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Abstract

'Satiation' and 'satiety' are key terms that have come to be widely used to help understand processes involved in appetite control. Satiation is considered to be the signals or processes that bring a meal to an end, whereas satiety is the signals or processes, following the end of a meal, that inhibit eating before hunger returns. Protein is the most effective food macronutrient providing a satiating effect. Thus, formulating foods with increased protein contents can help to modulate food intake, promoting body weight loss and body weight maintenance thereafter. Mechanisms explaining protein-induced satiety are primarily nutrient-specific, but they are of course not mathematically related to satiety. Different proteins cause different nutrient-related responses of anorexigenic hormones. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release evoked by a high protein meal is stimulated by the carbohydrate content. Also, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) release is stimulated by a high-protein meal. Sensory, cognitive, post-ingestive and post-absorptive signals will determine jointly the feeling of satiation and satiety. Oral perception cues also contribute increased expectations of satiating capacity when the oral residence time and in-mouth handling are longer and more laborious. In the present review, the authors want to obtain an overview of the satiating ability of dietary protein and its role in satiation and satiety. This could be really significant in showing the food industry the path for developing protein-rich satiating foods in response to consumer demand.

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... (iso-caloric) [15]. Moreover, Anderson and Moore (2004) conclude that the protein content of a food is a strong determinant of short-term satiety [16], and Morell and Fiszman (2017) state that protein is the most effective food macronutrient providing satiating effects [11]. ...
... Significant focus in the appetite research field has been on quantifying satiety as well as measuring the satiating effects of different foods, especially foods differing in macronutrient content. Researchers attempt to determine if specific diet manipulations might obtain benefits related to satiation and satiety [4,[9][10][11]. Particularly research on proteins' effect on satiety has gained much attention [4,9,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In a research study with healthy women, high-protein-low-carbohydrate Greek yoghurt led to increased fullness and delayed subsequent eating compared to low-protein-high-carbohydrate yoghurt higher levels of specific parameters of wellness, such as satisfaction and pleasantness, than did a liquid high-carbohydrate breakfast. ...
... Researchers attempt to determine if specific diet manipulations might obtain benefits related to satiation and satiety [4,[9][10][11]. Particularly research on proteins' effect on satiety has gained much attention [4,9,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In a research study with healthy women, high-protein-low-carbohydrate Greek yoghurt led to increased fullness and delayed subsequent eating compared to low-protein-high-carbohydrate yoghurt higher levels of specific parameters of wellness, such as satisfaction and pleasantness, than did a liquid high-carbohydrate breakfast. ...
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The obesity epidemic urges exploration of several parameters that play an important role in our eating behaviours. Post-ingestive sensations can provide a more comprehensive picture of the eating experience than mere satiety measurements. This study aimed to (1) quantify the dynamics of different post-ingestive sensations after food intake and (2) study the effect of protein and carbohydrate on hedonic and post-ingestive responses. Forty-eight participants (mean age 20.4) were served a breakfast meal high in protein (HighPRO) or high in carbohydrate (HighCHO) on two separate days using a randomised controlled crossover design. Post-ingestive sensations were measured every 30 min, for 3 h post intake using visual analogue scale (VAS). Results showed a significant main effect of time for all post-ingestive sensations. HighCHO induced higher hedonic responses compared to HighPRO, as well as higher ratings for post-ingestive sensations such as Satisfaction, Food joy, Overall wellbeing and Fullness. HighPRO, on the other hand, induced higher ratings for Sweet desire post intake. The development of sensations after a meal might be important for consumers’ following food choices and for extra calorie intake. More detailed knowledge in this area could elucidate aspects of overeating and obesity.
... Studies on both obese and non-obese individuals report high protein diets to have a greater satiating effect and to better preserve fat free mass following weight loss compared to other iso-energetic macronutrient focused diets, which could help maintaining a negative energy balance [50,[62][63][64]. The strong satiating effects of high protein diets are thought to result from the combined expression of several mechanisms triggered either directly or indirectly by the increased levels of circulating amino acids. ...
... Studies have shown that dietary protein significantly increases DIT, sleeping metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate in a 36-h respiration chamber compared to isocaloric dietary carbohydrate and fat of the same volume [67,72]. One important reason underlying protein's higher thermic effect as compared to other macronutrients is that it necessitates immediate metabolic processing due to the body's inability to store it, in addition to the higher ATP cost of peptide bond synthesis and urea production [62,63]. The generally poor palatability of high protein diets has also been implicated in its food intake suppressing effect [63]. ...
... One important reason underlying protein's higher thermic effect as compared to other macronutrients is that it necessitates immediate metabolic processing due to the body's inability to store it, in addition to the higher ATP cost of peptide bond synthesis and urea production [62,63]. The generally poor palatability of high protein diets has also been implicated in its food intake suppressing effect [63]. A high protein intake has also been suggested to induce hepatic gluconeogenesis in rodents [63]. ...
Article
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Obesity is a multi-factorial disease and its prevention and management require knowledge of the complex interactions underlying it and adopting a whole system approach that addresses obesogenic environments within country specific contexts. The pathophysiology behind obesity involves a myriad of genetic, epigenetic, physiological, and macroenvironmental factors that drive food intake and appetite and increase the obesity risk for susceptible individuals. Metabolically, food intake and appetite are regulated via intricate processes and feedback systems between the brain, gastrointestinal system, adipose and endocrine tissues that aim to maintain body weight and energy homeostasis but are also responsive to environmental cues that may trigger overconsumption of food beyond homeostatic needs. Under restricted caloric intake conditions such as dieting, these processes elicit compensatory metabolic mechanisms that promote energy intake and weight regain, posing great challenges to diet adherence and weight loss attempts. To mitigate these responses and enhance diet adherence and weight loss, different dietary strategies have been suggested in the literature based on their differential effects on satiety and metabolism. In this review article, we offer an overview of the literature on obesity and its underlying pathological mechanisms, and we present an evidence based comparative analysis of the effects of different popular dietary strategies on weight loss, metabolic responses and diet adherence in obesity.
... Satiation and satiety, defined as the processes that bring a meal to an end or that delay the start of the following meal until hunger returns, respectively, are determined through sensory, cognitive, postingestive and post-absorptive signals acting from peripheral organs to the brain (Morell and Fiszman, 2017). In mammals, protein is widely recognized as the dietary nutrient providing the highest satiating effect (Morell and Fiszman, 2017). ...
... Satiation and satiety, defined as the processes that bring a meal to an end or that delay the start of the following meal until hunger returns, respectively, are determined through sensory, cognitive, postingestive and post-absorptive signals acting from peripheral organs to the brain (Morell and Fiszman, 2017). In mammals, protein is widely recognized as the dietary nutrient providing the highest satiating effect (Morell and Fiszman, 2017). Its satiating power is thought to vary depending on the type of protein, i.e. on its specific amino acid composition (Veldhorst et al., 2009), although contradictory results have been reported (Lang et al., 1998). ...
... Furthermore, satiety is usually greater when a rich food is consumed orally, and proportional to oral exposure time (i.e. solid foods induce stronger appetite-suppressing responses than similar liquid foods), than when infused into the gastrointestinal tract (Morell and Fiszman, 2017). However, these studies relate to complex foods rather than single amino acids. ...
Article
To assess the putative role of taste and pre-absorptive sensing of amino acids in food intake control in fish, we carried out an oral administration with L-leucine, L-valine, L-proline or L-glutamic acid in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Treatment with proline significantly reduced voluntary food intake at 2h and 3h after oral administration, while glutamic acid showed a less pronounced satiating effect at 3h. The mRNA expression of taste receptor subunits tas1r1, tas1r2a, tas1r2b, and tas1r3 was measured in the epithelium overlying the bony basyhyal of the fish (analogous to the tetrapod tongue) at 10, 20 or 30 min following treatment. No significant changes were observed, except for a tas1r down-regulation by valine at 30 mins. Of the downstream taste signalling genes that were analysed in parallel, plcb2 and possibly trpm5 (non-significant trend) were down-regulated 20 min after proline and glutamic acid treatment. The signal originated in the oropharyngeal and/or gastric cavity presumably relays to the brain since changes in genes involved in the regulation of food intake occurred in hypothalamus 10-30 min after oral treatment with amino acids. In particular, proline induced changes consistent with an increased anorexigenic potential in the hypothalamus. We have therefore demonstrated, for the first time in fish, that the peripheral (pre-absorptive) detection of an amino acid (L-proline), presumably by taste-related mechanisms, elicits a satiety signal that in hypothalamus is translated into changes in cellular signalling and neuropeptides regulating food intake, ultimately resulting in decreased food intake.
... On-the-site formulation, e.g., in the HSM-type concept, emphasizes the role of ingredient properties that enable instant preparation of diverse personalized foods. Protein and dietary fiber are potential ingredients for the production of healthy on-the-go snacks, which can be included at elevated levels to provide subsequent health-supporting effects [8][9][10][11]. In our previous work, we evaluated the powder properties of ingredients that allow for instant production of variable textures with protein and dietary fiber supplementation levels, justifying a nutrition claim [12]. Required ingredient properties included free powder flow, specific particle size distribution, high porosity, and rapid de-agglomeration in water. ...
... Foods 2020, 9, 1454 ...
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The aim of the study was to evaluate consumer perceptions toward customized snacks produced with a Healthy Snack Machine (HSM) prototype, at-site of the purchase and consumption. The present study had a multi-disciplinary approach including both snack product and HSM development (hardware and user interface). Snack development included both instrumental (viscosity, colloidal stability) and sensory characterization (by trained sensory (N = 10) and consumer (N = 55) panels) of spoonable and drinkable, oat- and dairy-based snack products, fortified with protein and/or dietary fiber. The protein and fiber addition reduced viscosity in spoonable products but did not affect the consistency of drinkable samples. Oat-based samples differed from dairy-based in multiple attributes in sensory profiling. In consumer sample testing, sample odor and taste were the most and least preferred aspects, respectively. In the snack machine testing, a qualitative consumer study (N = 33) showed that the HSM was easy to use, the user interface was clear, the ordering process was quick, and the participants were interested in using the HSM in the future. The snack choices (spoonable/drinkable and dairy/oat base) made by the consumers were distributed equally, but the berry-flavor was preferred over cocoa and vanilla. The most common HSM usage scenarios were “between work/school and hobbies” and “in transit from one place to another”.
... Going on a high-protein daily diet could help people lose weight and prevents weight gain rebound [66]. Protein is more satiating than carbohydrate, and is also associated with a greater diet-induced thermogenesis [67]. Previous studies have shown that high-protein intake may induce an increased level of plasma peptide tyrosine-tyrosine which is a key inhibitor of food intake in humans and rodents [68]. ...
Article
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The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise around the world. Common comorbidities associated with obesity, particularly diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease have an impact on social and financial systems. Appropriate lifestyle and behavior interventions are still the crucial cornerstone to weight loss success, but maintaining such a healthy lifestyle is extremely challenging. Abundant natural materials have been explored for their obesity treatment potential and widely used to promote the development of anti-obesity products. The weight loss segment is one of the major contributors to the overall revenue of the dietary supplements market. In this review, the anti-obesity effects of different dietary or herbal products, and their active ingredients and mechanisms of action against obesity will be discussed.
... Intervention trials with dairy products consumption, however without energy restriction, often do not lead to weight loss (Lanou & Barnard, 2008). What is accepted, is that proteins are generally regarded as more satiating than other macronutrients (Morell & Fiszman, 2017). Small peptides and amino acids (AAs) act via GCPR receptors, elevating intracellular Ca 2+ and/or cAMP concentrations, or via peptide/AA transporters, which depolarize the enteroendocrine cell membrane, triggering Ca 2+ influx and activating satiety hormones secretory mechanisms (Tolhurst, Reimann, & Gribble, 2012;Santos-Hernández, Miralles, Amigo, & Recio, 2018). ...
Article
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Satiety hormones produced in the gastrointestinal tract are key players in influencing appetite and food intake. Dairy proteins that target these gastric signals have the potential to make one feel 'fuller for longer'. While effects of whey and casein on appetite and food intake are well documented, this review focuses on individual dairy peptides. The evidence of these peptide bioactives on satiety signaling in vitro using cellular models and in vivo via intervention trials is summarized. Dairy protein hydrolysates are also reviewed for their satiating properties. How their efficacy compares to other notable food derived peptides and how this efficacy can be lost, bolstered or protected during gut transit is also summarized.
... The mechanisms by which the amino acids and peptide products of protein digestion exert their effect on food intake include controlling gut motility by slowing stomach emptying, stimulating the receptors of gut hormones and regulating amino acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis (Borreani, Llorca, Larrea, & Hernando, 2016;Morell & Fiszman, 2016). ...
Article
Increasing the protein content of a food is an effective way to deliver enhanced satiating signals to the consumer. Protein structures are related to their breakdown properties under gastric conditions and understanding their in vitro proteolysis could provide valuable information on their contribution to satiating ability. Four different yogurts were formulated with double the amount of protein by adding extra skimmed milk powder (MP), whey protein concentrate (WPC), calcium caseinate (CAS) or a blend of whey protein concentrate and calcium caseinate (MIX). Their rheological behavior and light microscopy and SDS-PAGE data were analyzed at different times of oral plus gastric in vitro digestion (0, 30, 60 and 120 min). The yogurts with added whey protein (WPC and MIX) maintained high consistency index values throughout in vitro digestion, which is related to increased gastric distension and to an extended feeling of fullness. In addition, the rapid gastric emptying of whey proteins in a more unaltered form than casein may result in a stronger increase in postprandial plasma amino acid concentration, increasing the satiating signals. Consequently, adding whey protein to the formulation of yogurts can enhance satiety, despite processing steps such as thermal treatment and fermentation.
... Therefore, an individual may not feel full after a meal, being hungry all day long [16]. In order to overcome this undesirable effect, one can introduce a high amount of proteins in the diet, as it is the most effective macronutrient that provides satiety [17], [18]. It was shown that hipocaloric and high protein diet is the most effective one to improve the weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults [19], [20], also providing satiety, as reported in [21]. ...
... A large body of research has shown that protein-enriched foods may enhance nutritional value and filling sensations (Bowen and others 2006;Chungchunlam and others 2017;Morell and Fiszman 2017). However, dietary fiber has outstanding health promotion functions; important constituents of dietary fiber are oligosaccharides (prebiotic effect) and bioactive compounds (antioxidant effect) which enhance its beneficial effects in the body (Viscione 2013;Macagnan and others 2016); particularly fiber enrichment of beverages has attracted more attention in recent years due to the appearance of new soluble fiber ingredients (Mudgil and Barak ...
Article
Various factors need to be taken into account when reformulating a food or beverage. The food components, not only macronutrients but also minor ingredients such as flavoring agents, could affect the perception of the sensory sensations, importantly their dynamic aspects, as rising and duration, which are not normally considered. The novelty of this approach is the study of the effects of the addition of several ingredients (fiber, extra milk powder, and strawberry flavoring) on the dynamic perception of a food item (strawberry shakes) using the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) technique. The occurrence and duration of the key sensory sensations (acid, natural strawberry flavor, thick, sweet, candy strawberry flavor, and milk flavor) extracted from the TDS curves were analyzed and linked to the composition factors and liking and expectations of satiety scores. For example, the addition of flavoring increased the liking scores (increments ranging from 0.3 to 1.1) that was linked to the attenuation of acid sensation; and the addition of extra milk powder increased the expectation of satiety scores (increments ranging from 0.5 to 0.7) that was linked to the perception of early thick sensation in the mouth. In general, the more complex sensory profiles the higher liking and expectations of satiety. Practical application: This work is a case study on how temporal sensory methods can contribute important information on the actual perception of food during consumption. Depending on the ingredients added these sensory properties appear at different times and with different dominance during evaluation affecting liking or fullness expectations. In consequence, the temporal sensory properties should be taken into account when designing or reformulating food.
... Because the pre-test questionnaire showed both to be more filling, perhaps preconceived notions of what foods are satiating may have influenced hunger and fullness scoring. Although protein has been found to increase satiation and satiety [60], small amounts show minimal effect [61] (our test meals were comparably low in protein). Fiber also has been found to have mixed effects on satiety [62], and likewise the amount of fiber in our test meals was low, as the grains were debranned. ...
Article
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From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 (13C)-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous) had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta (p < 0.0001). There were only minor changes due to the 13C correction. Pre-test assessment of millet couscous and rice ranked them as more filling and aligned well with postprandial hunger rankings, suggesting that a preconceived idea of rice being highly satiating may have influenced subjective satiety scoring. Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.
... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release stimulated by a high-protein meal is evoked by carbohydrate content. Indeed, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) release is activated by a high-protein meal [309]. ...
Article
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There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B-(NF-κB-) mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.
... We observed that this variant was associated with a decrease in the percentage of energy from protein and positively associated with the percentage of energy from carbohydrates before pregnancy and also associated with change in the percentage of energy from ultra-processed foods from pre-pregnancy to pregnancy. Protein is considered the most satiating macronutrient (47) ; thus, it is plausible that the A-allele of FTO was related to modifications of food cravings and appetite with increased energy intake from carbohydrates and ultraprocessed foods. ...
Article
Genetic variants associated with dietary intake may be important as factors underlying the development of obesity. We investigated the associations between the obesity candidate genes (fat mass and obesity-associated ( FTO ), melanocortin-4 receptor ( MC4R ), leptin ( LEP ) and leptin receptor) and total energy intake and percentage of energy from macronutrients and ultra-processed foods before and during pregnancy. A sample of 149 pregnant women was followed up in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A FFQ was administered at 5–13 and 30–36 weeks of gestation. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR. Associations between polymorphisms and the outcomes were investigated through multiple linear regression and ANCOVA having pre-pregnancy dietary intake as a covariate. The A-allele of FTO-rs9939609 was associated with a −6·5 % (95 % CI −12·3, −0·4) decrease in the percentage of energy from protein and positively associated with the percentage of energy from carbohydrates before pregnancy ( β =2·6; 95 % CI 0·5, 4·8) and with a 13·3 % (95 % CI 0·7, 27·5) increase in the total energy intake during pregnancy. The C-allele of MC4R-rs17782313 was associated with a −7·6 % (95 % CI −13·8, −1·0) decrease in the percentage of energy from protein, and positively associated with the percentage of energy from ultra-processed foods ( β =5·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 9·8) during pregnancy. ANCOVA results revealed changes in dietary intake from pre-pregnancy to pregnancy for FTO-rs9939609 (percentage of energy from ultra-processed foods, P =0·03), MC4R-rs17782313 (total energy intake, P =0·02) and LEP-rs7799039 (total energy intake, P =0·04; percentage of energy from protein, P =0·04). These findings suggest significant associations between FTO-rs9939609 , MC4R-rs17782313 and LEP-rs7799039 genes and the components of dietary intake in pregnant women.
... Received 12 June 2018; Received in revised form 1 November 2018; Accepted 1 November 2018 lactic acid starter cultures, leads to non-covalently driven interactions between free thiol groups and disulphide bonds favouring supramolecular bridging of the protein aggregates which eventually results in the formation of a three-dimensional gel network (Alting et al., 2000;Eissa & Khan, 2005). Owing to their sustained disintegration throughout orogastrointestinal transit, acid protein gels have shown promising potential as substrates for oral delivery of bioactive compounds and viable probiotic cells, suppressors of intragastric emptying etc. (Abaee, Mohammadian, & Jafari, 2017;Burgain, Corgneau, Scher, & Gaiani, 2015;Morell & Fiszman, 2017). ...
Article
The effects of different plant seed mucilage (PSM) extracts, namely chia seed (CSM) and flaxseed (FSM), on the kinetics of δ-glucono-lactone induced acidification and gelation phenomena of whey proteins (5% w/w WPI) were investigated. The rheological and microstructural properties of mixed whey protein-PSM (0.05–0.75% w/w) cold-set gels produced at 30 or 37 °C were studied by means of oscillatory rheology and confocal microscopy. On exceeding 0.125% of PSM, a significant reduction of the gelation time due to the formation of loosely entangled whey protein soluble aggregates was observed. The impact of PSM on the gelation rates was closely related to the PSM type and concentration. CSM addition induced a gradual reduction of maximal gelation rate over the entire concentration range tested. On the other hand, FSM conferred a steep impedance of the gelation when exceeded 0.375%, which was associated with the occurrence of segregative phase separation. Fitting the elastic modulus – gelation time data to a model adapted to the Flory-Stockmayer theory, it was demonstrated that the presence of PSM inhibits the whey protein crosslinking capacity under both tested acidification regimes, leading to the formation of shorter protein crosslinks and therefore, to lower gel stiffness. However, the formation rate of elastically active chain networks was found to be increasing for CSM and FSM contents up to 0.5 and 0.25% respectively, suggesting a synergistic acid gel structuring effect of PSM under these conditions.
... Protein in amaranth seeds is mainly in the embryo (instead of the endosperm) [80] showing also variation in their composition between species [81,82]. Proteins have been appointed as the macronutrient with the most satiating effect [83] which can cause an improvement in body composition thanks to an increased satiety [84]. ...
... The satiating role of protein has been recognized and investigated, to reduce overconsumption due to hunger and influence the energy balance (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2012;Chambers et al., 2015;Morell and Fiszman, 2017). Both quantity and protein type have been reported to affect food intake and metabolism (Morrison and Laeger, 2015). ...
Article
Several studies have linked food structure and texture to different kinetics of nutrients delivery. Changes in some nutrients' release rate, such as proteins and lipids, could induce different physiological effects (e.g., satiety effect, reduction of postprandial lipemia). Recently, experts are proposing to consider the food as a whole instead of looking at specific nutrients, as the combination of food components and the way they are structured could change their physiological effects. This review highlights recent knowledge linking the different levels of structure of dairy products to their digestion, absorption, and physiological effects. Two examples, yogurt and cheese, will be presented to showcase the contributions of dairy food structure to nutrient release rates. One study aimed to validate whether changes in the casein:whey protein ratio or addition of fiber could influence the digestion kinetics of protein and, subsequently, satiety. A static in vitro digestion model has been used on experimental yogurts differing by their casein:whey protein ratio or dietary fiber content. A human trial with healthy men (n = 20) consuming 5 isocaloric and isoproteinemic yogurt snacks before monitoring lunch intake revealed that the yogurt formulation with increased whey protein content significantly reduced subsequent energy intake compared with its control. This result was linked to slower in vitro disintegration rate and soluble protein release for yogurts with increased whey protein, whereas no difference was observed for yogurts with fiber. A second study allowed discrimination between the effects of cheese attributes on lipid release and absorption. Nine commercial cheeses were digested in vitro, and 2 were selected for the in vivo study, in which plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TAG) were followed before and after meal consumption. The in vivo study revealed that cream cheese, but not cheddar, induced a greater increase in TG concentrations at 2h than did butter; this difference was linked to their in vitro disintegration. These studies demonstrate that the dairy food matrix per se modulates foods' nutritional properties. Other studies recently published on this topic will also be included, to put in perspective the important role of the dairy food matrix on release of nutrients and their physiological effects, and how this can be compared with other foods.
... For a long time, it was believed that proteins were responsible for increased satiety [12]. Nowadays, this theory is proven by the results which demonstrate that increased protein concentration in eggs is responsible for satiety [13,14]. The same trend has been noticed in the promotion of weight loss programs for overweight or obese people regarding increasing satiety feeling with reduced energy intake [15]. ...
Article
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The food of animal origin that is the most consumed is the table egg, but laying hens treated with antibiotics can produce eggs contaminated with antibiotic residues. Residues of antibiotics may present a risk for consumer health. Keeping in mind that laying hens almost always suffer from Mycoplasma (Mycoplasma synoviae), for which they are treated with antibiotics, high-quality egg production is even harder. Our research aimed to investigate the influence of three different antibiotics compared to the tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil administered to naturally infected laying hens with M. synoviae, on antibiotic residues in eggs as well as the egg nutritive and sensory qualities. A total of 20,000 laying hens, housed in one facility and divided into four lines each consisting of 5000 hens naturally infected with M. synoviae, was used. For the antimicrobial therapy, tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) were used, respectively. As a control, tea tree essential oil (TT) was used. Based on the gained results all tetracyclines treatment residue values were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to the control treatment (TT), but without any significant differences (p > 0.05) between themselves. The results showed no differences in the nutritive and the sensory qualities of eggs between the control and the experimental treatments (p > 0.05). Keeping in mind the obtained results from this study, it can be concluded that tea tree essential oil could be successfully used as a natural antibiotic in the treatment of M. synoviae, without any adverse effects on table egg quality.
... The rate and amount of amino acid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract determine the amount and duration of satiety. Any physicochemical changes in the structure of proteins that ultimately influence postprandial aminoacidemia patterns would alter the body's satiation patterns (Morell & Fiszman, 2017). For example, whey protein has high solubility and will be digested quickly and thoroughly. ...
Article
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Dramatically rising global levels of obesity have raised consumers’ commercial and public health interest in foods that may help control appetite and weight. The satiety cascade consists of sensory, cognitive, physical, and hormonal events following food intake, preventing overeating, and the desire to eat for a long time. Functional foods can be one of the most influential factors in reducing appetite as long as effective ingredients, such as fiber and protein, are used to design these products. Also, functional foods should be designed to reduce appetite at different levels of oral processing, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine by various mechanisms. Therefore, the satiety power of functional foods depends on the type of ingredients and their amount. Because each compound has a different mechanism of action, it is recommended to use different compounds to influence satiety in functional foods. Functional foods can be one of the most influential factors in reducing appetite as long as effective ingredients, such as fiber and protein, are used to design these products. Also, functional foods should be designed to reduce appetite at different levels of oral processing, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine by various mechanisms. Therefore, the satiety power of functional food depends on the type of ingredients and their amount. Because each compound has a different mechanism of action, it is recommended to use different compounds to influence satiety in functional foods.
... This improved gel structure might have increased the hardness of the gels to resist digestion conditions as gel structures are also known to hinder the digestion of proteins (Luo et al., 2015). Furthermore, it is known that protein-containing diets promote satiety, and therefore, higher soy protein concentration of the gels could help to feel full for longer times (Wilde, 2009;Greco et al., 2017), since protein-rich foods increase the concentration of anorexigenic hormones which are known to inhibit feeding or decrease the orexigenic hormones that promote feeding (Morell & Fiszman, 2017). In our case, after digestion, hardness values did not change for some gels (P0_0, P1_35, P1_0, all P2.5 samples) and increased slightly for P0_35 samples. ...
Article
Confectionery gels are known to be high caloric products due their high sugar content. Changing their formulations by substituting the sugar with alternative natural sweeteners and functionalizing them the addition of proteins has gained attention. Understanding the rate of digestion of these products is also important for selecting the appropriate formulation. In this study, in vitro gastric digestion behaviour of the gels formulated with D‐allulose, a low‐calorie rare sugar, soy protein isolate (SPI) (1%, 2.5%) and pectin (4%) were examined. Digestion decreased the hardness of the gels (p<0.05), but, at 2.5% SPI concentration. Moisture content of the samples increased after digestion and presence of SPI induced higher water uptake. At the end of 2 h of digestion, 1% soy protein isolate containing gels had the highest brix values showing that after a certain concentration, soy protein isolate governed the system due to improved soy protein‐pectin interaction or due to improved gelation with Maillard reaction. NMR relaxometry experiments further confirmed the changes in the gels with the increase in T2 values. Power law model was fitted for the dissolution behaviour using the oBrix values of the digestion medium. Dissolution of sugar and the contribution of SPI to the gel network were clearly observed in SEM images. Results showed that these gels had the potential to slow down the emptying rate of stomach thus could lead to ‘fullness’ for a longer time.
... The role of protein as the most satiating macronutrient, compared to carbohydrate and fat, has been recognized (Morell & Fiszman, 2017). Luscombe-Marsh et al. (2009) speculated that, under the condition of protein-rich preload, there is a biphasic effect of MSG and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP-5) on appetite, which can increase food palatability and stimulate the feeling of hunger. ...
Article
Studies have shown that monosodium glutamate (MSG) can enhance satiety and reduce appetite among infants and adults. In a multi-ethnic country such as Malaysia, it is also important to consider whether ethnic variations will influence the effects of MSG on appetite regulation. Thus, this crossover study aimed to investigate the effects of MSG on the subjective appetite and subsequent energy intake among Malaysian children from the three major ethnic groups, namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians. A total of 92 participants aged 9–11 years from the three ethnic groups were recruited for this study. A cup of low-energy vegetable preload soup (100g, with MSG or without MSG) was served to each of the participants on the day of the study, followed by an ad libitum meal 45 min later. Appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and desire to snack were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS) before the preload, after the preload, before the ad libitum meal and after the ad libitum meal. Results showed that the subjective appetite of the children did not differ between preload conditions (MSG+ or MSG-) throughout the study. Malay, Chinese and Indian children had similar total energy intake during the subsequent meal after the consumption of preload soups. In conclusion, the addition of MSG to low energy preload neither influenced the perception of appetite nor total energy intake in a subsequent ad libitum meal among children. No difference attributable to the participants’ ethnicity was observed. Future studies should be conducted to examine whether repeated ingestion of MSG-containing protein-rich preload has potential longer-term effects on appetite and subsequent meal intakes among children from different ethnicities.
... In this regard, it is worth considering that the satiating property as well as the appetite regulation associated to dairy food consumption have been recently associated with the prevention and/or treatment of overweight and obesity, both conditions that negatively affect bone health and development [18][19][20]. Proteins are the nutrients with the most satiating properties [21], and dairy proteins were associated with the appetite and body weight control [22]. Both CN and WP are involved in the satiating power of dairy foods [23]. ...
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Infant biscuits (IBs) are part of complementary feeding from weaning up to the age of five years. They normally contain bovine milk proteins, which can influence bone development. This potential effect was investigated using experimental baked IBs, which were prepared from doughs containing different type of dairy proteins: milk protein concentrate (IB1), whey protein isolate (IB2), and skimmed milk powder (IB3). Dairy protein-free (IB0) and gluten-free (IB4) biscuits were also formulated. The in vitro gastrointestinal digests of IBs (IBDs) were tested on a co-culture of Caco-2/HT-29 70/30 cells as an in vitro model of human small intestine. None of the IBDs influenced cell viability and monolayer integrity, while IBD0 and IBD4 increased Peptide-YY production. The basolateral contents of Transwell plates seeded with Caco-2/HT-29 70/30 co-culture, mimicking metabolized IBDs (MIBDs), were tested on Saos-2 cells, an in vitro model of human osteoblast-like cells. After incubation, MIBD0, lacking dairy proteins, decreased the cell viability, while MIBD2, containing whey protein isolate, increased both the viability and the number of cells. MIBD2 and MIBD4, the latter containing both casein and whey proteins, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone differentiation marker. These results highlight that IBs containing dairy proteins positively affect bone development.
... The anti-obesity effect of CSSF can be attributed to their protein and dietary fiber compounds. In this regard, protein is known to be more satiating than carbohydrate and is also associated with a greater diet-induced thermogenesis [20] this is why the intake of a high protein daily diet may help people lose weight and prevents weight gain rebound [21]. This ability of protein to lose weight may be related to the inducing of an increase in the level of plasma peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, which is a key inhibitor of food intake in humans and rodents [22]. ...
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Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of Cannabis sativa seed Flour (CSSF) on obese mice. Methods: The experiment process was carried out in 8 weeks. In this time, three groups of animals were adopted: High caloric diet control group (HCD), group treated with 100 mg/kg of CSSF, group treated with 200 mg/kg of CSSF, and normal diet control group (ND). Then, the histopathological and biochemical parameters analysis has been realized at the end of the experiment. Results: As a result, body weight gain, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue decreased in the CSSF (Cannabis sativa seed Flour) group in both doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) compared to the HCD. CSSF lowered serum glucose level elevated by HCD. For lipid profiles, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) significantly decreased in the CSSF group. The histopathological results of this study showed a regenerative effect of CSSF on the kidney and liver tissues. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present study that CSSF can be used as a natural anti-obesity agent.
... The protein content may be another confusing aspect for consumers. Due to either their activity on muscle protein anabolism (Alemán-Mateo et al., 2012) or their satiating capacity with a lower calorie content than fats (Morell and Fiszman, 2017), many consumers seek information on protein content on food labels. In the present study, some chocolate bar sweets highlighted information about protein contents on the labels. ...
Article
The nutritional characteristics of chocolate products may be associated with very different, and even opposite, health effects. In the present study, we collected information on chocolate products on the Polish market to assess: (i) nutritional characteristics; (ii) ingredient order; (iii) the presence of nutritional claims on the label; (iv) packaging characteristics; and (v) any association between price and cocoa contents. A total of 220 bars of solid chocolate (90% with at least 5 ingredients) and 147 chocolate bar sweets (90% with at least 6 ingredients) were evaluated. Mean values for calorie, total lipid, saturated fatty acid, carbohydrate, protein, sugar and salt contents were significantly different between the bars of solid chocolate and chocolate bar sweets, although the values were widely dispersed in both categories. Some aspects of food labelling may result in confusion for the consumer (such as “vegan” claims). A weak (r = 0.459), although significant (p < 0.05), association was found between cocoa content and price (€/kg) in bars of solid chocolate, although no association was found in chocolate bar sweets. Thus, depending on chocolate product selection, nutritional benefits may be rather different: an aspect not evident to most consumers based on current chocolate bar labelling.
... Moreover, we also found that sugar content was negatively associated with other nutritional indicators, namely fiber, and protein. This is doubly detrimental, as these products have higher amounts of sugar along with less fiber and protein, which are nutrients that contribute to satiety, glucose control, and weight management [41][42][43]. Salt was also negatively associated with sugar content. ...
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Excessive free-sugar intake has become highly prevalent in numerous countries, and Portugal is not the exception. One product category that contributes to the daily intake of free sugars is breakfast cereals. In the current work, we identified 289 exemplars from two major retailers in Portugal and collected information on their nutritional profile (e.g., sugar, salt, fiber per 100 g), price, packaging features, type of food claims present (e.g., statements about the composition, sensory features, the origin of the product), and ingredients list. Overall, the sugar content of breakfast cereals was high (Mean = 19.9 g), and less than 10% of the products complied with the current national guidelines (i.e., 5 g of sugar per 100 g of product). Sugar (or other sugar sources) was listed in the top three ingredients for over 85% of the products. On average, each product included about four claims (Mean = 3.9), and sugar content was lower when the claims were related to the product composition. Critically, the sugar content was particularly high for children-oriented products (Mean = 26.4 g). Correlation analysis showed that breakfast cereals with higher sugar content also were cheaper and had lower quantities of fiber, proteins, and salt. Our findings suggest the need to implement strategies to reduce sugar in this product category (e.g., incentivize manufacturers to reformulate products). Also, our results may inform strategies aimed at promoting consumers’ awareness about the sugar content in breakfast cereals and other processed foods, facilitating healthier decision-making.
Thesis
The hedonic regulation of eating behavior has been shown to be altered in case of obesity, notably the chemo-sensory functions and the reward system. Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, patients do not all respond the same way to this treatment and some of them might regain weight after a certain time. It is essential to promote an adapted balanced diet for the long-term weight maintenance of bariatric surgery patients. A better understanding of the postoperative modifications of food choices and preferences will enable clinicians to give personalized nutritional advice in the context of a precision bariatric medicine. This doctoral work aims to advance this knowledge, by responding to four objectives. The first objective was to synthesize the evidence for the link between bariatric surgery in relation to changes in food preferences by a systematic and meta-analytical approach. With an original approach considering various methods to assess food preferences our systemic analysis of the evidence showed a change in food preferences in patients with obesity who undergo bariatric surgery at specific times during their weight loss trajectory. The second objective was to study the links between food preferences, taste, smell and the weight loss success of bariatric surgery. To this aim, we used an online questionnaire in a cohort of bariatric surgery patients. We found that food preferences were different between patients with and without sensory alterations. For those who experienced sensory alterations, there was a decreased preference for unhealthy foods. We also found that food preferences were different between patients in a weight loss success and failure. Of importance, a higher appreciation for green vegetables was associated with a weight loss success. The third objective of this thesis was to adapt and use a behavioral computerized task in a clinical setting, to compare food reward (i.e., ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’) between patients with unoperated obesity, a sleeve gastrectomy and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Our results showed that the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire could be clinically relevant to identify post-operative alterations in food reward and to guide caregivers to give personalized advice in patients. Especially, we found that ‘liking’ for a large range of food categories was lower among post-operative patients compared to non-operative patients with obesity while ‘wanting’ was lower among post-operative patients for certain food categories only, including highly palatable foods. The fourth objective of this thesis was to develop a protocol to study food preferences after bariatric surgery in a more realistic environment. We designed a study using a buffet meal in an experimental restaurant, which will be used to study differences in terms of diet quality, food intake and microstructure of the meal between patients with obesity, with and without a bariatric surgery. This doctoral work is original as it used a multidisciplinary approach and a diversity of methods to move forward knowledge about the issue of modifications of food preferences in the context of bariatric surgery. It also highlighted the importance of a personalized nutritional strategy for the bariatric surgery patients.
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Fibers and proteins act as the most important compounds in reducing appetite and inducing satiety. Satiety can be stimulated much more effectively by consuming a combination of fibers and proteins. Therefore, modifying the formulation of snack products to increase fiber and protein is a good strategy to control appetite and prevent overconsumption. Herein, the proteins used for formulation included calcium caseinate, whey protein, and albumin. Fibers also included inulin, oligofructose, glucomannan, and apple fiber. A D-optimal design was used to optimize fiber and protein-rich snacks by evaluating texture and sensory parameters in the current study. Model selection was based on the significance of the model (p<0.05) and components (p<0.1) and non-significance of the lack of fit. Then, rheological properties were investigated for different formulations in vitro gastric digestion. Also, the microstructure and protein digestion status of the optimized product were assessed. A combination of 30% of protein and 10% of fiber was selected as the optimized sample based on evaluation of textural and sensory characteristics. Proteins played an important role in increasing springiness, cohesiveness, and fibers and increased hardness, resilience, and chewiness by increasing water absorption. Mixing of fibers and proteins prolonged protein digestion during in vitro gastric digestion and reduced the effect of gastric enzymes on the product. In general, a combination of fiber and protein can increase gastric viscosity, delay gastric emptying, and cause a sense of satiety in a person for a longer time.
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This study aimed to understand the powder properties of ingredients (whey and potato protein isolates, fine and coarse non-digestible maltodextrin, instant waxy maize and potato starches) that allow point of consumption machine-production of protein and fibre fortified products of varying consistency. Common characteristics of ingredients suitable for instant food preparation and use included free powder flow (avalanche angles of 42.2–46.4°), large particle size with narrow size distribution (d50 = 177–309 μm), high porosity and rapid de-agglomeration into primary particles in contact with water. Instant production of liquid (<0.1 Pa s) and semi-solid (1–4 Pa s) model products enriched with high protein and/or high dietary fibre, at concentrations justifying nutrition claim, was demonstrated. Texture of semi-solid products was modulated with waxy maize starch that appeared as densely packed swollen granules in a solution of non-viscous whey protein and/or non-digestible maltodextrin.
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Aim The aim of this study was to identify the effect of consumption of milk and pistachio as snacks on satiety, body fat percent, and macronutrient intake in overweight or obese women. Methods In this randomized cross-over trial, sixty overweight and obese women with mean age of 24.42 ± 4.2 years participated. Each Intervention lasted two one-month periods with a 6-day washout period. A visual analogue scale was used to score satiety. To calculate energy intake (macronutrient), a food record was obtained. Body fat percentage was calculated using the Deurenberg formula. Results At the end of the study, there was not any statistical difference in energy intake at each snack groups (p-value>0.05). Body fat percent for women in the milk group significantly decreased (p-value = 0.001). There was not any statistical difference in the area under the curve between pistachio and milk snack groups (226.13±54.5 and 225.16±47.48, respectively, p-value=0.930). Conclusion The consumption of pistachio and milk as a daily mid-morning snack for a month has a similar effect on the maintenance of the satiety status in obese and overweight people but it does not have any beneficial effects on calorie intake.
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This study aimed to evaluate the physical-chemical characteristics and the viability of lactic acid bacteria during the fermentation process of the yogurt and after the freeze-dried process, in addition to testing three thickener formulations for the rehydration of the yogurt powder. During the fermentation process, the production of lactic acid and the growth of lactic acid bacteria were accompanied. Before and after freeze-dried process, yogurt was analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and viable lactic acid bacteria. After lyophilization, three thickener formulations were tested to evaluate the rehydration of powdered yogurt. At the end of the fermentation process, it was verified that the lactic acid bacteria grew to reach 7.8.107 UFC.g-1 and the acidity obtained was 9.27 g.L-1. The viable lactic acid bacteria count of freeze-dried and non-freeze-dried yogurt was 5.6.107 CFU.g-1 and 7.8.107 CFU.g-1, respectively. Non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried yogurts showed a content of 20.8% and 21.0% carbohydrates, 4.0% and 3.6% protein and 3.7% and 2.7% lipids, respectively. The combination of thickeners that provided viscosity similar to commercial yogurts was the guar gum, pectin and maltodextrin mix. Thus, it was possible to verify that the freeze-drying process maintains the physical-chemical characteristics and viability of lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the developed yogurt presented easy reconstitution at the time of consumption.
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The objective of this study was to explore the drivers of choice and perceptions of healthiness that specific ingredient or energy content information displayed on the front‐of‐pack label of cereal bars triggers among different groups of consumers. The participants (18 to 50 years old), classified as exercisers (n = 103, 52 women) or nonexercisers (n = 101, 51 women), completed a questionnaire and then rated their interest using images of cereal bars that varied in four characteristics (“With fruit,” “With chocolate,” “High protein,” and calorie content). Conjoint analysis showed that the most important motives were associated with the convenience, pleasure/indulgence and liking dimensions, which did not differ between groups. These were followed by two other motives introduced in this study: energy/physical activity and satiety, in which the exercisers showed a distinctively higher level of interest than the nonexercisers. Chocolate and a low calorie content were the outstanding drivers of interest, at similar levels for both groups. A high protein content claim increased the interest of all participants, but more so for exercisers and for men. Fruit had a low impact on interest, which was only significant for women. These results indicate that front‐of‐pack label information influences choice in a distinctive way for some targeted population groups. Practical Application This study contributes knowledge about the impact that front‐of‐pack label information about certain ingredients and the energy content has on the motives and drivers for snack choices and perceptions of healthiness. The results contribute interesting results on the behavior of some consumer segments, in particular, exercisers and people involved in fitness activities, who are supposed to have special dietary needs.
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Ghrelin is a gastric hormone with multiple physiological functions, including the stimulation of food intake and adiposity. It is well established that circulating ghrelin levels are closely associated with feeding patterns, rising strongly before a meal and lowering upon food intake. However, the mechanisms underlying the modulation of ghrelin secretion are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss current knowledge on the circadian oscillation of circulating ghrelin levels, the neural mechanisms stimulating fasting ghrelin levels and peripheral mechanisms modulating postprandial ghrelin levels. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of targeting the ghrelin pathway is discussed in the context of the treatment of various metabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, diabetic gastroparesis and Prader‐Willi syndrome. Moreover, eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge‐eating disorder are also discussed.
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The use of ketogenic diets (KDs) for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in weight-loss programs is long established, but high-quality data supporting them are limited and they remain controversial. In recent years there has been a trend towards individual, patient-centered medical nutrition therapy in which KD regimens have been adapted to the specific needs of individuals. Every patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or T2DM should have a dietary regimen that is specific to their needs in addition to their continuing medications, and KD may have an important role in this aspect of disease management. KD regimens consist of low carbohydrate intake (<5%) with high fat (70-75%) and moderate protein (20-25%). The low carbohydrate content assists with weight loss and glycemic control while the relatively high protein content can increase satiety and thus assist adherence to the diet, reduce food intake, and decrease weight. These factors are beneficial in individuals with reduced insulin secretion or reduced response to insulin. In KDs, the oxidation of fat mass in the body is desirable but leads to ketone body generation and potentially to ketosis. This and raised levels of free fatty acids, can cause negative cardiovascular, renal, bone mineral, liver, and other effects, which discourage some physicians from recommending this diet for their patients. The KD, however, has reported positive neurological effects and is used in the treatment of epilepsy and some other neurological conditions in addition to weight-loss and diabetes regimens. It is clear that more studies are needed to provided better evidence in support or against a KD in diabetes therapy. Until this is available, KD use is likely to remain a matter of opinion and its true potential value, particularly in T2DM management, may not be realized.
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While some studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on the activities of protease in Nile tilapia, little information exists about these enzymes and hormones regulating appetite at the molecular level. Therefore, we investigated the performance, protease activities and expression of genes related to protein intake and digestion in juvenile tilapia fed with diets containing different levels of crude protein (CP): 25.14, 31.12, 36.60 and 42.05%. The fish were fed to apparent satiation three times a day for 65 days. The animal performance and the retention rates of protein and energy linearly decreased with an increase in dietary CP content. A positive quadratic effect of CP on pepsinogen was observed, although the acid protease activity was not affected. Trypsinogen and trypsin activity in the intestine presented similar patterns, showing a positive quadratic response to dietary protein levels. A linear increase in intestinal chymotrypsinogen expression was observed, but the activity of chymotrypsin showed a positive quadratic response. In addition, the expression of cholecystokinin (cck) and peptide yy (pyy) increased linearly with increasing CP. Dietary protein modulates the activity of alkaline proteases as well as the expression of these protease genes and hormones involved in appetite regulation. These changes can help expand our understanding of feed intake and digestion control, thereby improving feed formulations for this species.
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Background: Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective: Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro(®), obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design: A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMI<30 kg/m(2)), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose-effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (-300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results: Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions: Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.
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The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management.
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Free-feeding animals often face complex nutritional choices that require the balancing of competing nutrients, but the mechanisms driving macronutrient-specific food intake are poorly defined. A large number of behavioral studies indicate that both the quantity and quality of dietary protein can markedly influence food intake and metabolism, and that dietary protein intake may be prioritized over energy intake. This review focuses on recent progress in defining the mechanisms underlying protein-specific feeding. Considering the evidence that protein powerfully regulates both food intake and metabolism, uncovering these protein-specific mechanisms may reveal new molecular targets for the treatment of obesity and diabetes while also offering a more complete understanding of how dietary factors shape both food intake and food choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Foods that generate strong satiety sensations have obvious benefits for weight management. This review builds on the understanding that a food's satiating power is dependent on the amount of protein, carbohydrate, fat and fibre it contains by examining evidence that the consumer's sensory and cognitive appraisal of the food is also important. It is concluded that numerous features of a food product can be manipulated to enhance the consumer's experience of satiety but the combination of these features will ultimately determine its effect on appetite control. Taking this integrated approach to satiety will optimise the development of high satiety foods.
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Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.
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We compared postprandial satiety and plasma amino acid, insulin, and glucose concentrations in six lean male subjects after the ingestion of three types of protein (beef, chicken and fish). Satiety was greater after the fish meal (P < 0.01). The observed difference in satiety could be correlated with two of the putative satiety signals measured in this study: 1) serotoninergic activity, due to differences observed in the postprandial tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratio; and 2) digestibility, reflected in the significantly (P < 0.05) longer time it took for the plasma amino acid concentrations to peak after the fish meal. Correlations between dietary and plasma amino acid concentrations were determined and good correlations (r - 0.90) were observed for essential amino acids other than lysine and tryptophan. There were no differences in insulin or glucose concentrations in subjects after consuming each of the three meals. Whether other differences that we observed, such as increased concentrations of taurine and methionine following the fish meal, had any effect on satiety or were of biological significance is not known. J. Nutr. 122: 467-472, 1992.
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The speed of absorption of dietary amino acids by the gut varies according to the type of ingested dietary protein. This could affect postprandial protein synthesis, breakdown, and deposition. To test this hypothesis, two intrinsically 13C-leucine-labeled milk proteins, casein (CAS) and whey protein (WP), of different physicochemical properties were ingested as one single meal by healthy adults. Postprandial whole body leucine kinetics were assessed by using a dual tracer methodology. WP induced a dramatic but short increase of plasma amino acids. CAS induced a prolonged plateau of moderate hyperaminoacidemia, probably because of a slow gastric emptying. Whole body protein breakdown was inhibited by 34% after CAS ingestion but not after WP ingestion. Postprandial protein synthesis was stimulated by 68% with the WP meal and to a lesser extent (+31%) with the CAS meal. Postprandial whole body leucine oxidation over 7 h was lower with CAS (272 ± 91 μmol⋅kg−1) than with WP (373 ± 56 μmol⋅kg−1). Leucine intake was identical in both meals (380 μmol⋅kg−1). Therefore, net leucine balance over the 7 h after the meal was more positive with CAS than with WP (P < 0.05, WP vs. CAS). In conclusion, the speed of protein digestion and amino acid absorption from the gut has a major effect on whole body protein anabolism after one single meal. By analogy with carbohydrate metabolism, slow and fast proteins modulate the postprandial metabolic response, a concept to be applied to wasting situations.
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Previous research suggests that increasing beverage protein content enhances subsequent satiety, but whether this effect is entirely attributable to post-ingestive effects of protein or is partly caused by the distinct sensory characteristics imparted by the presence of protein remains unclear. To try and discriminate nutritive from sensory effects of added protein, we contrasted effects of three higher-energy (about 1·2 MJ) and one lower-energy (LE: 0·35 MJ) drink preloads on subsequent appetite and lunch intake. Two higher-energy drinks had 44 % of energy from protein, one with the sensory characteristics of a juice drink (HP - , low-sensory protein) and the second a thicker and creamier (HP+, high-sensory protein) drink. The high-carbohydrate preload (HC+, high-sensory carbohydrate) was matched for thickness and creaminess to the HP+ drink. Participants (healthy male volunteers, n 26) consumed significantly less at lunch after the HP+(566 g) and HC+(572 g) than after HP - (623 g) and LE (668 g) drinks, although the compensation for drink energy accounted for only 50 % of extra energy at best. Appetite ratings indicated that participants felt significantly less hungry and more full immediately before lunch in HP+ and HC+ groups compared with LE, with HP - being intermediate. The finding that protein generated stronger satiety in the context of a thicker creamier drink (HP+ but not HP - ) and that an isoenergetic carbohydrate drink (HC+), matched in thickness and creaminess to the HP+ drink, generated the same pattern of satiety as HP+, both suggest an important role for these sensory cues in the development of protein-based satiety.
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Body-weight management requires a multifactorial approach. Recent findings suggest that an elevated protein intake seems to play a key role herein, through (i) increased satiety related to increased diet-induced thermogenesis; (ii) its effect on thermogenesis; (iii) body composition; and (iv) decreased energy-efficiency, all of which are related to protein metabolism. Supported by these mechanisms, relatively larger weight loss and subsequent stronger body-weight maintenance have been observed. Increased insulin sensitivity may appear, but it is unclear whether this is due to weight loss or type of diet. The phenomenon of increased satiety is utilized in reduced energy-intake diets, mainly in the ad libitum condition, whereby sustained satiety is achieved with sustained absolute protein intake in grams, despite lower energy intake. Elevated thermogenesis and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) appear to play a role in high-protein induced satiety. Under conditions of weight maintenance, a high-protein diet shows a reduced energy efficiency related to the body composition of the body weight regained, that is, in favor of fat-free mass. Indeed, during body-weight loss, as well as during weight regain, a high-protein diet preserves or increases fat-free mass and reduces fat mass and improves the metabolic profile. In the short-term this may be supported by a positive protein and a negative fat balance, through increased fat oxidation. As protein intake is studied under various states of energy balance, absolute and relative protein intake needs to be discriminated. In absolute grams, a normal protein diet becomes a relatively high-protein diet in negative energy balance and at weight maintenance. Therefore, 'high protein negative energy balance diets' aim to keep the grams of proteins ingested at the same level as consumed at energy balance, despite lower energy intakes.
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Purpose: To determine the relative impact of three iso-caloric breakfast meals, of variable composition, on satiety, hunger and subsequent intake of energy. Methods: In a three-way, crossover design, 30 healthy men (age of 21.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI, 23.1 ± 2.7 kg/m²) were randomised to one of three test breakfasts, on three separate occasions, separated by 1 week. The breakfasts consisted of eggs on toast, cereal (cornflakes) with milk and toast, or a croissant and orange juice. Subjective ratings of satiety, hunger, fullness and desire to eat were recorded at 30-min intervals by electronic visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy intake was assessed by weighed food intake at an ad libitum lunch and evening meal. Results: Participants showed increased satiety, less hunger and a lower desire to eat after the breakfast containing eggs relative to the cereal (p < 0.02), and croissant-based meals (p < 0.0001). The egg breakfast was also accompanied by a significantly lower intake of energy relative to the croissant- and cereal-based breakfasts at the buffet lunch and evening meal, respectively, 1,284 ± 464 (egg) versus 1,442 ± 426 kcal (croissant), p = 0.03, 1,407 ± 379 (cereal) at lunch and 1,899 ± 729 (egg) versus 2,214 ± 620 kcal (cereal), p = 0.02, 2,047 ± 712 (croissant) at evening meal. The breakfast meal with the greatest effect on satiety and subsequent intake of energy was distinct in having the highest protein and lowest carbohydrate content relative to the other two breakfasts. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence to support the importance of food choice at breakfast as a means of increasing satiety in the morning and reducing energy intake at lunch.
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The essential (indispensable) amino acids (IAA) are neither synthesized nor stored in metazoans, yet they are the building blocks of protein. Survival depends on availability of these protein precursors, which must be obtained in the diet; it follows that food selection is critical for IAA homeostasis. If even one of the IAA is depleted, its tRNA becomes quickly deacylated and the levels of charged tRNA fall, leading to disruption of global protein synthesis. As they have priority in the diet, second only to energy, the missing IAA must be restored promptly or protein catabolism ensues. Animals detect and reject an IAA-deficient meal in 20 min, but how? Here, we review the molecular basis for sensing IAA depletion and repletion in the brain's IAA chemosensor, the anterior piriform cortex (APC). As animals stop eating an IAA-deficient meal, they display foraging and altered choice behaviors, to improve their chances of encountering a better food. Within 2 h, sensory cues are associated with IAA depletion or repletion, leading to learned aversions and preferences that support better food selection. We show neural projections from the APC to appetitive and consummatory motor control centers, and to hedonic, motivational brain areas that reinforce these adaptive behaviors.
Article
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The present review summarises current knowledge and recent findings on the modulation of appetite by dietary protein, via both peripheral and central mechanisms. Of the three macronutrients, proteins are recognised as the strongest inhibitor of food intake. The well-recognised poor palatability of proteins is not the principal mechanism explaining the decrease in high-protein (HP) diet intake. Consumption of a HP diet does not induce conditioned food aversion, but rather experience-enhanced satiety. Amino acid consumption is detected by multiple and redundant mechanisms originating from visceral (during digestion) and metabolic (inter-prandial period) sources, recorded both directly and indirectly (mainly vagus-mediated) by the central nervous system (CNS). Peripherally, the satiating effect of dietary proteins appears to be mediated by anorexigenic gut peptides, principally cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY. In the CNS, HP diets trigger the activation of noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and melanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Additionally, there is evidence that circulating leucine levels may modulate food intake. Leucine is associated with neural mechanisms involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), energy sensors active in the control of energy intake, at least in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, HP diets inhibit the activation of opioid and GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, and thus inhibit food intake by reducing the hedonic response to food, presumably because of their low palatability. Future studies should concentrate on studying the adaptation of different neural circuits following the ingestion of protein diets.
Article
Background: Ad libitum, low-carbohydrate diets decrease caloric intake and cause weight loss. It is unclear whether these effects are due to the reduced carbohydrate content of such diets or to their associated increase in protein intake. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that increasing the protein content while maintaining the carbohydrate content of the diet lowers body weight by decreasing appetite and spontaneous caloric intake. Design: Appetite, caloric intake, body weight, and fat mass were measured in 19 subjects placed sequentially on the following diets: a weight-maintaining diet (15% protein, 35% fat, and 50% carbohydrate) for 2 wk, an isocaloric diet (30% protein, 20% fat, and 50% carbohydrate) for 2 wk, and an ad libitum diet (30% protein, 20% fat, and 50% carbohydrate) for 12 wk. Blood was sampled frequently at the end of each diet phase to measure the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin. Results: Satiety was markedly increased with the isocaloric high-protein diet despite an unchanged leptin AUC. Mean (±SE) spontaneous energy intake decreased by 441 ± 63 kcal/d, body weight decreased by 4.9 ± 0.5 kg, and fat mass decreased by 3.7 ± 0.4 kg with the ad libitum, high-protein diet, despite a significantly decreased leptin AUC and increased ghrelin AUC. Conclusions: An increase in dietary protein from 15% to 30% of energy at a constant carbohydrate intake produces a sustained decrease in ad libitum caloric intake that may be mediated by increased central nervous system leptin sensitivity and results in significant weight loss. This anorexic effect of protein may contribute to the weight loss produced by low-carbohydrate diets.
Book
With growing concerns about the rising incidence of obesity, there is interest in understanding how the human appetite contributes to energy balance and how it might be affected by the foods we consume, as well as other cultural and environmental factors. Satiation, satiety and the control of food intake provides a concise and authoritative overview of these areas. Part one introduces the concepts of satiation and satiety and discusses how these concepts can be quantified. Chapters in part two focus on biological factors of satiation and satiety before part three moves on to explore food composition factors. Chapters in part four discuss hedonic, cultural and environmental factors of satiation and satiety. Finally, part five explores public health implications and evaluates consumer understanding of satiation and satiety and related health claims.
Article
With the ever-increasing obesity problem comes the search for effective dietary strategies to either prevent weight gain, promote weight loss, or to maintain a lower body weight. High-protein diets seem to provide a tool to promote appetite control and hence body weight control. Dietary strategies that can help reduce hunger and promote fullness are beneficial, since these are limiting factors for success. It is still not clear exactly the amount (g or %), type of protein (vegetable, diary or animal) that is required to promote satiety, thus these mechanisms will be a focus for future research.
Article
Consumers ore looking for new mainstream products to deliver a satiety benefit. Manufacturers' strategies to tackle the obesity challenge require an approach based less on consumer sacrifice or willpower, more on maintaining enjoyment through incorporation of efficacious ingredients, such as whey protein. It is imperative that a protein satiety product delivers all aspects of the consumption experience - taste, convenience, texture and packaging. Incorporation of protein into mainstream beverages presents particular challenges, of which taste is the most important: the protein must have no impact on an existing formulation. In snack bars the challenges are to find the best balance between taste, texture, processibility and hardening. Fonterra has developed new, highly functional whey protein ingredients that permit high levels of protein incorporation into mainstream bars, and protein incorporation into near water products without compromising the clean, refreshing taste.
Article
The aim of this book is to provide an updated, detailed and comprehensive account of the field through a cutting-edge analysis by leading experts in the area. To achieve this, the book is divided into three parts, focusing on the peptides operating both centrally and peripherally at the same time as providing an integral and integrated perspective of the multifaceted and complex regulation of energy balance homeostasis. Part I contains three chapters covering the central pathways involved in the control of food intake. The first of these is devoted to the orexigenic neuropeptides, i.e. those that increase or stimulate appetite, while the second is a description of the peptides with anorexigenic effects, i.e. those that decrease or stop food intake. Since this is a rapidly evolving field, the third chapter concentrates on emerging and newly identified factors and their interaction with the already well-known peptides. Part II encompasses six chapters that deal with the peripheral signals participating in energy homeostasis and their control in health and disease. Regulation of body weight was once considered a simple feedback control system in which the hypothalamus modulated food intake and energy expenditure to compensate for fluctuations in body weight. The existing body of evidence has fostered the transition from the classic adipostat, a sensor of body adiposity that informs the hypothalamus about the abundance of energy stores, to a more dynamic and multifactorial model including signals emerging from several different organs such as the gut, the liver, the pancreas and the vascular system. The underlying molecular mechanisms by which adipose tissue enlargement and the subsequent increase in adipokines contribute to the pathophysiological events in the gastrointestinal, hepatic, pancreatic, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and immune systems are now beginning to be better understood and are covered in detail in this section of the book. Part III contains six chapters providing an integrative approach to current knowledge in energy balance regulation. Adipose tissue biology and the hierarchy of the neural circuitry controlling energy homeostasis deserve special attention, as does the relevance of food reward signals and the links between the homeostatic and hedonic systems. Specific chapters address the available advances in technology to analyse these complex issues, including functional neuroimaging and the whole range of the 'omics' strategies. The final chapter takes a fresh and innovative look at future potential approaches to obesity management.
Article
As a food is eaten, the pleasantness and desire to eat that food decline relative to other foods that are not eaten. This change in pleasantness and desire is described as sensory-specific satiety (SSS) or satiation. This phenomenon is thought to be important as a basic, biologically adaptive behaviour, since it describes satiation to the sensory characteristics of a highly liked food and promotes intake of other foods. The potentially adaptive value for omnivores is clear: SSS ensures intake of a variety of foods and not just the most favoured. Whilst the decrement in subjective pleasantness would appear to be a simple form of response habituation, systematic study of SSS does not support this assumption. SSS does not seem to be subject to dishabituation, is not affected by stimulus intensity, and is not potentiated with multiple opportunities to develop such SSS. Thus SSS might constitute a special form of response habituation, characterised by a decrease in affective responding to a specific food, yet evidence suggests that SSS is more functionally similar to stimulus satiation than response habituation. Although biologically useful, SSS serves us less well in an environment where food is highly palatable, varied, abundant and cheap, especially since, despite reduced liking for recently eaten foods, intake can remain high.
Article
Background: Few studies exist that have systematically examined the role of protein, and egg protein in particular, in appetite and energy intake regulation in children. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different types of breakfast on appetite and energy intake at subsequent meals in children. Design: Forty children, ages 8-10, were served a compulsory breakfast (egg, cereal, or oatmeal) and lunch, consumed ad libitum, once a week for three weeks. Children's appetite ratings were assessed repeatedly throughout the morning. On each test day, caregivers completed food records, which captured children's intake for the remainder of the day. Results: There was a significant main effect of breakfast condition on energy intake at lunch (P=0.02) indicating that children consumed ~70 fewer calories at lunch following the egg breakfast (696±53kcal) compared to the cereal (767±53kcal) and oatmeal (765±53kcal) breakfasts. Calories consumed for the remainder of the day and daily energy intake did not differ across conditions (P>0.30). There also were no significant differences in children's appetite ratings between conditions (P>0.43). Conclusions: Consuming an egg-based breakfast significantly reduced short-term, but not longer-term, energy intake in children in the absence of differences in appetite ratings.
Article
Many studies have demonstrated that milk protein consumption has benefits in terms of promoting human health. This review assesses the intervention studies which have evaluated potential health enhancing effects in humans following the ingestion of milk proteins. The impact of milk protein ingestion has been studied to asses their satiating, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and insulinotropic properties as well as their impact on morphological modifications (e.g., muscle and fat mass) in humans. Consistent health promoting effects appear to have been observed in certain instances (i.e., muscle protein synthesis, insulinotropic and hypotensive activity). However, controversial outcomes have also been reported (i.e., antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant properties). Several factors including interindividual differences, the timing of protein ingestion as well as the potency of the active components may explain these differences. In addition, processing conditions have been reported, in certain instances, to affect milk protein structure and therefore modify their bioactive potential. It is thought that the health promoting properties of milk proteins are linked to the release of bioactive peptides (BAPs) during gastrointestinal digestion. There is a need for further research to develop a more in-depth understanding on the possible mechanisms involved in the observed physiological effects. In addition, more carefully controlled and appropriately powered human intervention studies are required to demonstrate the health enhancing properties of milk proteins in humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Article
Protein is an essential component of a healthy diet and is a focus of research programs seeking to optimize health at all stages of life. The focus on protein as a nutrient often centers on its thermogenic and satiating effect, and when included as part of a healthy diet, its potential to preserve lean body mass. A growing body of literature, including stable isotope based studies and longer term dietary interventions, suggests that current dietary protein recommendations may not be sufficient to promote optimal muscle health in all populations. A protein intake moderately higher than current recommendations has been widely endorsed by many experts and working groups and may provide health benefits for aging populations. Further, consuming moderate amounts of high-quality protein at each meal may optimally stimulate 24-h muscle protein synthesis and may provide a dietary platform that favors the maintenance of muscle mass and function while promoting successful weight management in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary protein has the potential to serve as a key nutrient for many health outcomes and benefits might be increased when combined with adequate physical activity. Future studies should focus on confirming these health benefits from dietary protein with long-term randomized controlled studies.
Article
New strategies for formulating healthy, balanced food with enhanced expected satiating capacity are a hot topic. The present work tests the hypothesis that adding complexity to food will result in higher expectations of satiating capacity. Different kinds of “visible” particles (wheat bran, ground coconut, flaxseeds and oat meal) were added to cheese pies with the aim of increasing the complexity of both their appearance and their texture. Two more basic recipes were also prepared with no particles added. Instrumental texture measurements, complexity and expected satiating capacity consumer scoring and sensory profiling of the six pie formulations were performed. In addition, the consumers were asked to write down the characteristics they took into account in their pie complexity scores. For pies with very similar instrumental TPA hardness and resistance to penetration values, a clear trend that emerged was that the more complex the texture, the higher the satiating capacity expectations. The qualitative analysis of the terms mentioned by consumers was of great value for understanding the concepts underlying the appraisal of the samples' complexity.
Conference Paper
Previous research indicates that small increases in satiety-relevant orosensory properties (thick mouthfeel and creamy flavour) enhance the satiating effects of a high energy drink. One explanation is that orosensory cues generate expectations that a food will be filling which enhances our physiological responses to nutrients. Two studies investigated the extent to which small changes in drink viscosity are perceived and the role of such sensory cues in the generation of satiety expectations. In Study 1, 24 participants (12 male) rated the sensory properties of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In Study 2, 25 participants (9 male) evaluated 8 versions of the fruit yogurt drink for sensory and hedonic properties and satiety expectations. The drinks consisted of high and low energy versions in four sensory contexts: low sensory, creamy, thick, high sensory (thick and creamy). Results from Study 1 indicate that participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity (p< 0.001), showing good test–retest reliability. In Study 2 we observed significant effects of sensory context on both satiety expectations (p< 0.001) and filling ratings (p< 0.001) with no effect of energy content. These findings indicate that untrained participants are sensitive to the sensory properties of a drink and small manipulations of texture and flavour increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, independent of its actual energy content. Prospective research will investigate the impact of such expectations on satiation in a drink context.
Article
Designing food items with high satiating capacity is an area of increasing interest. It would be desirable for consumers to be able to make informed choices about individual products based on understanding the energy balance and the meaning of satiety. In the present work, the perceptions that consumers have of the word "satiating" and of different protein-based dishes were investigated in two populations (100 subjects related to the field of food science and technology and 100 unrelated to it). The Word Association (WA) technique was used, asking the consumers for the first four words that came into their mind when they thought of "satiating food". This was followed by a Free Listing (FL) exercise that asked them to list four satiating food items, They also completed a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire. To evaluate the consumers' perception of the expected satiating capacity of different protein-based meals, they were shown eight photographs of equicaloric dishes composed of one piece of protein (beef, pork, chicken or fish) and one of two different side vegetables (salad or boiled potatoes). The expected satiety scores ranked fish last among the protein foods and potatoes last among the side vegetables. The results indicated that "satiating" food was related more with the immediate sensation of "stomach full" than with the cessation of hunger. This was reinforced by the mention of negative sensations of discomfort after a copious meal. Hearty dishes and meat were the meals most associated with satiating food items.
Article
Abstract Abstract Since protein has been shown to have the highest satiating-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing food with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate them to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A Check-all-that-apply question containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples were performed with consumers (n=131) who also scored the perceived samples’ satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors Soy contributed off-flavour. These results will contribute a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.
Article
SATIN, or SATiety INnovation, is a 5-year European-funded research project to develop and test new food products with satiating qualities to help control appetite, manage weight and combat obesity. It is a €6 million Framework 7 project funded by the European Commission, designed to develop foods that regulate appetite by reducing hunger, accelerating within-meal satiation and enhancing between meal satiety. The SATIN project employs novel food processing methods to modify food structure to produce functional foods for weight management. This article provides a useful summary of the work plans and describes how industry and academia will work together to produce products ready to commercialise and with proven consumer benefits. The SATIN project involves seven small- to medium-sized enterprises, four industry and seven academic partners. SATIN will also seek to educate consumers and other stakeholders about satiety to optimise the impact of weight management outcomes.
Article
Background: There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety. Objective: The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers. Design: Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m²): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period. Results: Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8), fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different. Conclusions: Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss.
Article
Aims To test whether a breakfast including eggs(EB) containing high-quality protein decreases subsequent food intake and increases satiety-related hormones in overweight or obese adults more than a breakfast including cereal(CB) of lower protein quality, but matched for energy density and macronutrient composition. Methods Twenty healthy overweight or obese subjects were randomized to eat an EB or a CB daily under supervision for one week, followed by a crossover to the opposite breakfast week after a two-week washout period. On days 1 and 7 of each test week, a structured lunch was provided ad libitum. Food intake, hunger and satiety scores, and blood parameters were measured before and after breakfast. Outcomes were analyzed using mixed effects statistical models for repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the CB week, during the EB week, a) feeling of fullness was greater (P < 0.05) on day 1 but not on day 7; b) energy intake was not significantly lower on either day; c) right before lunch, acylated ghrelin was lower and PYY3-36 was higher on day 1(P < 0.01 and < 0.002, respectively) but not on day 7; d) PYY3-36, but not ghrelin, showed greater rise between breakfast and lunch on days 1(P < 0.001) and 7(P < 0.01). Conclusion Despite a highly similar energy density and macronutrient composition, the higher protein quality breakfast significantly influenced fullness, ghrelin and PYY3-36. Only the effect on PYY3-36 lasted throughout the week. A next step would be to test if the benefits are pronounced and lasting, if protein quality of all meals is increased.
Article
Many foods can be consumed quickly or with a little chewing. An overview of 33 experiments suggests that oral processing plays a role in food intake by affecting satiation (assessed by the measurement of ad libitum intake) and satiety (assessed by measurement of subjective appetite ratings, subsequent intake, and/or release of hormones, such as CCK and GLP-1). An increase in oral processing may result in an increased timespan for satiety signals to induce meal termination or evoke satiety. Determinants of oral processing (e.g. bite size, chewing, texture) are modifiable factors that may be considered to contribute to food intake regulation.
Article
Oral processing is essential in breaking down the physicochemical structure of the food and thus important to the sensory perception of food in the mouth. To have an understanding of protein-based, soft-solid texture perception, a multidisciplinary approach was applied that combined studies of food microstructure with mechanical properties, sensory evaluation, and oral physiology. Model foods were developed by combining ion-induced micro-phase separation and protein-polysaccharide phase separation and inversion. Activities of masseter, anterior temporalis and anterior digastric muscles during oral processing were recorded by electromyography (EMG), while jaw movement amplitudes, durations, and velocities were simultaneously collected by a three-dimensional jaw tracking system (JT-3D). Changes in the microstructure of mixed gels significantly altered the characteristics of the chewing sequence, including the muscle activities, number of chews, chewing duration and chewing frequency. Mechanical attributes related to structural breakdown and sensory perception of firmness were highly correlated with the amount of muscle activity required to transform the initial structure into a bolus ready for swallowing. Chewing frequency was linked to mechanical properties such as recoverable energy, fracture strain and water holding capacity of the gels. Increased adhesiveness and moisture release also resulted in slower chewing frequency. Evaluation of oral processing parameters at various stages (i.e., first cycle, first 5 cycles, and last 3 cycles) was found to be a useful method to investigate the dynamic nature of sensory perception at first bite, during chewing and after swallowing. The study showed that muscle activity and jaw movement can be used to understand the links between physical properties of foods and sensory texture.
Article
Chewing reportedly contributes to satiation and satiety signals. Attempts to document and quantify this have led to small and inconsistent effects. The present trial manipulated oral processing effort though required chewing of gums of different hardness and measured appetitive sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, GI transit time, and concentrations of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide. Sixty adults classified by sex and BMI (15 each of lean females, obese females, lean males and obese males) were tested in a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial with three arms. They chewed nothing, soft gum or hard gum for 15minutes while sipping grape juice (10% of individual energy needs) containing acetaminophen and lactulose on one day each separated by 7days. Electromyographic recordings and self-reports were obtained during and after chewing to quantify oral processing effort. Blood was sampled through an indwelling catheter and appetite ratings were obtained at baseline and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240minutes after chewing initiation. Breath samples were collected at 10minute intervals for the first 2hours and at 30minute intervals for the next two hours. No effects of chewing were observed for appetitive sensations or gut peptide concentrations. Energy intake tended to decline in lean and increase in obese participants so that daily energy intake differed significantly between the two groups when chewing either gum, while no difference was observed on the non-chewing day. Serum glucose and insulin were significantly lower at selected time points 90-240minutes after chewing compared to baseline and the non-chewing day. These data indicate chewing effort does not affect appetitive sensations or gut peptide secretion, but may exert a small differential effect on acute energy intake in lean and obese individuals and lead to greater post-prandial declines of serum glucose and insulin. The efficacy of gum chewing as a substitute for eating for weight management remains uncertain.
Article
Acquisition has a considerable influence on the process of mastication. The aim of this study was to examine variation in the natural bite weight, volume, and length of different food bars, to assess whether serving constant mass samples, constant volume samples, or alternative methods, are most appropriate for mastication studies.Six types of manufactured food bars were assessed with 45 subjects (21 males and 24 females). Bite weight was determined and the volume and length of each bite were calculated using the density and dimensions of each bar. Natural bite weight, volume, and length varied significantly between bars. Bite length varied least. The results suggest that food bite size is not controlled by weight nor volume, but by bite length, when food bars are being consumed.No ideal serving method exists however the relative regularity of bite length suggests constant volume servings may represent normal feeding behaviour more so than constant mass.
Article
Meat is an integral part of the human diet. Besides essential amino acids and nutritive factors of high quality and availability, meat provides often overlooked components of importance for human health. These are amino acids and bioactive compounds that may be very important in i) preventing muscle wasting diseases, such as in sarcopenia, ii) reducing food and caloric intake to prevent metabolic syndrome, iii) blood pressure homeostasis via ACE-inhibitory components from connective tissue, and iv) maintaining functional gut environment through meat-derived nucleotides and nucleosides. In addition, meat could be an important source of phytanic acid, conjugated linoleic acids and antioxidants. Further, it becomes increasingly apparent that design of in vitro meat will be possible, and that this development may lead to improved health benefits from commercially viable and sustainable meat products.
Article
Obesity is a serious health problem because of its co-morbidities. The solution, implying weight loss and long-term weight maintenance, is conditional on: (i) sustained satiety despite negative energy balance, (ii) sustained basal energy expenditure despite BW loss due to (iii) a sparing of fat-free mass (FFM), being the main determinant of basal energy expenditure. Dietary protein has been shown to assist with meeting these conditions, since amino acids act on the relevant metabolic targets. This review deals with the effects of different protein diets during BW loss and BW maintenance thereafter. Potential risks of a high protein diet are dealt with. The required daily intake is 0·8-1·2 g/kg BW, implying sustaining the original absolute protein intake and carbohydrate and fat restriction during an energy-restricted diet. The intake of 1·2 g/kg BW is beneficial to body composition and improves blood pressure. A too low absolute protein content of the diet contributes to the risk of BW regain. The success of the so-called 'low carb' diet that is usually high in protein can be attributed to the relatively high-protein content per se and not to the relatively lower carbohydrate content. Metabolic syndrome parameters restore, mainly due to BW loss. With the indicated dosage, no kidney problems have been shown in healthy individuals. In conclusion, dietary protein contributes to the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, by acting on the relevant metabolic targets of satiety and energy expenditure in negative energy balance, thereby preventing a weight cycling effect.
Article
Summary1Introduction2Physiological mechanisms of satiation and satiety2.1 Physiological mechanisms of satiation2.1.1 Gastric mechanisms of satiation2.1.2 Intestinal mechanisms of satiation2.2 Physiological mechanisms of satiety2.2.1 Gut hormones – episodic signals of satiety2.2.2 Tonic satiety signals2.3 The integration of satiety signals in the brain2.3.1 Anorexigenic pathways in the hypothalamus2.3.2 Orexigenic pathways in the hypothalamus2.3.3 Other areas of the brain involved in satiation and satiety2.3.4 Reward pathways3Measuring satiation and satiety3.1 Measuring satiation3.2 Measuring satiety3.2.1 Free living vs. laboratory studies3.2.2 Preload studies3.2.3 Self-reported measures of satiety3.2.4 Measuring food intake3.2.5 Quantifying satiety3.3 Confounders in satiety research3.3.1 Physiological confounders3.3.2 Behavioural confounders4The effects of foods and drinks on satiety4.1 Protein and satiety4.2 Carbohydrates and satiety4.3 Fibre and satiety4.4 Intense sweeteners and satiety4.5 Fat and satiety4.6 Liquids and satiety4.7 Alcohol and satiety4.8 Energy density and satiety5The effect of external factors on satiation and satiety5.1 Palatability5.2 Variety5.3 Portion size5.4 Sleep5.5 Physical activity5.6 Television viewing and other distractions5.7 Social situations6Satiation, satiety and weight control6.1 Obesity genes and satiety6.2 Physiological differences in satiation and satiety responses in obese people6.3 Behavioural differences in the response to satiation and satiety in obesity7Conclusions SummaryIn the context of the rising prevalence of obesity around the world, it is vital to understand how energy balance and bodyweight are controlled. The ability to balance energy intake and expenditure is critical to survival, and sophisticated physiological mechanisms have developed in order to do this, including the control of appetite. Satiation and satiety are part of the body's appetite control system and are involved in limiting energy intake. Satiation is the process that causes one to stop eating; satiety is the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, suppressing further consumption, and both are important in determining total energy intake.Satiation and satiety are controlled by a cascade of factors that begin when a food or drink is consumed and continues as it enters the gastrointestinal tract and is digested and absorbed. Signals about the ingestion of energy feed into specific areas of the brain that are involved in the regulation of energy intake, in response to the sensory and cognitive perceptions of the food or drink consumed, and distension of the stomach. These signals are integrated by the brain, and satiation is stimulated. When nutrients reach the intestine and are absorbed, a number of hormonal signals that are again integrated in the brain to induce satiety are released. In addition to these episodic signals, satiety is also affected by fluctuations in hormones, such as leptin and insulin, which indicate the level of fat storage in the body.Satiation and satiety can be measured directly via food intake or indirectly via ratings of subjective sensations of appetite. The most common study design when measuring satiation or satiety over a short period is using a test preload in which the variables of interest are carefully controlled. This is followed by subjects rating aspects of their appetite sensations, such as fullness or hunger, at intervals and then, after a predetermined time interval, a test meal at which energy intake is measured. Longer-term studies may provide foods or drinks of known composition to be consumed ad libitum and use measures of energy intake and/or appetite ratings as indicators of satiety. The measurement of satiation and satiety is complicated by the fact that many factors besides these internal signals may influence appetite and energy intake, for example, physical factors such as bodyweight, age or gender, or behavioural factors such as diet or the influence of other people present. For this reason, the majority of studies on satiation and satiety take place in a laboratory, where confounders can be controlled as much as possible, and are, therefore, of short duration.It is possible for any food or drink to affect appetite, and so it is important to determine whether, for a given amount of energy, particular variables have the potential to enhance or reduce satiation or satiety. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate the effect of different foods, drinks, food components and nutrients on satiety. Overall, the characteristic of a food or drink that appears to have the most impact on satiety is its energy density. That is the amount of energy it contains per unit weight (kJ/g, kcal/g). When energy density is controlled, the macronutrient composition of foods does not appear to have a major impact on satiety. In practice, high-fat foods tend to have a higher energy density than high-protein or high-carbohydrate foods, and foods with the highest water content tend to have the lowest energy density. Some studies have shown that energy from protein is more satiating than energy from carbohydrate or fat. In addition, certain types of fibre have been shown to enhance satiation and satiety. It has been suggested that energy from liquids is less satiating then energy from solids. However, evidence for this is inconsistent, and it may be the mode of consumption (i.e. whether the liquid is perceived to be a food or drink) that influences its effect on satiety. Alcohol appears to stimulate energy intake in the short-term, and consuming energy from alcohol does not appear to lead to a subsequent compensatory reduction in energy intake.The consumption of food and drink to provide energy is a voluntary behaviour, and, despite the existence of sophisticated physiological mechanisms to match intake to requirements, humans often eat when sated and sometimes refrain from eating when hungry. Thus, there are numerous influences on eating behaviour beyond satiation and satiety. These include: the portion size, appeal, palatability and variety of foods and drinks available; the physiological impact on the body of physical activity and sleep; and other external influences such as television viewing and the effect of social situations.Because satiation and satiety are key to controlling energy intake, inter-individual differences in the strength of these signals and responsiveness to their effects could affect risk of obesity. Such differences have been observed at a genetic, physiological and behavioural level and may be important to consider in strategies to prevent or treat obesity.Overall, it is clear that, although the processes of satiation and satiety have the potential to control energy intake, many individuals override the signals generated. Hence, in such people, satiation and satiety alone are not sufficient to prevent weight gain in the current obesogenic environment. Knowledge about foods, ingredients and dietary patterns that can enhance satiation and satiety is potentially useful for controlling bodyweight. However, this must be coupled with an understanding of the myriad of other factors that influence eating behaviour, in order to help people to control their energy intake.
Article
Intestinal gluconeogenesis is involved in the control of food intake. We show that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) present in nerves in the portal vein walls respond to peptides to regulate a gut-brain neural circuit that controls intestinal gluconeogenesis and satiety. In vitro, peptides and protein digests behave as MOR antagonists in competition experiments. In vivo, they stimulate MOR-dependent induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis via activation of brain areas receiving inputs from gastrointestinal ascending nerves. MOR-knockout mice do not carry out intestinal gluconeogenesis in response to peptides and are insensitive to the satiety effect induced by protein-enriched diets. Portal infusions of MOR modulators have no effect on food intake in mice deficient for intestinal gluconeogenesis. Thus, the regulation of portal MORs by peptides triggering signals to and from the brain to induce intestinal gluconeogenesis are links in the satiety phenomenon associated with alimentary protein assimilation.