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Abstract

The popularity of plant-based feed additives in livestock production has increased significantly in the last decade. Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which contain bioactive components and deliver positive effects for humans and animals. They are renowned for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-mutagenic effects. Polyphenols have antioxidant properties, and they minimize the negative consequences of oxidative stress. Their antioxidant capacity is comparable to that of the major biological antioxidants: vitamins E and C. Despite those advantages, polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and further research is needed to harness their full potential in livestock farming. This article presents a review of findings from recent studies investigating the efficacy of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition, with special emphasis on their antioxidant properties.
ANNALS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
ISSN: 2300-8733, http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/aoas
ACCEPTED AUTHOR VERSION OF THE MANUSCRIPT:
Polyphenols in monogastric nutrition - a review
DOI: 10.1515/aoas-2016-0042
Krzysztof Lipiński, Magdalena Mazur, Zofia Antoszkiewicz, Cezary Purwin
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in
Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Corresponding author: krzysztof.lipinski@uwm.edu.pl
Received date: 20 November 2015
Accepted date: 13 June 2016
To cite this article: (2016). Lipiński K., Mazur M., Antoszkiewicz Z., Purwin C. (2016).
Polyphenols in monogastric nutrition - a review, Annals of Animal Science, DOI:
10.1515/aoas-2016-0042
This is unedited PDF of peer-reviewed and accepted manuscript. Copyediting,
typesetting, and review of the manuscript may affect the content, so this provisional
version can differ from the final version.
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Polyphenols in monogastric nutrition - a review
Krzysztof Lipiński, Magdalena Mazur, Zofia Antoszkiewicz, Cezary Purwin
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science,
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn,
Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Corresponding author: krzysztof.lipinski@uwm.edu.pl
Abstract
The popularity of plant-based feed additives in livestock production has increased
significantly in the last decade. Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which contain
bioactive components and deliver positive effects for humans and animals. They are
renowned for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-mutagenic effects.
Polyphenols have antioxidant properties, and they minimize the negative consequences of
oxidative stress. Their antioxidant capacity is comparable to that of the major biological
antioxidants: vitamins E and C. Despite those advantages, polyphenols are characterized by
low bioavailability, and further research is needed to harness their full potential in livestock
farming. This article presents a review of findings from recent studies investigating the
efficacy of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition, with special emphasis on their antioxidant
properties.
Keywords: polyphenols, immunomodulatory effect, growth performance, gut health,
antioxidant activity
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Consumer awareness about the health properties, safety and quality of food products
of animal origin has increased the popularity of natural supplements in livestock production.
In January 2006, the European Union banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal
feeds, which shifted the producers' attention to plant-based supplements. Herbs, essential oils,
spices, plant extracts and phytobiotics deliver a host of health benefits for animals; they
improve animal performance and the quality of the resulting animal products. Plant-based
supplements and their secondary metabolites are alternative natural growth promoters that are
widely used in livestock farming (Wallace et al., 2010; Hashemi and Davoodi 2011; Yesilbag
et al., 2011).
Phytochemicals that occur naturally in plants attract special interest. This group of
compounds includes polyphenols, secondary plant metabolites which are a common
component of human and animal diets (Petti and Scully, 2009; Chiva-Blanch and Visoli,
2012; Paszkiewicz et al. 2012). Polyphenols are present in vegetables, fruit, cereals, chocolate
and beverages such as wine, coffee, black tea and green tea (D'Archivio et al., 2007; Landete,
2013). They occur in various parts of plants, including roots, leaves, flowers, fruit and seeds,
and they protect plants against pests and UV radiation (Scalbert et al., 2002; Petti and Scully,
2009). Polyphenols also act as plant hormones, inhibitors of enzymatic reactions and plant
growth regulators (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009).
Polyphenols contain active ingredients, they exert non-specific effects on living
organisms, and regulate the activity of enzymes and cell receptors (D'Archivio et al., 2007).
They have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory and anti-mutagenic activities.
Most importantly, polyphenols are powerful antioxidants that prevent oxidative stress and
reduce the risk of cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases (Scalbert et al.,
2005; Petti and Scully, 2009; Paszkiewicz et al., 2012). Despite those benefits, most
polyphenols are not readily absorbed in the small intestine, and they accumulate in small
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quantities in bodily tissues (Manach et al., 2004; Surai, 2014). For this reason, further
research is needed to explore the use and functional roles of those compounds in human and
animal diets. This article presents a review of findings from recent studies investigating the
efficacy of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition, with special emphasis on their antioxidant
properties.
Classification, structure and metabolism of polyphenols
Around 8,000 polyphenolic compounds with varied and complex chemical structure
have been identified in different plant species. Polyphenols can be divided into two main
groups, flavonoids and non-flavonoids, based on the number of aromatic rings and their
binding affinity for different compounds (Fraga et al., 2010; Surai, 2014).
Flavonoids are the largest group of polyphenols which can be further divided into six
subclasses: anthocyanins, isoflavones, flavanones, flavonols, flavones and flavanols
(D'Archivio et al., 2007; Surai, 2014). Flavonoids are composed of two benzene rings
connected through a three-carbon bridge, which form the C6-C3-C6 structural backbone
(Jasiński et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2010). In plants, flavonoids occur together with sugar
residues as glycosides or in free form as aglycones. Individual compounds are classified based
on different ring substituents created during hydroxylation, methylation, glycosidation and
acylation (D'Archivio et al., 2007; Jasiński et al., 2009; Majewska and Czeczot, 2009).
Flavonoids are responsible for red, blue and yellow coloration of plants. They are found
mainly in onions, leeks, soybeans, berries and tea (Jasiński et al., 2009; Majewska and
Czeczot, 2009; Landete, 2013).
Non-flavonoids contain at least one aromatic ring which is linked to one or more
hydroxyl groups. Non-flavonoids include phenolic acids, lignans and stilbenes (Surai, 2014).
Phenolic acids are further subdivided into two groups of cinnamic acid derivatives and
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benzoic acid derivatives. They are present in coffee, grapes and red wine (D'Archivio et al.,
2007; Han et al., 2007). The classification and sources of polyphenolic compounds are
presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Classification and sources of selected polyphenolic compounds (Han et al., 2007;
Zalega and Szostak-Węgierek, 2013; Myburgh, 2014; Surai, 2014)
Group
Polyphenolic
compounds
Examples of
compounds
Source
flavonoids
anthocyanins
cyanidin,
pelargonidin,
delphinidin, etc.
black currant, elderberry fruit,
blackberries, cherries, strawberries,
raspberries, chokeberry
isoflavones
genistein,
daidzein,
equol, etc.
soybean and its products, peas, lentils,
grapes
flavanones
naringenin,
hesperetin,
eriodictyol, etc.
grapefruit, oranges, tangerines,
peppermint
flavonols
quercetin,
kaempferol,
isorhamnetin, etc.
onions, broccoli, black tea, lettuce,
apples, dill weed
flavones
apigenin,
luteolin,
diosmin
celery, parsley, red pepper, lemon,
oregano, rosemary
flavanols
catechin,
epicatechin,
epigallocatechin
tea, grapes, red wine, apples,
blackberries, apricots, dark chocolate
non-
phenolic acids
caffeic acid,
coffee, olives, cabbage, apples,
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flavonoids
chlorogenic acid,
ferulic acid
cherries, tomatoes, pears, asparagus
lignans
pinoresinol,
podophyllotoxin,
steganacin
linseed, sesame seeds, chives, nuts
stilbenes
resveratrol
red wine, red grapes, peanuts,
blueberries, raspberries
The metabolism of polyphenols has not been fully elucidated. According to estimates,
only approximately 5-10% of polyphenols are absorbed and metabolized in biochemical
pathways (Chiva-Blanch and Visioli, 2012). Aglycones, non-sugar hydrophobic components
of glycosides, are absorbed by passive diffusion in the small intestine (Manach et al., 2004;
Majewska and Czeczot, 2009). Polyphenols are glucuronidated and sulfated inside
enterocytes. Those metabolites are transported from the intestine to the serous membrane by
glucuronyl transferase or sulfotransferase (Teng et al., 2012). Other polyphenols occur in
foods as hydrophilic glycosides, esters and polymers of higher molecular weight, which are
broken down by intestinal bacterial enzymes (mainly β-glucosidases) to aglycone and sugar,
and are absorbed only in the large intestine (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009). Compounds
modified by colonic microbiota change their activity. Absorbed aglycones are broken down
into aromatic acids (hydroxyphenylacetic, phenylpropionic, phenylbutyric and other acids),
and they enter the bloodstream. In the liver, aglycones undergo methylation, sulfation and/or
glucuronidation (Scalbert et al., 2002; D’Archivio et al., 2007, Brenes et al., 2016). Selected
flavonoid metabolites are excreted to bile and reabsorbed from the intestine via enterohepatic
circulation (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009).
The content of polyphenols in bodily tissues is not directly related to their dietary
levels (D’Archivio et al., 2007; Fotina et al., 2013; Surai 2014). In pigs administered a single
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dose of quercetin at 25 mg/kg BW, the concentrations of this polyphenol were higher in the
liver (6.20 nmol/g), kidneys (2.84 nmol/g) and jejunum (2.36 nmol/g) than in plasma (1.48
µmol/l) or muscles (0.11 nmol/g). In pigs whose diets were supplemented with quercetin (50
mg/kg BW) for 4 weeks, quercetin levels were higher in the kidneys (6.31 nmol/g) and colon
(13.92 nmol/g) than in the liver (2.83 nmol/g) or plasma (0.67 µmol/l). Trace amounts of the
examined polyphenol (0.09 nmol/g) were observed in muscles (Bieger et al., 2008). Similar
quercetin concentrations were reported by Wein and Wolffram (2012) in the plasma (0.69
µmol/l) of horses administered a single dose of this flavonoid (20 mg/kg BW). When pig diets
were supplemented with higher doses of quercetin (500 mg/kg BW) for 3 days, quercetin
levels remained unchanged in bodily tissues (3.78 nmol/g in the liver, 1.84 nmol/g in the
kidneys), but increased in plasma (1.1 µmol/l) (Boer et al., 2005). Small amounts of
isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein are also accumulated in the liver. In sows whose
diets were supplemented with genistein at 2.3 g/kg of feed (pure genistein + soybean-based
commercial diet), genistein concentrations in the liver were determined at 2.04 nmol/g, and
daidzein concentrations at 1.18 nmol/g (Gilani et al., 2011). Those results indicate that
higher polyphenol doses and longer periods of administration do not contribute to the
accumulation of the evaluated compounds in bodily tissues. Elevated polyphenol
concentrations were noted only in organs that participate in the metabolism of polyphenolic
compounds.
Polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability and urinary excretion ranges
from 0.3% for anthocyanins to 43% for isoflavones such as daidzein found in soybeans (Han
et al., 2007; Landate, 2013). Their availability is determined by the type of compound, its
chemical and physical properties, and the type and presence of functional groups (D’Archivo
et al., 2007; Landete, 2013).
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Antioxidant effects of polyphenols
During oxidative stress, free radicals are produced in excessive quantities that cannot
be effectively neutralized by the body (Durand et al., 2013; Zhong and Zheu, 2013). Reactive
oxygen species (ROS) damage DNA and entire chromosomes, modify amino acids, contribute
to protein fragmentation, intensified lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, cell apoptosis and
necrosis which increase the risk of inflammations and cancer (Lykkesfeldt and Svendsen,
2007; Leopoldini et al., 2011; Landete, 2013). In homeostasis, ROS and reactive nitrogen
species are deactivated by the triad of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase
and glutathione peroxidase) and low-molecular-weight antioxidants (tocopherols, ascorbic
acid) (Paszkiewicz et al., 2012; Durand et al., 2013, Landete, 2013). Exogenous antioxidants
form the first line of defense against excessive ROS generation. They include polyphenols
which protect cell components against oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thus
reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress (D'Archivio
et al., 2007; Zhong and Zheu, 2013). Among all polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids are
most effective in removing the generated free radicals, which can be attributed to 3 factors:
the presence of an o-diphenolic group, a 23 double bond coupled with a 4-oxo function, and
a hydroxyl group located at positions 3 and 5 (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009; Landete, 2013).
In addition, polyphenols restrict the generation of ROS in the cells by inhibiting the activity of
pro-oxidant enzymes (membrane-associated NAD(P)H oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and protein
kinase C) which participate in the intracellular electron transport chain (Procházková et al,
2009; Fraga et al., 2010). Moreover, phenolic compounds may indirectly prevent chelation of
transition metal ions, e.g. iron and copper, thus restricting the formation of reactive hydroxyl
radicals (HO•) (Halliwell, 2008; Majewska and Czeczot; 2009). Mitigation of the effects of
oxidative stress caused by nitric oxide NO• or hypochlorous acid, and the possibility for the
direct removal thereof, are another manifestation of the activity of polyphenols in the fight
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against the oxidative stress (Leopoldini et al., 2011; Surai, 2014). The most intense activity in
restricting the generation of NO• is exhibited by apigenin, diosmetin, and luteolin, all
belonging to the group of flavones (Procházková et al, 2009). An increase in the total
antioxidant capacity of plasma, resulting from the consumption of products rich in
polyphenols, is associated with an increase in the plasma levels of uric acid (Lotito and Frei,
2006). The stabilization of low-molecular-weight antioxidants, such as ascorbate or vitamin
E, by polyphenols (mostly quercetin and rutin) prevents their oxidation (Majewska and
Czeczot; 2009; Paszkiewicz et al., 2012).
The complete replacement of vitamin E with polyphenols in livestock diets is not
justified (Surai, 2014). Tocopherols are not only effective antioxidants, but they also control
various biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, including growth,
development, reproduction and resistance (Fotina et al., 2013, Surai, 2014).
Pro-oxidant effects of polyphenols
In environments characterized by increased partial pressure and concentration of
oxygen, polyphenols can exert pro-oxidant effects on other cells. In flavonoids, this action is
facilitated by their specific chemical structure, the presence of pyrogallol or catechol
structures (three OH groups or one OH group at the 3 position on the B-ring), the presence of
oxygen and copper ions (Cu2+) (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009; Procházková et al., 2011).
The same flavonoids can exert both negative and positive effects, subject to the source
and concentrations of free radicals and polyphenol concentrations in the administered dose
(Gryszczyńska and Iskra, 2008; Procházková et al., 2011). The pro-oxidant properties of
dietary polyphenols can be exacerbated due to glutathione (GSH) deficiency in cells, lack of
chemical stability and activation of cellular copper ions (Cu1+) (Hu, 2011) which are produced
during auto-oxidation together with semiquinone radicals (oxidized flavonoid) (Majewska and
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Czeczot, 2009). The cytotoxic semiquinone radical is reduced by NADH, and it participates in
the generation of ROS in redox reactions (Procházková et al., 2011). Copper ions increase the
concentrations of superoxide radicals which contribute to the generation of hydrogen peroxide
and highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009). Flavonoids containing a
catechol group (catechol, quercetin, luteolin) can affect the oxidation of ascorbic acid and
decrease its concentration (Gryszczyńska and Iskra, 2008; Procházková et al., 2011). Despite
the above, the pro-oxidant action of polyphenols can also deliver positive effects by inducing
mild oxidative stress, generating antioxidants and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, and
contributing to overall cytoprotective effects (Halliwell, 2008; Procházková et al., 2011).
Polyphenols are highly susceptible to auto-oxidation in vitro (Halliwell, 2007), and further
research is needed to investigate their pro-oxidant effects on animal cells.
Health-promoting properties of polyphenols
Polyphenols are characterized by high antioxidant activity due to their complex
chemical structure and the presence of various groups in a molecule. They also exert non-
specific effects on cell metabolism and deliver a host of health benefits for humans and
animals (Petti and Scully, 2009; Kamboh et al., 2015).
Flavonoids positively affect the circulatory system by inhibiting the progression of
cardiovascular diseases. The above can be attributed mainly to their antioxidant properties
because oxidative stress contributes to vascular damage and oxidation of plasma lipids.
Flavonoids inhibit peroxidation of low-density lipoproteins, which are associated with "bad"
cholesterol, and minimize oxidation of membrane lipids. Anthocyanins scavenge free radicals
and prevent plaque buildup in the arteries. Polyphenols present in red wine and grapes
(catechins and resveratrol) have vasodilatory effects, and they prevent arrhythmia (Han et al.,
2007; Pandey and Rizvi, 2009; Chiva-Blanch and Visoli, 2012). In recent research, much
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attention has also been given to the modification of animal products with biologically active
compounds such as polyphenols. Modifications of the fatty acid profile, mostly by decreasing
the concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and increasing the levels of polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFAs) in muscle tissue, can indirectly contribute to consumer health by
improving the quality of food products and increasing their oxidative stability (Brenes et al.,
2008; Kamboh and Zhu, 2013a).
Polyphenols also play therapeutic and protective roles in cancer. By minimizing the
negative effects of oxidative stress, i.e. lipid, protein and nucleic acid damage caused by
oxygen radicals, polyphenols prevent carcinogenic changes (Scalbert et al., 2005; Paszkiewicz
et al., 2012). Anthocyanins can block cellular divisions in different phases of the cell cycle
(G1/S or G2/M) by inhibiting kinase enzymes, such as tyrosine kinase, which are responsible
for signal transmission between cells (Majewska and Czeczot, 2009). The above disrupts cell
growth and cell division, and it inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells (Zalega and Szostak-
Węgierek, 2013). Polyphenols also play a role in apoptosis programmed cell death.
Flavonoids such as daidzein and quercetin exert anticarcinogenic effects on leukemia cell
lines, hormone-dependent cell lines (breast and prostate cancer), gastric and colorectal cancer
cell lines (Zalega and Szostak-Węgierek, 2013; Lima et al., 2014).
Isoflavone group flavonoids such as genistein and daidzein are structurally similar to
estradiol (hydroxyl groups at the C4 and C7 positions), and they can bind to estrogen
receptors alpha (mammary glands and ovaries) and beta (brain, kidneys and lungs)
(D'Archivio et al., 2007; Majewska and Czeczot, 2009). Those flavonoids, known as
phytoestrogens, alleviate the symptoms of menopause and prevent osteoporosis in women
(Landete, 2013, Kamboh et al, 2015).
Gut health and immunomodulatory effects
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Polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and unabsorbed compounds
exert a significant influence on gut health (Etxeberria et al., 2013; Brenes et.al., 2016).
Phenolic compounds have bactericidal (Gordon and Wareham, 2010) and bacteriostatic
properties (Etxeberria et al., 2013), they minimize the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria (E.
coli, Clostridium), inhibit the progression of infections in the digestive tract, improve nutrient
utilization and animal performance (Viveros et al., 2011; Duenas et al., 2015; Brenes et.al.,
2016). The pro-oxidant properties of polyphenols are also responsible for their antimicrobial
activity. Metal ions and oxygen promote the formation of phenoxyl radicals which have
cytotoxic effects and damage bacterial DNA. Anthocyanins present in cherries, raspberries
and berries demonstrate bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects (Bacillus, Klebsiella,
Helicobacter). Due to the presence of hydroxyl groups, polyphenols (quercetin) have the
ability to incorporate into lipid membranes and increase their permeability, which makes
pathogens more sensitive to antibacterial compounds (Chiva-Blanch and Visoli, 2012;
Paszkiewicz et al., 2012).
By enhancing the proliferation of beneficial bacteria (Bacillus spp., Lactobacillus
spp.) and stabilizing gut microflora, polyphenols indirectly enhance the host’s immune system
and overall health (Hashemi and Davoodi, 2011, Paszkiewicz et al., 2012). They can exert a
positive influence on gut morphology and improve nutrient absorption in monogastric animals
(Kamboh et al., 2015).
In a study by Hong et al. (2012), essential oils (total polyphenolic compounds 13.3
mg/g diet) significantly increased the height of intestinal villi in the duodenum of broiler
chickens without inducing any changes in the composition of ileal microflora. In an
experiment conducted by Kamboh and Zhu (2014), genistein, hesperidin and flavonoids
extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves (Zhang et al., 2013) significantly increased the surface
area of the small intestine available for nutrient absorption and modified its structure (length
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and width of villi, crypt depth) in broilers exposed to lipopolysaccharide stress (LPS-
endotoxin present on the outer walls of Gram-negative bacteria). In the work of Zhang et al.
(2014), dietary polyphenols had no significant influence on piglet performance or fecal E. coli
and Clostridia counts on days 11 and 21 of the experiment. Kırkpınar et al. (2011) reported a
decrease in Clostridium populations in the ileum of chickens fed oregano oil, garlic oil and
both substances in comparison with animals from the remaining groups. Dietary
supplementation with cranberry extract (80 mg/kg of feed), a rich source of phenolic acids,
anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols, significantly decreased the size of Enterococcus
spp. populations in broilers on day 28 of the experiment (Leusink et al. 2010).
Pigs whose diets were supplemented with polyphenol-rich grape seeds, grape marc
meal extract or spent hops were characterized by higher pH of intestinal digesta and
significantly lower counts of Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium Cluster XIVa in fecal
microbiota. Their gain/feed ratio was higher in comparison with control group piglets (Fiesel
et al., 2014). Heat-stressed chickens fed grape seed extract in the amount of 300 and 450
mg/kg of feed were characterized by lower ileal counts of Escherichia coli and coliform
bacteria on day 42 in comparison with control group birds (P≥0.05). Chickens whose diets
were enriched with polyphenols or vitamin C had longer intestinal villi than control group
birds (P≥0.05) (Hajati et al. 2015). Similar results were reported by Akbarian et al. (2013) in
whose study, E. coli counts decreased significantly in the ileum and cecum of chickens fed
400 mg/kg of lemon peel extract or Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil during chronic
exposure to high temperatures (34°C/5h/d). Viveros et al. (2011) observed an increase in
Lactobacillus counts in the ileum of control group birds and birds fed grape seed extract in
comparison with birds receiving an antibiotic or grape pomace concentrate.
Acute inflammation and excessive or inadequate immune responses can cause chronic
inflammations and various diseases. Polyphenols exert immunomodulatory effects by
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controlling enzymes and cytokines and by partial regulation of the activity of transcription
factors such as the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) (Chiva-Blanch and Visoli, 2012;
Paszkiewicz et al., 2012). Flavonoids limit inflammatory processes by inhibiting the activity
of signaling compounds that initiate the inflammatory response 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)
and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes - which participate in the synthesis of prostaglandins
and leukotrienes from arachidonic acid (D’Archivio et al., 2007; Majewska and Czeczot,
2009). Polyphenols can minimize the harmful effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen
species produced during the immune response, thus enhancing immune system function
(Kamboh et al., 2015).
Genistein, hesperidin (Kamboh and Zhu, 2014) and flavonoids derived from fermented
Ginkgo biloba leaves (Zhang et al., 2013) improved immune parameters in broilers exposed to
LPS-induced stress by lowering the expression of interleukins IL-4, IL-13, IL-18 and IFN-γ in
comparison with birds from other groups, and led to positive changes in phagocytic activity in
the second experiment. Zhu et al. (2015) investigated the effect of soy isoflavones on weaned
piglets challenged with LPS. Soy isoflavones, a rich source of genistein, daidzein, biochanin
A and glycitein with immunomodulatory properties, administered to piglets in the amount of
40 mg/kg of feed significantly lowered the incidence of diarrhea, and decreased the
concentrations of endotoxin (0.60 vs. 0.98 EU/ml) and MDA (2.69 vs. 3.18 nmol/ml) in the
blood plasma, compared with piglets challenged with LPS.
Grape seed procyanidins (GSPs) are polyphenols with anti-inflammatory and
immunomodulatory properties. When administered to weaned piglets in the amount of 100 or
150 mg/kg of feed, GSPs significantly increased the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG,
IgM, complement 4 (C4) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), they improved the animals’ antioxidant
status (T-AOC), enhanced GPx and SOD activity, and lowered serum MDA levels in
comparison with animals from the remaining groups. The incidence of diarrhea was lowered
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significantly by around 3-4% in piglets receiving GSPs relative to control group animals (Hao
et al., 2015). Commercial polyphenol preparations (containing hydrolysable tannin or grape
seed extract) were effective in decreasing the incidence of diarrhea in piglets infected with
enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (Verhelst et al., 2014). Diets rich in polyphenols from grape
seeds and grape pomace significantly lowered the activity of inflammatory mediators NF-κB
and Nrf2, thus reducing the risk of intestinal diseases (Gessner et al., 2013). In piglets
exposed to oxidative stress induced by intraperitoneal administration of diquat, dietary
supplementation with tea polyphenols (500 mg TP/kg diet) enhanced the cell-mediated
immune response (by decreasing the IFN-g/IL-4 ratio) and decreased the secretion of IFN-γ
proinflammatory cytokines, which testifies to the immunomodulatory potential of tea
polyphenols (Deng et al., 2010).
The use of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition can improve gut health. Polyphenols
have bacteriostatic properties, and they reduce the incidence of diarrhea, in particular in
piglets, while stimulating the growth of beneficial microflora. In animals exposed to oxidative
stress, polyphenols can enhance immunity by activating immunoglobulins and inhibiting the
secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.
Antioxidant effects in monogastric animals
The antioxidant properties of polyphenolic compounds may be directly used in animal
nutrition. They can be applied as preservatives in compound feedingstuffs to protect animals
against the negative consequences of oxidation of feed components, in particular feeds with a
high content of unsaturated fat. Phenolic compounds can also be used to prevent oxidative
stress in animals, and consequently, to stabilize the antioxidant potential of products of animal
origin, such as meat or eggs (Wallace et al., 2010).
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The parallel supplementation of compound feedingstuffs for monogastric with the
addition of polyphenols and vitamin E shows greater effectiveness in the prevention of
adverse effects of the oxidative stress. This results from the antioxidant properties of low
molecular weight antioxidants (e.g. ascorbate in cytosol, α-tocopherol in biological
membranes) and their synergistic properties (vitamin C and polyphenols regenerate α-
tocopherol) (Luehring et al., 2011; Voljč et al., 2013). In a study by Lipiński et al. (2015a),
sows which diets were supplemented with vitamin E and natural polyphenols (onion and
grape seed extracts, 50:50) were characterized by similar fertility, mating success and litter
size in comparison with animals receiving vitamin E only. Pigs fed both supplements had
similar or even higher vitamin E levels and improved antioxidant status than animals
receiving only 100-150 mg vitamin E/ kg feed (pregnancy/lactation). In a study of broiler
chickens, birds fed polyphenol-enriched diets were characterized by similar (SOD) or higher
(TAS, GPx) antioxidant status than animals whose diets were supplemented with vitamin E
(Lipiński et al., 2015b). Sobotka et al. (2012) also noted that the addition of oat by-products
which are a source of phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and
their derivatives) to the pigs’ diet with an addition of 3% linseed oil, resulted in an
improvement of the antioxidant status of plasma, and reduced the susceptibility of lipids to
peroxidation (a lower content of TBARS following the entire storage period). However, the
supplementation of a compound feedingstuff with vitamin E was more effective since it
increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in the muscles and plasma.
Bioflavonoids such as hesperidin and genistein can exert synergistic effects and
provide antioxidant protection. Diets supplemented with hesperidin and genistein in the
amount of 5 mg/kg of feed significantly improved total antioxidant capacity and lowered
plasma MDA levels in broilers relative to birds from the remaining groups. SOD activity in
the blood increased with an increase in polyphenol concentrations in feed (Kamboh and Zhu,
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2013a). In an experiment conducted by Ting et al. (2011), the addition of hesperetin and
naringenin (extracted from orange peel) in the amount of 2 g/kg of feed led to a substantial
improvement in the serum antioxidant status of laying hens by increasing SOD and CAT
activity. In a study by Zhang et al. (2014), the addition of plant polyphenols (apples, grape
seeds, green tea leaves and olive leaves) to diets of piglets weaned at 21 days of age
significantly decreased MDA concentrations in plasma relative to the control group (3.64 vs.
1.93 nmol/mL). Despite the above, no differences in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) or
the concentrations of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase
(GSH-Px) were noted between groups.
Grapes, grape seeds and grape pomace are rich sources of flavonoids, including
monomeric phenolic compounds such as catechins, epicatechin and procyanidins (Brenes et
al., 2008; Surai, 2014). The use of those antioxidants in animal feeds has been investigated by
various authors. In broiler chickens, the dietary supplementation with grape pomace in the
amount of 60 g/kg of diets improved antioxidant activity in breast muscles, excreta (74.7
µmol/g in the control group vs. 107.2 µmol/g of the Trolox equivalent/g in the experimental
group) and ileal contents without compromising performance, the size of digestive tract
organs or protein digestibility (Brenes et al., 2008). Similar results were reported in broilers
fed diets with the addition of grape seed extract (3.6 g/kg of feed) (Brenes et al., 2010).
Gessner et al. (2013) analyzed the effect of porcine diets supplemented with 1% polyphenols
(grape seeds and grape pomace) on the immune and antioxidant status of 24 six-week-old
pigs. After four weeks of feeding the experimental diets, no significant differences in the
concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), α-tocopherol or Trolox
equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in liver and plasma were observed between groups.
Tamarind seed extract (Tamarindus indica L.), a rich source of tannins, anthocyanidins
and oligomeric anthocyanidins, administered to chickens exposed to heat stress (38°C for 6
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hours daily) only at the beginning of the experiment at 400 mg/kg (weeks 1-2) and 500 mg/kg
of feed (week 2), significantly reduced blood MDA levels (Aengwanich and Suttajit, 2010).
Polyphenols administered in pure form or with plant-based diets have antioxidant properties
which are enhanced in the presence of vitamin E or other polyphenols by delivering
synergistic effects.
Growth performance
The supplementation of animal diets with polyphenols did not exert a clear influence
on the growth performance of animals, which improved, deteriorated or remained unchanged,
depending on the compound administered with feed. Inhibited secretion of digestive enzymes,
higher protein excretion and lower digestibility of protein and amino acids may exert adverse
metabolic effects manifested by a decrease in body weight and feed efficiency (Rohn et al.,
2006; Brenes et al., 2010; Chamorro et al., 2013).
Fiesel et al. (2014) reported a significant decrease in the digestibility of total protein
and crude fiber in weaned piglet whose diets were supplemented with spent hops, a source of
natural polyphenols. Dietary supplementation did not compromise performance, and the
gain/feed ratio was improved in the experimental group relative to control group animals (638
vs. 579 g/kg).
The addition of Moringa oleifera, a source of quercetin and kaempferol, to chicken
diets contributed to a significant increase in body weights relative to control group birds (928;
932.5; 954.6 vs. 887.6; 918.7 g) at 21 days of age, and improved the feed conversion ratio
(1.47; 1.44; 1.45 vs. 1.53) relative to positive controls throughout the experiment (Nkukwana
et al., 2014). The supplementation of chicken diets with 0.2% plant extracts from
Chelidonium majus, Lonicera japonica and Saposhnikovia divaricata (sources of flavonoids,
tannins, phenolic compounds, saponins, terpenoids and essential oils) led to a significant
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increase in final body weights (1949; 1930; 1930 vs. 1845 g) and increased daily weight gains
by approximately 3 g in comparison with control group birds (Park et al., 2014).
In a study by El Iraqui et al. (2013), heat-stressed chickens (32-40°C) were fed diets
with the addition of dry peppermint and Gingko biloba (sources of flavonoids) which
significantly increased final body weights and reduced the feed conversion ratio relative to
birds whose diets were supplemented with individual herbs or vitamin C.
Viveros et al. (2011) observed a significant decrease in the body weights of 21-day-old
chickens whose diets were supplemented with grape seed extract (7.2 g/kg of feed) in
comparison with birds from the remaining groups (486g vs. 553; 557; 542g). A significant
decrease in the feed conversion ratio was also noted in chickens fed grape pomace concentrate
(60 g/kg of feed) or the antibiotic avoparcin (50 mg/kg of diet) relative to the remaining birds
(1,43; 1.43 vs. 1,51). The feed conversion ratio of pigs which diets were supplemented with
polyphenols (from grape seeds and grape pomace) increased relative to the control group (652
vs. 624 g/kg; P<0.05) (Gessner et al., 2013). In an experiment by Lipiński et al. (2015b), feed
supplementation with polyphenols (grape seeds and onions) did not influence the growth
performance, carcass dressing percentage, breast muscle yield or meat composition in
broilers.
Broilers aged 22-36 days, fed gallic acid and linoleic acid (1% of the diet), were
characterized by significantly improved performance parameters (feed efficiency of 1.95 vs.
2.06, weight gains) in comparison with control group birds or broilers whose diets contained a
smaller dose of the supplement (0.5%) (Jung et al., 2010).
In a study by Flis et al. (2007), phenolic compounds present in naked oat grain fed to
growing-finishing pigs (45% of the diet) did not influence the growth performance of animals
or carcass leanness. Dietary supplementation with cranberry extract, a rich source of phenolic
compounds, did not affect body weight or feed efficiency in poultry (Leusink et al. 2010).
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Simitzis et al. (2011) demonstrated that dietary supplementation with hesperidin and
tocopherol acetate had no significant effect on the growth performance or carcass weight of
broilers. In a study by Goliomytis et al. (2015), hesperidin and naringin added to the diets of
Ross 308 chickens in the amount of 0.75 or 1.5 g/kg of feed did not influence bird
performance. In contrast, Kamboh and Zhu (2013b) reported an increase in the final body
weights of broiler chickens whose feed was supplemented with 20 mg/kg of hesperidin in
comparison with birds from the remaining groups. The lowest feed conversion ratio was noted
in broilers administered hesperidin only (20 mg/kg of feed) or a mixture of hesperidin and
genistein (10 mg/kg of feed).
The addition of grape byproducts did not improve performance parameters, whereas
flavonoid-rich herbs delivered positive results, in particular in heat-stressed animals.
Product quality
Foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deliver health benefits, but PUFAs
also promote lipid peroxidation in muscle tissues and deteriorate the quality of food products
by inducing adverse changes in the flavor, aroma and color of meat. Those processes lead to
the formation of harmful products of free radical reactions, such as malondialdehyde (MDA).
Oxidative damage in tissues should be prevented at an early stage by controlling animal diets
(Gobert et al., 2010; Jung et al., 2010; Brenes et al., 2016).
Jung et al. (2010) reported that, gallic acid (a polyphenol found in grapes, wine and
tea) and linoleic acid (1% of diets) improved the nutritional value (higher concentrations of
arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) and water-holding capacity of breast broiler
meat. Flis et al. (2010) noted that in a diet enriched with α-linolenic acid in parallel with
vitamin E deficiency, the phenolic compounds present in cereal and buckwheat grains are not
sufficient to maintain the oxidative stability of pork. The authors also determined the total
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phenolic content (TPC) and the in vitro antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the tested feed
materials which were ranked in the following descending order: buckwheat hulls and
bran>>barley>>naked oat ≈ triticale. In another experiment, the authors demonstrated that the
addition of 45% of naked oat grains (source of phenolic compounds) to the fatteners’ diet
with an increased content of PUFA had a positive effect on the quality of pork, since its
oxidative stability, as measured based on the generation of TBARS products, increased (Flis
et al. 2007).
Rosemary is a rich source of polyphenols (carnosol, rosmanol, 7-methyl-epirosmanol,
isorosmanol, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid), and it can alleviate the negative
consequences of oxidative stress. The addition of dry rosemary leaves and rosemary essential
oil improved the sensory attributes of meat and significantly decreased MDA concentrations
in the breast muscles of broiler chickens in comparison with birds which diets were
supplemented only with α-tocopherol (Yesilbag et al., 2011).
Quercetin, a flavonol found in fruit and vegetables, is a powerful antioxidant. Feed
supplementation with 300 mg of quercetin and 300 mg of α-tocopherol/kg feed decreased the
concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and saturated fatty acids in the breast
muscles of broilers which were characterized by the highest (P≤0.05) concentrations of α-
tocopherol and quercetin in comparison with breast muscle samples from the remaining
groups (Sohaib et al., 2015).
In an experiment by Voljč et al. (2013), the parallel incorporation of α-tocopherol and
sweet chestnut wood extract (rich in tannins) to a feed ration with an increased content of
PUFA improved the immunity from lipid oxidation, and increased the concentration of total
tocopherols in the meat of broiler chickens. In addition, it was found that the supplementation
of the ration with vitamin E (both at an amount of 85 IU/kg and 200 IU/kg of diets), or only
the addition of 3 g/kg of a product containing polyphenols, are not sufficient to prevent the
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adverse effects of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, polyphenols extracted from green tea, a
source of catechins (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin),
which were added to the diets of growing pigs over a period of 5 weeks in the amount of 10
and 100 mg/kg of BW had no effect on vitamin E concentrations in plasma, liver and muscles,
the antioxidant status or the quality of meat (Augustin et al., 2008). On the other hand, in a
study by Luehring et al. (2011), the supplementation of a complete diet for pigs with a
reduced vitamin E content, with quercetin at 10 mg/kg of BW resulted in an increase in the
amount of α-tocopherol, and exhibited antioxidant properties for a dose with an increased
content of fish oil. Similar results were reported by Botsoglou et al. (2012) in whose study,
the administration of α-tocopherol improved the antioxidant status of eggs enriched with n-3
fatty acids. Diets for laying hens were supplemented with 4% linseed oil, 200 mg/kg of α-
tocopherol, 5 or 10 g olive leaves/ kg feed. Throughout the entire storage period, vitamin E
was more effective in reducing MDA concentrations in eggs than the addition of 10 g/kg olive
leaves which are abundant in polyphenols. In a study by Ting et al. (2011), feed
supplementation with naringenin and hesperetin in the amount of 2 g/kg of feed improved egg
quality by significantly lowering total cholesterol levels and increasing yolk weight
(naringenin) in comparison with eggs from the remaining groups.
Hesperidin, a bioflavonoid found in citrus fruit, is a powerful antioxidant. When added
to broiler diets in the amount of 3 g/kg of feed, hesperidin significantly influenced the pH and
color, and lowered MDA concentrations in breast muscles after 3, 6 and 9 days of storage
relative to the control group. Tocopherol acetate administered to chickens at 2 g/kg of feed
was characterized by higher antioxidant potential than both doses of hesperidin (11.33 vs.
44.94; 52.27 ng/g MDA; P≤0.05) (Simitzis et al., 2011). Similar results were reported by
Goliomytis et al. (2015) in a study of broilers where vitamin E was the most potent
antioxidant (P≤0.05), but hesperidin and naringin administered at 1.5 g/kg of feed also
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reduced MDA concentrations in breast muscles after 6 days of storage relative to the tissues
of control group birds (6.64 vs. 8.06; 9.03 vs. 12.16 ng MDA/g meat). Dietary
supplementation with polyphenols did not affect the color, cooking loss or pH24 of breast
muscles. In another experiment, the addition of hesperidin and genistein in the amount of 20
mg/kg of feed significantly influenced (P≤0.05) color lightness (L*), increased pH48 (5.97 vs.
5.79) and improved the water holding capacity (55.00% vs. 49.42%) of broiler meat relative
to control. In breast muscles stored for 15 days, MDA concentrations were lowest in the group
whose diets were supplemented with the highest polyphenol dose (2.16 vs. 5.72 nmol
MDA/mg protein). Dietary supplementation did not influence the sensory attributes of broiler
meat (Kamboh and Zhu, 2013b). In another experiment, the addition of hesperidin and
genistein to broiler diets improved the fatty acid profile (PUFAs, n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio) of
breast muscles (P≤0.05) (Kamboh and Zhu, 2013a).
Polyphenols improve the quality of animal products, minimize the adverse
consequences of lipid peroxidation by decreasing MDA concentrations and increasing
tocopherol levels in tissues. Vitamin E is a more potent antioxidant than polyphenols.
Extensive research has proven that polyphenols, powerful antioxidants which are
ubiquitous in plants, constitute a valuable supplement for animal diets. Those biologically
active compounds improve the quality of animal products and contribute to animal health and
performance. They minimize the adverse effects of lipid peroxidation (by lowering MDA
levels), improve the antioxidant status of animals (by increasing the concentrations of vitamin
E, vitamin C and antioxidant enzymes in blood and muscles), inhibit the proliferation of
pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, and improve gut health. Despite the above,
polyphenols exert an ambiguous effect on nutrient digestibility and growth performance. For
this reason, further research is required to investigate the efficacy of polyphenols in animal
nutrition.
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... The addition of seeds and grape pomace with polyphenols to pig diets improved feed to meat conversion ratio. Similarly, the supplementation of chicken diets with plant extracts rich in flavonoids and tannins increased the daily weight gain of animals and their final weight (Lipiński, Mazur, Antoszkiewicz, & Purwin, 2017). Despite all the reported benefits for both ruminants and monogastric animals, polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and further research is required to optimize their use in livestock farming (Lipiński et al., 2017). ...
... Similarly, the supplementation of chicken diets with plant extracts rich in flavonoids and tannins increased the daily weight gain of animals and their final weight (Lipiński, Mazur, Antoszkiewicz, & Purwin, 2017). Despite all the reported benefits for both ruminants and monogastric animals, polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and further research is required to optimize their use in livestock farming (Lipiński et al., 2017). ...
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The production of minimally processed foods is a critical process as the organoleptic characteristics of the food must be maintained. However, the treatments applied to this type of food may not be enough to eliminate the pre and postharvest foodborne microbiological contamination that can occur during the irrigation, fertilization, as well as the handling up to delivery and final consumption. In addition to bacterial and parasitic foodborne pathogens, enteric viruses pose health risks to consumers as they can be resistant to many of the standard procedures in the elaboration of minimally processed foods, while remaining stable at room temperature and refrigeration, as well as in raw or lightly cooked products (for example, bivalve molluscs). This chapter reviews human and zoonotic viral contamination in minimally processed foods and the current strategies for their control.
... Medicinal plants exert favorable effects on animal and human health due to their content of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols [6,7]. Polyphenols have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-mutagenic, and anti-allergic properties [8,9]. They can alleviate infection-related inflammatory diseases via the modulation of the pathogen recognition receptor--mediated signaling pathways [10]. ...
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... Polyphenol's content was significantly increase in thigh meat as a response of the additives ( Figure 2B), especially in the S group. This is a beneficial effect in terms of impact on human health because they exert immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antiallergic and detoxification activities [43]. Moreover, antioxidants are essential for maintaining maximum health and wellness as they protect us from free radical damage. ...
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... The intestinal and colonic epithelial cells both give similar responses against iHSP stimuli. Gut iHSP vanishes in germ-free animals [105,106]. Further, comprehensive knowledge on the dietary intervention of heat shock proteins and gut microbiota is well documented by [51]. The animals experience different stresses during their adaptations as depicted in Figure 2. ...
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Gut microbiota is the natural residents of the intestinal ecosystem which display multiple functions that provide beneficial effects on host physiology. Disturbances in gut microbiota in weaning stress are regulated by the immune system and oxidative stress-related protein pathways. Weaning stress also alters gut microbiota response, limits digestibility, and influences animal productive performance through the production of inflammatory molecules. Heat shock proteins are the molecular chaperones that perform array functions from physiological to pathological point of view and remodeling cellular stress response. As it is involved in the defense mechanism, polyphenols ensure cellular tolerance against enormous stimuli. Polyphenols are nature-blessed compounds that show their existence in plenty of amounts. Due to their wider availability and popularity, they can exert strong immunomodulatory, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Their promising health-promoting effects have been demonstrated in different cellular and animal studies. Dietary interventions with polyphenols may alter the gut microbiome response and attenuate the weaning stress related to inflammation. Further, polyphenols elicit health-favored effects through ameliorating inflammatory processes to improve digestibility and thereby exert a protective effect on animal production. Here, in this article, we will expand the role of dietary polyphenol intervention strategies in weaning stress which perturbs gut microbiota function and also paid emphasis to heat shock proteins in gut health. This review article gives new direction to the feed industry to formulate diet containing polyphenols which would have a significant impact on animal health.
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Aronia melanocarpa Pomace (AMP) is a by-product of juices production and is a kind of natural antioxidant that can benefit health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMP as feed additives in diets fed to weaned piglets and finishing pigs. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary AMP supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and biochemical profile in serum in pigs at weaned stage and on carcass traits and meat quality in pigs at finishing stage. In Exp.1, 96 weaned pigs with initial body weight (IBM) 8.50 ± 1.28 kg were allotted to 4 dietary treatments for 28 days. In Exp. 2, 96 finishing pigs (IBW: 79.21 ± 7.85 kg) were distributed to 4 dietary treatments for 46 days. The four treatment diets included a basal diet and three experimental diets with 0.5‰, 1‰, and 2‰ AMP, respectively in both Exp. 1 and Exp. 2. The results showed that the 2‰ AMP diets improved the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0.01), the average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05), and decreased (P < 0.01) the diarrhea rate in piglets, compared to control diet during day 0-14 and 0-28. Diets with 1‰ and 2‰ AMP addition improved (P = 0.01) the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) content in the serum of piglets on day 28. In Exp. 2, dietary AMP supplementation increased the GSH-Px contents in serum (P < 0.05) and liver (P < 0.01), improved the meat quality by reducing drip loss (P < 0.05) and increasing postmortem pH values (P < 0.05), and increased Gpx1 (P < 0.05) and Gpx4 (P < 0.05) mRNA expression in liver of finishing pigs. In conclusion, it is feasible to include AMP as a feed additive in the diet of pigs at weaned and finishing stages.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of anti-stress herbs(GingkoBiloba and Dry Peppermint)and vitamin C as feed additives, on behavioral parameters, productive performance, histopathology and Hematology of broiler chickens during the summer heat stress. A total of 300 one day-old chicks of Cobb species were the subject of this study, chicks were divided into 5dietary treatments, each consisting of 2 replication (n=10). First treatment (Control group)the chicks were fed on commercial basal diet, second group (T1), fed on the same diet enriched with 0.2 %dry peppermint,third group (T2)fed on the same diet enriched with 0.06 % Gingko biloba(GB), fourth group (T3) fed on the same diet supplemented with 0.05% Vitamin C, (T4) fed on the same diet enriched with 0.2 % dry peppermint plus 0.06% Gingko biloba(GB) and fifth group.During 5 weeks experimental period, the behavioural measurements as frequency of feeding, drinking, comfort behaviour; including leg and wing stretch, preening, ground scratch, body shaking and resting behaviour were observed and recorded. Broiler performance including feed intake and body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, mortality rate,internal organs weight (gizzard, liver, heart, spleen and bursa). Hematological and Immunity parameters including antibodies titer for infectious bronchitis, Newcastle and Infectious Bursal were measured also Total erythrocyte count, Total leucocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, Hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume.Histopathology section for bursa, spleen small and large intestine were examined. Significant differences were observed between different herbal treatments and vitamin C in ingestive behavior, comfort behaviour, feed intake, final body weight, food conversion ratio, dressing weight, dressing percentage, mortality rate, Internal organs weight and immunity. It can be concluded that Broiler welfare, productive performance and immune response of broilers against Newcastle disease, Infectious Bursal disease and Infectious Bronchitis improved through supplying broiler with Anti-stress plants like dry peppermint, Gingko Biloba as management practices during summer.
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An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing broiler feed with hesperidin or naringin, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, breast meat quality and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. One of the groups served as a control (C) and was given commercial basal diets, whereas the other five groups were given the same diets further supplemented with naringin at 0.75 g/kg (N1), naringin at 1.5 g/kg (N2), hesperidin at 0.75 g/kg (E1), hesperidin at 1.5 g/kg (E2) and a-tocopheryl acetate at 0.2 g/kg (E). At 42 days of age, 10 chickens per treatment group were slaughtered for meat quality and oxidative stability assessment. No significant differences were observed among groups in final body weight, carcass weight and internal organs weights (P>0.05) apart from liver that decreased linearly with increased levels of naringin (P-linear<0.05). Regarding the breast meat quality parameters, only redness (a*) value was higher in E1 and N1 group compared to VE group (P<0.05), while all the others i.e. shear values (N/mm2), pH24, cooking loss (%) and L* and b* color parameters were not significantly different among groups (P>0.05). Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that after hesperidin and naringin dietary supplementation, malondialdehyde values decreased in tissue samples in a dose depended manner (P-linear<0.05). In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin, positively influence meat antioxidative properties without negative implications on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in poultry, thus appearing as important additives for both the consumer and the industry.
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Dietary supplementation of antioxidants is a vital route to affect the oxidative stability and fatty acid profile of broiler meat. The supplementation of feed with antioxidants decreases degradation of lipids in muscles thereby enhances meat stability. The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of dietary quercetin in combination with α-tocopherol on growth performance, antioxidant potential, lipid stability and fatty acid composition in breast meat of birds. Accordingly, one day old 300 Hubbard strain male broiler birds were given three levels of quercetin @100, 200 and 300 mg/kg feed in combination with α-tocopherol @150, 225 and 300 mg/kg feed. The resultant meat was subjected to antioxidant assay, lipid stability, quantification of antioxidants followed by fatty acid profile of broiler breast meat. The results explicated that feed treatments imparted momentous effect on gain in weight, and feed conversion efficiency however, intake of feed in birds affected non-momentously. The highest weight gain recorded in T9 as 2374.67 & 2388 g/bird followed by T8 & T6 2350 & 2353.33 and 2293.33 & 2307 g/bird, respectively whilst the lowest in T0 as 1992.67 & 1999 g/bird during the experimental year 2013 and 2014. The results regarding antioxidant potential revealed that among treatments, T9 exhibited highest values for total phenolic contents (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) & ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) i.e. 158.70 ± 0.84 mg GAE/100 g, 82.40 ± 0.93 % and 682 ± 2.11 μmol/Fe(+2/)g, respectively as compared to T0 104.27 ± 1.64 mg GAE/100 g, 54.71 ± 0.64 % and 542.67 ± 1.74 μmol/Fe(+2) /g of meat, correspondingly. The TBARS assay indicated that malondialdehydes production in meat increased during storage however, antioxidants deposition varied significantly among treatments. Fatty acid compositional analysis revealed that addition of quercetin with α-tocopherol in the bird's diet decreased the fatty acid generation particularly saturated fatty acids. Conclusively, dietary supplementation of quercetin along with α-tocopherol improves growth performance, antioxidant capacity, stability of lipids and fatty acid composition in breast meat of birds.
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Sensorial and nutritional qualities of animal products could be highly deteriorated by bad practices during the pre-abattage period. Transport, handling or bad feeding strategy could alter the pro and anti-oxidant equilibrium of muscle, which could involve a higher susceptibility to lipids and proteins peroxidation. Peroxidation reactions are able to alter the animal products qualities (meat, milk, egg) and particularly the color and the tenderness of meat. Adapted feeding strategy and good preservation of antioxidant status of animals seems to be the best way to preserve the nutritional quality of animal products.
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Plants produce a vast array of secondary metabolites. There are three major groups of them: terpenes, nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites and phenolics. These molecules have a great impact on biology of plants and environment. Here, we briefly introduce flavonoids - one of the largest class of plant phenolics. Their biosynthesis, properties and different functions are presented. Special attention is paid to legume plants and a role of flavonoids as signaling molecules in symbiosis. For human nutrition, flavonoids represent compounds with health-promoting activities and such properties for some of them are also indicated.
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The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant status and blood lipid profile of pigs fed diets enriched with a-linolenic acid (ALA) and containing two sets of antioxidants: phenolic compounds of diet components (barley, triticale, naked oat and buckwheat by-products) only, or phenolic compounds and vitamin E supplementation. A three-factorial experiment was performed on growing-finishing barrows (6-7 pigs per group) fed individually diets supplemented with 3% linseed oil, formulated as isoenergetic, isofibre and isofat. The influence of the type of diet (barleytriticale-based control diets vs 40%-oat-based diets), the share of buckwheat by-products (0 vs 10/12% of grower/finisher diets), and vitamin E supplementation (0 vs 100 1U"kg(-1)) was evaluated. The analysed feed materials could be classified according to their total phenolic compound (TPC) content and in vitro antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the following decreasing order: buckwheat hulls and bran >> barley >> naked oat triticale. Diets with higher levels of TPC and TAC, i.e. barleytriticale-based control diets and diets containing buckwheat by-products, increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, similarly as 100 1U.kg(-1) vitamin E supplementation, thus suggesting an improvement in the antioxidant status of pigs. Only vitamin E supplementation significantly (over four-fold) increased vitamin E concentrations in the blood serum and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) of pigs, and decreased the rate of lipid oxidation in LD. The obtained results suggest that the phenolics present in cereal grains and in buckwheat, occurring as natural antioxidants in ALA-rich and vitamin E-deficient diets, are not sufficient to maintain the oxidative stability of pork. Diets containing 40% oat significantly improved the HDL/TCH and HDL/LDL ratios in serum.
Article
The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of husked and naked oat grain used in the diets supplemented with oils, but not supplemented with vitamin E and selenium, on the meat quality and fattening results of pigs. 24 crossbred barrows were fed individually, from approx. 40 to 104 kg BW. The control diet (C) contained triticale and two experimental diets contained either 45% of husked oat (O) or 45% of naked oat (NO). The diets were formulated as prooxidative, i.e. they were supplemented with 3% of linseed oil and 1% of rapeseed oil during the grower period, as well as with 3% of linseed oil during the finisher period. All diets were isolipidic and isofibrous. Growth performance, carcass quality, as well as the pH, chemical composition, fatty acids, drip loss, color (L*, a*, b*), sensory properties, the content of vitamin E, vitamin A and TBARS in longissimus dorsi (LM) samples were determined. The experimental treatments had no effect on growth performance, meatiness, and contents of protein and fat in LM samples. Meat from pigs fed the diet with husked oat had a more desirable color (L*) than meat from pigs fed the control diet or the diet with naked oat. After 96 hours of storage at 4°C LM samples of pigs given the diet with naked oat had lower (P>0.05) drip loss (6.49%), as of pigs fed diets with husked oat (7.30%) or triticale (8.21%). Naked oat significantly increased the oxidative stability of meat, measured based on the formation of TBARS.
Article
Plants and their biologically active chemical constituents present numerous opportunities for improving animal production by inclusion in the diet. In recent years, interest has grown in the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of a number of polyphenols found in different plants. The by-products of the wine industry (grape pomace, skin and seeds) and wine polyphenol extracts contain a wide range of bioactive compounds. However, studies on grape by-products are very limited, despite their richness polyphenolic substances. In this context, the purpose of this review is summarize recent advances of research in grape by-products including the phenolic composition, mechanism of intestinal and hepatic conjugation, plasma transport and elimination in bile and urine, and biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial effect. Given their antioxidant activity, the inclusion of these by-products in feed rations would not only enhance the oxidative stability of the meat and reduce the amount of additives like vitamin E but also improve meat quality through direct addition of these natural antioxidants, thereby helping to meet consumer demand for healthier meat products. With respect to antimicrobial activity, they enhance the growth of specific beneficial bacteria strains in the intestinal tract while competitively excluding certain pathogenic bacteria.