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Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict

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Abstract

This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of “intrinsic academic motivation and depression” and that of “intrinsic academic motivation and stress” was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict.

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... From the analysis of the literature it was observed in Bondan and Bardagi (2008) and Silva' studies et al. (2018) lack of motivation as a factor that increases stress, however these studies did not consider or measure the different types of motivation. Huang, Lv and Wu (2016) analyzed the intrinsic motivation with stress exclusively and found an inverse relationship between the two variables. Other authors (Bailey & Phillips, 2015;Baker, 2004), despite considering different motivational groups and stress, analyzed along with other variables, such as well-being and adaptation, only in students of psychology courses and who were in specific periods. ...
... In the academic environment, the stress occurrence has been frequent, being associated with several characteristics of this environment (Bukhsh et al., 2011;Hamaideh, 2011;Silva et al., 2018) and university students have been perceived as susceptible to the development of psychological problems (Wynaden et al., 2013). Then, some studies related to the subject stand out (Baker, 2004;Bondan & Bardagi, 2008;Calais et al., 2007;Huang et al., 2016;Lameu et al., 2016;Ribeiro et al., 2018;Sancovschi, Fernandes &Santos, 2009 andSilva et al., 2018), these being carried out in several areas of knowledge. ...
... Addressing the two main variables of the present study, we identified the study by Huang et al. (2016), who investigated the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflicts on depression and stress. These authors analyzed 537 university students from China and, through regression analysis, identified a negative relationship between intrinsic motivation and depression and stress, which was lower when there was a higher level of conflict. ...
Article
Objective: to investigate the relationship between academic motivation and perceived stress in undergraduate Accounting students.Method: a questionnaire was applied to students of the Accounting Sciences course at a Brazilian public institution, a sample of 404 respondents was obtained. The questionnaire included the Academic Motivation Scale, which was analyzed from the factor analysis, making it possible to identify the motivational factors and the Perceived Stress Scale, which made it possible to identify a stress score that was separated in four levels. To test the investigated relationship, a linear regression model was used, which considered the motivational factors and stress scores.Originality/Relevance: the study relates stress and motivation, two variables that have already been identified as factors that can affect the academic trajectory, but had been investigated in Accounting courses in isolation.Results: there was a straight relationship among stress and demotivation and two groups of extrinsic motivation (introjected motivation and identified motivation) and in contrast, an inverse relationship with intrinsic motivation was identified. In addition to it, a higher level of stress was identified in female students.Theoretical/Methodological contributions: the study brings contributions by showing that motivation, depending on its kind, can positively or negatively affect Accounting students’ stress level. Thus, when considering the characteristics of each motivational group, it is understood that the research findings corroborate the Theory of Self-determination and previous studies, and emphasize the importance of monitoring students during graduation.
... It has been widely acknowledged that motivational orientation is closely related to students' level of stress and satisfaction in learning (Bailey and Phillips 2016;Baker 2004;Deci and Ryan 2008;Huang, Lv, and Wu 2016;Ryan and Connell 1989). Understanding the motivational orientation of graduate students is particularly important because graduate students are different from other students in several aspects. ...
... Previous studies have shown that a student's motivational orientation is associated with positive outcomes, including academic achievement (Amrai et al. 2011;Bailey and Phillips 2016;Lin, McKeachie, and Kim 2003;Vansteenkiste, Lens, and Deci 2006), persistence at school (Vallerand and Bissonnette 1992), higher levels of performance (Bailey and Phillips 2016;Deci et al. 1991;Petersen, Louw, and Dumont 2009), higher life satisfaction and meaning (Bailey and Phillips 2016), higher self-efficacy (Rothes, Lemos, and Gonçalves 2017), increased levels of mental health (Ryan and Deci 2000;Zuroff et al. 2012), and higher level of psychological well-being (Bailey and Phillips 2016;Deci and Ryan 2008;Reis, Collins, and Berscheid 2000). Several studies have found that intrinsically motivated students tend to show increased academic achievement (Froiland and Worrell 2016;Vansteenkiste, Lens, and Deci 2006), lower levels of stress (Baker 2004;Huang, Lv, and Wu 2016), and higher levels of satisfaction compared to extrinsically motivated students (Deci and Ryan 2008). However, other works produced nuanced findings on motivational orientation and its association with satisfaction. ...
... This hypothesis is derived from previous studies on academic motivation and its outcomes that higher levels of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic motivation) lead to higher levels of satisfaction, while amotivation is linked to low levels of satisfaction (Baker 2004;Deci and Ryan 1985;Nowell 2017). Our second question sought to understand how different types of academic motivation relate to stress, and we posited that a negative relationship exists between motivational orientation and stress (H3) based on previous research that higher levels of motivation is associated with low levels of stress (Baker 2004;Huang, Lv, and Wu 2016). However, we predicted amotivation and stress would be positively associated (H4) based on previous research that students with no or little motivation in learning will have higher levels of stress in life (Baker 2004;. ...
Article
Motivation, stress, and satisfaction are all key elements in academic success. Academic motivation is linked with positive outcomes, such as low levels of stress, high satisfaction, and mental well-being. Although it is well documented that motivational orientation, stress, and satisfaction are closely related together, very little attention has been paid to how they are related. The purpose of the present study was to examine the theoretical relationships between academic motivation, stress, and satisfaction among graduate students. Structural equation modelling was used to test our conceptual model. Using data collected from 545 graduate students, findings indicate that amotivation has a direct and positive relationship with stress and negative relationship with school satisfaction, suggesting that students who are not motivated will display higher levels of stress and low levels of school satisfaction. Stress worked as a mediator between amotivation and two domains of satisfaction: school and general satisfaction. No significant relationship was found between intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and stress or satisfaction. A final structural equation model was developed, yielding acceptable goodness-of-fit statistics.
... Six items related to clinical training were omitted because they were not relevant to preclinical students. The 32 items were clustered into 5 domains of potential stressors: "social stressors" (items 1-10), "faculty and administration" (items 11-16), "workload" (items [17][18][19][20][21][22], "self-efficacy beliefs" (items 23-27), and "performance pressure" (items [28][29][30][31][32]. Respondents were asked to rate each item based on their experience using a 4-point Likert scale: 1 = not stressful, 2 = slightly stressful, 3 = moderately stressful, and 4 = very stressful. ...
... Attending dental school is considered stressful for students, and this issue has gained increasing attention in the field of education [5][6][7]. A high prevalence of stress has been observed among dental students in both Western countries [18,19,32] and Asian countries [15,17]. Unfortunately, no such study has been performed in China to date. ...
... More specifically, examinations, a fear of not having the opportunity to enroll in postgraduate dental education program, competition for grades, and uncertainty about their dental careers were the most stress-provoking factors for Chinese dental students. This finding is not surprising, because preclinical students have been reported to have high levels of stress related to "self-efficacy beliefs", "workload", and "clinical training" [8,41], while intrinsic academic motivation has been observed to be negatively associated with depression and stress [32]. Finally, social stressors were found to be the least stressful, which is in agreement with previous studies [9][10][11]. ...
Article
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Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and sources of stress in dental undergraduate students in Fujian, China, and the factors associated with stress. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the second semester of the 2017-2018 academic year at the School of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, China. A total of 396 students were surveyed with the Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire (DES) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) using an online survey system. The participants' demographic information, including sex, age, year of study, and grade point average (GPA) was also collected. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare the stress scores. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the associated factors of stress and academic performance. All statistical analyses were performed at a significance level of 5%. Results: A total of 347 undergraduate students participated in the present study, for a response rate of 87.6%. There were no significant differences in the DES and PSS total scores among students of different grades and sexes. Significant differences were found in the DES "workload" and "self-efficacy beliefs" scores among students from different study years (all P < 0.05). The Multiple linear regression showed that DES and PSS scores were negatively correlated with GPA, while sex was positively correlated with GPA (all P < 0.05). Female students had significantly higher GPAs than male students. Conclusions: Dental undergraduates in Fujian, China experienced moderate levels of stress. While the amount of stress did not differ by year of study, the sources of stress did differ. Stress scores and sex were negatively correlated with academic performance.
... Several predictors of self-reported depressive symptoms amongst university students have been identified, including socio-demographic factors (Mahmoud et al., 2012) and lifestyle factors (Eisenberg et al., 2007). Moreover, psychological research has highlighted the protective role that positive motivational attitudes play in mental health (Baker, 2004;Huang et al., 2016). Self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000) posits that intrinsically motivated individuals who are committed to life goals and feel in control of whether they achieving them are more likely to exhibit higher well-being as their needs for competence and autonomy are satisfied (Deci and Ryan, 2002). ...
... This study expands upon previous research on the relationship between motivation and mental health in university student by revealing how motivational variables such as the importance of personal goals, commitment to personal goals and expectation of achieving personal goals explain unique components of variance in self-reported depressive feelings relative to other psychological and health-related risk-factors. These results are consistent with previous cross-sectional (Huang et al., 2016) and longitudinal (Baker, 2004;Crocker et al., 2010;Holding et al., 2017;Ling et al., 2016;Mascaro and Rosen, 2005;Salmela-Aro et al., 2008) studies demonstrating that positive motivational attitudes protect against the occurrence of psychological distress symptoms in university students. This study's specific contribution is that it examined the longitudinal relationship between these variables whilst controlling for relevant confounding factors and lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, substance use and satisfaction with academic choice and financial stress, that are more prevalent in young adult university students than in their age peers not attending university and are known to contribute to the probability of depression in this population (Steptoe et al., 2007(Steptoe et al., , 2002. ...
Article
Positive motivational attitudes protect against depressive symptoms in young adults. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between motivation to achieve important life goals and depression in a sample of young adult university students, who are at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders and adopting unhealthy behaviours than their age peers who are not attending university. The participants were 228 Italian undergraduates who completed an online self-report questionnaire twice during a one-year period. Measures included positive motivational attitudes, depressive feelings, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis use, subjective family income and satisfaction with academic choice. A cross-lagged longitudinal model demonstrated that higher motivation predicted lower depression after one year. No other covariate effects were observed. The results confirm that motivation protects against mental health problems during higher education and is a better predictor of mental health than health-related risk factors. Encouraging undergraduates to invest effort in achieving important goals may prevent the onset of depressive disorders.
... Evidence showed that excessive or unmanageable conflict is associated with depression among adolescents and adults (Forehand et al., 1988). A study conducted in China found a positive relationship between interpersonal conflict with depression and stress among undergraduate students (Huang, Lv, & Wu, 2016). This finding is similar to He et al. (2019), proving that conflict between adolescents with parents, teachers and peers is associated with high levels of depression symptom among adolescents. ...
... The results showed that there was a weak and very significant positive relationship between interpersonal conflict and depression symptom among UKM students. This result is consistent with a previous study in China, which reported that there was a positive relationship between interpersonal conflict and depression among undergraduate students (Huang, Lv & Wu, 2016). The explanation for this finding is that most university students usually live in university residential colleges with other students who may not know each other. ...
... Counselors at school cannot function with the role they are supposed to do when they also have to get involved in activities outside their job scope. The work by Yunhui, Wei and Jiang (2016) finds that interpersonal conflict has a positive correlation with depression and stress. Stress can cause burnout. ...
... This study is a quasi-experimental design that seeks to measure the effect of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy module in Conflict Management among Guidance and counseling teachers. The study of Harnois (2014), Yunhui, Wei and Jiang (2016), (Baggerly & Osborn, 2006) relates stress with conflict and burnout. Therefore, this module focus on helping guidance and counseling teachers to manage their stress that comes from the conflict that they experience. ...
... Motivation is cited as a factor that plays a critical role in higher education and considered an internal force that leads to better students' academic performance and success [41]. Numerous studies demonstrated that motivation is associated with various outcomes among university students such as performance and productivity, coping mechanism, enjoyment, adaptation to university, and mental health [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]. Recently, Al-Tammemi and Akour found that low online learning motivation acted as a predictor of psychological distress [11]. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND: The global coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic has forced nursing schools in Indonesia to implement online learning. The association between online learning variables and psychological distress among nursing students is not fully understood. AIM: This study aimed to assess psychological distress among nursing students and the association between online learning variables and psychological distress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to February 2021. Six hundred and thirty-five nursing students from four universities in Indonesia participated in this study and were recruited through a consecutive sampling method. The measurement of psychological distress used the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the association between online learning predictors and psychological distress. RESULTS: Most of the respondents had severe psychological distress (n = 194; 30.6%). Older age was found to act as a protective factor against psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = –0.159, p = 0.035; 95% confidence interval [CI]: (–0.307)–(–0.011)). Contrarily, not living at their own home during lockdown (aOR = 1.019, p = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.657–1.382), always feeling that online learning is expensive (aOR = 1.387, p = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.645–2.130), always experienced poor Internet connection during online learning (aOR = 3.380, p = 0.001; 95% CI: 1.935–4.826), and having no motivation toward online learning (aOR = 3.154, p = 0.001; 95% CI: 2.372–3.936) acted as risk factors for having psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Cost and Internet access barriers as well as low motivation during the abrupt shift to implementation of online learning in the current pandemic situation acted as risk factors for psychological distress among nursing students.
... However, one prior study did show that greater intrinsic motivation was positively related to depressive symptoms among athletes playing team sports, the majority of whom were female [51]. One potential explanation for the positive association is that individuals with more depressive symptoms are likely to experience greater psychosocial demands, which may result in increased autonomous motivation to meet the demands [52]. This information suggests that that the association between autonomous motivation and depression may be more complex than anticipated [51], warranting further investigation. ...
Preprint
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Background Psychological factors mediating the effect of lifestyle behavior interventions on mothers’ depressive symptoms are unclear. Using data from a community-based lifestyle behavior intervention, this secondary analysis examined whether autonomous motivation, coping self-efficacy, and emotional coping mediated the association between the intervention and depressive symptoms in low-income overweight and obese mothers with young children. Methods This 16-week intervention had 2 components: Mothers watched 10 video lessons in Digital Video Disc (DVD) format at home and joined 10 peer support group teleconferences (every week in weeks 1–4; then every other week in weeks 5–16). All participants completed reliable and valid measures of autonomous motivation, coping self-efficacy, emotional coping and depressive symptoms via phone at baseline and immediately after the intervention. To assess effect size, proportion of maximum possible (POMP) scores were calculated. To test mediation effects, composite indicator structural equation modeling was performed. Results The intervention significantly alleviated depressive symptoms (p = 0.015, POMP = -4.31%). While the intervention had no influence on autonomous motivation, it significantly increased coping self-efficacy (p < 0.001, POMP = 7.4%) and emotional coping (p = 0.003, POMP = 3.81%). Coping self-efficacy significantly and negatively mediated the association between the intervention and depressive symptoms (p = 0.002, POMP = -2.53%). However, autonomous motivation and emotional coping were not significant mediators. Conclusions To help this target population alleviate depressive symptoms, clinicians may consider teaching these women practical strategies that can be applied to daily life to boost coping self-efficacy.
... The positive relationship observed in the current study between mental well-being and motivation likewise accords with previous research findings ( Amabile et al., 1990;Baard et al., 2004;Bailey & Phillips, 2016;Ilardi et al., 1993;Locke & Latham, 2004;Miller & Rollnick, 2002). Furthermore, intrinsic motivation has previously been shown to be a significant independent predictor of mental wellbeing in Chinese medical undergraduate students (Huang, Lv, & Wu, 2016) as well as in non-student populations (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010;Zuroff et al., 2007). This relationship indicates that helping caring profession students derive personal meaning from their current training and anticipated professional role is likely to be a useful means of enhancing both intrinsic motivation and mental well-being. ...
Article
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Aims To assess mental well-being in a sample of UK caring profession students and explore the relationship between mental well-being, psychological distress, caregiver role identity, self-compassion, and motivation. Background Students of caring profession subjects in UK universities typically follow a demanding educational and clinical training curriculum. Consequently, compared to other UK student groups, levels of psychological distress and mental illness are high. Design A cross-sectional observational study was conducted during the 2016-2017 academic year. Methods UK caring profession students (n=116) completed measures assessing mental well-being, psychological distress, caregiver role identity, self-compassion, and motivation. Significant correlations and independent predictors of mental well-being and psychological distress were identified. Results/Findings The current sample of UK caring profession students had low levels of mental well-being and two-thirds were deemed to have severe levels of psychological distress. Mental well-being and psychological distress were negatively associated with role identity, and positively associated with self-compassion and intrinsic motivation. Role identity, self-compassion and intrinsic motivation were significant independent predictors of mental well-being and psychological distress. Conclusion This study accords with other studies reporting that levels of psychological distress and mental illness are high amongst UK caring profession students. Findings suggest role identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation are key factors that influence the mental well-being of this student group. Further research is warranted to determine whether adjusting the training curriculum to change how students identify with their caregiver role, as well as improve student levels of self-compassion and intrinsic motivation, leads to improvements in mental well-being and academic completion. Keywords: mental well-being, caring profession, nurse, social worker, self-compassion, role identity, intrinsic motivation, psychological distress, students
... A study of Chinese undergraduate students showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively associated with depression and stress. 35 Therefore, as motivation is important for stress resistance, recognising first programme choice as a significant predictor of student stress is important for TMDU. ...
Article
Introduction This study explored stress predictors and the role of instructional methods and institutional differences in perceived stress levels amongst students at two Asian dental schools. Materials and Methods An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate dental students at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP), Hochiminh City, Vietnam in 2016. Data concerning the students' demographic information and grades, and responses to the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES) were collected. The questionnaires were prepared in English and translated into Japanese and Vietnamese following a forward‐backward translation process. Results Altogether 684 students answered the questionnaire with a response rate of 97% for TMDU and 89% for UMP. The mean DES score of UMP students was significantly higher than TMDU (P < .001). TMDU students with dentistry as their first programme choice had significantly lower PSS and DES scores in several categories than other TMDU students, whilst UMP clinical students reported higher stress scores in several areas than UMP preclinical students. Conclusion Having dentistry as their first choice of educational programme was a significant stress predictor for Japanese students whilst the clinical practicum was a significant stress predictor for Vietnamese students. Previous academic performance was not a significant stress predictor for students at either dental school. Dental students of an integrated, active‐learning curriculum reported lower stress levels than students of a traditional, discipline‐based curriculum.
... With this in mind, the positive relationship between intrinsic regulation and depressive symptoms is counter to hypotheses and previous research. As examples, autonomous motivation has been shown to reinforce positive mental health outcomes in exercise (Rouse et al., 2011) and education ( Huang et al., 2016) settings. However, such was not the case among the current athletes, in that intrinsic regulation, the most autonomous form of motivation, had a positive association with depressive symptoms. ...
Article
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Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males) completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation.
... Medicine is always a top career choice for highly academically achieved high school students, and the motivation to pursue a medical education often comes from parents rather than the students themselves. Low motivation for studying has been shown to result in high levels of anxiety and depression [13,16,17]. ...
Article
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Background: This study identified and investigated the relationship between demographics, mental health problems, positive personality traits and perceived social support and motivation in medical education (MME) among first year medical students. Methods: One hundred-thirty eight first year medical students completed the Academic Motivation Scale, Outcome Inventory, Strength Based Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Path analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the variables of interest and each type of motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Results: The mean age of the sample was 18.86 ± 0.74 and 60% of the subjects were female. Path analysis showed that extrinsic motivation was positively associated with being female, personal choice for studying medicine, and grade point average at high school. Intrinsic motivation was correlated with perceived family support, personal choice for studying medicine and the positive attribute of determination. Amotivation was related to being male, personal choice, and depression. While both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were correlated, they were uncorrelated with amotivation. All variables accounted for 18, 13, and 45% of variance of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, respectively. Conclusion: Each type of motivation has different but related predictors. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can be promoted, whereas amotivation represents an exclusive issue, one related more to depression, that needs to be reduced to not interfere with academic achievement and quality of life of medical students.
... As stress is negatively correlated with intrinsic academic motivation for high school (Liu, 2015) and university (Huang, Lv and Wu, 2016) students, exploring issues of motivation is important. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the issues around allowing alternative assessment techniques in Vietnamese undergraduate university classes. Currently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) in Vietnam requires a student's final grade to be assessed at least 50% by a high-stakes "final test." While there are clear benefits to this traditional assessment method (such as ensuring authenticity), there are also well-accepted drawbacks. Although test anxiety is one example, a greater concern is that exams do not give students the opportunity to participate in team-based work, one of the skills most desired by Vietnamese employers. As Vietnam is still early in its massive economic growth curve, MoET could use its unique position to not only support but also to drive use of alternative assessment techniques, which in turn would lead educators to focus on developing in the future workforce those skills that Vietnamese firms need. By loosening regulations and allowing university lecturers additional freedom, new assessments, such as group presentations, could be designed which accomplish the current goals (for example, ensuring authenticity) while also building additional employer-demanded skills like teamwork, persuasion in presentation, and complex problem-solving. An example of the successful use of this approach is presented, analyzed, and discussed. It is proposed that MoET modifies the existing "50% final test" regulation to allow university lecturers to use their knowledge of their domain as well as assessment design to help develop the skills employers need from the people of Vietnam.
... They further showed in an experimental study among university students that manipulating intrinsic motivation led to higher levels of life satisfaction. The relationship between intrinsic academic motivation and depression was shown by Huang, Lv, and Wu (2016) among undergraduate students. ...
Article
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Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, this study examined the association of learning opportunities of adolescents at school and work with their mental health, operationalized in terms of life satisfaction and depression. Intrinsic motivation at school and at work were studied as potential mediators. Within a representative sample of adolescents (n = 474), the results supported within domain relationships in the sense that learning opportunities at school and at work were positively related to intrinsic motivation at school and at work, respectively, which in turn were related to higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. Cross-domain relationships were not significant, except for a negative relationship between learning opportunities at work and intrinsic motivation at school, suggesting that having a good job can pull students away from school.
... It is unclear whether differences in reported prevalence are related to school location, though it is plausible that proximity to the pandemic's epicenter would be more anxiety-provoking [33]. That negative thoughts or actions, anger and quarreling behaviors, and concerns about COVID-19 were all positively related to either depression or anxiety disorder has been seen in other studies [32,34,35]. Many of our participants reported that they had been angry and quarreling within one week before the survey; 46.7% of them felt terrible because of COVID-19. ...
Article
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Background: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, harsh social distancing measures were taken in China to contain viral spread. We examined their impact on the lives of medical students. Methods: A nation-wide cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted from 4-12 February 2020. We enrolled medical students studying public health in Beijing and Wuhan to assess their COVID-19 awareness and to evaluate their mental health status/behaviors using a self-administered questionnaire. We used the Patient Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Health Questionnaire-9 to measure anxiety disorders and depression. We used multivariable logistic regression and path analysis to assess the associations between covariates and anxiety disorder/depression. Results: Of 933 students, 898 (96.2%) reported wearing masks frequently when going out, 723 (77.5%) reported daily handwashing with soap, 676 (72.5%) washed hands immediately after arriving home, and 914 (98.0%) reported staying home as much as possible. Prevalence of anxiety disorder was 17.1% and depression was 25.3%. Multivariable logistic regression showed anxiety to be associated with graduate student status (odds ratio (aOR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.5), negative thoughts or actions (aOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.7), and feeling depressed (aOR = 6.8; 95% CI: 4.0-11.7). Beijing students were significantly less likely to have anxiety than those in the Wuhan epicenter (aOR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0), but depression did not differ. Depression was associated with female students (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.3), negative thoughts or actions (aOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.5-1.9), and anxiety disorder (aOR = 5.8; 95% CI: 3.4-9.9). Path analysis validated these same predictors. Conclusions: Despite medical students' knowledge of disease control and prevention, their lives were greatly affected by social distancing, especially in the Wuhan epicenter. Even well-informed students needed psychological support during these extraordinarily stressful times.
... This is perhaps because students whose need for autonomy is met do not always have to meet standards of performance to feel worthy because their self-esteem has been nurtured (Shih, 2013). As a result, a negative correlation is found between intrinsic motivation and academic stress and depression (Huang, Lv, & Wu, 2016). The relationships between autonomy support and mastery goal orientation, and between mastery goal orientation and academic stress, suggest that autonomy support might influence students' academic stress indirectly through mastery goal orientation. ...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between autonomy support from instructors, self-regulated learning, mastery goal orientation and academic stress. College and graduate students in China (N=366) participated in this study. Mediation analysis was used to examine the relationships between the constructs. The results indicate that academic stress is a multidimensional construct with four subconstructs: pressures to perform, stress related to teacher expectation, perception of workload and stress related to academic self-perceptions. These sub-constructs were studied in relation to autonomy support, self-regulated learning, and mastery goal orientation. Direct effects of autonomy support were found on self-regulated learning and mastery goal orientation, as well as on stress related to academic self-perception. Mediation effects of self-regulated learning and mastery goal orientation were found between autonomy support and some of the subconstructs of academic stress.
... Relational mentoring posits that mentoring partners will more likely develop high-quality relationships when their schemas align than when they have different views of their role and the role of the other. In practice, however, relational members may have different perspectives on their roles (Huang, Lv, and Wu 2016). ...
Article
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Mentoring relationships between research supervisors and doctoral students play a key role in doctoral students’ success. Self-determination theory assumes that the quality of these relationships can be defined in terms of fulfillment of students’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Studies on how supervisors and students build need-supportive relationships are, however, lacking. Taking a schema-based perspective, this article investigates supervisors’ and doctoral students’ (mis)alignments in schemas on how to fulfill students’ basic needs in their relationship. Qualitative data were obtained from a sample of 18 interviews (nine dyads) to reveal the schema-driven sensemaking of students and their supervisors. Findings show that the idea of schema similarity might be too simple: For each of the three basic needs, tensions arise between students’ and supervisors’ schemas. These need-based schemas in action offer a fresh perspective for understanding why some supervisor-doctoral student relationships are experienced as successful while others are not.
... However, stress experienced by students during their courses might not promote their learning but even motivate them to forget what they have learned before (Ramirez et al., 2017). Generally, perceived stress has a negative correlation with students' academic motivation (Huang et al., 2016;Raufelder et al., 2018). However, some stressors have a positive correlation with motivation to learn and academic achievements, although with a positive association with students' exhaustion (LePine et al., 2004). ...
Thesis
The time in college and university is the most stressful period in students’ lives. Historically, stress is assumed to have deleterious effects on students' academic engagement, performance, and well-being. However, according to challenge-hindrance stress framework, challenge stressors perceived as goal-relevant and manageable are thought to increase academic motivation, performance, and well-being, while hindrance stressors, viewed as goal-relevant but unmanageable, are considered to interfere with performance and lead to maladaptive behaviors. This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored students' experiences of challenge and hindrance stressors and the relationship between them and students' academic motivation through the lens of self-determination theory. The study results revealed that although there were examples of stress cases that could be identified only as challenge stress or hindrance stress, some stress cases were reflected as both challenge and hindrance stress due to individual appraisals of participants that depended on internal and external factors. The study findings confirmed that challenge stress had positive associations with academic motivation and with the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, reflecting it more like autonomous motivation; and hindrance stress had negative associations with students' academic motivation and basic psychological needs satisfaction, reflecting it more like controlled motivation or amotivation. However, there were some contradictions: some participants did not confirm that a certain basic psychological need was satisfied during challenge stress; some students experienced challenge stress associated with controlled types of motivation, and some students' engagement and performance were more efficient due to controlled motivation. The results of the study should assist educators in understanding undergraduate students' experiences and in developing and improving educational programs through a supportive environment for students' learning.
... In this context, the role of motivational components in the psychological adjustment of students has also been highlighted (e.g., anxiety, depression symptoms, and suicidal risk; Klibert et al., 2011;Tao et al., 2000;Wang, 2012). For example, a study of 537 undergraduate students in North China reported that intrinsic goal orientation was negatively related to depression symptoms and anxiety (Huang et al., 2016) and provided life satisfaction (Garriott et al., 2015). ...
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In the changing and demanding university context, various situations are experienced wherein abilities to maintain motivation and activate problem solving could be relevant in students’ adjustment. Beyond the widely analyzed role of academic motivation, this study focused on the added value of social problem-solving ability in student adjustment in the academic context. Analyses based on the responses obtained from 253 students (197 women and 56 men) indicated the significant role of social problem-solving ability in student adjustment, with a small additional amount (f² = .09) 9% of variance in life satisfaction and medium additional amount (f² = .17) 15% of variance in depressive symptoms, beyond academic motivation. In particular, negative problem orientation was an important predictor of depressive symptoms (β = .41, p < .001) and life satisfaction (β = − .26, p < .001); however, positive problem orientation was only an important predictor of life satisfaction (β = .21, p < .01). This study also showed the predictive role of the value, expectancy, and affection components of motivation in student adjustment. Overall, the findings highlight the relevance of training in problem-solving orientation and motivational components to improve college students’ general well-being.
... Contrarily intrinsically motivated behaviors were related to low levels of perceived stress. Huang, Lv, & Wu (2016) also proved that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively associated with depression and stress. From these previous studies, we hypothesized that the motivation styles with high levels of autonomy and integration would be related to favorable mental health and low academic stress. ...
... There are many ways to explain the findings, as have been elaborated on significantly in the articles. Many cite the relationship between motivation and depression or stress (Huang, Lv, & Wu, 2016;Ceci & Kumar, 2016), concluding it should not be a surprise that a construct that decreases depression and stress would increase motivation. ...
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Although Self-Compassion (SC) has a well-documented positive relationship with depression, stress, and anxiety (MacBeth & Gumley, 2012), evidence concerning its relationship with cognitive and behavioral measures of motivation to improve has not been collectively assessed. 26 empirical studies examining the influence SC has on motivation, with a total of 7662 participants, were examined in this meta-analysis. There was a variety of methodologies and measures of motivation used in included studies. The results revealed a confidence in the range of p < 1x10-7 with a reliable, positive correlation of r = .280, firmly establishing the main effect of the relationship as a scientific consensus. While the main effect is quite secure, speculation on the universality of the effect, potential moderating variables, problems with individual studies, as well as possible explanations of the effect are discussed as well.
... Specifically, the study of learning approaches and their relationship with emotional variables could be helpful. In this way, several studies have investigated learning approaches [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] and coping with academic stress [18][19][20][21][22]. Among university students, learning changes depending on context and individual situation, which determine the most appropriate learning approach [23], one which is not static [24] and tends to change based on various contextual variables [25]. ...
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Learning approaches are factors that contribute to sustainability education. Academic stress negatively affects students’ performances in the context of sustainability teaching. This study analyzed how deep and surface approaches could be related to coping with academic stress and gender. An online survey was completed by 1012 university students. The relationship between gender, sources of stress and learning approaches was examined through a multivariate canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed differences in stress-coping strategies depending on the learning approach used. In both female and male students, academic stress was handled with a deep learning approach. The findings provide implications for professors and highlight the importance of variables such as deep learning and gender in the teaching and learning sustainability process.
... Subsequently, it helps to enhance students' engagement (Pavlou, 2006), learning autonomy, and academic performance (Rana, Mahmood & Reid, 2015) in teaching and learning processes. More importantly, intrinsic academic motivation also has a positive significance on the reduction of stress and depression of undergraduate students, which could bring about a positive classroom atmosphere free from interpersonal conflicts (Huang, Lv & Wu, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate a theoretical framework that examines and extends understanding of the role of cognitive/information processing, learning motivation and learning task behaviors in facilitating student engagement, course persistence and academic performance. Design/methodology/approach Student subjects were used to collect survey data. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the impact of active teaching, academic self-efficacy and task avoidance on the dependent variables – course grade, course persistence and expectancy for success. Findings Active teaching and academic self-efficacy were positive predictors of course grade while task avoidance was a negative predictor of course grade. Course persistence was positively impacted by academic self-efficacy and diminished by task-avoidance behaviors. Academic self-efficacy was shown to positively impact expectancy for success. Practical implications The results confirm the importance of adopting active teaching techniques, the need for periodic opportunities for experienced academic success and the need for coaching on self-regulation of study habits and class attendance behaviors. Originality/value This study builds on prior calls for more investigations on the role of teaching style on student psychological responses, engagement, learning task behaviors and academic performance. The teaching and learning processes were examined on four levels – attention/engagement, encoding, processing/synthesizing and learning task behaviors. In addition, prior work was extended by incorporating behavioral indicators (e.g. task avoidance) of learning motivation as opposed to reliance on self-reported levels of motivation that may have not been consistent with actual behaviors.
Thesis
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L’entrée à l’université représente une période de transition majeure jalonnée de différents changements de rôles, de statuts et de milieux. Cette période de transition correspond aux débuts du devenir adulte. Au cœur de ce défi développemental se situent les questions d’autonomie et d’indépendance. L’autonomie et l’indépendance s’acquièrent de manière progressive et s’expriment au travers des représentations que les jeunes adultes ont du fonctionnement de leur système familial et de leur propre fonctionnement. Ainsi, l’environnement familial, les représentations d’attachement, la transition d’habitation et les processus d’autodétermination sont des expressions du devenir adulte progressif des individus qui vont être particulièrement questionnées lors de cette transition majeure. En adoptant une vision holistique-interactionniste, ce travail de recherche s’est donné pour objectif d’interroger le développement psychosocial des jeunes adultes entrant à l’université en tenant compte des spécificités propres à leur période de développement. Notre population d’étude se compose d’étudiants primo-entrants. En suivant une approche longitudinale, ce travail de recherche comportait trois temps de mesure et a donné lieu à la réalisation de deux cohortes successives. Le premier temps de mesure a eu lieu lors de la rentrée universitaire, en septembre/octobre (N = 1 142) ; le deuxième temps en milieu d’année universitaire, en février/mars (N = 248) ; et le troisième temps en fin d’année universitaire en juin/juillet (N = 101). A chaque temps de mesure, les participants ont été invités à répondre à un questionnaire qui évaluait leurs perceptions de leur environnement familial (i.e., relation parents-enfant et relations familiales), leurs représentations d’attachement, la transition d’habitation qu’ils vivaient, leurs processus d’autodétermination (i.e., motivation à la poursuite d’études et besoins psychologiques de base) et leur ajustement psychosocial (i.e., bien-être psychologique, estime de soi globale, dépressivité et résultats académiques). Les données ont été analysées en adoptant une approche à la fois centrée sur les personnes et sur les variables ainsi qu’en considérant les différentes formes de variabilités. Nos résultats soulignent l’hétérogénéité et la multiplicité des profils d’environnement familial, d’attachement et d’autodétermination, des classes de transition d’habitation ainsi que des patterns de développement lors de l’entrée à l’université. Ces différents profils d’environnement familial, d’attachement et d’autodétermination présentent une évolution singulière au cours de la première année universitaire. Au niveau de l’ajustement psychosocial, nos résultats montrent que les caractéristiques personnelles (i.e., attachement et autodétermination) ont un effet sur l’ajustement au cours de la première année contrairement aux contextes dans lesquels évoluent l’individu (i.e., environnement familial et transition d’habitation). L’évolution de l’ajustement psychosocial au cours du temps s’avère positive et stable pour les profils positifs d’environnement familial, d’attachement et d’autodétermination alors qu’il est instable pour les profils négatifs. Enfin, nos résultats conduisent à considérer les besoins psychologiques de base comme des leviers permettant une meilleure adaptation en période de transition. Ces différentes observations apportent un regard complémentaire à la littérature et permettent de venir discuter des applications possibles dans l’accompagnement des adultes en devenir en contexte universitaire.
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Using data from a community-based lifestyle behavioral intervention study, this secondary data analysis investigated whether emotional coping, coping self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation mediated the association between the intervention and perceived stress in low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children. Results showed that coping self-efficacy significantly mediated the association between the intervention and perceived stress. However, emotional coping and autonomous motivation did not significantly mediate the association between intervention and perceived stress. Interventions may be more effective in helping the target audience reduce stress if they incorporate practical skills that can increase a sense of coping self-efficacy.
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Depression is one of the top mental health concerns among undergraduates and disproportionately affects students who are underrepresented in science. As such, understanding how emerging science learning environments, such as online science courses, affect students with depression is integral to creating a more inclusive scientific community. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 24 undergraduates with depression who were pursuing an online BS degree in biological sciences at a research-intensive institution. We assessed how students perceived depression affected their learning, and in turn, how online science courses affected their depression. Using a hybrid approach of deductive and inductive coding, we found that students reported depression negatively affected an array of cognitive domains when learning science online, including students' effort, focus, and time management. Students reported that the fast pace of online courses, the lack of needing to show up to a class in person, and difficulty developing relationships with other students commonly exacerbated their depression. Conversely, the flexibility of completing course work when and where students wanted, developing a relationship with the instructor, and the ease of having questions answered online positively affected students' depression. This study provides insight into ways to create inclusive online learning environments for students with depression.
Article
Recent theoretical developments in cardiovascular reactivity research suggest the association between depression and blunted reactions to stress is linked to motivational factors. Thus, the present study aimed to test whether the association between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress was mediated by motivation; be it intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. One hundred and eighty‐two healthy young adults completed measures of motivation (Global Motivation Scale; GMS), and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and had their blood pressure and heart rate monitored throughout a standardised stress testing protocol. Results indicated that depression was negatively associated with both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) reactions to the stress task (all ps < .05), such that those who reported higher depressive symptomology displayed a blunted response. Furthermore this relationship was mediated by intrinsic, but not extrinsic motivation; the blunted responses were less pronounced through intrinsic motivation. The present findings add extensively to existing research and confirm that motivation is an underlying mechanism linking depression and cardiovascular reactivity.
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This study examines the effects of external environmental factors, specifically monetary reward and choice, on intrinsic motivation, and tests whether they are moderated by individual differences in causality orientation. We randomly assigned 103 undergraduates to one of four conditions: reward (reward vs. no reward) × choice (choice vs. no choice). Participants were given puzzles to solve in the experimenters' presence, which they were free to continue tackling when the experimenters left the room. We measured the time spent solving puzzles when free to choose other activities, task enjoyment, and perceived competence as dependent variables. Interest in puzzles was unaffected by receiving a reward in participants with high autonomy orientation but dropped significantly in participants with low autonomy orientation. Choice over the task increased competence in participants with high autonomy orientation but lowered competence in low autonomy orientation. Finally, we found no significant effects on time spent on puzzles. The present study contributes to current literature regarding the causes of differences in performance in various achievement settings.
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Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membina, menguji kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan Modul Pendekatan Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy dalam pengurusan konflik Guru Bimbingan Dan Kaunseling sekolah menengah. Konflik yang terhasil menyebabkan Guru Bimbingan dan Kaunseling mengalami stres. Oleh itu modul ini dibina sebagai satu strategi untuk membantu Guru Bimbingan dan Kaunseling menangani stres. Modul ini dibina berdasarkan kajian kepustakaan Teori Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy oleh Albert Ellis (1995). Hasil kajian perpustakaan telah berjaya membina Modul Pengurusan Konfik yang diaplikasikan menerusi lapan sesi utama yang merangkumi 20 aktiviti kendiri. Sesi 1: Ice Breaking, Sesi 2: Pengenalan Modul Pengurusan Konflik, Sesi 3: A – Peristiwa / C – Emosi Terhasil, Sesi 4: B – Sistem Kepercayaan, Sesi 5: A – Peristiwa / B - Sistem Kepercayaan / C – Emosi Yang Terhasil Sesi 6: Pengajaran Tentang Dispute, Sesi 7: D – Hujah / E – Emosi Baru dan Sesi 8: Rumusan / Penamatan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan nilai kesahan kandungan modul ialah 88.44%. Nilai kebolehpercayaan modul ialah .915. Modul pengurusan konflik dapat membantu Guru Bimbingan dan Kaunseling menangani konflik di sekolah. Modul ini memberi kemahiran cognitive coping sebagai satu strategi dalam mengurangkan stres Guru Bimbingan dan Kaunseling.
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University students are constantly influenced by multiple stressors from different aspects of their lives and society. Life and academic stress often generate difficulties and impact university students' psychological reactions. The present study aimed to examine the moderating effects of social support on the relationship between perceived competence, self-determination and learning environment on the psychological reactions (intrinsic motivation and stress) among first-year university students. Analyzing a total of 863 responses collected from the respective respondents, the findings indicated that all predictors associate with intrinsic motivation and stress. Besides, the results also revealed that social support is not a moderating variable for the relationship between the independent variables (perceived competence, learning environment and self-determination) and intrinsic motivation and stress. The implications of the study are further discussed in the paper.
Article
To reduce their attrition rates, institutions need to ensure that their students can manage the stressors they confront in their academic work and persist to complete their study programs. Given the significance of non-cognitive attributes in education, this study aimed to identify the non-cognitive profiles exhibited by students which related significantly to academic stress and persistence levels in the middle of a given academic year. Undergraduate students from one of the largest private higher education institutions in Singapore participated in two online surveys. A total of 565 and 122 students participated in the first and second surveys, respectively. Results indicated that three distinct non-cognitive profiles could be identified, which were associated significantly with students’ academic stress levels and their intentions to persist with their studies. Possible implications for enhancing student outcomes by offering students with opportunities to enhance their affective ‘readiness’ profiles are discussed.
Article
Based on self-determination theory framework, this study examined (a) individual effects of teacher relatedness support and parent relatedness support and (b) the additive and interaction effect of these supports on academic motivation of middle school students. Using linear, stepwise, and hierarchical regression, results exhibited presence of significant individual, additive, and interaction effects between the variables. The results may be helpful in creating awareness among parents and teachers regarding the importance of relatedness support in satisfying emotional needs of children and enhancing motivation.
Article
Poorer financial circumstances among undergraduate students predict worse academic outcomes, yet there is a lack of research examining mediators. Accordingly, the present research aimed to identify such mediating variables. In Study 1, cross-sectional data were collected from UK undergraduates (N = 516). Controlling for background variables, path analysis indicated that stress, sense of belonging at university, working memory, and self-control mediated the negative relationship between financial concern and academic performance. In Study 2 an independent sample (N = 2794) was used to successfully validate the respecified model developed in Study 1. Additionally, longitudinal data were collected from UK undergraduates (N = 453) at three time points in an academic year. Controlling for background variables, financial concern predicted subsequent changes in intrinsic academic motivation, as mediated by changes in stress and sense of belonging at university. Together, this provides consistent evidence for stress and belonging as mediators of the impact of finances on academic outcomes. Our findings afford a more complete understanding of how financial concern may affect students’ experience at university, highlight potential negative consequences of funding systems that place a financial burden on students, and could serve to inform interventions aimed at mitigating the negative effects of financial concern.
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Life transitions, such as university attendance, entail the reconstruction of relations between the individual and the environment. This study aimed to explore how perceptions of social support changed across time during the first semester of university, and how social support, coping strategies, and adjustment were interrelated among 390 first-year students in Beijing, China. Results indicated that overall levels of social support among students did not change significantly across the first term, but that support from different sources (parents, peers, teachers, siblings) showed distinctive patterns of change. Support was positively related to adjustment and to coping skills in a dynamic way, and an integrative structural equations model showed that the role of social support operated both directly in relation to adjustment and indirectly through its relations to coping styles. These findings were related both to previous research on the transition to university in the West and to unique factors within the Chinese context.
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The central argument of this book is that cognition is not the whole story in understanding intellectual functioning and development. To account for inter-individual, intra-individual, and developmental variability in actual intellectual performance, it is necessary to treat cognition, emotion, and motivation as inextricably related. Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition: Integrative Perspectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development: *represents a new direction in theory and research on intellectual functioning and development; *portrays human intelligence as fundamentally constrained by biology and adaptive needs but modulated by social and cultural forces; and *encompasses and integrates a broad range of scientific findings and advances, from cognitive and affective neurosciences to cultural psychology, addressing fundamental issues of individual differences, developmental variability, and cross-cultural differences with respect to intellectual functioning and development. By presenting current knowledge regarding integrated understanding of intellectual functioning and development, this volume promotes exchanges among researchers concerned with provoking new ideas for research and provides educators and other practitioners with a framework that will enrich understanding and guide practice.
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This chapter pursues three goals. First, it overviews ­self-­determination theory (SDT). SDT is a macrotheory of motivation comprised of five interrelated minitheories—basic needs theory, organismic integration theory, goal contents theory, cognitive evaluation theory, and causality orientations theory. Each minitheory was created to explain specific motivational phenomena and to address specific research questions. Second, the chapter uses the student-teacher dialectical framework within SDT to explain how classroom conditions sometimes support but other times neglect and frustrate students’ motivation, engagement, and positive classroom functioning. Third, the chapter highlights student engagement. In doing so, it overviews recent classroom-based, longitudinally designed research to reveal three new and important functions of student engagement—namely, that student engagement fully mediates and explains the motivation-to-achievement relation, that changes in engagement produce changes in the learning environment, and that changes in engagement produce changes in motivation, as students’ behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic engagements represent actions taken not only to learn but also to meet psychological needs. The chapter concludes with implications for teachers and with suggestions for future research.
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The purpose of this study was to test three models with regard to the linkages among autonomy support, intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence. The first model is based on Cognitive Evaluation Theory and postulates that teachers’ autonomy support influences changes in intrinsic motivation via changes in perceived academic competence. However, the second and the third model are based on the Diathesis Stress Model of Achievement Processes and posit, respectively, that intrinsic motivation could play a mediating and a moderating role in the relation between teachers’ autonomy support and changes in perceived competence. A total of 215 fifth-grade children participated in a longitudinal study over a 1-year period. Results from regression analyses provided some support for the first model but stronger support for the second and third model.
Article
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Life transitions, such as university attendance, entail the reconstruction of relations between the individual and the environment. This study aimed to explore how perceptions of social support changed across time during the first semester of university, and how social support, coping strategies, and adjustment were interrelated among 390 first-year students in Beijing, China. Results indicated that overall levels of social support among students did not change significantly across the first term, but that support from different sources (parents, peers, teachers, siblings) showed distinctive patterns of change. Support was positively related to adjustment and to coping skills in a dynamic way, and an integrative structural equations model showed that the role of social support operated both directly in relation to adjustment and indirectly through its relations to coping styles. These findings were related both to previous research on the transition to university in the West and to unique factors within the Chinese context.
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This article argues that to understand higher education student retention, equal emphasis needs to be placed on successful integration into the social world of the university as into the academic world. To date, sociological research reflecting first‐year students’ perceptions of the processes involved in developing social lives at university is scarce. Here the concept of ‘social support’ is used to analyse interviews with 34 first‐year students, investigating the processes through which social integration (or lack of it) influenced their decision as to whether or not to leave university. Our data support the claim that making compatible friends is essential to retention, and that students’ living arrangements are central to this process. Such friends provide direct emotional support, equivalent to family relationships, as well as buffering support in stressful situations. Course friendships and relationships with personal tutors are important but less significant, providing primarily instrumental, informational and appraisive support.
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A new measure of motivation toward education has been developed in French, namely the Echelle de Motivation en Education (EME). The EME is based on the tenets of self-determination theory and is composed of 28 items subdivided into seven sub-scales assessing three types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected, and identified regulation), and a motivation. The purpose of this investigation was to cross-culturally validate in English the EME. The EME was translated in English through appropriate methodological procedures and completed by university students. Results revealed that the English version of the scale renamed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), has satisfactory levels of internal consistency (mean alpha value = .81) and temporal stability over a one-month period (mean test-retest correlation = .79). In addition, results of a confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL) confirmed the seven-factor structure of the AMS. Finally, gender differences obtained with the EME were basically replicated with the AMS. In sum, the present findings provide adequate support for the factorial validity and reliability of the AMS and support its use in educational research on motivation.
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Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students. Participants were 439 volunteer undergraduate students, who were primarily female (71%). Cross-sectional, survey design. Participants completed measures assessing positive social support, including emotional, informational, and tangible support; negative social exchanges; and suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts. Positive social support, particularly tangible support, and negative social exchanges were significantly predictive of greater suicidal behavior. Practical manifestations of support may buffer against suicide risk for college students, whereas conflict-based interactions may contribute to increased risk. At the institutional, parental, and peer levels, promotion of supportive relationships may be an important suicide prevention strategy.
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Previous studies in educational settings have examined the relations between students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and relevant outcomes. In most of those studies a global indicator of self-determined motivation as defined by Self-Determination Theory was created to examine the relations between motivation as a global construct, its antecedents and specific outcomes. The purpose of this paper was to extend this line of research by examining (1) whether the different types of motivation proposed by SDT can combine into distinct profiles as identified by cluster analysis and (2) the links between those profiles and objective criteria of achievement. In Study 1, motivation toward physical education was assessed at the beginning of a 10-week gymnastics teaching cycle and performance was assessed at the end of the cycle, among a sample of high school students (N= 215). Study 2 (N=210) extended the results of Study 1 by controlling the initial performance of the students, measuring the effort they exerted and recording the grade obtained. Cluster analyses revealed three motivational profiles: self-determined, non self-determined and moderate levels of both types of motivation. Path analysis showed that the self-determined profile was related to the best level of achievement. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the assessment of students' motivational profile and the consequences that those profiles may have for educational outcomes.
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A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
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Self-determination theory research has demonstrated that intrinsic and identified self-regulations are associated with successful adaptation. However, few distinctions are typically made between these regulations and their outcomes. In the present studies, the associations between intrinsic and identified motivations and outcomes of psychological well-being and academic performance are compared in educational settings. In Study 1, intrinsic self-regulation predicted psychological well-being, independent of academic performance. In contrast, identified regulation predicted academic performance. Additionally, the more that students demonstrated an identified academic regulation, the more that their psychological well-being was contingent on performance. In Study 2a, priming intrinsic self-regulation led to greater psychological well-being 10 days later. In Study 2b, an implicit measure of identified regulation predicted academic performance 6 weeks later. Results indicate the need to address important distinctions between intrinsic and identified regulations.
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A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Derived and tested a short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for reliability and validity among 1,206 well older adults (aged 65–98 yrs). The 10-item screening questionnaire, the CESD-10, showed good predictive accuracy when compared to the full-length 20-item version of the CES-D. The CESD-10 showed an expected positive correlation with poorer health status scores and a strong negative correlation with positive affect. Retest correlations for the CESD-10 were comparable to those in other studies. The CESD-10 was administered again after 12 mo. Data were based on 80% of the original sample. Scores were stable with strong correlation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social-motivational processes and socialization experiences can play a critical role in students' academic success. However, the search for specific mechanisms and processes that explain these social influences on motivation is still in its inception. The purpose of this article was to begin to articulate some of these processes in the hope that more precise explanations of influence will emerge. The 1st section of the article focuses on ways in which social-motivational processes are relevant for understanding motivation to achieve academically, using goal pursuit as a case in point. Models describing complementary, developmental, and hierarchical relations among social and task-related goals and their implications for understanding student achievement are presented. Then, ways in which students' social encounters and experiences with parents, teachers, and peers might influence their adoption and internalization of socially valued goals are examined. New directions for theoretical and empirical inquiry are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim of this study was two-fold; first, to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and adjustment to university, stress, and well-being in a sample of students during their second year of university and second, to assess the predictive value of motivational orientations in determining subsequent academic performance. Controlling for gender and age, amotivated behaviors led to worse psychosocial adjustment to university, higher levels of perceived stress, and greater psychological distress while studying. In contrast, intrinsically motivated behaviors (to know) were associated with lower levels of stress. In relation to academic performance, neither extrinsic or intrinsic motivation, nor amotivation were related to subsequent academic achievement. Both gender and entry qualifications were significant predictors of performance; women and those individuals with greater academic aptitude prior to entering university had higher marks. These results are discussed with reference to Deci and Ryan’s (1985, 1991) self-determination theory.
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This paper examines the issues emanating from the transition into a new social and cultural environment distant from the home, the context of which is provided by the transition from home to university. The study analyses the transitional process over a period of 5 months, using data obtained from in-depth semi-structured interviews and participant observation of ten first-year undergraduates who moved to study at the University of Gloucestershire in Cheltenham. It explores the mediating variables that impact place attachment and place identity during the transition from home to university. Within this context consideration is given to how participants made sense of changes in their socio-spatial environment, the ensuing problems and challenges of doing so, and how these meanings affected self-perceptions and self-evaluations. The analysis demonstrates how participant's stories of the transition evince an abiding concern with the loss of place, manifest in terms of an erosion of a sense of belonging, attachment and continuity and an undermining of home's capacity to symbolise the self. The implications of such accounts for our understanding of place attachment and identity are then explored. The paper concludes by advocating a holistic approach to our conceptualisation of place, given that place meanings are constantly being evaluated and redefined in light of changing social and physical relationships with place and between people and place.
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Self-determination theory posits that the degree to which a prosocial act is volitional or autonomous predicts its effect on well-being and that psychological need satisfaction mediates this relation. Four studies tested the impact of autonomous and controlled motivation for helping others on well-being and explored effects on other outcomes of helping for both helpers and recipients. Study 1 used a diary method to assess daily relations between prosocial behaviors and helper well-being and tested mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction. Study 2 examined the effect of choice on motivation and consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping using an experimental design. Study 3 examined the consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping for both helpers and recipients in a dyadic task. Finally, Study 4 manipulated motivation to predict helper and recipient outcomes. Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed.
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This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
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Drawing upon symbolic interactionist theory, this paper reconceptualizes social isolation as the possession of few social identities. Social identities (enacted in role relationships) give meaning and guidance to behavior, and thus should prevent anxiety, depression, and disordered conduct. The "identity accumulation hypothesis"--the more identities possessed by an actor, the less psychological distress he/she should exhibit--is tested and supported using panel data from the New Haven community survey (Myers et al., 1971). The interaction between identity accumulation and identity change is also examined, under differing assumptions regarding the structure of multiple identities. Results indicate that integrated individuals benefit more from identity gain and also suffer more from identity loss than isolated individuals. The implications of these results for social isolation theory and for previous conceptions of the effects of multiple roles are discussed.
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The Work Preference Inventory (WPI) is designed to assess individual differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Both the college student and the working adult versions aim to capture the major elements of intrinsic motivation (self-determination, competence, task involvement, curiosity, enjoyment, and interest) and extrinsic motivation (concerns with competition, evaluation, recognition, money or other tangible incentives, and constraint by others). The instrument is scored on two primary scales, each subdivided into 2 secondary scales. The WPI has meaningful factor structures, adequate internal consistency, good short-term test-retest reliability, and good longer term stability. Moreover, WPI scores are related in meaningful ways to other questionnaire and behavioral measures of motivation, as well as personality characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors.
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Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain scale (Physical Symptoms Inventory). Using meta-analysis, we combined the results of 18 studies to provide estimates of relations between our scales and other variables. Data showed moderate convergent validity for the 3 job stressor scales, suggesting some objectively to these self-reports. Norms for each scale are provided. The scales can be found at http://shell.cas.usf.edu/~pspector/scalepage.html
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This study examined the relationships among social factors, individual differences, intrinsic motivation, and effort and persistence in the physical education context using cognitive evaluation theory as a framework. Female (n = 201) and male (n = 206) high school students completed measures of motivational climate, teaching style, perceived competence, self-determination, goal orientations, and intrinsic motivation. Teachers rated the students on effort and persistence in the class activities. Hypothesized relationships among the variables were tested using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that perceived competence and goal orientations directly predicted intrinsic motivation and mediated the effects of motivational climate and teaching style on intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation directly predicted effort and persistence. Task goal orientation mediated the effects of learning climate on perceived competence and self-determination. The strongest predictors of intrinsic motivation and effort and persistence were task goal orientation perceived competence, and learning climate.
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The authors studied contributors to stress among undergraduate residence hall students at a midwestern, land grant university using a 76-item survey consisting of personal, health, academic, and environmental questions and 1 qualitative question asking what thing stressed them the most. Of 964 students selected at random, 462 (48%) responded to the survey. The authors weighted data to reflect the overall university-wide undergraduate population (55% men, 12% minority or international, and 25% freshmen). Women and US citizens experienced greater stress than did men and non-US citizens, respectively. Frequency of experiencing chronic illness, depression, anxiety disorder, seasonal affective disorder, mononucleosis, and sleep difficulties were significant stress predictors. Although alcohol use was a positive predictor, drug use was a negative predictor of stress. Both a conflict and a satisfactory relationship with a roommate, as well as a conflict with a faculty or staff member, were also significant predictors of stress.
Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development
  • D Y Dai
  • R J Sternberg
Dai, D. Y., & Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.