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Generalizing, deleting and distorting information about the experience and communication of chronic pain

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Abstract

The structure of a person’s language and their correlating nonverbal communication is as unique to the individual as their fingerprint. Each nuance, tone, movement and utterance are neurologically intertwined with their life narrative. This paper seeks to give a short insight as to how an adjustment of the informational flow, can impact the patients perception of chronic pain.

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... Metamodel questions (M-MQs), for example, can be used to uncover -language patterns that are believed to reflect fundamental cognitive processes'' [68]. M-MQs are built on the notion that humans recall events through a -process of generalizing, deleting and distorting information'', which presents implications such as a compromised ability to generate unbiased representations of events [34]. ...
... Overtly biased representations of events can impact -the person's future thinking, core values and health and wellbeing'' [34]. By integrating M-MQs into the proposed model, it could be possible to uncover underlying linguistic processes in subjects, resultantly, to tailor treatment by targeting individual mental models. ...
... Unique NLP evidenced-based practices, with claims of magical powers, are poorly supported by the research evidence and used to create a commercial model (18). They are mainly used in training (12,13,19), business and management (20), management of depression, fear, social anxiety, and behavioral disorders (11,21,22), occupational performance (23), changing thinking styles and beliefs (12,24), sales management, arts, advertising, politics, instructions, organizational consultations, and generally aspects that are related to the resources of thoughts and human behaviors (25). Additionally, the positive effects of this psychological intervention on the mentioned variables have been also considered. ...
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Background: Regarding to the importance of positive effectiveness of psychological interventions on promoting mental skills and improving the performance and the important role of mental factors in improving athletes’ optimal performance, NLP techniques with claims of magical powers should not be overlooked. However, a few studies have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of unique NLP evidenced-based practices on mental skills and performance in the sports fields, especially shooting. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) techniques on shooters’ mental skills and their shooting performance. Methods: This quantitative study is a semi-empirical research with the pretest-posttest design. The participants were 24 male Iranian skilled shooters in 10-meter air rifle discipline with an average age of 24�8 years. They were matched and divided into control and experimental groups. While the experimental group participated in 8, 2.5-hour sessions to receive NLP techniques, the control group did their routine activities. Before and after the intervention, shooters’ mental skills were measured by Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool (OMSAT-3) and their performance in 2 different “ordinary” and “under pressure” conditions was measured based on the score recording rules of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shooting Sports Federation (IRISSF). Data were analyzed using a two-way (time�group) repeated measure MANOVA. Results: The results of this study showed that NLP techniques improve shooters’ mental skills and their performance in both ordinary and under pressure conditions of the competition. Conclusions: As there is a positive significant of the effectiveness of NLP on shooters’ mental skills and their performance, NLP techniques are suggested to be used to improve these two factors. Keywords: Athletic Performance, Mental Skills, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), Rifle, Shoot
... In this regard, in [16] it is indicated that the concept of generalization of suppression and distortion of information during communication was developed as a central principle of the meta-model of NLP, in addition, the distortion is a significant change of reality, it is the process by which the experience of the perceived data is modified. For the elimination indicator, the average was 3.83, which also places it in the category of adequate use. ...
... This educational activity is to identify the language patterns that are believed to reflect fundamental cognitive processes of the clients during the therapeutic sessions (26). According to Grinder and Bandler (2), clients' patterns of language are good indicative of the ways a person interpret the external events and to understand their thoughts. ...
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Introduction: Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is continuously used as one of the psychological intervention in medicine, sport, and education settings. NLP through employing its techniques and language patterns could make certain changes in connections between neurological processes and therefore, restructure individuals’ cognition and reform their behaviours. This contributes to certain advantages in educational-therapeutic sessions concerning helping athletes with emotional hardship, resulting from physical injuries. Objective: To examine a tailored intervention of the NLP model adapted for educational-therapeutic purposes to reduce competitive state anxiety of two elite basketball players after their rehabilitation programme from physical injuries. Method: This study used a case study approach, and employed the NLP model’s collapsing anchoring, perceptual positions, and meta-model language patterns, to help both athletes to restructure their dysfunctional thoughts and memories. The athletes experienced anxiety related negative thoughts and felt emotionally dif cult to perform in training and competition. Results: The intervention showed promising strategies in helping the athletes to reduce their competitive state anxiety. Also, the results obtained from the interview sessions, and the quantitative analysis showed that the NLP intervention had successfully helped the athletes to cope with dysfunctional thoughts and emotionally related anxiety. Conclusions: The NLP-based intervention, to some degree, helped the athletes to deal with dysfunctional thoughts of their past injury experiences, reducing their competitive state anxiety to compete again in the upcoming competition.
... This educational activity is to identify the language patterns that are believed to reflect fundamental cognitive processes of the clients during the therapeutic sessions (26). According to Grinder and Bandler (2), clients' patterns of language are good indicative of the ways a person interpret the external events and to understand their thoughts. ...
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To explore experiences from a process of change for women with chronic pain. A group-based treatment programme was intended to increase the awareness of how attitudes, habits and bodily practices are established, developed, and can be transformed, and thereby probably reduce pain. A single case story from this treatment programme is presented. A semi-structured interview was conducted with all participants about their experiences after completion of the programme. All eight women reported that they had benefited from participation. From these interviews a single case was chosen to represent the study's findings. A narrative analysis was conducted, focusing this patient's story from a phenomenological understanding of the body. The patient's story illuminates how events and experiences can be connected, and how she interprets her contemporary situation in the light of previous experiences. In this way, she alters her understanding and develops a new approach to her situation. Her story demonstrated how symptoms can be understood as the result of stressful habits that the body has developed as a reaction to demands from the surroundings. Reflection on how the body functions may lead to a new realization of how phenomena are interconnected, thus making changes possible.
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