needs to be studied in some Islamic organizations which apply
these Islamic principles: this way it might be proven experimentally.
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... However, Bua et al. (2015) and Din et al. (2012) emphasized in their studies that process and mediation should be key factors in the management and handling conflicts. Meanwhile, in a study done by Yassien & Yassien (2015), on conflict management from an Islamic perspective calls for diversity as way through good outcomes can be yielded. This can be achieved through rigorous diagnosis of the causative factors and process so as to arrive at a reasonable decision. ...
... Different interests and views arise amongst them some opposing the approaches or goals and this it leads to misunderstanding (Yusuf & Ibrahim, 2019). Furthermore a misunderstanding which results from different thoughts, values and feelings between two individuals or organizations can erupt and cause antagonism to the system (Bampoh-Addo, 2015; Morris et al., 1998;Yassien & Yassien, 2015). Also, the concept can be referred to as misunderstanding due to relationships and emotional tendencies, frustrations, anger and interpersonal clashes among staff. ...
... Also, for conflicts related to interpersonal power struggles and exaggerated use of rewards and punishments, deception and evasion, threats and emotional blackmail, and flattery or ingratiation, require a different approach due to the fact that when issues related to unresolved power conflict can recycle and cause breakdown and termination. Therefore, approaching such a complex situation may call for a mixed approach towards its resolution (Yassien & Yassien, 2015). As the chancellor or rector steering the institution business, it is his responsibility to ensure that whatever takes place at work is on his finger tips for smooth running of the institution's business. ...
Higher education institutions have continuously attracted both students and staff from diverse backgrounds and experiences. Due to diverse cultures, experiences and education backgrounds, conflicts have also continued to occur. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how conflict is managed at the Islamic University in Uganda. Thirteen semi-structured interview questions were designed in accordance to research questions for data collection. Four respondents were contacted and responded positively by answering the interview questions. The objectives of the study were; to suggest possible means of managing conflicts at HEIs level, to determine the causes of conflicts in higher education institutions of learning in Uganda, to describe the processes used in the management of conflict in HEIs, to describe the positive and negative contributions of conflicts on the performance of HEIs. The study contributed to the area of conflict management by sighting both the secular and Islamic approaches used in managing conflicts at the university. The relevance of conflicts towards building both institutional and interpersonal relationships among staff and students were also mentioned. It is thus recommended that more studies can be carried out on larger samples using other research designs to accept generalizability of the study findings on the management of conflict at the Islamic University in Uganda.
... The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Do not get angry." The man repeated his request many times, but the Prophet (peace be upon him) kept saying: "Do not get angry" (Yassien, 2015). Conflict is considered a very interesting subject for study in social, management and psychology fields (Ma, 2008). ...
... Conflict is also a complex and forked subject involving lots of issues, and great amount of positive and/or negative (2001). It defines is as "all characteristics and experiences that define each of us as individuals" Diversity has been an important issue that is continuously researched and became a major social and political as well as a management research topic (Yassien, 2015). Bogaert & Vloeberghs (2005) lists number of authors who acknowledged the value of diversity, such as van Poeltje and van Silfhout who ensure that it leads to economic or competitive advantage. ...
... Synergy is recognized in this research as the other outcome of diversity, which if achieved it could bring a new dimension that never exist. Synergy is a Greek word synergia συνεργία from synergos, συνεργός, meaning "working together (Yassien, 2015). Covey (2009) also defines it as "working together of two things to produce a result greater than the sum of their individual effects. ...
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The paper aims to examine on Boko Haram conflict and its effect on social development and peaceful atmosphere of Muslim community. Historically antecedent toward under development as a result of conflict. The paper went further to explain the modus-operandi of the group that encompasses killings of innocent people, bombing places of worship, raping and kidnapping in the name of religion to achieve their barbaric goals. The negative effect of the terrorists group (Boko Haram) activities on the social development in Yobe State of Nigeria has become so devastating that even some of the financial institutions and other commercial ventures shut-down in many areas of the state especially the state capital (Damaturu), thereby causing relocation of many people to various safe places within and even outside the region. It is based on the aforementioned that this paper seeks to explore the extent to which Boko Haram insurgency has affected the peace and social development in Yobe State of Nigeria. The paper explains the concepts of conflict, peace and social development; the research used focus groups discussion to generate information and gain knowledge on the extent of effect of the conflict on social development. The paper concluded that Boko Haram constitute a serious problem to the development of various sectors in the State. It was recommended among others that the institution of Zakat and endowment be revive and all stakeholders should put hands on deck towards the realization of high level of peace and social security by strategizing different ways of fighting the menace of Boko Haram in the region.
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Decision-making is an essential and very significant part of leadership. Decision-making can be done to solve a problem like conflict resolution or can be done to achieve goals, targets, or tasks. The objectives of this paper are two. The first objective is to explore the Islamic teachings for leaders regarding decision making and conflicts management. The second objective is to develop a framework based on the findings. In this regard, this paper uses the library research method, which also can be called a non-systematic literature review. Since Islam guided every aspect of life, so these important areas of life are not left without guidance. As the process of general decision-making principle, Islamic teachings are Istikharah (Prayer to Allah) and Istisharah (Consultation with team). It is the best quality of leader that he in consultation with colleague should be there for the work. Similarly, the general teaching for leaders after taking decisions is trust in Allah. There are also specific problem-solving decisions related guidance, for example, conflicts resolutions, beside of the general decision-making teachings. Islam also says avoid unnecessary conflicts and there should be proper confirmations of the information. Similarly, if a conflict occurs in different groups of believers, Islamic teaching is also guided there. So, the overall Islamic teachings guide about decision-making, problem-solving, and conflicts resolutions.
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The rising of health care and cost of living in Malaysia has caused financial difficulties to the general public. In fact, medical expenses are one of the reasons why Malaysian become bankrupt today. Thus, the need for individual to manage personal risk. Therefore, the main aims of this study are twofolds: i) to investigate how individual should mitigate risk and ii) to examine a personal risk management from Islamic perspective. A thorough review of literature were undertaken to achieve the research objective. The study suggest that individual should take into consideration maqasid al-shari'ah when managing personal risk. The framework for an Islamic personal risk management should include the concept of maqasid al-shari'ah, Islamic hierarchy of needs, Islamic legal maxim and risk management process. The study enhances the literature in Islamic risk management which is very scarce. The personal risk management framework is very pragmatic for an individual to manage personal risk.
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Does media endorsement for catharsis produce a self-fulfilling or a self-defeating prophecy? In Study 1, participants who read a procatharsis message (claiming that aggressive action is a good way to relax and reduce anger) subsequently expressed a greater desire to hit a punching bag than did participants who read an anticatharsis message. In Study 2, participants read the same messages and then actually did hit a punching bag. This exercise was followed by an opportunity to engage in laboratory aggression. Contrary to the catharsis hypothesis and to the self-fulfilling prophecy prediction, people who read the procatharsis message and then hit the punching bag were subsequently more aggressive than were people who read the anticatharsis message.
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An introductory book on management from an Islamic perspective. It's used as text for undergraduate course. The book is complete in terms of walk in to lecture room with power points and with all teaching aids. Question banks and other necessary model answers are available with request. many Malaysian and other institutions of higher learning elsewhere are using as prescribed text.
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Does distraction or rumination work better to diffuse anger? Catharsis theory predicts that rumination works best, but empir- ical evidence is lacking. In this study, angered participants hit a punching bag and thought about the person who had angered them (rumination group) or thought about becoming physically fit (distraction group). After hitting the punching bag, they reported how angry they felt. Next, they were given the chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who had angered them. There also was a no punching bag control group. People in the rumination group felt angrier than did people in the distrac- tion or control groups. People in the rumination group were also most aggressive, followed respectively by people in the distraction and control groups. Rumination increased rather than decreased anger and aggression. Doing nothing at all was more effective than venting anger. These results directly contradict catharsis theory.
This article reviews the conflict literature, first examining the causes of conflict, its core process, and its effects. Subsequently, we probe into conflict escalation (and de-escalation), contexts, and conflict management. When examining this last topic, we note that conflict can be managed by the disputants themselves, by managers, or by other third parties. In conclusion we suggest directions for future research and provide recommendations for practicing managers.
The challenge posed by the increasing cultural diversity of the US. workforce is perhaps the most pressing challenge of our times. Scholarship on this increasing diversity has produced general overviews on diversity and related issues, essays that offer a theoretical perspective and suggest research directions for studying diversity in organizations, and few actual research studies of diversity in orga nizations. The research studies that have been done examine differences in organizational communication in different (particularly national) cultures, examine organizational communication in multicultural contexts, and explore cultural voices in the workplace.
This ethnographic study at a large manufacturing company analyses a complex organizational change, focusing on a program to establish a diversity initiative. The study approaches "diversity" as a dialectical production process unfolding over time in workplace dynamics, producing contradictions and praxes. This study shows how a social production process - opening and closing the door to diversity - shapes and prioritizes, and concurrently suppresses and marginalizes, ideas about and interests in diversity in organizations. Emphasizing this contradictory notion of "opening and closing", the study reveals processes of domination over particular sectoral interests attempting to control the direction of diversity production. These processes suppressed conflicting interests and limited the possibility of conceiving alternative diversity praxes that may have had emancipatory potential.