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A research on contribution of computer game-based learning environments to students' motivation

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Abstract

In today's world, computer games have become social networks that are able to reach masses and virtually bring thousands of people together for a common purpose. Albeit thought as a tool of entertainment, computer games designed for educational purposes enable us to make it possible for individuals to attain certain habits through repetition. Objective of this work is to examine contribution of computer game-based learning to students' motivation. In this sense, a worldwide famous game Lineage II, which was developed for the purpose of entertaining, has been used along Turkish courses for 10 th and 11 th grades. Following the application of the process, 30 students out of the 100 test subjects have randomly been chosen and asked to fill out a survey and give responses to a set of questions. The survey has been evaluated via frequency analysis and also responses given to the related questions have been considered. As a result of the work, it has been determined that the students were satisfied with the work, and that because the game chosen was war-themed, gender has caused an important variance. It has been made clear that, in general, students enjoyed the game-based learning environment, that they were less concerned, and that it has enhanced individual learning.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
*Corresponding author: Email: asli@gazi.edu.tr;
Original Research Article
Journal of Global Research in Education and
Social Science
4(4): 235-244, 2015
ISSN: 2454-1834
International Knowledge Press
www.ikpress.org
A RESEARCH ON CONTRIBUTION OF COMPUTER GAME-
BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS TO STUDENTS’
MOTIVATION
ASLIHAN TUFEKCI
1*
, GUNCE ALI BEKTAS
2
AND UTKU KOSE
3
1
Department of Computer Ins. Technical Education,
Gazi University, Gazi Faculty of Education,
Ankara, Turkey.
2
Department of Computer Education, Gazi University, Informatics Institute, Ankara, Turkey.
3
Usak University, Computer Sciences Application and Research Center, Usak, Turkey.
AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors GAB and AT designed the study, wrote
the protocol and interpreted the data. Author UK anchored the field study, gathered the initial data and
performed preliminary data analysis. All authors managed the literature searches and produced the initial draft.
All authors also read and approved the final manuscript.
Received: 21
st
July 2015
Accepted: 23
rd
August 2015
Published: 12
th
September 2015
__________________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
In today’s world, computer games have become social networks that are able to reach masses and virtually bring
thousands of people together for a common purpose. Albeit thought as a tool of entertainment, computer games
designed for educational purposes enable us to make it possible for individuals to attain certain habits through
repetition. Objective of this work is to examine contribution of computer game-based learning to students’
motivation. In this sense, a world-wide famous game Lineage II, which was developed for the purpose of
entertaining, has been used along Turkish courses for 10
th
and 11
th
grades. Following the application of the
process, 30 students out of the 100 test subjects have randomly been chosen and asked to fill out a survey and
give responses to a set of questions. The survey has been evaluated via frequency analysis and also responses
given to the related questions have been considered. As a result of the work, it has been determined that the
students were satisfied with the work, and that because the game chosen was war-themed, gender has caused an
important variance. It has been made clear that, in general, students enjoyed the game-based learning
environment, that they were less concerned, and that it has enhanced individual learning.
Keywords: Game-based learning; educational game playing; learning environment; computer games; learning
approaches.
1. INTRODUCTION
All societies have encountered major changes in
almost all areas of life during the century. Daily
advances in science and technology are effecting the
social structure, especially that of the education
system. Being one of the most important
technological advances of our time, the computer is
one of the essential cultural aspects of our century; its
use being widespread rapidly. If we take a look at the
brief history of the computer in parallel to its rapid
development, we can see that we have come across
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
236
computer games shortly after the invention of the
computer itself. Even first arrive of computers in 70s,
predictions regarding to revolutionized learning
approaches have been started to be discussed [1]. The
amount of time kids spend playing computer games
has increased vastly over the past 30 years. The time
spent at home and arcades was an average of 4 hours
a week in the mid-80s, whereas today girls in
elementary school and junior high spend 5.5 hours a
week, and boys spend up to 13 hours [2,3]. Since kids
are so fond of playing computer games without ever
getting bored, their use in the field of education is an
issue which should seriously be considered. Its use
would make it possible to overcome the boring
structure of the class and the process of education
could be fun and inviting for the students. Computer
games should not be seen only as an intriguing type of
playing, but also as a means to enable the kids to have
a good time during which they can learn or enhance
what they have already studied, through repetition.
The general consensus about educational computer
games is that they provide an atmosphere of zest.
Students want to use games during class and during
the game and they try to solve problems through
research. Besides, it is commonly known that games
provide a basis for teamwork [4,5]. While increasing
the motivation of the students, games also enable
them to be interested in the topic, and to be self-
confident about learning, which is a key point for
success [6-8]. Furthermore, it is also possible to
improve perception of self-competence.
Research works in the field show that individuals with
high perception of computer self-competence are
much more enthusiastic about volunteering to
activities involving the use of computer. It is
important that they have high expectancy from such
activities. The research interest of perception of
computer self-competence, gender, experience in
computer use, accessibility, frequency of use…etc. is
very common in the field. To sum up the results of the
researches, there is a link between experience in
computer use, frequency of use, accessibility and
perception of computer self-competence.
In the context of the related explanations, objective of
this work is to examine contribution of computer
game-based learning to students’ motivation. In order
to achieve that, a world-wide famous game Lineage
II, which was developed for the purpose of
entertaining, has been used along Turkish courses for
10
th
and 11
th
grades. In order to form the educational
settings, the related game has been altered and a
typical approach of educational game has been
employed along the research work. Instead of an
educational game, a game designed just for fun has
been chosen because educational games designed with
an educational content cannot be efficient within a
certain age group because of its graphics, and cannot
proceed further than repeating itself. In our research, a
totally different path has been chosen and a non-
educational game has been enhanced with educational
content. Unfortunately, the concept of educational
computer games is relevantly new in Turkey and
during the research it has been noted that educational
computer games are not commonly used in the
curriculum. However, research works have shown that
computer game based learning can be used during the
elective courses and that there is a link between
computer games and perception of computer self-
competence. This research is important in the sense
that it will shed light to educators and researchers of
the field to show that fun-based games along with
educational content can be used at the same time.
The remaining content of the paper has been
organized as follows: The next section briefly focuses
on the history of computer games in order to enable
readers to have enough idea about what level of
popularity and effectiveness do computer games have
currently. After that, the third section explains the role
of computer games to process of learning along
educational works.
2. BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTER
GAMES
When we take a look at the history of computer
games, we see that the first computer games were
designed in the late 70s and early 80s. De Aguilera
and Mendiz mention that the advancement of the
computers during the 80s were highlighted, thus
giving way to the widespread use of computer games
[9]. It can be said that, the research interest on
computer games have increased as a result of the
widespread use of the games.
Today, games are more than just leisurely activities
and due to their common use in all fields such as
education, healthcare, military and business, there are
lots of different research ways on games. For instance,
there are different type of works focusing on students’
computer game preferences and effects of these
preferences on students. On the other hand, there are
also review works on the latest technological
advancements regarding to games. Finally, there are
also works trying to answer why people play
computer games and examining the employment of
games designed for educational and social purposes.
In their work, Garris, Ahlers and Driskell state that
computer games are tools that people play with
voluntarily, those are fun and independent from the
real world and restricted to the rules within
themselves [10]. As Walsh states, most young adults
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
237
spend their time playing computer games [11].
According to Pillay, computer games have many
possible effects on kids’ performances. Because of the
games kids play just for fun, they can simultaneously
attain the information they require [12]. Prensky
emphasizes that computer games may establish a new
learning culture and that this may better cover the
students’ habits and attention [13].
When kept in mind the potential that computer games
hold, teachers or specialists should use them in class
in order to enhance the students’ learning capacities
and to provide them with a better learning
environment. At this point, however, emerges the
design problems for the games to be used for
educational purposes. When designing a game for
educational purposes, there are many aspects to be
considered in order to design a game in which there
will be a perfect balance between education and fun
and from which the students can acquire the necessary
educational content. Whereas computer games are
used only for the purpose of getting the students’
attention and increasing their motivation, a game can
solely be used as the main material for a course
instead of just supplementing. As Kiili puts, both
educational purposes and playing games should be
analyzed carefully in order to maintain a perfect
balance between the two. The levels of the game
should carefully be designed during the process [14].
On the other hand, the wide range of possibilities the
internet provides is one of the main factors that have
led to the increase in computer games. Online games
reach out to much more people and give people the
freedom to play wherever and whenever they please.
One of the main advantages of online games is the
fact that they make it possible for people of different
cultures and countries to meet virtually. With these
possibilities, players have a tendency towards multi-
player online games and thus the popularity of multi-
player games increases. It has been observed that
researches on multi-player games and their effects on
the players have increased. Games such as Everquest,
Quest Atlantis, Civilization III, Environmental
Detectives, and Battlefield can be named as examples
on popular computer games and the research efforts
conducted on them. According to Griffiths, Davies
and Chappell, these games are much more detailed
and they have been designed in order to provide a
wider range of virtuality. In addition, as mentioned
previously, one of the main features of these games is
the fact that they can join more people virtually [15].
One of the most popular online games, Lineage, for
instance has achieved in getting 2.5 million registered
players. Furthermore, Sony Online has achieved
subscribing over 400 thousand players with their
game Everquest. As Snider puts it, online games aim
at increasing the possibility of playing just for fun
[16].
The use of online games for educational purposes has
shown an increase parallel to the increased level of
internet use. There are researches on online games
and they have proved to be important in examining
people’s habits and their attitudes towards these
games, providing sufficient information on using
games for educational purposes. Making use of high-
level educational online games in order to adapt them
to the learning environment has become much more
important in our times. To sum up, computer games
designed in accordance with the curriculum provide a
better and permanent understanding in a short amount
of time for the students as well as enabling them
easier access to information.
3. THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPUTER
GAMES TO LEARNING
In parallel to the advancements in computer
technology, the game industry also shows
improvement every day. The fact that, just like
computers, computer games can be used in education
is accepted without a doubt, but educators and
specialists are seeking ways to integrate the games in
the most efficient and effective way possible. As a
result of these efforts, there are many alternative
teaching methods and techniques and game-based
learning is one of them. With this type of learning, the
individual is able to learn faster and their motivation
is peaked in order to enable them to attain certain
habits through various repetitions. The fact that
computer games can turn repetitions which can
become boring at times into something fun, makes it
important to make use of them in education for certain
age groups. The benefits to be achieved in this
context are mainly [17]:
Motivating the students,
Getting their attention,
Easy adaptation to teamwork,
Enforcing critical thinking, and
Enabling the students to better form a causal
link.
As a result of these benefits, and many more, the
application of games has shown itself in many fields
in addition to education. But at this point, it is also
important to indicate that effectiveness of a computer
game in educational processes is associated with
characteristics of the game and how it is employed
along the related processes [18-20].
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
238
4. THE APPROACH FOLLOWED IN THIS
RESEARCH WORK
This research has dwelled on keeping the students’
motivation high and getting their attention. In this
sense, the teacher tracks the students’ success by
either assigning a homework study or enabling them
do tests via Moodle. Furthermore, the teacher gives
objects from the game and with the help of these
objects, the character (played by the students) in the
game gets stronger. Successful students’ character
seems to be stronger than the ones played by less
successful students. It is thought that in this way, the
less successful students will try to strengthen their
characters in the game in which all their friends are
playing. In any case, the results of the research show
that students who are not successful in their lessons
repeatedly take the given test in order to keep up with
their friends because, students who want to play the
game but are not successful in their studies constantly
lose the game against the successful ones. It is
evaluated that this situation forces the students who
are considered to be lazy to be more ambitious,
enabling them to push themselves into taking the test
and to study more. One of our supportive objectives in
this work is to motivate the students in ways other
than traditional methods and to enhance their success
rate and this goal has partially been achieved.
5. METHODS
As it was mentioned before, the objective of this work
is based on examining effects of computer game-
based learning to students’ motivation. In this context,
a game has been employed along an educational
process. In order to evaluate findings from this
process and have idea about effects of games in
motivation, an appropriate evaluation approach should
be applied. In this work, a survey material has been
used and the frequency analysis of the survey by
method of applying quantitative research has been
carried out. In addition, the students have also wanted
to response to a set of questions in order to understand
if benefits of computer game-based learning were
achieved with the learning process. Because the game
file was too big, the students were chosen randomly
among those who tried the game, and high school
students of 16 and 17 years of age have completed the
survey and responded to the related questions. While
choosing the students, it has been aimed to determine
students with near academic achievement levels and
having good level of English. Although the game has
been altered, good level of English (with experience
of studying at least three years) has been required in
order to eliminate this factor, which may affect
objectiveness of the learning process.
As for the design of the game-based learning
environment, Lineage 2 and Moodle system have
been used. The detailed description of Lineage2 and
the Moodle system are not covered in this work.
Using Moodle as a starting point for the application
design, it has been arranged so that for each correct
answer (net score) game money is transferred to the
character played by the student in Lineage 2 via
communication with the game server database. This
way, the student can answer or go over the questions
the teacher determines and is rewarded according to
success rate.
In our research, we have performed a hundred-
question-multiple-choice test of Turkish grammar and
a reward according to their scores has been uploaded
to their accounts. Upon completion of the upload their
accounts have been activated and they were required
to play the game for a week. After the one-week
period, the applicants were asked to fill out a survey
which was sent through a site which provides them
and the results were also obtained from the same site.
They were also enabled to give responses a set of
questions provided over a written form.
As general the teaching / learning context has been
based on typical Turkish courses given commonly at
Turkish schools. Such courses include both grammar
and review of the Turkish Literature. Turkish courses
generally aim to enable students to gain necessary
knowledge and ability on Turkish language and
grammar structures regarding to usage of Turkish in
the sense of reading and writing. Turkish courses are
chosen in this work because these courses are often
found by students boring and students generally have
difficulties on learning important aspects although
they believe their success on Turkish grammar and
other associated subjects.
6. OBTAINED RESULTS
The results were obtained from the surveys completed
by 23 boys and 7 girls, randomly chosen, among the
100 students who tried the application. Some works
had shown that there were no significant changes or at
least some slight differences in some aspects,
according to gender [21-23]. However our work
shows that there is a distinct difference based on
gender.
Table 1 shows the range of game preferences of those
who have participated in the survey and 5 of the 7
girls (71%) prefer simulated games, whereas only 2
out of the 23 boys (6%) prefer the same type. 13 boys
(56%) like MMORPG, which is the type used in the
work, whereas only 1 girl stated that she likes them.
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
239
For future research works, it will be better to keep a
balance of genders for better results.
Another significant point is that, most of those who
spend more time on the computer have a tendency to
enjoy online MMORPG. It has been noted that some
students who used this application for a week, spent
approximately six hours on the computer. In their
surveys, these students mentioned that they prefer
these types of games in their daily activities as well.
This shows how effective it would be to choose the
type of game students prefer in their daily lives to
carry out a game-based method in teaching. Another
aspect to be noted when it comes to gender is the fact
that, as stated by the girls, they do not have any
anxieties about using the computer as a means of
social networking and sharing information, but when
it comes to playing computer games, they do not think
they are helpful in their education whatsoever.
Table 1. Game preferences regarding to students
involved in the work
Game type Male Female
f
%
f
%
FPS 5 16.6 0 0
RPG
13
43.3
1
Simulation 2 6.6 5 16.6
Strategy 2 6.6 0 0
Other 1 3.3 1 3.3
Total 23 76.4 7 23.6
Fig. 1. The educational process in the work
Fig. 2. Graphic regarding to game preferences
5
13
2 2
1
0
1
5
0
1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
FPS
RPG
Simulation
Strategy
Other
Game Preferences
Male
Female
Male students, on the other hand, state that this kind
of
game has gotten their attention and that they are
satisfied with the work. The answers to the question
“Does this type of computer game motivate you in
your studies?” are generally positive and the gender
range is shown in Table 2.
Table 3 shows the appr
eciation of the work.
According to the Table 3, about 43% of the students
didn’t enjoy the process. On the other hand, about
57% of these students enjoyed the process.
Students who preferred MMORPG, saying they see
the computer as a means of social networ
also be the main reason as to why they prefer online
games because the basis of online games is playing
against a character who is being driven by another
person rather than the computer itself which makes it
necessary for individuals communicate
other.
Table 4 shows that the type of game chosen for the
work is important. As mentioned before, this situation
Table 2. Motivational status according to gender
“Does this type of
computer game motivate you in
your studies?”
Yes
Partially
Total
Fig.
3. Graphic regarding to the answers to the question “Does this type of computer game motivate you
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Yes
16
1
“Does this type of computer game motivate you in
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS
,
240
Male students, on the other hand, state that this kind
game has gotten their attention and that they are
satisfied with the work. The answers to the question
“Does this type of computer game motivate you in
your studies?” are generally positive and the gender
eciation of the work.
According to the Table 3, about 43% of the students
didn’t enjoy the process. On the other hand, about
57% of these students enjoyed the process.
Students who preferred MMORPG, saying they see
the computer as a means of social networ
king, may
also be the main reason as to why they prefer online
games because the basis of online games is playing
against a character who is being driven by another
person rather than the computer itself which makes it
necessary for individuals communicate
with each
Table 4 shows that the type of game chosen for the
work is important. As mentioned before, this situation
is a significant indication which shows that using
motivation enhancing games in such processes should
be similar to the ones stud
ents normally prefer.
Another significant point which reveals itself at the
end of the work is that those who like MMORPG but
are not very successful in their studies tend to spend
more time playing the game. It is evaluated that some
of the reasons behin
d this is that the game is not
commonly known in Turkey, that the students were
curious about the game and that they wanted to try it
out. For similar processes, it should be kept in mind
that choosing a game not commonly known may
arouse curiosity and tha
t this situation may have
certain advantages and disadvantages. It is evaluated
that these aspects should be kept in mind when
choosing the games to be used in future works.
Table 5 shows the time ranges the surveyed students
have spent on the computer.
When evaluated together
with Table 5, it has been determined that students who
play MMORPG and enjoyed the application spend
more time on the computer than others.
Table 2. Motivational status according to gender
computer game motivate you in
Male Female
f % f %
f
16 53.3 1 3.3
17
5 16.6 3 10
8
2
3
10
5
23 76.6 7 23.4
30
3. Graphic regarding to the answers to the question “Does this type of computer game motivate you
in your studies?”
Partially
No
5
2
3
3
“Does this type of computer game motivate you in
your studies?”
,
4(4): 235-244, 2015
is a significant indication which shows that using
motivation enhancing games in such processes should
ents normally prefer.
Another significant point which reveals itself at the
end of the work is that those who like MMORPG but
are not very successful in their studies tend to spend
more time playing the game. It is evaluated that some
d this is that the game is not
commonly known in Turkey, that the students were
curious about the game and that they wanted to try it
out. For similar processes, it should be kept in mind
that choosing a game not commonly known may
t this situation may have
certain advantages and disadvantages. It is evaluated
that these aspects should be kept in mind when
choosing the games to be used in future works.
Table 5 shows the time ranges the surveyed students
When evaluated together
with Table 5, it has been determined that students who
play MMORPG and enjoyed the application spend
more time on the computer than others.
Total
f
%
17
56.6
8
26.6
5
16.6
30
100
3. Graphic regarding to the answers to the question “Does this type of computer game motivate you
“Does this type of computer game motivate you in
Female
Male
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
241
Table 3. The appreciation of the work
Number of people who enjoyed the process Number of people who didn’t enjoy the process Total
f % f % f %
17 56.7 13 43.30 30 100
Table 4. The appreciation of the individuals who enjoy MMORPG
Those who play RPG/MMORPG and like
the application Those who play RPG/MMORPG but don’t
like the application Total
f % f % f %
12 85.7 2 14.3 14 100
Fig. 4. Graphic regarding to students’ net score
Table 5. Time spent on the computer
Hour / Week Male Female Total
f % f % f %
1-5 hours 1 0.03 1 0.03 2 0.06
5
-
10 hours
9
0.30
4
0.13
13
0.44
10-14 hours 5 0.17 2 0.06 12 0.23
14
-
21 hours
3
0.10
0
0
3
0.10
21 hours and over 5 0.17 0 0 5 0.17
Game money was transferred to the students’ game
accounts according to the net scores they got from the
test given on Moodle. Table 6 shows the students’ net
scores and the amount of time spent playing the game
and it is seen that those who had higher scores spent
more time playing than others. The amount of time
spent in the game does not reveal the amount of time
actually spent playing.
When examining Table 6, other than the four students
who left their computers on, it is seen that the success
rate of the 26 students is 83, that the 5 students who
scored above the average score spent 369 minutes in
the game, and that the other 21 spent an average of
253 minutes. It has been evaluated that the student
with the high net score spent more time playing
because he/she liked the application. It is also seen
that the 5 students whose test scores were low and
who enjoyed the game, took the test again in order to
strengthen their character in the game.
As it was mentioned before, also a set of questions
was responded by the students in order to understand
if benefits of computer game-based learning were
achieved with the related learning process.
Table 7 below shows information regarding to
responses for each question. According to Table 7,
students think generally that it is possible to
experience the benefits of computer game-based
learning along such learning process performed in this
work.
0
20
40
60
80
100
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
S19
S20
S21
S22
S23
S24
S25
S26
S27
S28
S29
S30
Students
Students' Net Score
Net Score
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
242
Table 6. Students’ net scores and the amount of time spent playing the game
Student Net score Time (minutes) Student Net score Time (minutes)
S1
88
97’
S16
74
449’
S2 75 141’ S17 85 80’
S3 80 87’ S18 79 419’
S4
81
182’
S19
75
4387’
S5 71 102’ S20 40 3177’
S6
62
4240’
S21
68
242’
S7 70 173’ S22 24 174’
S8 70 182’ S23 65 307’
S9 72 199’ S24 57 3820’
S10 90 471’ S25 70 191’
S11
80
206’
S26
80
207’
S12 70 302’ S27 89 974’
S13 64 177’ S28 94 223’
S14 68 127’ S29 82 274’
S15 69 323’ S30 66 202’
Net score Time (minutes)
Total 2161 6511’
Average 83 271’
Table 7. Students’ responses to the questions asked about benefits of the game-based learning along the
process
Question Yes Partially No
f % f % f %
“The game in this process got my attention.”
19
63.33
5
16.67
6
20.00
“This process affected my learning positively.
16 53.33 7 23.33 7 23.33
“Using such computer game can adapt me to also other
courses.”
15 50.00 9 30.00 6 20.00
“I want to experience such game-based process along
collaborative projects with my friends.”
18 60.00 7 23.33 5 16.67
“Using such process can enable students to better form a
causal link.”
16 53.33 9 30.00 5 16.67
“My critical thinking can be improved
thanks to such
process.
15
50.00
10
33.33
5
16.67
7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
This research work has been performed based on
examining effects of computer game-based learning
on students’ motivation. A learning process including
usage of a game has been performed and obtained
findings after this process has been reported briefly.
According to obtained results, it can be said that
employment of games has effects on students’
motivation and results to positive findings mostly
although some students had also some negative ideas
about the process. It is better to discuss more about
conclusions in order to understand better about
contribution of this research work.
Unlike some other research works [21-23], the most
significant point in the survey results is that gender
plays a crucial role. On the basis of the research
findings we can argue that gender creates a difference
because of the game type chosen, because almost all
the girls had stated that they normally prefer
simulation games rather than the type chosen for this
work. The difference was not only because of the
game type; it has been determined that most of the
girls spend time on the computer to socialize with
their friends, that they enjoy spending time with them
and that they do not enjoy computer games or having
the teacher ask questions in class about subjects they
do not understand. It is seen that they are glad, in a
general sense, that they have computers in education,
but feel that these types of games will not motivate
the students to study. When it comes to boys, it has
been determined that most of them enjoy computer
games and communicating with their friends online,
that they are not intimated by their teacher’s questions
on subjects they do not understand but are somewhat
reserved in presence of classmates. Furthermore, the
number of boys who think these types of games will
help them with their studies is quite high.
Tufekci et al.; JOGRESS, 4(4): 235-244, 2015
243
Apart from the above mentioned, it has also been
noted that among boys who had stated that they
played these types of games before, and that their
favorite type is MMORPG, all, except one, stated that
they enjoyed the application.
It has been determined that students who spend 3 or
more hours on the computer play mostly MMORPG,
that they like communicating online and that they
believe using the computer for their studies motivates
them. It has been noted that students spent a lot of
time on this application. Along one week of the
process, the highest time spent playing the game is 73
hours, which means more than 10 hours a day. When
asked about it, the students reported that they did not
spend all that time playing, that they just left their
computer on and the application running.
There have been various problems during the work
due to the fact that the system requirement of the
game, Lineage2, is high. Since it was not possible to
carry out the process over and over, the characters
were designed to be instantly strong when students
were successful. In this case, successful students did
not have to take the test. When adapted to a real
teaching environment, how the character will build up
should be carefully considered and it should enforce
students to give more of their time to the learning
process in order to reach the highest level possible.
As a result, it can be said that students enjoy game-
based learning, that it minimizes their anxiety and
assists individual learning. Furthermore, with the
results of the process at hand, although gender plays a
crucial role in the variance, only 16% believe that
these kinds of games will not be of help in motivation,
whereas 56% liked the application. Although it may
seem that this 56% may be reflecting the views of the
majority, it is evaluated that this rate could be
increased with the application of different types of
games. It is also important that students are aware
about benefits of computer game-based learning.
According to findings obtained in this work, students
think generally that it is possible to experience some
benefits of using computer games for educational
purposes; in a typical process experienced in this
work.
After the encouraging results, we also think about
some future works. In this context, it is aimed to
perform similar learning process with employment of
different games in different courses. It should also be
indicated that this research work has been a starting
point for such research efforts on understanding the
role of computer games in educational processes. In
the future, more comprehensive research settings
formed for examining both teachers and students in
game-based learning approaches will be employed in
alternative research works. Finally, we are highly
motivated for designing and developing a special
educational game which can be used along game-
based learning works.
COMPETING INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing interests
exist.
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... Nevertheless, learning cannot be achieved by the use of game theory only, other theories need to be applied simultaneously, such as perception theory, communication theory, educational psychology, and learning psychology. (Tufekci et al., 2015). The theory of meaningful verbal learning by David P. Ausubel can be classified into the same category as cognitivism and represents the connection between concepts and long-term memory. ...
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