Procedia Engineering 150 ( 2016 ) 1837 – 1840
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
1877-7058 © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICIE 2016
International Conference on Industrial Engineering, ICIE 2016
Reasons for Exterior Effective Brick Walls Deterioration as
Exemplified with Buildings under Construction
V.A. Subbotina, I.A. Subbotina,*
Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), 132, St. Prosvescheniya, Rostov region, Novocherkassk, 346428, Russia
This article discusses the problem related to the appearance of defects in masonry cladding layer of self-supporting walls of
buildings with monolithic concrete frame as exemplified with the inspection of buildings under construction in the residential
quarters of "October" district of Novocherkassk. As a result of the survey by OOO "SPU" specific defects in the self-supporting
layer of facing walls of buildings were identified and described and their causes were identified. Based on the existing expertise,
instrumental testing of the construction materials, conducted by a certified testing laboratory, the survey materials present an
overview of the causes for the identified defects as studied by other professionals and organizations, one of the leading of which
is CNIISK. VA Kucherenko. Based on the results of the systematic analysis of the detected defects and instrumental research
data the authors proposed several solutions aimed at eliminating the defects and bringing the building up to the standard.
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICIE 2016.
Keywords: defects in masonry; brick instrumental studies; test brick; self-supporting wall.
During the construction of modern high-rise buildings with monolithic concrete frame as walling, in most cases,
apply self-supporting brick walls, made effective masonry. Outdoor mile of brick self-supporting walls are often
made of decorative bricks [1-14], creating a certain color scheme and personality building facade.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +7-909-429-4507; fax: +7-863-525-5416.
© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICIE 2016
1838 V.A. Subbotin and I.A. Subbotin / Procedia Engineering 150 ( 2016 ) 1837 – 1840
However, despite the popularity of the existing technologies for construction of buildings with self-supporting
walls, problems arise in the production of stone works, which require a special approach to their solution. Deep
enough these issues were studied by specialists CNIISK. VA Kucherenko [7, 11].
2. Solution Description
During the construction of modern buildings with reinforced concrete frame and self-supporting brick walls,
made effective by laying sufficiently often defects associated with impaired technology devices expansion joints.
This article discusses the results of a survey of multi-storey residential block of buildings in the neighborhood
"October" in the city of Novocherkassk, Rostov region (Fig. 1), where the facade of the building revealed
characteristic defects facing layer of masonry, which were recorded in the survey of similar buildings in other cities
in the region.
Fig. 1. General view of the buildings
An examination of the external surfaces of the facades of buildings by OOO "Construction and Production
Management" following characteristic defects in the outer layer of the decorative masonry wall were identified:
xdetachment of the decorative layer of brickwork in the level of floor slab (1st to 6th floors) (Fig. 2).
xvertical and inclined cracks in various areas of external masonry walls of buildings opening width of 0.5 mm to 3
mm (Fig. 3).
According to the project documentation for the construction scheme of the building with a monolithic concrete
frame and self-supporting brick walls.
In accordance with the recommendations of [15-17] masonry exterior walls is designed efficiently from the outer
decorative layer of 120 mm thick bricks, insulation layer and an inner layer of light concrete blocks. Wall resistance
is provided by the inner layer. The outer and inner layers are attached together by flexible connections reinforcement
and a facing bearing layer carried on a steel corner welded to the ends of the mortgage details overlap.
Fig. 2. Destruction of material masonry facade wall in the overlap level
V.A. Subbotin and I.A. Subbotin / Procedia Engineering 150 ( 2016 ) 1837 – 1840
The reason for the destruction of the surface layer of bricks in the level of overlap is no horizontal joints,
provided the requirements of , intended to compensate for the difference between the vertical deformation of the
outer and inner layers of the outer walls, floors sag, as well as the building frame. According to para. 9.83 
horizontal expansion joints in exterior curtain walls must be carried out at the lower edge of interfloor slabs the
entire thickness of the wall at least 30 mm thick.
However, guidance on the device of horizontal seams project were not provided. Due to the fact that the
horizontal joints in the brickwork buildings surveyed no load on masonry floors summarized as its location relative
to the above positioned.
Fig. 3. The vertical crack opening width up to 3 mm wall facade. The destruction of brick material
The results of the testing calculations found that the brickwork of the lower floors of buildings housing complex
is located in a congested state, which led to the destruction of materials masonry walls in local areas first six floors.
It is also one of the causes of destruction of brick face layer is a discrepancy between the strength characteristics
bricks of "KERAMIN" stated performance characteristics. According to the results of laboratory tests of samples of
ceramic bricks facial hollow thickened KULPu-1,4NF/150/1.2/50 GOST 530/2007, as determined by the [19, 20] in
the Institute of Construction Technology Laboratory "Building technologies" YURGPU (NPI) name MI Platova its
mark on the compressive strength corresponds stamp M100 GOST 530-2012, which corresponds to the design
solutions, however, during the test brick compressive strength under a load of 2.0 MPa was observed destruction
engobe layer and its peeling, while maintaining the integrity of the main body of bricks . This indicates a sharp
contrast to the strength properties of the crock and its actual brick facing layer (engobe) due to differences of
technological properties of the used mass (sintering) (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. Laboratory tests of strength of bricks.The destruction of the facing layer by application of a load of 2.0 MPa
1840 V.A. Subbotin and I.A. Subbotin / Procedia Engineering 150 ( 2016 ) 1837 – 1840
With regard to education and disclosure of vertical and inclined cracks in the facial layer of masonry, then there
is a lack of vertical joints to compensate for temperature and humidity strains, exacerbated by the lack of horizontal
joints. According to  in the facial layer of lightweight masonry exterior walls based on temperature and humidity
impact the vertical expansion joints must be provided. Device vertical joints was also not provided by design.
According executed by OOO "SPU" research and testing it was found that the main causes of the detected defects
is not only the fault of designers, but also the use of low-quality facing material in the finishing of the exterior walls.
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