ArticlePDF Available

Use of Pyrethrin/ Pyrethrum and its Effect on Environment and Human: A Review

Authors:
  • Green India Technological Alliance for Advances and Research

Abstract and Figures

Pyrethrins and pyrethrum are the most frequently used home and garden insecticides in the India. They are often used in indoor sprays, pet shampoos, and aerosol bombs to kill flying and jumping insects. Pyrethrins are a common cause of insecticide poisonings. According to Ministry of Environment and Forest survey of poison control centers, they cause more insecticide poisoning incidents than any other class of insecticides except the organophosphates. Symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. Pyrethrins can trigger life-threatening allergic responses including heart failure and severe asthma. In laboratory animals exposed through eating, by injection, or through breathing, pyrethrins have caused anemia. Experiments with dairy cows suggest that nursing mothers exposed to pyrethrins can pass them on to their children. Pyrethrins disrupt the normal functioning of sex hormones. They inhibit binding of sex hormones to human genital skin and proteins in human blood. Pyrethrins are classified as “likely to be human carcinogens” by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because they cause thyroid tumors in laboratory tests. Farmers who use pyrethrins have an increased risk of developing leukemia. Pyrethrins are extremely toxic to bees, fish, and other aquatic animals. Following indoor treatments, pyrethrins have persisted up to 2 1/2 months in carpet dust.
Content may be subject to copyright.
52
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
Review Article
Use of Pyrethrin/ Pyrethrum and its Effect on Environment
and Human: A Review
Vishal Soni*, Amruta Anjikar
CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI),
Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
*vishalsoni8912@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Pyrethrins and pyrethrum are the most frequently used home and garden insecticides in the India. They
are often used in indoor sprays, pet shampoos, and aerosol bombs to kill flying and jumping insects.
Pyrethrins are a common cause of insecticide poisonings. According to Ministry of Environment and
Forest survey of poison control centers, they cause more insecticide poisoning incidents than any other
class of insecticides except the organophosphates. Symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and
difficulty breathing. Pyrethrins can trigger life-threatening allergic responses including heart failure and
severe asthma. In laboratory animals exposed through eating, by injection, or through breathing,
pyrethrins have caused anemia. Experiments with dairy cows suggest that nursing mothers exposed to
pyrethrins can pass them on to their children. Pyrethrins disrupt the normal functioning of sex
hormones. They inhibit binding of sex hormones to human genital skin and proteins in human blood.
Pyrethrins are classified as “likely to be human carcinogens” by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
because they cause thyroid tumors in laboratory tests. Farmers who use pyrethrins have an increased
risk of developing leukemia. Pyrethrins are extremely toxic to bees, fish, and other aquatic animals.
Following indoor treatments, pyrethrins have persisted up to 2 1/2 months in carpet dust.
Keywords: Pyrethrin, Pyrethrum, Effect on Environment, Effect on Human
INTRODUCTION
Pyrethrum is the generic name given to a plant
based insecticide derived from the powdered,
dried flower heads of the pyrethrum daisy,
chiefly Chrysanthemum cinerariae folium, but
also in C. coccineum and C. marshalli. Pyrethrins
are the six constituent compounds with
insecticidal properties that occur in these
Chrysanthemum species. Be careful not to
confuse pyrethrum with pyrethrin. Pyrethrin
refers to a more refined extract of pyrethrum. [1]
Pyrethrins are the six insecticidal active
compounds in pyrethrum. You will often find
pyrethrum mixed with a synergist such as
piperonyl butoxide (PBO). PBO gives pyrethrum
an added "kick" that makes it more effective
against insects.
Figure 1: Structure of Pyrethrin
Use of Pyrethrum:
Pyrethrum is used widely throughout the world
to control many human and household pests
such as mosquitoes and houseflies. While it was
used widely in agriculture before World War II,
How to cite this article: V Soni, A Anjikar; Use of Pyrethrin/ Pyrethrum and its Effect on Environment and
Human: A Review; PharmaTutor; 2014; 2(6); 52-60
53
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
cheaper and more effective synthetic products
have mostly replaced it for farm use. [4] More
recently, new pyrethrum products, often
solvent-based and including PBO, have
appeared on the agriculture market. [7] Other
than home and garden uses, pyrethrins are
used on a variety of agricultural crops and for
structural and public health pest control.
Worldwide, about 200,000 kilograms (440,000
pounds) of pyrethrins are used each year. [6]
MODE OF ACTION
Pyrethrum induces a toxic effect in insects
when it penetrates the cuticle and reaches the
nervous system. The pyrethrins that compose
pyrethrum bind to sodium channels that occur
along the length of nerve cells. Sodium channels
are responsible for nerve signal transmission
along the length of the nerve cell by permitting
the flux of sodium ions. When pyrethrins bind
to sodium channels, normal function of the
channels is obstructed thereby resulting in
hyper excitation if the nerve cell and,
consequently, a loss of function of the nerve
cell. [9] The shutdown of the insect nervous
system and insect death are most often the
consequences of insect exposure to pyrethrins.
The commercially available combination of
pyrethrins (0.17-0.33%) and piperonyl butoxide
(2-4%) seems to be safe when applied to the
skin in a non aerosol product. [10]
HAZARDS OF INERT INGREDIENTS
Propane is used as an inert propellant in
pyrethrin products. It can cause dizziness when
inhaled. It is also “extremely flammable” and
easily ignited by heat, sparks, or flame. [2]
Isobutene is also used as an inert propellant in
pyrethrin products. It depresses the central
nervous system and can cause dizziness when
inhaled. Like propane, it is extremely flammable
and easily ignited. [4]
Hydro treated light petroleum distillates
(hydro treated kerosene) are used as an inert
solvent in pyrethrin products. The Chemical
Abstract Services number for this solvent is
64742-47-8. This solvent has caused skin tumors
when applied to the skin of laboratory mice. [6]
Hydro treated heavy naphtha (white spirits) is
also used as an inert solvent in pyrethrin
products. [1] The Chemical Abstract Services
number for this solvent is 64742-48-9. It is
damaging to kidneys and the nervous system. [8]
In a recent laboratory study, the offspring of
animals exposed to white spirits developed
“long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes”
in brain cells. This damage to the brain was
caused by an inability to maintain normal
calcium concentrations. [9]
Toxicological Information:
Pyrethrum (as 100%):
Acute Oral Toxicity LD50 (rat) = 3500 mg/kg
Acute Skin Toxicity LD50 (rabbit) = >19000
mg/kg
Piperonyl Butoxide (as 100%):
Acute Oral Toxicity LD50 (rat) = 6150 mg/kg
Acute Skin Toxicity LD50 (rabbit) = 1880 mg/kg
HOW SAFE IS PYRETHRUM?
Pyrethrum has been extensively studied for its
effects on people and the environment. Like all
insecticides, pyrethrum is used to have a toxic
effect on insects. Thus it is not correct to say
that pyrethrum is "safe." At the same time, we
are confident that pyrethrum has a very good
toxicity profile. [5] For mammals, doses that elicit
toxic reactions are significantly larger than the
exposures people typically experience in using
pyrethrum based products.
Effect on the Environment:
Fate in water: Pyrethrum compounds are
broken down in water to nontoxic products. [10]
54
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
Soil persistence: Soil application studies of
pyrethrum showed a half life of only 1-2 hours.
[10] When used indoors, pyrethrum can persist
much longer; up to two months or more in
carpet dust. [11]
Wild life: Pyrethrum is extremely toxic to fish
such as bluegill and lake trout, while it is slightly
or moderately toxic to bird species, such as
mallards and bobwhite quail. Natural pyrethrins
are highly fat soluble, but are easily
metabolized and thus do not accumulate in the
body. Because pyrethrin-I and pyrethrin-II have
multiple sites in their structures that can be
readily attacked in biological systems, it is
unlikely that they will concentrate in the food
chain. [12]
Effect on beneficial arthropods: Synthetic
pyrethroids are broad spectrum insecticides
and are notorious for killing and repelling
beneficial arthropods. However, since
pyrethrum residues on the plant break down
quickly, the effect on natural enemies is
reduced. Pyrethrum is highly toxic to bees. The
average lethal dose (LD50) for honeybees was
measured at .022 micrograms per bee. [13] Direct
hits on honeybees and beneficial wasps are
likely to be lethal. [13]
Effect on Human Health:
Acute Toxicity: On broken skin, pyrethrum
produces irritation and sensitization, which is
further aggravated by sun exposure. Absorption
of pyrethrum through the stomach and
intestines and through the skin is slow. [14]
However; humans can absorb pyrethrum more
quickly through the lungs during respiration.
Response appears to depend on the pyrethrum
compound used. Inhaling high levels of
pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic
breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache,
nausea, lack of coordination, tremors,
convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and
burning and itching sensations. [15] The lowest
lethal oral dose of pyrethrum is 750 mg/kg for
children and 1,000 mg/kg for adults. Oral LD50
values of pyrethrins in rats range from 200
mg/kg to greater than 2,600 mg/kg. Some of
this variability is due to the variety of
constituents in the formulation. Pyrethrins are a
common cause of insecticide poisonings. [22]
Researchers found that pyrethrins, with the
synergist piperonyl butoxide, caused over 9,000
incidents. Only the organophosphate
insecticides caused more insecticide poisoning
incidents. [13] Some symptoms of pyrethrin
poisoning in people, headaches and dizziness,
are related to disruptions of the nervous
system. Laboratory tests have demonstrated
that pyrethrins cause several neurological
disruptions in mammals. [24] These may be the
cause of the sodium channel disruption that
results in their toxic effects in insects, or an
additional effect. Researchers from the
University of Alexandria (Egypt) showed that
pyrethrins inhibited calcium uptake in rat brain
cells. Calcium plays a “vital role” [15] in the
nervous system, promoting the normal release
of transmitter chemicals from junctions
between nerves and stabilizing the membrane
surrounding nerve cells. [15] Two groups of
researchers, from the University of Mississippi
Medical Center and the University of Tampere
Medical School (Finland) showed that
pyrethrins disrupt energy production in brain
cells. [16, 17] Pyrethrins also affect physiological
processes that are not related to the nervous
system. For example, researchers at the Osaka
City Institute of Public Health and
Environmental Sciences (Japan) showed that in
rat livers pyrethrins inhibit mitochondria; the
cellular bodies that convert food to usable
energy. [18] Pyrethrins can trigger allergic
responses [19, 20] that range from unpleasant to
life-threatening. Skin rashes, asthma, and hives
caused by exposure to pyrethrins or pyrethrum
have been reported in medical literature since
the 1920s and 1930s.
55
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
Figure 2: Frequency of Pyrethrin Poisoning
Organ Toxicity: In mammals, tissue
accumulation has not been recorded. At high
doses, pyrethrum can be damaging to the
central nervous system and the immune
system. [25] When the immune system is
attacked by pyrethrum, allergies can be
worsened. Animals fed large doses of pyrethrins
may experience liver damage. Rats fed
pyrethrin at high levels for two years showed no
significant effect on survival, but slight, definite
damage to the livers was observed. [23]
Fate in Humans and Animals: Pyrethrins and
their metabolites are not known to be stored in
the body nor excreted in the milk. The urine and
feces of people given oral doses of pyrethrum
contain chrysan the mumic acid and other
metabolites. [21] These metabolites are less toxic
to mammals than are the parent compounds.
Pyrethrins I and II are excreted unchanged in
the feces. Other pyrethrum components
undergo rapid destruction and detoxification in
the liver and gastrointestinal tract. [30]
Effects on the Circulatory System: Pyrethrins
affect both sugar levels and oxygen-carrying
ability of blood. Researchers from the
University in Rajasthan (India) showed that an
injection of pyrethrins caused gerbil blood sugar
levels to rise between 30 and 70 percent
(depending on dose). Blood sugar peaked an
hour after treatment, but the increase persisted
for several days. [23] The same researchers
showed that an injection of pyrethrins caused a
decrease in the amount of hemoglobin (oxygen-
carrying molecules) in the blood [27], as well as a
decrease in the number of red blood cells.
Hemoglobin concentration remained low for 2
3 weeks. [28] Other types of exposures with a
longer duration caused similar effects. A three-
month feeding study with rats found pyrethrins
caused a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin
in females at doses at or above 170 milligrams
of pyrethrins per kilogram of body weight
(mg/kg) per day (the middle dose in this
experiment). Similar effects were found in
males at higher exposures. A three month
inhalation study found that pyrethrins caused
anemia at doses at or above 0.07 milligrams per
liter of air in males (all but the lowest dose in
this experiment). They also caused anemia in
females, although at higher exposures.
56
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
Figure 3: Exposure to Pyrethrins Cause Anemia
Disruption of Hormone Systems: The impact that environmental pollutants can have on the normal
function of human and animal hormone systems has been a significant concern in the last decade. [31]
Hormones are biologically active molecules that control all responses and functions of frequency of
several cancers in rats. The incidence of liver tumors was higher in exposed female rats than in
unexposed ones. Also, in both sexes, the incidence of thyroid tumors was greater in exposed rats than in
unexposed ones. [34] Other carcinogenicity studies showed that the incidence of lung cancers in exposed
male mice was greater than in unexposed ones[37] and that the incidence of parathyroid tumors was
greater in exposed rats than in unexposed ones. [38]
Figure 4: Exposure to Pyrethrins Disrupts Normal Hormone Function
57
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
Chronic Toxicity: Overall, pyrethrins have low
chronic toxicity to humans and the most
common problems in humans have resulted
from the allergenic properties of pyrethrum.
Patch tests for allergic reaction are an
important tool in determining an individual’s
sensitivity to compounds. [38] Pyrethrum can
produce skin irritation, itching, pricking
sensations and local burning sensations. These
symptoms may last for about two days[40]
reports more serious chronic effects, including
circulatory and hormonal effects.
Reproductive Effects: Rabbits that received
pyrethrins orally at high doses during the
sensitive period of pregnancy had normal
litters. A group of rats fed very high levels of
pyrethrins daily for three weeks before first
mating had litters with weanling weights much
lower than normal. [42,43] Overall pyrethrins
appear to have low reproductive toxicity. [26]
Carcinogenic Effects: Pyrethrins are associated
with increased cancer risks among farmers and
have also caused cancer in laboratory tests. [32]
Researchers from the National Cancer Institute
studying risk factors for leukemia found that
farmers exposed to pyrethrins used for pest
control on livestock had an increased risk of
developing leukemia. [27, 29] Exposure to
pyrethrins was associated with a 3.7-fold
increase in risk. [33] In 1999 evaluated that the
ability of pyrethrins to cause cancer. The agency
concluded that pyrethrins should be classified
as “likely to be a human carcinogen by the oral
route.” This evaluation was based on tests
which demonstrated increases in the frequency
of several cancers in rats. [23] The incidence of
liver tumors was higher in exposed female rats
than in unexposed ones. Also, in both sexes, the
incidence of thyroid tumors was greater in
exposed rats than in unexposed ones. [36,39]
Other carcinogenicity studies showed that the
incidence of lung cancers in exposed male mice
was greater than in unexposed ones[37] and that
the incidence of parathyroid tumors was
greater in exposed rats than in unexposed ones.
[8]
Effects on Soil Fertility: Insecticides are
generally not expected to have impacts on
plants. However, they can indirectly affect plant
growth if they change the growth or abundance
of soil microorganisms that are important in the
maintenance of soil fertility. [41] Scientists at the
University of Ibadan (Nigeria) showed that
treatment of agricultural soils with pyrethrin
caused an increase in the abundance of soil
bacteria and a decrease in the abundance of soil
fungi. In addition, the number of these species
was less in treated soil than in untreated soil. [47]
The end result was a reduction in the amount of
the important soil nutrient nitrogen. Another
study, from the Central Rice Institute (India),
showed that pyrethrin treatment of rice fields
reduced the nitrogen- fixing ability of the soils
as much as 80 percent. Nitrogen fixation is the
conversion (mostly by bacteria) of atmospheric
nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants. [46]
Persistence: Outdoors, pyrethrins persist only
for a short time. [43] For example, after
application of pyrethrins to bare soil, the half-
life (the time required for half of the applied
pyrethrin to break down or move away from
the application site) was two hours or less.
Pyrethrins persist much longer indoors than
they do outdoors. Studies conducted at the
University of Ulm and the Fraunhofer Institute
of Toxicology and Aerosol Research (Germany)
found that pyrethrins persisted 60 hours after
treatment on horizontal surfaces, two weeks
after treatment on airborne particles, and over
two months in carpet dust.
58
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
Figure 5: Persistence of Pyrethrins after treatment
REFERENCES
1. Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. Draft. P.147-150. Dept. of Health and Human
Services.
2. McCord, C.P., C.H. Kilker, and D.K. Minster. Pyrethrum dermatitis. 1921. JAMA 77(6): 448-449.
3. Whitmore, R.W., J.E. Kelly, and P.L. Reading. National home and garden pesticide use survey. Final
report, vol. 1: Executive summary, results, and recommendations. Research Triangle Park NC: Research
Triangle Institute. 1992.
4. Casida, J.F. and G.B. Quistad. Metabolism and synergism of pyrethrins. In Pyrethrum flowers:
production, chemistry, toxicology, and uses, ed. J.E. Casida and G.B. Quistad. New York NY: Oxford
University Press. 1995. Pp. 259-276.
5. Ware, G.W. The pesticide book. Fresno CA: Thomson Publications. 2000. Pp. 65-66.
6. Crosby, D.G. Environmental fate of pyrethrins. In Pyrethrum flowers: production, chemistry,
toxicology, and uses, ed. J.E. Casida and G.B. Quistad. New York NY: Oxford University Press. 1995. Pp.
194-213.
7. Calif. Environmental Protection Agency. Dept. of Pesticide Regulation. Summary of pesticide use
report data: 2000, indexed by chemical. 2001. Pp. 341-343.
8. Ray, D.E. and P.J. Forshaw. Pyrethroid insecticides: Poisoning syndromes, synergies, and therapies.
Clin. Toxicol. 2000. 38:95-101.
9. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Sec. 2.
10. 40 Code of Federal Regulations 158.340.
11. J. Blondell, Health Effects Div. U.S. EPA. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Undated memo.
Human insecticide exposures reported to poison control centers in 1991.
12. Shafey, O., L. Mehler, and L. Baum. Illnesses associated with use of automatic insecticide dispenser
unitsselected states and United States, 19861999. 2000. MMWR 49(22): 492-495.
13. Ramadan, A.A. et al. Action of pyrethroids on K+-stimulated calcium uptake by, and [3H] nimodipine
59
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
binding to, rat brain synaptosomes. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 1988. 32:114-122.
14. Prasada Rao, K.S., C.S. Chetty, and D. Desaiah. 1984. In vitro effects of pyrethroids on rat brain and
liver ATPase activities. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 14: 257-265.
15.Kakko, I., T. Toimela, and H. Tähti. Piperonylbutoxide potentiates the synaptosome ATPase inhibiting
effect of pyrethrin. Chemosphere 2000. 40: 301-305.
16. Yamano, T. and S. Morita. Effects of pesticides on isolated rat hepatocytes, mitochondria, and
microsomes. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1993. 25: 271-278.
17. Adams, R.M. Occupational skin disease. New York: Grune& Stratton. 1983. p. 362.
18. Wax, P.M. and R.S. Hoffman. Fatality associated with inhalation of a pyrethrin shampoo. Clin.
Toxicol. 1994. 32: 457-460.
19. Wagner, S.L. Fatal asthma in a child after use of an animal shampoo containing pyrethrin. West J.
Med. 2000. 173:86-87.
20. Zucker, A. Investigation of purified pyrethrum extracts. Ann. Aller. 1965. 23: 335-339.
21. Karel, A.K. and S.C. Saxena. Investigation on the acute toxic effect of pyrethrum on the blood glucose
and of glucose administration on the acute pyrethrum toxicity in MerioneshurrianaeJerdon (Rodentia).
Arch. Intern.Physiol.Biochim. 1975. 83:1925.
22. Saxena, S.C. and A.K. Karel. A note on the effect of pyrethrum on haemoglobin concentration of
Indian desert gerbils, Merioneshurrianae. Pyreth. 1974. 12:161-162.
23. Karel, A.K. and S.C. Saxena. Investigations on the acute toxic effect of pyrethrum on various
haemotological aspects of Merioneshurrianae Jerdon, the Indian desert gerbil. Pyreth. 1975. 13: 61-67.
24. World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization. 2000. Pesticide residues in
food1999. Part II. Toxicological evaluations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Pp. 277-
278.
25. Schoenig, G.P. Mammalian toxicology of pyrethrum extract. In Pyrethrum flowers: production,
chemistry, toxicology, and uses, ed. J.E. Casida and G.B. Quistad. New York NY: Oxford University Press.
1995. Pp. 249-257.
26. Memo from L.J. Hansen to L. DeLuise. U.S. EPA. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Pyrethrum
extract (technical). Evaluation of a two-generation rat reproduction study to support reregistration of
pyrethrum extract. 1991.
27. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2000.
Pesticide residues in food2000. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 163. p. 114.
28. National Research Council. Commission on Life Sciences. Board on Environmental Studies and
Toxicology. 1999. Hormonally active agents in the environment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy
Press, p. 10.
29. Eubanks, M.W. Hormones and health. Environ. Health Persp. 1997. 105: 482-487.
30. Eil, C. and B.C. Nisula, The binding properties of pyrethroids to human skin fibroblast androgen
receptors and to sex hormone binding globulin. J. Steroid Biochem. 1990. 35: 409-414.
31. Ramadan, A.A. et al. Actions of pyrethroids on the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. Pest.
Biochem. Physiol. 1988. 32: 106-113.
32. Brown, L.M. et al. Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in
Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Res. 1990. 50: 6585-6591.
33. U.S. EPA. Office of Pesticide Programs. Health Effects Division. Cancer Assessment Review
Committee. Cancer Assessment Document: Evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of pyrethrins.
Executive summary. Washington, D.C. 1999.
34. Hurley, P.M., R.N. Hill, and R.J. Whiting. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid
60
ISSN: 2347-7881
PharmaTutor Magazine | Vol. 2, Issue 6 | magazine.pharmatutor.org
follicular cell tumors in rodents. Environ. Health Persp. 1998. 106: 437-445.
35. Extension Toxicology Network... Pesticide information profile: Pyrethrins.
http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/pyrethrins- ziram/pyrethrins-ext.html. 2001
36. Campbell, A. and M. Chapman. Handbook of poisoning in dogs and cats. Malden MA: Blackwell
Science. 2000. p. 43.
37. Beasley, V.R. and H.L. Trammel. Incidence of poisonings in small animals. Curr. Vet. Ther. 1989. 10:
97-113.
38. Hudson, R. H., R.K. Tucker, and M.A. Haegele. Handbook of toxicity of pesticides to wildlife. Second
edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1984. p. 68.
39. Saxena, S.C. and P.P. Bakre. Toxicity of pyrethrum to Blue Rock pigeon. Pyreth. 1978. 14: 47-48.
40. Saxena, P. and Saxena, S.C. Effect of pyrethrum on body and organ weights, food consumption and
faeces production of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Pyreth. 1973. Post 12: 76.
41. Johnson, W.W. and M.T. FInley. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic
invertebrates. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980. p. 70.
42. Burridge, L.E and K. Haya. Lethality of pyrethrins to larvae and postlarvae of the American lobster
(Homarus americanus). Ecotoxicol. Environ Safety. 1997. 38: 150-154.
43. Sanders, H.O. Toxicity of pesticides to the crustacean Gammaruslacustris. Technical Paper No. 25.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Fish and Wildlife Service. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and
Wildlife. 1969.
44. Gabriel, K.L. and R. Mark. Environmental toxicology of pyrethrum extract. In Pyrethrum flowers:
production, chemistry, toxicology, and uses, ed. J.E. Casida and G.B. Quistad. New York NY: Oxford
University Press. 1995. Pp. 277-283.
45. Appel, A. G., Knockdown efficiency and materials’ compatibility of wasp and hornet spray
formulations to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 1990, 83: 1925-1931.
46. Ministry of Environment and Forest ‘A Survey of Poison Control Centers in 2001’.
47. Berger-Preib, E.K. Levssen, and A. Preib. Analysis of individual natural pyrethrins in indoor matrices
by HRD/ECD. J. High Resol. Chromatography. 20:284-289.
... 5. Efficacy of the investigational products for head lice for mild and moderate baseline infestations (cure rate at the end of the study day 10, corrected for re-infestation) 6. Efficacy of the investigational products for head lice for all baseline infestation (cure rate at day 1) 7. Efficacy of the investigational products for head lice for mild and moderate baseline infestations (cure rate at day 1) Safety 8. To evaluate local tolerability by patient: subjective symptoms (burning, paraesthesia, pruritus): 0h, 1h, 24h, 7d and 10d p.a. (descriptive evaluation) 9. To evaluate global tolerability by the patient and study staff (number of subjects with global tolerability ratings of "very good", "good", "moderate", "poor", descriptive evaluation) at 10d after application 10. ...
... However, humans can absorb pyrethrum more quickly through the lungs during respiration. Pyrethrum (as 100%) has an acute oral toxicity in rats of LD 50 3500 mg/kg and an acute skin toxicity in rabbits of LD 50 19000 mg/kg [9]. Piperonyl butoxide (as 100%) has an acute oral toxicity in rats of LD 50 6150 mg/kg and an acute skin toxicity in rabbits of LD 50 1880 mg/kg. ...
... Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, lack of coordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching CardioSec GmbH, IT-PM-05-01_Template"SP_BE/BA", V01, 2006-09-15, DW sensations [10]. The lowest lethal oral dose of pyrethrum is 750 mg/kg for children and 1000 mg/kg for adults [9]. At high doses, pyrethrum can be damaging to the central nervous system and the immune system [11]. ...
Data
Full-text available
Study protocol. (PDF)
... Pyrethrines are broad spectrum insecticides. However, since pyrethrin residues on the plant break down quickly, the effect on natural enemies reintroductions is less pronounced (Soni & Anjikar, 2014). The effect on human and environmental health of this product should not be underestimated (Soni & Anjikar, 2014). ...
... However, since pyrethrin residues on the plant break down quickly, the effect on natural enemies reintroductions is less pronounced (Soni & Anjikar, 2014). The effect on human and environmental health of this product should not be underestimated (Soni & Anjikar, 2014). Our results show that after intensive spraying, the populations of both mirid species decrease and crucially, N. ...
Article
The use of Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) as a biocontrol agent is controversial as it is considered a pest in Northwest European tomato greenhouses, due to its tendency to damage the plant and fruit. Necessary chemical plant protection products to control N . tenuis have toxic side effects on important beneficials like Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae), which jeopardizes the whole IPM programme. In this study, several commercial tomato greenhouses were monitored for mirid populations. The relationship between the number of N. tenuis individuals and plant damage was assessed in function of availability of prey and interaction with M. pygmaeus . These greenhouse data were used to determine a practical density intervention threshold. Next, the hypothesis that a Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) infection increases plant and fruit damage by N. tenuis (as has been shown for M. pygmaeus ) was tested. Plant damage occurred when the average number of predatory bugs in the head of the plant exceeded 16 per ten plants. Plant damage increased in severity at increasing predatory bug densities, independent of the availability of prey and M. pygmaeus presence. Plant and fruit damage were not affected by the presence of PepMV, as was shown for fruit damage in previous studies for M. pygmaeus . Our study provides a practical density intervention threshold for growers in greenhouse crops. Simple monitoring of the number of predatory bugs in the head of the plant can be used to take specific biocontrol actions. It was also shown that only the predatory bug N. tenuis itself causes damage, and there is no interaction with PepMV.
... According to U.S. pesticide regulation (1996), these compounds are classified as "inert" (Gray, 2002). As a result, they have neither been recognized publicly, nor are they included in much of the testing necessary for registered pesticides (Soni and Anjikar, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides structurally similar to that of natural pyrethrins. The application of pyrethrins in agriculture and pest control lead to many kinds of environmental pollution affecting human health and loss of soil microbial population that affect soil fertility and health. Natural pyrethrins have been used since ancient times as insect repellers, and their synthetic versions especially type 2 pyrethroids could be highly toxic to humans. PBO (Piperonyl butoxide) is known to enhance the toxicity of prallethrin in humans due to the resistance in its metabolic degradation. Pyrethroids are also known to cause plasma biochemical profile changes in humans and they also lead to the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species. Further they are also known to increase SGPT activity in humans. Due to the toxicity of pyrethrins in water bodies, soils, and food products, there is an urgent need to develop sustainable approaches to reduce their levels in the respective fields, which are eco-friendly, economically viable, and socially acceptable for on-site remediation. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to analyse the advances and prospects in using pyrethrins and possible technologies to control their harmful effects. The pyrethroid types, composition and biochemistry of necessary pyrethroid insecticides have been discussed in detail, in the research paper, along with their effect on insects and humans. It also covers the impact of pyrethroids on different plants and soil microbial flora. The second part deals with the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids through different modes, i.e., bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Many microbes such as Acremonium, Aspergillus, Microsphaeropsis, Westerdykella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus have been used in the individual form for the degradation of pyrethroids, while some of them such as Bacillus are even used in the form of consortia.
... Pyrethrins are naturally occurring neurotoxic bioinsecticides that paralyze the nervous system of susceptible insects. However, pyrethrins have short residual activity because of rapid degradation under UV (Soni and Anjikar 2014). Therefore, the high initial N. viridis mortality observed within 24 h of exposure may have been caused by pyrethrin followed by a steadier decline in mealybug survival, similar to that observed in N. viridis exposed to B. bassiana formulations without pyrethrin over the subsequent 6 d. ...
Article
Mesh exclusion bags are increasingly being adopted by Florida citrus growers to protect young citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and Huanglongbing disease. These mesh bags exclude larger insects such as D. citri but may allow entry of minute insects. Hibiscus mealybugs, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), have been observed thriving in the micro-habitat created by these covers on trees. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and insect growth regulators (IGRs) are effective against several mealybug species under various growing conditions, but their efficacy against N. viridis or within the microclimate within exclusion bags is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated various formulations of entomopathogenic fungi with and without IGR against N. viridis using laboratory bioassays. We then conducted semifield bioassays to determine effectiveness of EPF formulations alone and in combination with an IGR applied to citrus trees enveloped within mesh bags under field conditions. Survival probabilities of N. viridis nymphs exposed to all Beauveria bassiana-based products tested were comparable to malathion under laboratory conditions and reduced survival as compared to controls (water only). Under field conditions, mortality of N. viridis nymphs on leaves sprayed with each fungal formulation tested was significantly greater than on control treatments (Water, Suffoil X, 435 oil) up to four weeks post application. There were no differences in the colony forming units per leaf area amongst all fungal treatments. Formulated B. bassiana-based products applied alone or combined with an IGR should be effective tools for managing N. viridis populations on young citrus trees protected with mesh exclusion bags.
... Blood represents a major target of toxicants and xenobiotics since it is directly exposed to them and the fact that it is a connective and sentinel tissue. Pyrethrins are reported to cause anemia and synthetic pyrethroids have shown down regulation of several cytokines leading to impaired immune capacity 24,25 .A study on influence of allethrin and prallethrin has shown altered plasma biochemical profiles in humans, and suggests a need of detailed toxicological studies on such pyrethroids 26 . Immunotoxicological potential of S-bioallethrin was shown by inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation, in an in vitro study with basophils 27 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Bioallethrin is a synthetic pesticide that is widely used to control insect pests. The wide use of bioallethrin has resulted in inevitable human exposure. In this study we report the effect of different concentrations of bioallethrin (10 to 200 µM, 2 h at 37 °C) on human lymphocytes under in vitro conditions. Bioallethrin treatment resulted in loss of cell viability (> 30% at 200 µM bioallethrin). Oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased accompanied by lower ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Enhanced ROS generation was observed through fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. Bioallethrin-induced oxidative stress also compromised the antioxidant defence as it reduced antioxidant capacity of cells and inhibited major antioxidant enzymes. Biomolecular modifications and systemic toxicity by bioallethrin resulted in plasma membrane damage with mitochondrial depolarization. Comet assay showed nuclear DNA fragmentation and strand scission with significant increase in tail length and olive tail moment. Apoptosis and necrosis of cells was confirmed through acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining and visualization under fluorescence microscope. Thus, bioallethrin causes oxidative damage and compromises the antioxidant system leading to DNA damage, cellular and organelle toxicity, resulting in apoptosis and necrosis of human lymphocytes.
... Earlier studies revealed components of lemon grass and pyrethrum with repellent and insecticidal properties; the most citral ones being cineole and pyrethrine (Sinthusiri and Soonwera, 2013;Soni, 2014). The nature of quantified biochemical content which are total phenol and flavonoids are responsible for organoleptic properties like bitterness and astringency of plant that enhance pests deterrence or changing feeding preference. ...
Article
Tomato whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and leaf miners (Tuta absoluta) are devastating pests of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Pest management using broad spectrum synthetic pesticides is discouraged due to harmful effects on human health and the environment. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of endophytic fungi as bioextracts against tomato whiteflies and leaf miners, as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in Tanzania. The study was done using morphological and molecular techniques, during January 2019 to February 2020 in Arusha region in Tanzania. Three endophyte isolates from pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) were identified with resemblance to members of Fusarium sp and Altenaria sp, by 90 and 82 % similarity, respectively; based on phylogenetic clustering patterns and macro- and micro-morphological characteristics. Bioextracts from endophytes of lemon grass leaves (Elg1); and pyrethrum flowers (Epf1) and leaves (Epl1), showed significant repellency properties (F0.05 (df, 15) = 27.052, P = 0.0001) on whiteflies by 54, 76 and 36%, respectively. They also caused significant lethality (F0.05 (df, 11) = 59.559, P = 0.0001) of tomato leaf miner larvae and whiteflies (F0.05 (df, 11) = 53.600, P = 0.0001). The underlying effect was attributed to possession of flavonoid and total phenolics as active ingredients in the bioextracts. This was commensurate to the levels flavonoid and total phenolic contents, which were considerably more in bioextracts of lemon grass and pyrethrum flower (F0.05 (df, 8) = 10.35, P = 0.0114) and (F0.05 (df, 8) = 40.84, P = 0.0003, respectively), than in pyrethrum leaves.
... Les méthodes passives ont des effets à long terme, mais nécessitent des travaux de maintenance en plus de la mise en place. La mise en place de pièges, de bandes (Lopes Amaral et al., 2015;Miles et al., 2012;Soni, 2014). L'utilisation de ces produits durant la floraison de l'oignon et du poireau n'est donc pas recommandée. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Carpocoris fuscispinus is a stink bug of the Pentatomidae family that is commonly found throughout Europe. Its natural habitat consists of grassland, but in the Middle East, it is known as a minor pest of cereals. The insect has recently been identified by a swiss seed producer as a pest of onion and leek seed stalks. Due to this insect, the yield can be reduced by up to 50 %.
Article
Bioallethrin is an insecticide that is widely used to control mosquitoes, fleas and cockroaches. The widespread use of bioallethrin has resulted in both occupational and non-occupational human exposure. Bioallethrin enters blood, regardless of the route of exposure, where it can interact with erythrocytes. We have studied the effect of bioallethrin on isolated human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were incubated with increasing concentrations of bioallethrin (10-200 μM) for 4 h at 37 °C. Several biochemical parameters were analyzed in bioallethrin treated and untreated (control) cells. Incubation of erythrocytes with bioallethrin increased protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and depleted sulfhydryl group content. Membrane damage was evident from cell lysis, osmotic fragility, inhibition of bound enzymes and transmembrane electron transport system. Bioallethrin also increased hemoglobin oxidation, heme degradation and the release of free iron moiety. This will decrease the oxygen transporting ability of blood. Bioallethrin treatment altered the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes and diminished the antioxidant power of cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that bioallethrin treatment also altered erythrocyte mophology. Almost all changes were in a bioallethrin concentration dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of bioallethrin is probably mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species whose formation was significantly enhanced in treated erythrocytes. Thus bioallethrin enhances the generation of reactive species which cause oxidative damage of cell components in human erythrocytes.
Article
Summaries ot toxicological data for wildlife are given for each pesticide in alphabetical order, with information provided on; alternative names for each chemical, chemical name; primary use; sample purity; acute oral toxicity for selected wildlife species; and signs of intoxication.-P.J.Jarvis
Article
Of 240 pesticides screened for carcinogenicity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, at least 24 (10%) produce thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Thirteen of the thyroid carcinogens also induce liver tumors, mainly in mice, and 9 chemicals produce tumors at other sites. Some mutagenic data are available on all 24 pesticides producing thyroid tumors. Mutagenicity does not seem to be a major determinant in thyroid carcinogenicity, except for possibly acetochlor; evidence is less convincing for ethylene thiourea and etridiazole. Studies on thyroid-pituitary functioning, including indications of thyroid cell growth and/or changes in thyroxine, triiodothyronine, or thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, are available on 19 pesticides. No such antithyroid information is available for etridiazole, N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide, terbutryn, triadimefon, and trifluralin. Of the studied chemicals, only bromacil lacks antithyroid activity under study conditions. Intrathyroidal and extrathyroidal sites of action are found: amitrole, ethylene thiourea, and mancozeb are thyroid peroxidase inhibitors; and acetochlor, clofentezine, fenbuconazole, fipronil, pendimethalin, pentachloronitrobenzene, prodiamine, pyrimethanil, and thiazopyr seem to enhance the hepatic metabolism and excretion of thyroid hormone. Thus, with 12 pesticides that mode of action judgments can be made, 11 disrupt thyroid-pituitary homeostasis only; no chemical is mutagenic only; and acetochlor may have both antithyroid and some mutagenic activity. More information is needed to identify other potential antithyroid modes of thyroid carcinogenic action.
Article
Pyrethrum is the most important natural botanical pesticide. Pyrethrins are effective against virtually all insect pests, yet are of very low toxicity to mammals, and break down quickly on exposure to light and air. This study of the place of pyrethrum in ecology and pest management includes discussion of the new synthetic pyrethroids that have been developed, in addition to continuing work on natural product pyrethrins.
Article
Knockdown performance of selected wasp and hornet spray formulations and their components was evaluated against worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a laboratory bioassay. Knockdown and the amount of any of the active ingredients were not correlated. Knockdown efficiency at 1 min after treatment ranged from 11to 100%. Formulations containing methylene chloride, Freon-11, or Freon-12 had higher percentage of knockdown than other formulations. These formulations significantly lowered bees' thoracic temperatures by as much as 16.9C; minimum body temperature was correlated with knockdown. Formulation density was also positively correlated with knockdown, independently of temperature depression. Many formulations damaged ABS, Noryl, and polycarbonate plastics and would therefore be unacceptable for use on or near most telecommunications equipment. Stress cracking of polycarbonate can be used to predict cracking of the other plastics. None of the formulations tested damaged flat water-based or glossyoil-based paints. Oily deposits were left by some formulations, but evaporated within 1 d.